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Volume XIV Nos.3-4
C 1/ A6/07
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Entered as Second-Class Matter at Tallahassee, Florida
Volume XIV, Nos.3-4 September-December, 1961
C O N T E N T S
Ten Middens on the Navy Live Oak Reservation
................. William C. Lazarus 49
Two Worked Shell Objects from a Uleta River Shell Midden
.................... ID. D. Laxson 65
Wash Island in Crystal River
...... Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen 69
Domesticated Corn from a Fort Walton Mound Site
in Houston County, Alabama ...............Robert W. Neuman 75
The Marshall Bluff Site .....
............ Charlie Carlson, Jr.
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLO,-
GIST is published quarterly by
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ADDRESSES FOR CORRESPONDENCE:
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Newsletter items President
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
PRESIDENT William C. Lazarus
103 South Bay Drive Ft. Walton Beach
1st VICE PRES. Cliff E. Mattox
207 Beverly Road, Cocoa
2nd VICE PRES. William C. Massey
1018 NE 28th Ave., Gainesville
TREASURER J. Floyd Monk
1960 SW 61st Ct., Miami 55
SECRETARY Mrs. Yulea W. Lazarus
103 South Bay Drive Ft. Walton Beach
Dr. John M. Goggin
312 Peabody, University of Florida
Mr. Noel P. Herrmann
6267 SW 12th St., Miami
Dr. William H. Sears
Florda State Museum, Gainesville
Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Ten Middens on
the Navy Live Oak Reservation
Santa Rosa County, Florida
by William C. Lazarus
The historic Navy Live Oak Reservation is located in the south-
western part of Santa Rosa County on the peninsula which separates
Santa Rosa Sound from Pensacola Bay. The reservation has about
two miles of frontage on Santa Rosa Sound and, as will be shown,
is unusually rich in archaeological and historical materials. De-
scribing this area in 1883, S. T. Walker wrote (1885, p. 859):
"In preceding east the first shell heaps are met with
at Dr. Rutherford's place, about 2 miles east (on) the
old Government Live Oak Plantation. Immense beds of
shell and the usual indications mark this as the former
residence of a large population. The slopes of the hills
are covered with irregular beds of shell from 2 to 6 feet
in thickness, which occupy an area of several acres."
G. R. Willey in 1940 excavated several stratigraphic sections
at the "Third Gulfbreeze Site (SA-8)" and reported on surface col-
lections from three others (SA-6, SA-7, and SA-9) all within the
Navy Live Oak Reservation. His descriptions of these sites do
not reflect the same magnitude of occupation as Walker's account.
Willey does comment on the extensive undergrowth back from the
beach which in 1940 may have discouraged inland explorations.
It is noted that all four of Willey's sites are directly on the edge
of the bank along the Sound.
Much of the area between the beach and U. S. Highway 98,
which traverses the area from east to west, has now been cleared
to accommodate the activities of Boy Scout Camp "Big Heart" and
Girl Scout Camp "Isabella Ingraham." The middens described by
Walker do, in fact, exist although their depth is considerably ex-
aggerated in the original description. The individual'middens are
too numerous to be accurately counted at this time. Some still
remain in thickets and in areas widely covered by poison ivy. None
of these middens appears to be more than 250 yards back from
the beach, however.
The area stillhas a good stand of very large live oak and hick-
ory (pig nut) trees. It was this unique feature which caused the
U. S. Government to acquire the reservation in 1828 when timbers
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, Nos. 3. 4, September -December, 1961 49
of this kind were used in construction of ships at the Pensacola
Navy Yard. (Note: The timbers currently in the hull of the famous
frigate "Old Ironsides" came from this location [Lazarus, 1951].)
There are two sizable swampy ponds to provide potable water at
this site. The land back from thebeach is high, well drained, and
A small cemetery of six or seven marked graves exists near
the middle of the area. Tombstone dates indicate its use in the
Figure 1 shows the general locale and the geographic location
of sites which have been investigated in varying degrees by Dr.
Willeyand the author. It was not possible to accurately locate the
sites described by Willey due to changes along the beach. However,
they have been placed on the map as accurately as the descriptions
would permit, and they do not seem to overlap the more recent
site locations or duplicate the materials.
SANTA ROSA SOUND
GULF OF MEXICO
Figure 1. Geographic Location of Sites
The sites will be described in a west-to-east direction:
BIG HEART SITE (SA-22)
Camp Big Heart is the Boy Scout Camp located on the high
bluff about 1,000 yards east of the Pensacola Beach Bridge. The
area around the main lodge is of gray sand with some shell scattered
through it. A surface collection made in the immediate vicinity of
the main lodge and along the bank directly in front of it has been
classified as follows:
TABLE 1. SA-22 SHERD COLLECTION
(over approximately one acre)
Spanish Olive Jar Sherd 1
Wakulla Check Stamped 4
Keith Incised 1
Carrabelle Incised 1
Weeden Island Plain 3
This very meager evidence would indicate Weeden Island II
occupation and some use of the area during historic times.
FIRST GULF BREEZE SITE (SA-6)
This site was about 400 yards east of SA-22. The bankat this
point is low. The midden was exposed for about 100 yards. The
31 surface-collected sherds reportedbyWilley (1949, p. 208) iden-
tified this as "a FortWalton site with a few sherds of Santa Rosa -
Swift Creek and Deptford Periods." It should be noted that all of
the Fort Walton component is in the Pensacola (shell tempered)
FOURTH GULF BREEZE SITE (SA.9)
Willey does not adequately describe the location of this site
butbased on his map and a general knowledge of the area, it should
have been about halfway between SA-6 and SA-11. Willey reports
(1949, p. 209): "Although the collection is small (28 sherds), it
is purelyand indisputably of the Fort Walton Period." The Pensa-
cola series outnumbers the Fort Walton better than 3:1, but the
sample is too small to be conclusive by itself on this point.
TENT CAMP SITE (SA-11)
This site, on a natural promontory about 25 feet above sea
level, has a commanding view of Santa Rosa Sound in both direc-
tions. It slopes gently to the east into a sizable swampy pond of
A surface collectionover about one acre produced 311 sherds
and an assortment of other artifacts in the summer of 1955. The
classification of this collection is shown in Table 2. Pensacola
Series outnumbers Fort Walton Series better than 2:1.
The occurrence of European materials, Leon-Jefferson, Fort
Waltonand WeedenIsland sherds in the surface collection gave hope
TABLE 2. SA-11 SURFACE COLLECTION
(over approximately one acre)
European Ceramics Sherds:
English Ironstone China (glazed) 4
Spanish Olive Jar (unglazed) 1 (s)
Spanish Shipboard Crockery(unglazed) 1 (s)
Residual Glazed Ware 6
Leon- Jefferson Series:
Mission Red Filmed (plate sherds) 8 (s)
Leon Check Stamped 1 (s)
Fort Walton Series:
Fort Walton Incised 15
Lake Jackson Plain 62 (=)
Pensacola Incised 29
Pensacola Red 15
Pensacola Plain (brush marked) 17
Pensacola Plain 92 (#)
Weeden Island Series:
Wakulla Check Stamped 4
Weeden Island Punctated 4
Carrabell Punctated 2
Weeden Island Plain 3
Residual Plain 47
Grand Total 311
Other artifacts from surface:
1 crude native clay fired brick with 2 iron frag-
ments imbedded in it (brick thickness 2. 35 in.)
4 iron fragments
1 copper pan fragment (possibly side of powder
2 flint chips
1 Pumice stone
4 Hematite fragments
2 black sandstone fragments
(s) Identification by Dr. Hale Smith (Florida State
(=) One sherd fashioned into a 1-1/2-in.-diameter
(#) One sherd is a strap handle
...."^AA Santa Rosa SoundkI'"
Figure 2. Sketch f Sites SA and
Figure 2. Sketch of Sites SA-ll and SA-12
Figure 3. Ceramic Changes at SA-11 Pit I
that some definitive stratigraphy could be found. Consequently, in
the summer of 1959, two stratigraphic pits were dug into this site
at the locations shown in Figure 2.
Pit I was carried well into sterile gray sand which occurred
at the 14-inch level. A test hole was made in the center of the pit
to a total depth of 36 inches where yellow sand was encountered but
no trace of a lower midden level was found.
Pit II was discontinued at the 6-inch levelwhen it was found to
be similar to Pit I but with far less content.
Table 3 contains the classifications of sherds from Pit I, and
Figure 3 shows the ceramic changes at SA-11, Pit I.
TABLE 3. SHERDS FROM SA-11, PIT I
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number
Leon Jefferson Series
Jefferson Ware (Hob Nail) 1 0.2 1
Mission Red Filmed 3 1.2 3
Ft. Walton Series
Ft. Walton Incised 73 14. 1 14 5.8 87
Lake Jackson Plain 87 16.8 27 11.4 114
Pensacola Incised 47 9.1 37 15.4 84
Pensacola Red 36 7.0 6 2.5 42
Pensacola Plain (Brush Marked) 4 0.8 4
Pensacola Plain 145 28.0 101 42.0 3 60.0 249
Weeden Island Series
Wakulla Check Stamped 1 0.2 9 3.7 1 20.0 11
Weeden Island Plain 4 0.8 1 0.4 5
Residual Plain 120 23.0 43 17.6 1 20.0 164
Totals 518 100.0 241 100.0 5 100.0 764
Other materials from Level 1:
10 flint chips, I fused glass Turtle shell fragment with black line
7 iron fragments Murex, conch, oyster shells
1 copper fragment Turtle and fish bones
7 fragments of hard conglomerate stone
Other materials from Level 2:
3 iron fragments, one of which is a large 1 small scallop shell drilled
square-cut spike 1 flint chip
3 grinding stone fragments Murex, conch, oyster shells
5 Limonite fragments Turtle and fish bones
1 Hematite fragment (worked)
Other materials from Level 3:
Oyster and clam shells
Figure 4. Bird Head Effigy (SA.11)
Figure 5. Iron Spike Reworked As a Knife (SA-11)
The most significant artifact, a bird head effigy of shell tem-
pered clay was recovered in the second level of Pit I (Figure 4).
Based on experience with other effigy forms found in a Fort Walton
period context, it is judged that this effigy was on the rim of a
vessel, probably facing outward.
Another unusual artifact is a square-cut iron spike 5 inches
long which has been reworked into a knife or chisel (Figure 5).
The end past the bend has been flattened. This was found in situ
at a depth of 5 inches below the surface.
It was observed that the shell tempered (Pensacola Series)
ware from this pit varied from extremely coarse shell which give
the sherds a speckled appearance to finely pulverized shell hardly
noticeable in the sherds. It was decided to grade the shell tem-
pered sherds by temper particle size for each level. The cri-
teria to determine if the temper size was large or small was
whether the white shell particle could be distinguished with a given
lighting at a distance of 12 inches from the eye. Due considera-
tion was taken of leached sherds by considering the size of the
voids in lieu of the shell particles. The test was run at one sitting
so that all variables would be minimized.
Of the 232 shell tempered sherds from Level 1, 96 or 43%
were classed as having large temper particles. Of the 144 shell
tempered sherds from Level 2, 74 or 52% were classed as having
large temper particles.
Familiarity with Fort Walton Period designs from restoration
of a large number of vessels from other sites in the Northwest
Florida area made it feasible to identify some of the design motifs
from the sherds at this site. Figure 6 contains sketches of six
typical Fort Walton Motifs (a f) and two Rim Treatments (g and h)
which tend toward Leon-Jefferson types.
Another feature noted on 12 Pensacola Plain sherds are uniform
black lines resembling India ink about 1/8-inch wide. These do
not form a coherent pattern but give the impression of forming
part of a pictogram on the exterior of a vessel. This marking is
easily distinguishable from the charcoal-crusted sherds which also
occur at this site in some quantity.
LA CASA SITE (SA-12)
Centered around a point about 750 feet west of the main lodge
at Girl Scout Camp Isabella Ingraham and a short distance south
of the previously-mentioned cemetery, there is a pattern of mid-
dens worthy of special attention. Figure 2 shows the arrangement
which approximates the description of the overall area by Walker,
but being somewhat inland escaped notice by Willey.
In the summer of 1956, a 5-foot by 5-foot stratigraphic pit
was dug into the westernmost of theSA-12 middens. This is about
50 feet from the northern extremity of the midden.
The classification of sherds from the two levels is given in
Table 4. Sterile sand was reached at the 10-inch level. Figure 7
shows ceramic changes in the pit.
The pit produced 487 Pensacola Series shell tempered sherds
out of 503 total (97%). In this respect it is unique, as most Fort
Walton sites have more even distribution between sand tempered
and shell tempered wares. Coarse shell, as distinguished from
fine shell, is predominant.
On 216 large sherds where surface finish is easily observed,
it is obvious that abrushing technique has been used on the exterior
of the vessels. Brush marking has not previouslybeen considered
a surface finish in the Ft. Walton Period. However, in all respects
except the exterior surface treatment, these sherds are definitely
in the Pensacola Series of the Ft. Walton Period. Both paste and
form (large collared globular bowls) are typically Ft. Walton.
These sherds were in direct association with other PensacolaSer-
ies sherds containing distinctive Ft. Walton motifs, as shown by
Figure 6 (b), (c) and (e). Two strap handles and three knob adorn
sherds from Pit I further reinforce the Ft. Walton identification.
Figure 8 illustrates the brushed finish which is applied more
or less parallel to the rim. All temper materials appear to be
coarse shell. A tentative nomenclature of Pensacola Brushed is
suggested. The only variants from conventional Pensacola Plain
are the brushed exterior finish and the coarse shell temper. Coarse
shell temper does occur at times in Pensacola Plain but seems
always to be present in brushed sherds.
In contrast with the Pensacola Brushed sherds, there is a group
of 13 sherds from the same pit showing black polished surfaces.
These have been classified as Moundville Engraved although only
incising occurs on them in typical Pensacola fashion. The vessels
appear to be plates decorated on the inside (Figure 6e).
European materials were completely lacking from Pit I at this
Point Dish Interior
Figure 6. Design Motifs at SA-11, Pit I
Figure 7. Ceramic Changes at SA-12, Pit I
TABLE 4. SHERDS FROM SA-12, PIT I
Level 1 Level 2 Total
Number Percent Number Percent Number
Ft. Walton Series
Lake Jackson Plain 12 3.2 12
Pensacola Incised 67 17.6 26 21.7 93
Pensacola Red 4 1.1 4 3.3 8
Pensacola Plain (Brush Marked) 165 43.0 51 42.5 216
Moundville Engraved 13 3.3 13
Pensacola Plain 118 30.8 39 32.5 157
Weeden Island Series
Wakulla Check Stamped 3 .8 3
Weeden Island Incised 1 .2 1
Totals 383 100.0 120 100.0 503
Weight of Sherds 5 lb. 7-1/2 lb.
Other materials from Level 1:
2 perforated scallop shells
Murex, oyster, snail, scallop, oliva shells
Rock crab claws, drum fish teeth, wide assortment of fish bones
Other materials from Level 2:
2 Limonite stone fragments
Murex, oyster, scallop, turtle shells
Rock crab claws, bird bones, assorted fish bones
Figure 8. Pensacola Brushed Sherds (SA-12)
site. However, Spanish olive jar sherds and a white clay pipe stem
(stamped "McDonnall" and "Glascow") were collected on the surface
nearby. Further, European materials were in situ with a few
brushed sherds at SA-11, about 500 feet southwest of SA-12.
In order to be sure that the dumbbell-shaped midden east of
the long row midden was, in fact, related to it and part of the same
site, surface samples were collected. Those gleaned from the
northernmost of the circles were all Pensacola Plain with coarse
shell temper and totaled 25 in number. These were designated
Only 13 surface sherds could be collected from the southern
part of the dumbbell, and these were all Pensacola coarse shell
temper sherds also. These were designated SA-12B.
Continuing southward to the beach area just east of the swampy
pond, a surface collection of seven sherds was made. Two were
Basin Bayou Incised, two Pensacola Plain, and two were residual
plain. Sherds from this area of the site were labeled SA-12C.
The midden pattern at this site suggests a village arrange -
ment, but more extensive excavations must be made before this
can be defined.
CAMP INKY SITE (SA-23)
Originally, this midden was thought to be associated with SA- 12,
but a recheck of it shows it to be a very thin scattering of shell at
a level about 4 inches below the present surface. It extends from
the trail southward to the edge of the bank. No sherds could be
found on the surface, and the small testholes produced nothing but
shell and a brown midden.
About 50 feetback from thebankand in themiddle of this mid-
den area is the ruin of an old brick chimney. Further investiga-
tion is required to identify the culture which produced the midden.
ESCOLA SITE (SA-13)
This site is on high ground (30 feet above sea level) some 400
feet to the east of the main lodge at Camp Isabella Ingraham and
is approximately on the section line between sections 2 and 3, back
250 to 500 feet from the sound. The site terminates on the bluff
which falls off steeply to the beach level. At the foot of the bluff
and slightly to the east is the second swampy pond on the Navy Live
The southern part of this site has a thin midden with sherds
found more in the sand than in beds of shell. The eastern part of
the site has a distinct shell midden which is about 60 feet in di-
ameter and about 18 inches above the surrounding land. The latter
abounds in poison ivy which made surface collecting difficult. Table
5 contains the classification of the surface sherds. The sherds
were originally in two collections coming from either the sandy
midden (southern) or the shell midden (eastern). No significant
difference was detectable and the areas are contiguous, so they
have been combined and identified as one site.
THIRD GULF BREEZE SITE (SA.8)
Based on stratigraphic excavation of six pits at this site,
Willey (1949, p. 89) observed that "the various excavations at Gulf
Breeze do not reveal any significant verticalchanges..... The site
would appear to have been occupied at a relatively early date, dur-
ing the Santa Rosa Swift Creek Period. The several shell tempered
TABLE 5. SA-13 SURFACE COLLECTION
(over approximately one acre)
Fort Walton Series:
Lake Jackson Plain (Rims) 2
Pensacola Red 1
Weeden Island Series:
Wakulla Check Stamped 3
Weeden Island Incised 2
Weeden Island Zoned Red 1
Carrabelle Punctated 3
Weeden Island Plain (6 Rims) 10
Residual Plain 25
Grand Total 47
Pit I Pit IV Pit V Pit VI
i 9 Caic Can in F aln i S a S
." U0 A)
S, s osrv t i 3 or 4 s
(I, IV, and V) where a comparison could be made, the shell tem-
Level LL- aLL a. ILa a-
Figure 9. Ceramic Changes in Ft. Walton Period Sherds at SA-8, from Willey
sherds, the majority of which were found in the upper levels, im-
ply some Fort Walton activity at the siteafter an interval of no oc-
From Willey's data at SA-8, it is observed that in 3 or 4 pits
(I, IV, and V) where a comparison could be made, the shell tem-
pered types of Fort Walton went one or more levels deeper than
the sand tempered types. In the fourth pit (VI), they ranout at the
same level(see Figure 9). It is true that the samples are too small
to be conclusive in themselves, but the trend is worthy ofmention.
INKY EAST POND SITE (SA.14)
This site is about 1100 feet east of the main lodge at Camp
Isabella Ingraham, along the shore of Santa Rosa Sound just east
of the eastern swampy pond. A shell midden is exposedabout5
feet above sea level on the beach. In elevation and general loca-
tion, the site description approximates that of SA-8 but the surface
collection from the site is exclusively Fort Walton Period. Table
6 gives the sherd classifications.
SECOND GULF BREEZE SITE (SA-7)
Willey locates this site as near the "Bald" USGS bench mark.
This could notbe found, but probably was on or near the east bound-
ary of the Navy Live Oak Reservation, since it was 1110 meters
east of SA-8. He describes this site as a promontory. Based on
a surface collection of 131 sherds, Willey (1949, p. 208) indicates
Weeden Island II and Fort Walton Period occupations. In the small
TABLE 6. SA-14 SURFACE COLLECTION
(over approximately one acre)
Fort Walton Series:
Fort Walton Incised 4
Lake Jackson Plain 8
Pensacola Incised 4
Pensacola Red 3
Pensacola Plain 30
Fort Walton collection (27 sherds), the Pensacola Series is about
3:1 over the sand tempered Fort Walton types.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
This complex of ten known sites (and probably an equal num-
ber not yet identified) in two miles of waterfront on Santa Rosa
Sound constitutes an area rich in archaeological materials. The
time span extends from the Deptford Period to historic times, with
all intervening cultural periods represented. Table 7 shows occu-
pation of the known sites by cultural period.
TABLE 7. OCCUPATION OF SITES BY CULTURAL PERIOD
k Ft. Walton Sample
Site Weeden Size
S Island Sand Shell Sherds
SA-ZZ x o 10
SA-6 o o x 31
SA-9 o x 28
SA-11 o o x o 1075
SA-12 o o x o 548
SA-13 x o 47
SA-8 x o o 2008
SA-14 o x 49
SA-7 x o o 131
x = major 3927
o = minor
It is obvious from Table 7 and the site descriptions that the
Fort Walton occupation was by far the most extensive. By virtue
of its size, this complex of sites may be considered as a major
population area, particularly during the Fort Walton Period.
The presence of European items in situ atSA-11 and a scatter-
ing of Spanish Olive Jar sherds elsewhere further identify this area
as havingbeen occupied into historic times. The Tristan De Luna
Expedition of 1559 settled on Pensacola Bay and found there the
Pensacola tribe of Ihdians. Although a definite link between this
site and the De Luna Expedition cannot be demonstrated at this
time, this siteby virtue of its size and the materials found is cer-
tainly a good possibility.
The preponderance of shell tempered sherds in the Fort Walton
Period materials generally 3:1,and in the case of SA-12, 97% -
is unusual in Northwest Florida. The coarseness of the shell
aggregate in many sherds, as contrasted with the fine shell tem-
pered wares 40 miles to the east around Fort Walton and Choctaw-
hatchee Bay, is also noteworthy.
The pattern of the middens at SA-12 may be significant in
establishing house and/or village patterns for this almost "pure"
The distinctbrushed finish on a sizable sample of coarse shell
tempered Pensacola ware at SA-12 is distinctive and may warrant
a classification of Pensacola Brushed if its chronological position
can be firmly established. A few other Ft. Walton sites west of
the Choctawhatchee River (OK-10), WL-32, and SA-11) have yielded
occasional sherds with roughened or brushed surfaces.
Generally, brushed exterior surfaces are associated with 18th
century Creek sites in interior Alabama and Georgia and with the
Tallahassee Seminole area. Goggin's (1958) discussion of Chatta-
hoochee Brushed and its chronological position contains the follow-
ing pertinent comment:
"In general, this type (Chattahoochee Brushed) is ap-
parently post-Ft. Walton Period and post-Leon-Jeffer-
son Period. Its presence in some buried Ft. Walton
Sites (Bullen, 1953:18), however, suggests its first ap-
pearance in that period, probably near the end. It is
possible that the Ft. Walton Culture survived much later
(that is, after 1700) in this region (Appalachicola River
Valley and eastward)."
A description of McKee Island Brushed, a shell tempered
ware common in Northern Alabama by DeJarnette and Hansen (1960)
leadsto the speculation that the proposed Pensacola Brushed is
very similar or possibly identical to it. The technical similari-
ties between McKee Island and Ocmulgee Fields Trading Post mate-
rials are drawn,, The Childersburg Site (Ta-1), Alabama, is dated
in the 18th century through European materials found there. The
Childersburg site, based on a total sherd count of 8,342, was
99. 35% shell tempered McKee Island ware. McKee Island Brushed
made up 49.85% of the total. At SA-12, Pensacola shell tempered
ware accounted for 97% of the total sherd count and Pensacola
Brushed made up 42.5% of the total. It appears that these sites
(Alabama Ta- and Florida SA-12) have considerable ceramic simi-
larity although Ft. Walton design motifs continue at SA-12 and
SA-11 in association with the Pensacola Brushed ware.
Moore's Raid (1704) and subsequent British slave expeditions
from South Carolina into North and West Florida have been general-
ly conceded to be the death blow of the pre-Columbian cultures of
this region. However, a remnant of the Apalachee did escape to
Mobile and later returned to the Pensacola area. About 1763 when
the British took over Florida, they were moved by the Spanish to
Vera Cruz region of Mexico (Smith 1956).
Other aboriginal groups, remote from the Georgia-Florida
boundary and particularly those near Pensacola, also may have
survived. Their culture would have been a continuum of Ft. Wal-
ton since late pottery types such as Leon-Jefferson appear only in
trace quantities at a few sites (WL-33 and SA-11) and European
materials in association with Ft. Walton pottery types are common
atquite a few, such as WL-21, WL-30, WL-33, WL-50, andSA-11.
It is therefore suggested that the adoption of surface brush-
ing to a Ft. Walton pottery type would logically develop when the
Creeks and other northern groups who used this technique began
to fill the culture void and to intermingle with the remnant of the
Ft. Walton Culture in the Pensacola area. This remnant would
have had to be in existence subsequent to 1715 for this to occur.
BULLPEN, R. P.
1953 "Notes on the Seminole Archaeology of West Florida", newsletter, Southeast
Archaeological Conference, 3, No. 3:18-19. Baton Rouge, La.
DE JARNETTE, D. L. & HANSEN, A. T.
1960 "The Archaeology of the Childersburg Site, Alabama', Notes in Anthropology,
No. 6, Florida State University.
GOGGIN, J. M.
1958 "Seminole Pottery" in Prehistoric Pottery of the Eastern United States,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
LAZARUS, W. C.
1951 Wings in the Sun,Florida Press, Orlando.
SMITH, H. G.
1956 The European and the Indian, Florida Anthropological Society Publications,
WALKER, S. T.
1895 "Mounds and Shell Heaps on the West Coast of Florida", Annual Report,
Smithsonian Institution for 1893, p. 859.
WILLEY, G. R.
1949 "Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collect-
ions, Volume 113.
Two Worked Shell Objects
from a Uleta River Shell Midden
by D. D. Laxson
In 1955 several small tests were excavated along the east
shore of the Uleta River in northeast Dade County, Florida. The
site is part of East Greynolds Park and at the time couldbe reached
only by boat (Laxson, 1957, pp. 17-21).
The area north of the Sunny Isle Causeway to the south shore
of Maule Lake was filled in 1959 and streets played out as part of
a waterfront housing project. This enabled one to drive a car to
within several hundred feet of a shell heap composed mostly of
oyster, clam and conch to a depth of about 22 inches. The smooth
limestonebase is visible around the edges but becomes oolitic and
potholed near the river's edge. A dozen Strombus tools were re-
moved from these holes during a surface collection. It is under-
stood a Marina is proposed for this area of the park in the near
Test pits were excavated in 1959 and 1960 in the southeast
quadrant. In 1961 permission was granted by the Dade County
Parks Department to dig another test pit under the auspices of the
Miami Museum of Science and Natural History in connection with
the Laboratory Research Program of the Dade County School Sys-
tem. Ronald Crowell, eleventh grade student at North Miami Senior
High, was the excavator. The results of all tests are shown in
The object shown in Figure 1, a-b, is constructed from a
fragment of Busycon Perversum. It is slightly oblate, concavo-
convex in shape, 67mm wide and 58mm high. There is a counter-
sunk hole, 4mm in diameter, in the center. Around the perimeter
are six triangular notches averaging 26mm apart. They were cut
from the convex side and, judging from the striations, with a
In Fig. 1, c-d, is shown an article made from a roughly cir-
cular fragment of the lip of a Strombus Gigas shell. It is 36. 5mm
in diameter with an average thickness of 5mm. A hole, 18mm in
diameter, has been drilled in the approximate center to a depth of
4. 5mm. The core diameter is 10. 5mm.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, Nos. 3-4, September-December, 1961 65
TABLE 1. ULETA RIVER TESTS, 1959-1961
Test No. 1 Test No. 2 Test No. 3
1 2 3 4 5 11 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
St. Johns Check Stamped 1 1 1
Body Sherds 109 40 21 3 4 47 11 28 1 1 38 26 11 4 4
Plain Rims 13 4 4 2 1 9 3 1 9 3 1
Shark Vertebrae 140 75 76 35 16 44 74 25 9 4 83 75 64 21 12
Bone Points 1 1 1 1
Deer Leg Bone Fragments 6
Strombus Celts 1 1 1 1 1
Strombus Gouge 1 1 1 1
Circular Drilled Shell Object 1
Winged Tree Oys. 23 34 12 25 17 16 25 7 21 11 9 7 19 7 4
Va. Crested Oys. 300 1125 873 416 172 88 621 729 308 104 606 488 304 111 65
Thick Lucina 154 329 260 161 96 85 194 90 101 81 188 109 212 67 42
Strombus Gigas 92 89 170 42 28 43 69 90 11 7 61 41 36 11 8
False Donax 1 1 1 1
Busycon Perversum 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
Circular Shell Ornament 1
Unfinished Plummet 1
Figure 1. A.B, Notched Busycon Gorget; C-D, Drilled Strombus Fragment
Bone fragments, apparently deer, worn smooth by being used
as a drill, were excavated with the above-mentioned- article. When
the fragments are assembled, they fitneatly into the hole and core
of the object. It is thought sand and water were used as the abrasive.
This article was found by Laxson at the 8- 12-inch levelof the 1959
The 1955 test, on the basis of Opa LockaIncised and Strombus
celts, was tentatively dated as Glades Two. The shell midden
with its predominant Glades Plain was thought to be earlier. The
shell gorget seems to refute this since they appear frequently in
the 900 1600 A.D. levels (Fairbanks, 1956, p. 69 and Caldwell
andMcCann, 1941, p. 53). However, these objects have been found
early in Florida. Circular Busycon gorgets or discs have been
found at Salt Springs, Tick and Murphy's Island, dating from at
least St. John's 1A early (Goggin, 1952, p. 120).
Appreciation is expressed to Mr.A. D. Barnes, Superintendent
of Dade County Parks Department, for permission to excavate.
Thanks are also due Mr. Ripley Bullen and Mr. John Griffin. Ap-
preciation is also expressed to JohnHackett, NoelHerrmann, Bob
Masters, Mary Murtha, Donald Burger, and Wayne Allen for their
help in screening.
To eleventh grade student, RonnieCrowell, goes our gratitude
for his work in the 1961 test.
The Florida Archaeology Class of 9 12 year olds at the Miami
Museum of Science and Natural History made the surface collec-
tions on this site.
1941 Irene Mound Site. University of Georgia Press, Athens.
1956 Archaeology of the Funeral Mound, Ocmulgee National Monument, Georgia.
National Park Service, Washington.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida.
Yale University Press, New Haven.
1957 "Three Small Dade County Sites', The Florida Anthropologist, Volume X,
July, 1957, Nos. 1-2
Wash Island in Crystal River
by Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen
During recent excavations at the Crystal River site, the
authors were taken by Charles Barnes, a fishing guide at Crystal
River interested in the prehistory of that region, down stream
for an archaeological survey of the lowerpart of the river. This
paper pertains to our collection fromWash Island but some gen-
eral remarks will be made before discussing that site.
Eleven sites or parts of sites were visited between the main
Crystal River site and the Gulf. Collecting at these sites produced
pottery referable chiefly to the Leon-Jeffer son andWeeden Island
periods. Micaceous sherds at some sites hinted at earlier occu-
A short distance inland from the water at a location called
"Shell Mounds," between the Salt and Crystal Rivers, is an excel-
lent temple mound previously, we believe, unrecorded. Its flat
top covers an area about 40 by 60 feet, with the long axis extend-
ing in a north-south direction, and reaches an elevation of 12to
15 feet above the surrounding terrain. There is a suggestion of
a ramp on the east side while the other sides are all rather steep
and straight. Nearby is another large shell mound with a flat top
about 125 to 150 feet across. However, it seems doubtful that
this second mound represents a ceremonial structure. More
likely its top was leveled for the construction of the large frame
house which it still supports.
Zamia grows rather abundantly in the Crystal River region.
It was noted at the main Crystal River site and also at some of
the downstream sites. At Shell Island, bordering the Gulf, the
larger midden, about two acres in size, is completely covered
by this cycad.
Wash Island is a small, low, marsh-surrounded island on the
north side of Crystal River about a mile from the Gulf. The is-
land is gradually eroding away and our specimens were all found
on the present smallbeach immediately in front of the site. The
remaining culturaldeposit consists of a narrow shell midden, 5
to 30 feetwide and 250 feet long, whichat its highest point is only
about 3 feet above the present sea level.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, Nos. 3-4, September-December, 1961 69
Our collection (FSM-36070) includes 3 columella hammers,
4 Melongena hammers, 2 Busycon gouges, 4 hammerstones, 1
chert core, 2 crude stone tools, I fragment of a bifacial blade,
7 utilized flakes, 1 worked deer antler, 3 fragments of bone dag-
gers (?), and 2 rim sherds of steatite vessels as well as num-
erous clay vessel fragments. Sherds include: 65 Pasco Plain
(limestone tempered), 1 Pasco Plain with a Belle Glade Plain
type of rim, 6 Pasco Incised, 1 Pasco Incised with an incised
pendanttriangle, 2 Perico Punctated B, 14 St. Johns Plain (chalky
paste), 8 St. Johns Incised, 4 Deptford Simple Stamped (abund-
antly tempered with fairly coarse quartz sand), 12 sand-tempered
(Deptford-like) plain, 2 semi-fiber-tempered plain, 2 semi-fiber-
tempered- semi-Pasco plain, 1 semi-fiber-temper ed-semi-Pasco
punctated, and 6 whichmight bestbe describedas Deptford Cord
Marked although West Florida Cord Marked might be a better
term. Some of the Deptford-like plain as well as the cord-marked
sherds exhibit various round holes similar to those found in fiber-
This collection is of considerable interest. The St. Johns
Incised, Pasco Incised, and semi-fiber-tempered sherds clearly
date this site as belonging in the Transitional (Bullen, 1959) or
immediately post-Orange Period of Florida. The inventory, in-
cluding the stone tools and the sherds of steatite vessels, is
strikingly like that from theBattery Point site atBayport (Bullen
and Bullen, 1953; 1954; Coates, 1955) about 30 miles further
south along the Gulf and that of the lowest zone at Johns Island
(Bullen and Bullen, 1950), also along the Gulf and between Bay-
port and Crystal River.
This site may be dated as having been occupied around 750
B. C. within a reasonable degree of accuracy (Bullen, 1958, p.
110). It is another in a continually growing number of sites or
parts of sites attributable to the Transitional Period. These
sites are of interest as they indicate the effects of new ideas
upon the indigenous Orange Period population, communication
over rather large areas, and migrations, on a small scale, of
.people. The Transitional in Florida was a dynamic period of
In a site of such a changing culture we should expect to find
evidences of both the old and the new. Transitional Period sites
supply such evidence expressed in terms of pottery and other
In the Wash Island collection, for example, we have Pasco
Incised and St. Johns Incised both of which document the carry-
over of Orange Incised decorations uponnon-fiber-tempered con-
tainers. The semi-fiber-tempered sherds form a logical mid-
step between the fiber-tempered paste of the Orange Period and
the succeeding chalky and crushed limestone-tempered St. Johns
and Pasco wares. The steatite vessel fragments clearly indicate
communication (by traders?) with either northwestern Georgia
or northeastern Alabama. The Deptford Simple Stamped sherds
indicate the direction of influences is from the north.
These Deptford Simple Stamped sherds clearly bear the im-
prints of thong-wrapped paddles. Impressions in plasticene of
the imprints suggest leather strips may have been woven into
Artist's Sketch of Limestone Cup
carrying bags, but the arrangement of these imprints is more
likely the result of overstamping.
The sixcord-marked sherds are of special interest. At first
glance the cord-markings appear to be linear check stampings or
linear punctations. However, some of the lines, while parallel,
are curved. Plasticene imprints clearly show they are the im-
prints of a twisted cord. While the surface of these sherds has
eroded, individual fiber imprints can be seen in a few instances.
Presumedly the cords were wound on a paddle as were the thong
mentioned above. While there is a little overstamping of cord
imprints, none are crossed or at an angle as appears to have
been the case with the thong-wrapped paddles.
Four of these six cord-marked sherds are made of a hard,
compact, and very sandy paste which is blackish throughout. One
is similar except that the outside half has been in an oxidizing
flame. The sixth is also similar but made of a laminated, con-
torted paste which contains some limestone inclusions. Three
exhibit holes which may be from fibrous inclusions. These sherds
are 5/16 of an inch thick. Unfortunately no rim sherds were
Another unique specimen in the Wash Island collection is a
limestone cup, illustrations of which accompany this article.
It was made by pecking a conveniently- shaped piece of limestone
in a manner similar to that inwhich steatite vessels are shaped.
It is 3-1/4 by 2-3/8 by 1-1/4 inches in size.
Under a concept that the Transitional Period of Florida re-
flects the spread of Woodland influence from the north, it is
interesting to note cord-marking, a good Woodland trait, inan
early post-Orange context. In the past we have assumedthat
Woodland influences came via the Deptford of Georgia which felt
these influences first. The cord-marked pottery at Wash Island
seems to be the earliest cord-marked pottery known for Florida,
and to indicate direct Woodland influences impinging on Florida
during at least part of the Transitional Period.
Photographs of Limestone Cup
00. a 6
og,000a 0 04'
/ ~-V o
/a 0 4 0Ib A. .
Pdoo -F ,
Drawings of Top, Side, and Bottom of
Limestone Cup Delineating Pecked Areas
BULLEN, Adelaide and Ripley P.
1950 "The Johns Island Site,'Hernando County, Florida!' American Antiquity,
Volume 16, No.l, pp.23-45. Mensha.
1953 "The Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County, Florida!' The Florida
Anthropologist,Volume 6, No. 3, pp.85-92. Gainesville.
1954 'Further Notes on the Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County, Florida."
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume 7, No. 3, pp. 103-8. Gainesville.
BULLEN, Ripley P.
1959 "The Transitional Period of Florida." Southeastern Archaeological Conf-
erence Newsletter, Volume 4, pp. 43-62. Chapel Hill.
1958 "More Florida Radiocarbon Dates and Their Significance!' The Florida Anthro-
Anthropologist, Volume 11, No. 4, pp. 97-110. Tallahassee.
COATES, Gordon C.
1955 "Recent Tests at the Battery Point Site, Bayport, Florida!' The Florida
Anthropologist, Volume 8, No. 1, pp. 27-30. Gainesville.
INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA. Harold E. Driver. Chicago, University
of Chicago Press, 1961. xviii, 668, 25 plates, 38 maps. $10.95.
This is a revised edition of Driver and Massey's Comparative
Studies of North American Indians in a much more attractive form.
The book is the best general summary and synthesis of the ethno-
graphy of the North American Indians now in print. The discus-
sion is by topics rather than by culture areas or tribes. The
first chapter on origins is succinct and offers a badly needed
general summary. The culture areas as revised by Krober are dis-
cussed in Chapter 2. There follows a series of chapters on Sub-
sistance, Horticulture, Other Subsistance Techniques, Social and
Religious Aspects of Subsistance, Narcotics and Stimulants, Hous-
ing, Clothing, Crafts, Art, Music, Trade, Property, Marriage,
Government, War-, Social Classes, etc. The chapter on kin groups
and kin terminology will probably be pretty heavy going for the
non-professional but seems entirely adequate. The chapter on
Religion and Magic describes certain selected tribes, including
the Creek, as whole functional religious systems. The same
method is used in discussing the structure of personality. These
chapters include a reasoned criticism of extremist views of Ameri-
can Indian culture patterns as well as giving a sound and useful
synthesis of the tribes considered. The final chapter on
"Acheivements and Contribution" provides a valuable summary of
certain widespread Indian characteristics and of their contribu-
tions to current Anglo-American or Hispanic-American cultures.
In all this is a highly useful book and will well serve as a
constant reference for persons interested in many aspects of the
American Indian. In spite of its encyclopedic nature it is re-
markably easy to read and enjoyable.
from a Fort Walton Mound Site
in Houston County, Alabama
by Robert W. Neuman
From May 14 through June 19, 1959, a field party of the River
Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Institution, conducted archaeological
salvage excavations at the Seaborn Mound (1H027). The investiga-
tions were under the direct supervision of myself; James J. Stanek
acted as field assistant.
The Seaborn Mound is located high up on a natural levee rem-
nant along the right bank of the Chattahoochee River in Houston
County, Alabama. The legal designation of the site is the SE-1/4,
NE-1/4, Sec. 34, T4N, R29E. This is the same tumulus referred
to by Clarence B. Moore as the "Mound Below Columbia, Ala. "
(Moore 1907, p. 444). A photograph taken in 1911, and given to
me in 1959, views the west side of the pyramidalmound and shows
a structure measuring, north to south, about 120 feet at the base,
84 feet on the top and rising to a height of 8 feet above the surround-
ing ground surface. By the time of the 1959 investigations, the
shape of the mound had changed. Relic hunters had dug some size-
able holes into the top and along the northeast side of the structure,
but the major transformation was caused by river erosion, partic-
ularly during the devastating flood along the Chattahoochee in 1929.
Water from the river and from Omussee Creek, just north of the
mound, swept away portions of the north end and eastern side of
the tumulus. Fortunately, the dense growth of underbrush and
trees that cloak the mound helped to check much of the erosion and
the southwest side and southern end were left relatively intact.
During 1959, excavations were conducted along the west side
and the south end of the mound. The east wall or profile of the
excavation trench revealed that we were digging into a composite
structure built in four stages (Fig. la). The primary mound was
resting directly upon the sandy alluvium of a natural levee. Al-
though the sub-mound stratum was clean, and appeared undisturbed
in the area that we exposed, I am not prepared to say whether or
* Submitted with the permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, Nos. 3-4, September-December, 1961 75
not it had been purposely cleaned. The fill of the primary mound
was composed of a dark sand and village midden containing an enor-
mous quantity of clam shells. The fill was covered with a bright
reddish-orange clay mantle or finish. The primary mound was a
truncated structure with noticeably ridged summit edges.
The second and third mounds were essentially of the same
composition and shape as the first. They were built just high
enough to cover the underlying structure, but were somewhat longer
and broader in their dimensions. The summit edges of the third
mound had been eroded away and on the fourth there remained no
indications of the clay mantle on the top or along the sides; these
too had presumably been destroyed by weathering.
I have not completed a detailed analysis of the artifacts from
the Seaborn Mound, however, a few tentative statements seem to
be in order. First, a large quantity of artifacts, over 11,000,
were recovered, pottery being by far the most abundant. Well
over ninety percent of the ceramics fall into the various Fort Wal-
ton classifications. Shell tempered types are markedly rare.
Not a single article of European manufacture was recovered from
the excavations and the lack of such objects, as well as the rarity
of shell tempered pottery, suggests that the mounds were con-
structed early in the Fort Walton Period.
Two situations, designated Feature 1 and Feature 2, are of
primary concern in this paper. Feature 1 consisted of two dark,
circular soil stains exposed in the tan, sandy stratum of the natu-
ral levee under the primary mound in squares North 55 East 25
and North 50 East 30. One of the stains was the top of a pit meas-
uring 3.0 feet in diameter and about 1.5 feet in diameter at the
bottom. The walls were rather irregular and the pit had a depth
of 2.0 feet. Recovered from the pitwere six vessel rims, 32 body
sherds, a miniature pottery ladle, two unworked stones, fragments
of mammal bone and turtle carapace, 110 mussel shells and a con-
siderable amount of charcoal. All of the pottery is sand and grit
tempered with the exception of one shell tempered body sherd. The
rims are small fragments of which only three are large enough for
identification. These fall into the Lake Jackson Plain category.
Thirty-one of the body sherds are plain surfaced. Only one is
decorated; it has five parallel incised lines on the exterior surface.
The pottery ladle measured 60 mm long and is undecorated.
The second, and most easterly, of the soil stains was the
charred remains of a large post or, more probably, a burned tree
trunk. We cored a conoidal area, about 3.0 feet in diameter at
the top, down to 4.0 feet below the surface. The fill consisted of
large chunks of charcoal, one plain surfaced, grit-tempered body
sherd and a few pieces of unworked rock.
Feature 2, an irregular line of five small, circular discolora-
tions, was exposed along the southern end of the mound in squares
North 25 East 55, North 25 East 60 and North 25 East 65 (Fig. Ib).
The disturbances were clearly visible on the tan stratum of the
natural levee just as at Feature 1. The stains averaged 0. 8 foot
in diameter and never reached more than 0.5 foot in depth. Each
contained charcoal, but one included carbonized corncob fragments.
Feature 2 was covered by the construction of the fourth mound and
possibly the third; however, the second and first structures did not
extend far enough south to cover the area of this feature. There-
fore, whatever may be the significance of Feature 2, it is associ-
ated with one or the other and possiblyboth of the first two mounds.
Unfortunately, the lack of funds halted further excavations at the
site, and the importance of the soil stains has yet to be realized.
The charred cob specimens were sent to the MissouriBotani-
cal Garden, and there they were gratuitously examined and identi-
fied by Dr. Hugh C. Cutler. In a letter to me, Dr. Cutler states
that "Most of the specimens I have seen from the Gulf Coast re-
semble the northern flints (Brown and Anderson, 1947). The ears
have 8 or 10 rows of grains, the cobs are strong, with fairly wide
cupules and medium-sized cobs, and the kernels are crescent-
shaped like those of some forms of northern flints. Your speci-
mens from Seaborn Mound are of this kind.... Five carbonized
cob fragments were measurable and probably represent ears. A
sixth is 4-rowed and is either a tassel-ear fragment or, more like-
ly, an upper ear which has, as in most northern flints, fewer rows
of grains." (Cutler, personal communication, April 1960)
Table 1 gives the measurements of cob specimens.
TABLE 1. MEASUREMENTS OF COB SPECIMENS
Cob Specimen Number
1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of Grain Rows 10 8 8 8 8 4
Grain Thickness (in mm) 2.9 2.9 3.0 4.0 3.5
Cupule Width (in mm) 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.0 8.0
Cutler adds, "Most typical northern flints have slightly larger
cupules, but many are well within this range. (Cutler, idem.)
The significance of the cob specimens from the Seaborn Mound
lies in the fact that they were found in direct association with a
Fort Walton manifestation. It has long been the contention among
archaeologists in the southeast that the Fort Walton people were
ancestoral Apalachee and that they practiced a maize-bean squash
horticulture (Willey 1949, p. 455; Griffin 1952, p. 326). Never-
theless, we are faced with the fact that, to my knowledge, only one
previously published report cites an instance of direct association
between cornspecimens and Fort Walton material (Bullen 1958).
This village site, J-5, is located on the right bank of the Chatta-
hoochee River about 56 miles downstream from the Seaborn Mound.
The corn from J-5 was found in four pits. "Their locations...
approximated a square with corners at the cardinal points. All
had circular mouths, nearly straight sides, conical bottoms, and
vertical dimensions of 10 to 12 inches." (Bullen 1958, p. 344)
The corn samples were tentatively identified as Caribbean flints
Figure 1A. View East, Showing the Wall Profile of the Four-Stage Tumulus at the Seaborn Mound Site (1HO27)
Figure lB. View East, Showing the Five Circular Soil Discolorations of Feature 2 at the Southern End of the Mound.
byDr. W. C. Galinatof the Botanical Museum of Harvard Universi-
ty. Charcoal specimens from the Fort Walton component at J-5
were dated by the Carbon-14 method as A.D. 1400, plus or minus
In summation, charred corncob specimens identified as north-
ern flints were recovered from excavations at the Seaborn Mound
in Houston County, Alabama. Another type of corn, identified as
Caribbean flints, has been reported from the village site (J-5) in
Jackson County, Florida. Each of these sites is attributed to the
Fort Walton culture, an archaeological manifestation characterized
by an agricultural economy. Any chronological implications, as
wellas factors concerning trade or diffusion suggested by the pres-
ence of two types of corn from Fort Walton Period sites, must be
approached through the interdisciplinary cooperation of botanists
and archaeologists after more pertinent data have been reported.
BROWN, W. L. & ANDERSON, EDGAR
1947 "The Northern Flint Corns," Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden,
Volume 34, pp. 1-28. St. Louis.
BULLEN, RIPLEY P.
1958 "Six Sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area,
Florida," Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 169, River Basin Surveys
Papers, No. 14, pp. 315-357. Washington.
GRIFFIN, JOHN W.
1952 "Perhistoric Florida: A Review", in Archaeology of the Eastern United States,
James B. Griffin, Editor. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
MOORE, CLARENCE BLOOMFIELD
1907 "Mounds on the Lower Chattahoochee and Lower Flint Rivers", Journal of
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Volume 13. Philadelphia.
WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949 "Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast", Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collect-
ions, Volume 113, Washington.
The Marshall Bluff Site
by Charlie Carlson, Jr.
This mound is located on the St. Johns R iver in Volusia County,
just one mile east of Lemon Bluff.
The site was once an orange grove and has been plowed over
many times. It covers about two acres and is approximately four-
teen feet high. A large hole had been dug at the top of the mound.
The mound consists of brown dirt and small freshwater snail
shells. Over forty burials were found in this mound but they had
been disturbed because of being in the plow zone.
Orange Plain, Orange Incised, St. Johns Plain, and a few
punctated sherds were found with the burials. On the southwest
side of the mound many mixed-up burials were found. I could not
tell how many burials there were; however, it appeared to be a
mass burial. Only a few pottery sherds of Orange Plainwere found
in this burial.
One burial that was found near the top of the mound contained
a dog's lower jawbone with it.
A stratigraphic test was made from a depth of six inches to a
depth of fifty inches. The testwas five feetwide and was made on
the southeast side of the mound. Table 1 presents the results.
The most common of the sherds found in the 6 12 inch depth
of the test were the St. Johns Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped.
A punctated sherd was found in the 6 12 inch depth also.
Most of the Orange Plain and Orange Incised sherds were found
at a depth of 18 to 40 inches with the exception of the sherds found
with the burials.
Most of the Orange pot sherds were fiber-tempered. The
punctated sherd was also fiber-tempered.
Five shark teeth were found at a depth of 6 inches; one shark
tooth had two holes drilled through it. Many fragments of bone
artifacts were found, usually occurring between a depth of 6 to 20
inches. A steatite object was found at a six inch depth. The arti-
facts made of shell were a strombus celt and a damaged gouge.
About six hundred yards west of the Marshall Bluff site is
another mound which has not been disturbed. St. Johns Plain and
St. Johns Check Stamped sherds were found here along with a few
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, Nos. 3.4, September-December, 1961 81
TABLE 1. STRATIGRAPHIC TEST RESULTS
Depth (in inches)
0 6 6- 12 12- 18 18- 24 24- 30 30- 40 40 50 Total
Orange Plain 1 2 1 1 4
Orange Incised 1 1
Punctated 1 1
St. Johns Plain 10 2 12
St. Johns Check Stamped 3 2 5
Deer Bone 12 20 3 3 5 1 44
Rodent Bones 8 8 1 5 8 1 23
Canis (Dog) Bones 2 2
Fish Bones 4 3 4 1 12
Projectile Points 6 2 8
Worked Bone 1 2 1 1 5
broken bone pins. Th:s moand consists of smallfresh water snail
shells and black dirt and is located on a slough off the St. Johns
It is not likely that further study can be made of Marshall
Bluff because it has been bulldozed and leveled off.
I wish to express my appreciation to Mr. H. James Gut, San-
ford, Florida, for identifying the bones found at this site; and to
M:. Ripley P. Bullen, Curator of Social Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, for his advice and information con-
cerning the site.
Fort St. Marks Salvage Program
With the announcement that the barge channel in the St.
Marks River was to be widened various members of the society felt
concern that historic relics and information would be destroyed.
This concern resulted in two courses of action.
First, the Department of Anthropology at The Florida State
University began an extensive program of underwater exploration.
This resulted in the collection of a considerable amount of
material from the bed of the river. Included were whole glass
bottles and a whole Spanish Olive Jar, as well as large quanti-
ties of sherd materials. Mrs. Dorris L. Olds, a graduate student
in the department began an analysis of the materials and a col-
lection of documentary materials relating to the fort. This
study is now nearing completion.
Secondly, the Society, through its officers, brought the
situation to the attention of the Florida delegation in the Oon-
gress. Representative Bob Sikes, Third District, and Senator
Spessard Holland corresponded extensively with the Corps of
Engineers and the National Park Service concerning the possibi-
lity of salvage funds and the danger to the historic values in-
volved. The Corps of Engineers agreed to do all widening of the
channel and stock-piling of dredge materials on the opposite side
of the river. In November the National Park Service, recognized
the need of salvage and advised Senator Holland that funds would
be available. At the present time the National Park Service is
considering a proposal by the Department of Anthropology, The
Florida State University, to conduct salvage on a limited scale
during the current scholastic year plus a more elaborate salvage
program in the following year. The thanks of the Society are due
to Senator Holland and Representative Sikes for their role in
making this salvage possible.