Membership Information
 Table of Contents
 Editor's Page
 A Seminole Site on the Suwanee...
 Examination of Subadult Pathology...
 FAS Chapter Information
 Human Skeletal Remains from Lignumvitae...
 FAS 2004 Award Recipients
 Book Reviews
 About the Authors
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00183
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00183
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Editor's Page
        Page 197
        Page 198
    A Seminole Site on the Suwanee River: Functional Analysis of Oven Hill (8DI15) Pottery Vessels
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Examination of Subadult Pathology in a 7,000-year-old Population from Florida
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    FAS Chapter Information
        Page 228
    Human Skeletal Remains from Lignumvitae Key Burial Mound, Monroe County, Florida
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    FAS 2004 Award Recipients
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Book Reviews
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    About the Authors
        Page 244
    Back Cover
        Page 245
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SNCE 1 9A1
Volume 57 Number 3
September 2004


Editor's Page 197

A Seminole Site on the Suwannee River: Functional Analysis of Oven Hill (8DI15)
Pottery Vessels. Jane Anne Blakney-Bailey 199

Examination of Subadult Pathology in a 7,000-year-old Population from Florida. Rachel K. Wentz 219

Human Skeletal Remains from Lignumvitae Key Burial Mound,
Monroe County, Florida. Morton H. Kessel 229



Weisman: Pioneer in Space and Time: John Mann Goggin and the Development
of Florida Archaeology. Virgil Roy Beasley III 241

Stille: The Future of the Past. Daniel R. Tardona 242

About the Authors 244

Cover: Seminole pottery vessel from the Oven Hill site, Dixie County, Florida (see Jane Anne Blakney-Bailey's article for a
full discussion).

Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893


This issue includes three articles that deal with the archae-
ology and physical anthropology of Florida. The first paper,
by University of Florida graduate student Jane Anne Blakney-
Bailey, is an interesting analysis of Seminole pottery vessels
recovered by archaeologist John Goggin and his students from
the Oven Hill site. The assemblage is important for several
reasons, including the large number of complete or near-
complete vessel and for the diversity of vessel shapes, which
is unusual for Seminole and Creek pottery. Author Blakney-
Bailey may be well-known to University of Florida alumni,
since her research at the Seminole site of Powell's Town has
been featured in several publications distributed by the
university over the last few months, including the College of
Liberal Arts and Sciences' CLASnotes (Summer 2004) and
Explore: Research at the University ofFlorida (Spring 2004).
The second article, by Florida State University graduate
student Rachel Wentz, presents her analysis of subadult
pathologies among the Windover site skeletal population.
This article will be of interest to anyone studying Florida
physical anthropology or the 7,000-year old Windover site,
where wet-site conditions preserved perishable items like wood
and cloth, as well as human brain material. Anyone interested
in additional reading on the Windover site should consult Glen
Doran's edited volume Windover: Multidisciplinarylnvestiga-
tions ofan EarlyArchaic Florida Cemetery, published in 2002
by the University Presses of Florida.

The third and final article, by Morty Kessel, presents a
brief introduction to the history and archaeology of
Lignumvitae Key, and an analysis of a small collection of
human remains from the Lignumvitae Key Burial Mound.
Kessel rightly points out the limited archaeological study of
the Florida Keys, despite John Goggin's pioneering work on
ceramic seriation on nearby Upper Matecumbe Key in the
1940s. Lignumvitae Key is managed by the Florida State Park
system and is only accessible by boat; if you are interested in
visiting this fascinating place take a look at the park website
first: www.floridastateparks.org/lignumvitaekey/.
This issue also contains information on the 2004 FAS
award recipients, as well as two book reviews.

September, 2004


VOL. 57(3)





Department ofAnthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
E-mail: jblakney@ufl.edu


Few sites have yielded as much information on eighteenth
century Seminole life as the Oven Hill site (8DI15), located 40
miles (64 km) west of Gainesville on the west side of the
Suwanee River (Figure 1). John Goggin and his University of
Florida students investigated Oven Hill's land and riverine
deposits between 1958 and 1962. During this time, an
unprecedented amount of Seminole artifacts, including many
complete or partially complete Seminole pots, were recovered
from the site.
Although Oven Hill vessels have been examined to various
degrees over the years, no detailed report describing the more
technical characteristics of these vessels is available. This
paper presents a functional typology of Seminole vessels that
will complement earlier studies, which focused on stylistic
and, to a lesser extent, formal characteristics. The typology
demonstrates that Seminole and Creek pottery assemblages
may have been more diverse than previous believed.

Archaeology at Oven Hill

Unfortunately, John Goggin's changing archaeological
interests and his untimely death in 1963 ultimately prevented
a thorough synthesis of the excavations and findings of the
Oven Hill site from being produced (Weisman 2002). How-
ever, over the past several decades, scholars have addressed
various aspects of the site. These have included a discussion
of the European trade goods and how the colonial economy
impacted Seminole life (Craig and Peebles 1974); the method-
ological issues surrounding the terrestrial and underwater
portions of the site (Gluckman and Peebles 1974; Goggin
1960; Weisman 1989), and the historical significance of the
Seminole town that existed there (Weisman 1989; 1999). In
addition, Brent Weisman (1989; 1999) includes brief synopses
of the Oven Hill vessels in two of his books on the history and
archaeology of the Florida Seminoles.
Stephen Gluckman and Christopher Peebles (1974),
students of Goggin, offer the most comprehensive discussion
available on the Oven Hill excavations. This discussion is
based on descriptions found in Goggin's notes. According to
Gluckman and Peebles (1974:25-26), the land portion of the
site, approximately 100 yards (91 m) north-south and 40 to 50
yards east-west (37-46 m), was investigated over the course of
fourteen intermittent days. During that time, a substantial
amount of the site was excavated. Ten trenches and 70 five-

feet by five-feet (1.5 m x 1.5 m) units were excavated.
Cultural deposits were shallow, ranging from 8 to 14 inches
(20 to 36 cm) below the surface. According to site cards
located in the Florida Museum of Natural History, a human
burial containing beads was uncovered. Although there was
no further mention of the burial, it is presumed that it was not
further disturbed and was reburied.
According to Gluckman and Peebles (1974:23), the
underwater portion of the site paralleled the land portion,
sloping "gradually from the river's edge to an average depth
of 12 feet." Artifacts were collected by scuba divers (Figure 2)
conducting four-man "sweeps" of the site (Gluckman and
Peebles 1974:23). Over the course of four years, occasional
sweeps were carried out as the river currents uncovered more
artifacts. Inventive techniques, such as a custom-built diving
barge and air-lift, were used to remove the sand from the river
bottom to aid in recovering artifacts (Gluckman and Peebles
1974; Weisman 2002). These endeavors were some of the first
attempted in Florida underwater archaeology and permanently
linked Goggin to the development of this field (Gluckman and
Peebles; Goggin 1960; Weisman 2002). Eventually, interest
in the site waned when significant amounts of material were
no longer recovered.
Goggin identified the underwater deposits at the Oven Hill
site as a "refuse site," in particular the kind "formed in bodies
of water near habitation sites by the deliberate throwing of
trash and garbage into the water" (Gluckman and Peebles
1974:22). A variety of artifacts were recovered from the site,
including a limited amount of European trade goods, which
may have been obtained from Spalding's Lower Store on the
St. Johns River (Goggin 1940; Lewis 1968). The trade
materials date the site to the mid-eighteenth century (Craig
and Peebles 1974). These dates corroborate ethnohistorical
evidence that links the site to a Seminole town visited by
Denys Rolle around the same time (Rolle 1977[1765];
Weisman 1989; 1999).

Seminole Pottery

As one of its earliest scholars (Weisman 2002), Goggin
was involved in a number of instrumental studies in Seminole
archaeology (Goggin 1940; Goggin et al. 1949; Seaberg 1955).
Among these is Goggin's preliminary typology of Seminole
pottery (Goggin 1964). Interestingly, although at the time
Goggin was conducting research on the Oven Hill project, the
typology does not draw from any of its remarkable specimens


VOL. 57(3)





S. ...Vy county
| i

I I "
8 kilometers N

~IST 2004 VOL 57(3)

Figure 1. Location of the Oven Hill site.


2004 VOL. 57(3)



Figure 2. John Goggin recovering an Oven Hill vessel from
the Suwanee River (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural

(Weisman 2002). If it had, it is likely that the work would
have been much more expansive. Instead, Goggin proposed a
typology that was based on probable Seminole pottery from
undocumented sites and five whole vessels collected from both
Florida and Oklahoma. Goggin noted the similarities and
differences between the vessels' method of manufacture,
temper, texture, hardness, thickness, color, surface finish,
form, and geographical range (Goggin 1964:186-201). While
Goggin summarized the above characteristics, he ultimately
incorporated the "type-variety" method that reflected the
contemporary archaeological paradigm and which was largely
based on variation in temper and decorative style.
Despite regional variation in temper type that led him to
propose several pottery types (e.g., Chattahoochee Brushed,
Winter Park Brushed, and Stokes Brushed), Goggin concluded
that there were two major divisions in Seminole pottery.
These were "brushed ware," which demonstrated a clear
relationship between Seminole and Creek pottery, and
"smoothedware"(Bullen 1950). Goggin (1964:205) also noted
a correlation between the kinds of exteriors and two general
vessel forms of the vessels:

In summing up the known Creek pottery from Oklahoma a
strong consistency can be noted in terms of two basic styles
that were made from the 1830s until about 1900. One, the

sofkee pot used for cooking, was a large globular vessel with
a small mouth, punctuations on the rim or lip, and a brushed
surface. The other was a smooth-surfaced vessel, sometimes
incised and smoothed over. Vessel shapes of this style were
low bowls with pronounced shoulders and often were flat

Goggin further concluded, that "despite the heterogeneous
background of the Seminole 'Nation,' the ceramic complex is
sharply patterned with two distinct styles that are relatively
consistent over considerable time...moreover, this same
consistency holds true over a wide area in Florida from the St.
Johns to the Apalachicola Rivers" (1964:208). Creek and
Seminole pottery assemblages are still frequently described as
homogenous, reduced, or simplified, in comparison to late
prehistoric assemblages found in the region (Waselkov
1994:194; Worth 2000:268-269).
The Oven Hill assemblage challenges these conclusions.
Brent Weisman (1989:52) may have been the first to note that
the Oven Hill vessels were not typical of most Seminole and
Creek collections, when he noted that, "vessel forms are
diverse but typical of those found in late prehistoric domestic
assemblages throughout the southeast." Indeed, the reexami-
nation of the Oven Hill vessels confirms that Creek and
Seminole pottery assemblages may have had greater diversity
than previously thought.

Performance Characteristics

In recent decades, research in ethnoarchaeology and
experimental archaeology has provided rich data on the
benefits and behaviors of different mechanical properties of
pottery (e.g., Braun 1983; Bronitsky and Hamer 1986; Hally
1986; Henrickson and McDonald 1983; Rye 1976; Schiffer
1988). This has led archaeologists to speculate on the strate-
gies that potters adopted when making their pots to perform
specific functions, such as cooking, storing, and serving. The
size and intactness of the Oven Hill vessels make them an
excellent case study for a functional analysis. Performance
properties discussed here include: thermal shock resistance,
vessel stability, space utilization, manipulation of contents,
permeability, evaporation, heating effectiveness, spill poten-
tial, pouring ability, and effective capacity. The mechanical
properties that contribute to these behaviors are summarized
in Table 1 and briefly discussed below.
Thermal shock, the cracking, breaking, or spelling of
vessels as they are being fired or used in cooking, is a common
problem in pottery manufacture. To counter this stress,
resistance to thermal shock is improved through the creation
of thin, even, and rounded walls and by the addition of coarse
temper that has a thermal matrix compatible with the clay
(Braun 1983:118-123). Potters also must ensure that the
vessel is capable of achieving and retaining the necessary heat
to cook different kinds of food. The presence of small-grained
temper, particularly sand (Schiffer and Skibo 1987:605), and
a rounded vessel bottom (Braun 1983:119) increases heating
Different intended uses also influence the size of the




Figure 3. Vessel Profiles: (a) flat-base hive-shaped jar, (b) flat-base pinched rim jar, (c) globular-base pinched rim jar, (d)
tall neck jar, (e) flat-walled vessel, (f) angular-shoulder carinated bowl (g) rounded-shoulder carinated bowl (Note: see Figure
8 for globular-base hive-shaped jar).

vessels. Effective capacity refers to the volume that a vessel is
capable of holding. The volume can be measured in a number
of ways including volumetric formulas (Rice 1987:220-222) or
by pouring non-destructive contents (such as bird seed) into
the vessels (Hally 1986:279). When possible, the latter
method was used in this analysis.

Just as modern households must manage how room is
utilized within their homes, aboriginal potters also had limited
domestic space. Efficient space utilization is enhanced by a
low ratio of maximum height to maximum vessel diameter
(Hally 1986:289). Potters consider other practical decisions,
such as vessel stability and accessibility to contents. Good

2004 VOL. 57(3)


a b c

Figure 4. Vessel Profiles, continued: (a) restricted neck jar, (b) bottle, (c) restricted orifice vessel, (d) rounded bowl, (e)
flared rim bowl, (f) straight rim bowl.



Table 1. Mechanical properties and associated vessel behaviors.

Performance Characteristics Mechanical Attributes

Thermal shock resistance Even wall thickness; spherical or non-angular body shape; mineral inclusions and
temper compatible with clay; thin walls; coarse temper

Vessel stability High ratio of breadth of base to maximum vessel diameter/low ratio of vessel height to
maximum diameter

Space utilization Low ratio of maximum height to maximum vessel diameter

Manipulation of contents Large orifice; shallow height; minimal orifice restriction

Permeability prevention Small uniform aplastics; surface finishes

Evaporation prevention Surface finishes; small orifice

Heating effectiveness Small-grained temper; round bottom; inverted rim; restricted neck or orifice

Spill prevention Inverted rim; restricted neck or orifice

Pouring efficiency Restricted neck; everted rim; height greater than width

Effective capacity Vessel volume

vessel stability is achieved through a high ratio of breadth of
vessel base to maximum vessel diameter, in addition to a low
ratio of vessel height to maximum vessel diameter (Hally
1986:289). Accessibility to contents is made easier through
the creation of a large orifice, shallow height, and minimal
orifice constriction (Hally 1986:279).
Finally, other factors, such as avoiding spills, facilitating
pouring, and creating an appropriate storage container for
specific contents, are important. Spill potential is decreased
through inverted rims and restricted necks or orifices (Hally
1986:280), while pouring is made more efficient by a restricted
neck, everted rim, and a height that is greater than maximum
vessel width (Hally 1986:280). Depending on the intended use
of the vessel, wall permeability or impermeability can be
modified. Permeability is reduced through small, uniform
aplastics (Rice 1987:350) and surface finishes (Schiffer et al.
1994:202). In contrast, permeability is increased through the
addition of coarse aplastics and limited surface finishing.
Similarly, surface finishes (Rice 1987:231), along with small
orifices, decrease evaporation of vessel contents (Hally
Correlations between hypothetical functions and perfor-
mance characteristics are clearly imperfect and weaknesses in
this analysis must be addressed. First, subtle variability, such
as a smoothed surface finish versus a burnished surface finish
within the forms may have been significant enough for these
vessels to have been used for different purposes. Second, there
were undoubtedly many innovations that are no longer
observable to archaeologists (e.g., perishable coverings,

supports, organic surface treatments, and tools) that compen-
sated for what would otherwise be technological disadvantages
of the vessels. Third, patterns of use wear and thermal
alteration shed additional light on vessel functions (Hally
1983; Skibo 1992). Unfortunately, this evidence on the Oven
Hill vessels is limited. Many of the vessels were buried in
river sand for over two hundred years, producing stains that
are difficult to differentiate from thermal alteration. Further-
more, abrasions and erosion from this environment confuse
what may be evidence of use wear. Analyses of these patterns
on similar vessels from other sites will help to further support
or modify the vessel functions proposed here.
A fourth and final caveat must be made. The uses pro-
posed here concentrate on the primary intended function of the
vessels as complete pots and do not take into consideration the
multiple uses of the vessels as they went through their respec-
tive life cycles. With these considerations in mind, the
functions for the fourteen vessel forms are proposed.


The artifacts from Oven Hill were originally stored in the
University of Florida Anthropology Department. In the 1970s
they were moved to the Florida Museum of Natural History
where they and Goggin's notes are curated. Unfortunately, the
notes from the Oven Hill excavations are limited and the
artifacts lack provenience, with the exception of occasional
"land" versus "river" designations, apparently derived from an
earlier unpublished analysis addressing how the pots were


2004 VOL. 57(3)


Figure 5. Globular-base pinched rim jar (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

formed (e.g., segmenting versus coiling [van derLeeuw n.d.]).
Because a land/river assignment could not be confidently
established on most of the vessels that were analyzed by this
author, they are treated uniformly as a "surface collection."
Because formal attributes are fundamental in inferring
vessel function, the largest specimens-those that were 10 cm
or more in length-were examined in this study. When
possible, all of the attributes presented in Table 1 were
described for this sample.
A number of published works served as methodological
and interpretive guides in this analysis. In particular, David
Hally's articles on whole vessel (Hally 1986) and large sherd
(Hally 1984) analysis were heavily relied upon and formed the

basis of some of the typology proposed. Hally's (1986) article
was particularly useful and readers are encouraged to review
this work for a more thorough discussion of what types of food
and drink may have been cooked, served, and/or stored in the
various vessel forms.

Results: Oven Hill Pottery Forms and Functions

Fourteen vessel forms were observed in the Oven Hill
ceramic assemblage (Figures 3 and 4). In his analyses, Hally
(1986; 1984) distinguishes sizes of vessel forms by measuring
the diameter of the vessel orifices. Hally then proposes
different functions, and types, based on modal distributions of




Figure 6. Flat-base pinched rim jar (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

these measurements. Using these methods, no significant size
differences were observed among like vessel forms in the Oven
Hill assemblage. The one exception to this statement is size
variation within the indeterminate pinched rim jar category.
Because the bases of the vessels were absent it was not possible
to determine whether they represented globular or flat-base
pinched rim jars, two distinct forms of vessels that are dis-
cussed momentarily. Future researchers should attempt to
isolate size variation and consider the possibility that differ-
ently sized vessels may have had distinct uses.
The strengths of the inferences made about vessel functions
vary depending on the correlations between attributes and
forms. However, a preliminary functional typology is pro-
posed below. It is hoped that future researchers will enhance
and modify this typology as more data is gleaned from
Seminole and Creek sites.

Globular-base pinched rim jar (N=5)

Notably, nine of the Oven Hill vessels correspond with
Hally's (1986) "pinched rim jar" form. However, because both
globular-base and flat-base pinched rim jars are present in the
assemblage, it is appropriate to distinguish them as forms.

Their prevalence, however, indicates that this type of vessel,
whether having a flat or globular base, was a significant
component of the Oven Hill pottery assemblage. This is
consistent with findings from other Creek and Seminole sites
(Goggin 1964; Ledbetter 1997).
As their name implies, globular pinched rim jars (Figure
5) have a round or elliptical body and base. Their necks are
slightly restricted and their rims are flared to varying degrees.
The vessels from Oven Hill are equivalent to the smallest form
of vessels of the same name in Hally's (1986) analysis of the
Barnett Phase assemblage. Data from Oven Hill support
Hally's (1986:287) hypothesis that this vessel form was used
"to cook or heat small quantities of food that had either a
liquid consistency or were cooked in a liquid medium."
A number of characteristics, such as even wall thickness,
thin walls, rounded bottoms, and smooth, rounded profiles,
would enable the vessels to both withstand intensive cooking
and endure the stress that causes thermal shock. The presence
of smoothing or burnishing on the interior of all the vessels
may have prevented permeability of liquid contents during
prolonged cooking. These same attributes would make the
vessels more heat efficient. The vessels, without the assistance
of a prop, would have been unstable, making them inadequate

2004 VOL. 57(3)


Figure 7. Rounded-shoulder carinated bowl (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

2004 VOL. 57(3)


Figure 8. Globular-base hive-shaped jar (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

for serving. Volume measurements taken on the available
whole globular-based vessels showed that one held 500
milliliters, while the other vessel held 2.75 liters.

Flat-base pinched rim jar (N=2)

This form is similar to the globular vessel previously
described with the exception of its narrow, flat base (Figure 6).
Like the globular vessels, both of the flat-base vessels were
smoothed on the interior, which may have also decreased the
permeability of the walls. The angular profile would increase
the likelihood of thermal shock at high temperatures. Because
the width of this vessel is greater than its height, pouring
would have been difficult. This suggests that the vessel was
used for heating (probably at lower temperatures) and serving
foods. The one intact Oven Hill vessel of this form has an
effective capacity of 1.28 liters.
While other authors have not made the distinction between
globular-base and flat-base pinched rim jars, this basic formal
difference could correlate with functional difference. Similar
to the two Oven Hill examples, a nineteenth century heirloom
belonging to a Seminole family in Oklahoma was identified by
the family as having been used as a soJkee pot (Schmitt 1950).
Indeed, its sturdy form and wide orifice would contribute to its

use as a heating and serving vessel for soJkee, a corn-based
liquid, or stew, sometimes flavored with venison (Braund

Tall neck jar (N=3)

Hally (1984) distinguishes the tall neck jar in the
Beaverdam assemblage from the pinched rimjar in the Barnett
assemblage (1986) by its more gradual restriction of the neck
and less pronounced flaring of its rim. Hally's suggestion that
tall neck jars in the Savannah Period assemblage were used for
storage and cooking is consistent with the findings of this
analysis. The even wall thickness and the gradually rounded
profile would make the vessels both resistant to thermal shock
and heat efficient.
Unfortunately, all three of the tall neck jars from Oven Hill
are missing their bases making it difficult to predict overall
mechanical behavior. However, if they mimic the Savannah
Period form (Hally 1984), they would have rounded bottoms,
which would contribute to thermal shock resistance and
heating efficiency. The minimal orifice constriction and large
orifice would increase evaporation, but would facilitate stirring
and dipping into the contents. While it does have a faint
restriction of the neck, it is less conducive to movement or


Figure 9. Flat-base hive-shaped jar (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).




Figure 10. Bottle (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

transport than either of the pinched rim jars. Like these Restricted neckjar (N=3)

vessels, all of the tall neck jars have been smoothed or bur-
nished on their interiors, reducing permeability.

This vessel form has a restricted neck and a straight rim
(although one vessel does have a very slight flaring of its rim)


2004 VOL. 57(3)

hi I



U. Eu.

Figure 11. Flaring rim bowl (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

and a gradually expanding globular body. Although the three
vessels are missing their bases, preventing a more adequate
interpretation of the function of this form, some inferences can
be made based on other mechanical attributes. For example,
the angularity of the vessel walls at the neck of the restricted
neck jar and the coarse-grain quartz temper would have

increased the chance of thermal shock, despite their fairly thin
and even wall construction.
Although they have a large orifice, the degree of neck
restriction would have made maneuvering contents in the
restricted neck jar difficult. Therefore, this vessel was likely
not used for cooking or serving foods. The large-grain temper




would have increased permeability and, thus, cooling, as well.
However, these interiors are very smoothed or burnished, and
may have produced the opposite effect by minimizing porosity
on their surfaces. Although their heights cannot be deter-
mined, the maximum diameter would still have been manage-
able for pouring and the restricted neck would make this
activity easier. Thus, this vessel may have been used for short-
term storage of water or other liquids.

Restricted orifice vessel (N=1)

This vessel form is distinct from the restricted neck jar in
that it does not have an abrupt restriction of the neck. Instead,
the upper portion of the globular body gradually diminishes in
size as it approaches the orifice. It is differentiated from the
bottles described below by its lack of a pronounced neck and
much larger orifice. Although, the interior of the vessel is
burnished, the exterior is cob-marked-an infrequent occur-
rence at Seminole sites.
The incompleteness of the vessel meant that limited
information could be gleaned from the restricted orifice vessel,
making it difficult to predict its mechanical behavior. The
restricted orifice would have made stirring and removing
contents more difficult, and pouring of contents nearly
impossible. Therefore, its use as a storage vessel is likely.

Rounded-shoulder carinated bowl (N=6)

Hally (1986:277) describes the carinated bowl from the
Barnett Phase assemblage as, "characterized by a flat base,
straight sloping walls, and an insloping rim." Because of
distinctions in their shapes, the carinated bowls from this
assemblage are separated into two forms. As their names
indicate, one vessel form is rounded at the shoulder, while the
other has a more pronounced, angular shoulder. Admittedly,
this distinction is less obvious than the differences that
separate the other vessels within the assemblage. However, a
rare decorative motif on one of the angular-shoulder carinated
bowls lends credibility to the possibility of a specific use.
The rounded-shoulder carinated bowl (Figure 7) matches
the description of the small carinated bowl form in Hally's
(1986) analysis of the Barnett Phase pottery. Hally (1986:289)
proposes that this vessel form was used to "cook, mix, and
serve small quantities of liquid food." The large orifice would
increase evaporation and make retention of heat difficult,
while the angularity in vessel profile, where the base and body
adjoin, would increase the likelihood of thermal shock. The
vessel's large orifice would make stirring and serving easier,
as would the flat base' and low height to maximum diameter
ratio. The latter characteristic also would make this vessel
relatively stable for serving and the in-turned rim and re-
stricted orifice would help to prevent spills, making it a very
suitable serving vessel.

Angular-shoulder carinated bowl (N=2)

The construction of the angular-shoulder carinated bowl

would make this vessel more likely to experience thermal
shock than the rounded shoulder form. The large orifice,
shallow height, and minimal orifice constriction would
facilitate moving and serving contents. Although the large
orifice would increase evaporation, this would not be signifi-
cant if it was used for short-term storage and serving and the
in-turned rim and restricted orifice would reduce spills during
these times. Like the rounded shoulder form, both the interi-
ors and exteriors are smoothed or burnished.
Although decorative style is not a focus of this study, it is
interesting to note that one of these vessels appears to have a
reddish slip in addition to incised lines near the rim, the only
vessel with these characteristics in the assemblage. This
suggests that it may have been used as a "special purpose"
vessel. Hally observes that the large carinated bowls from the
Barnett Phase assemblage are frequently incised. Hally
(1986:288) suggests that these decorations "conveyed informa-
tion" and were "used in social contexts such as eating where
it would be seen by relatively large numbers of people." This
vessel from Oven Hill, which is reminiscent of an Ocmulgee
Fields Incised sherd (see, for example, DeJarnette 1975:181),
may have similarly conveyed special information during its use
as a serving vessel.

Globular-base hive-shaped jar (N=I)

This is one of the most unusual forms in the Oven Hill
assemblage (Figure 8). It has a round base, an elongated
elliptical body, a restricted neck, and a flared rim. This vessel
is depicted in the photograph of Goggin (Figure 2). It has a
distinct brushed application (wide, deep vertical strokes as
opposed to randomly brushed vessels that are typical of most
Chattahoochee Brushed vessels [see Bullen 1950]). Impor-
tantly, the spout-like feature located on the rim of this vessel
in the photograph does not exist. This embellishment was
drawn onto the photograph by an unknown person, presumably
many years ago.
The globular-base hive-shaped jar was clearly not condu-
cive to heating or cooking, made evident by the spalls in the
shoulder region of the vessel. Its use as a storage vessel would
likely have required some kind of hanging device around its
neck. It may have been used for storing thicker, liquid
contents, such as oil or honey, or other contents that would not
shift easily while hanging. This whole vessel holds an
effective capacity of 1.25 liters. Because the vessel is com-
plete, it was not possible to measure additional mechanical
attributes without damaging it.

Flat-base hive-shaped jar (N=2)

As is evident by its name, this vessel form is identical to
the above form, except for its flat base and exterior decoration.
The flat-base hive-shaped jars (Figure 9) are distinguished
from the previous vessels by their bases. Like the globular
form, these vessels have burnished or smoothed interiors, and
one shows evidence of spelling. The coarse quartz temper and
the angularity of its shape probably contributed to this effect,


2004 VOL. 57(3)


Figure 12. Straight rim bowl (courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History).

demonstrating its inefficiency as a cooking vessel. The
discrepancy between their heights and maximum diameters
would have made these vessels unstable without the support of
props. This, and the significant orifice restriction, would have
made it an awkward serving vessel. This vessel could have
been used for storage, if packed tightly with other vessels to
prevent overturning.

Bottle (N=3)

Based on the orifice diameter, there is only one size
represented in this collection. There is some variation in form
indicating that more than one type may be represented.
However, because these vessels are missing substantial
portions of their bodies and their entire bases, they are not
separated into additional forms. However, variation in bottle
forms has been documented at contemporary Creek sites and
may be indicative of different uses (Ledbetter 1997).
Other attributes point to the same conclusion. For exam-
ple, the variability in the surface treatments of the bottles
suggests that there were some differences in their degrees of
permeability. Only one of the bottles is smoothed on its
interior. The crude, rough interiors of one of the bottles
(Figure 10) may have been a good way to cause some perme-
ability and, thus, the cooling of water for short-term storage

(Rice 1987:230). All of the vessels have large-grained quartz
temper, a characteristic that also would have increased
permeability. Two of the vessels have everted rims that would
have facilitated pouring of liquid contents. It is possible that
these two vessels were used for holding liquid, while the third
was used for storing grains or other foodstuffs.

Flaring rim bowl (N=2)

The flaring rim bowls (Figure 11) from Oven Hill resemble
the form of the same name in Hally's (1986) Barnett Phase
assemblage and are the smallest vessels in the assemblage.
They have slightly flattened bases, rounded sides, and flaring
rims. One of the vessels has a particularly sharp, horizontal
flaring rim. Notably, the two vessels are heavily burnished on
their interiors and exteriors, a characteristic that is unusual
within this assemblage.
According to Hally (1986:289), the vessels may have been
used "to serve small quantities of solid and, to a lesser extent,
liquid foods ." However, there are certain attributes of this
vessel type at Oven Hill that suggest it may have been used for
other purposes. First, these bowls from Oven Hill could hold
only a limited amount. This is particularly true of one of the
vessels, which could hold just around one hundred milliliters.
Furthermore, the sheen from rigorous burnishing (possibly




polishing) on both sides of the vessels makes them stand out
from the other Oven Hill vessels and suggests they may have
served special purposes, perhaps in a public or ritual sphere.
Interestingly, Hally (1986: 290) observes that the flaring rim
bowl vessels from the Barnett Phase are "conspicuously
decorated ." Among Seminole pottery vessels, any decoration
with the exception of brushing and, occasionally, cob-marking
is rare. Therefore, perhaps the burnishing and polishing on
the flaring rim bowls should also be considered "conspicuous."

Rounded bowl (N=1)

There is only one vessel included in the rounded bowl
category. Unfortunately, there is not enough of this vessel
form to be conclusive about its original shape. However, the
sherd does not have the sharp angle of the carinated bowls
described above, having instead a slightly restricted orifice and
a more gradually curved body wall. Hally (1986:221) and
Ledbetter (1997:175) describe rounded bowl forms within their
respective Lamar and Creek assemblages, and emphasize there
is significant variation among these vessels. The even, thin
walls of the Oven Hill bowl would enable it to withstand heat
and the large orifice and minimal orifice constriction would
make it an adequate serving vessel. Hally concludes that this
vessel form in the Barnett Phase was used to mix, serve, and
perhaps heat large amounts of solid-based foods. Additional
evidence is needed for this vessel form at Oven Hill.

Straight rim bowl (N=1)

The terminology for this vessel form is adopted from
Hally's (1984) Savannah Period assemblage. This whole
vessel is small and has a rounded bottom, with a slightly
thickened upper rim. This vessel form (Figure 12) is one of
the three smallest from Oven Hill, capable of only holding 620
milliliters. It would not be particularly heat efficient due to its
large orifice in comparison to its height. There is no smooth-
ing or burnishing on its interior; however, the exterior surface
is burnished. Although it has a rounded bottom, the shallow
depth would have increased its stability, and, along with the
minimal orifice constriction, would have allowed for easy
removal and manipulation of the contents.

Flat-walled vessel (N=1)

This vessel form is quite distinct from the rest of the Oven
Hill vessels. Its thin and straight surface is very different from
the others in the assemblage and its interior and exterior walls
are evenly oxidized giving it an unusual gray appearance. It
clearly had a large orifice, although it is difficult to orient. It
is possible that it is more similar to a Mississippian plate (see
Willey 1998[1949]: 407) than its profile indicates (Figure 3).
Alternatively, it is possible that the form may have resembled
some of the Kasita Red Filmed vessels-which have more
vertical profiles-found at Blackmon Phase Creek sites in
central Georgia (Haag 1940:9), the Tukabatchee site (Knight
1985:88), and in Lawson Field Phase ceramics in Georgia

(Ledbetter 1997: 221).


The Oven Hill sample discussed here consists of thirty-five
vessels. The distribution of vessel types is partially consistent
with Goggin's (1964) typology, where he argued that two
forms-large globular vessels and large round bowls with
pronounced shoulders-dominated Seminole pottery assem-
blages (Figure 13). It also meets more recent expectations of
Creek ceramics. Waselkov (1994:194) notes that, "ceramics,
too, underwent a functional simplification with many vessel
forms disappearing leaving only cooking jars and truncated
bowls (both in a range of sizes) by the mid-eighteenth cen-
This analysis revealed that when combined (N=9), the flat-
base, globular-base, and indeterminate pinched rim jars
composed 26 percent of the Oven Hill assemblage. Further-
more, the two carinated bowl forms proposed here (N=8) make
up just around 23 percent of the assemblage. However, over
half of the vessels in the assemblage (N= 16) does not conform
to these two forms, demonstrating a much greater formal
diversity in Seminole, and perhaps Creek, ceramics than has
previously been recognized.
Why is there such a discrepancy between the findings
presented here and other Creek and Seminole pottery assem-
blages? One reason may be that the uncanny preservation of
the Oven Hill pottery simply provides greater data, allowing
for a more thorough picture of an entire pottery assemblage.
Rarely do archaeologists find whole or nearly complete vessels,
and even more rarely in such numbers. Second, few Seminole
town sites have been located. Instead, more ephemeral sites,
likely representing clan households or hunting camps are more
common. Inhabitants of these locales probably produced and
disposed of much less diverse assemblages than a whole
village or town would have over the course of several years.
Another possibility is that Oven Hill's occupation occurred
prior to any marked reduction or homogenization of pottery
types. The small quantity of trade goods in comparison to
aboriginal materials suggests that this group may not have
begun to aggressively participate in the fur trade, an activity
that greatly impacted the socio-economic organization of
Seminole society in later years. In later years, the adoption of
European pottery and kettles obtained through the trade may
have contributed to the decreased use of aboriginal vessels.
Minimal comparative archaeological material is available
from Seminole sites dating to the 1760s (Goggin 1940; Lewis
1968) during what has been referred to as the "Separation
Phase" (Fairbanks 1994[1978]). It has been proposed that
during this time, a series of events occurred that may have
signaled that the Florida Seminoles were attempting to detach
themselves from their Lower Creek relatives in the
Chattahoochee River Valley (Fairbanks 1994[1978]; Weisman
1989, 1999). With this in mind, one other possibility must be
acknowledged. Perhaps Oven Hill inhabitants created a
pottery assemblage that would differentiate themselves from
the practices of contemporary Creek populations.


2004 VOL. 57(3)

t -


5 -


E 3


1 -


I U- -

- --




Vessel Form

* Vessel forms described by Goggin (194)
S Other vessel forms

Figure 13. Frequency of Oven Hill vessel forms.

r I -

RCBRoaun d-shoulder carinated bowl FHJ=Flt.-bue hive-shaped jar
GPR= Globula-base pi ched rim j ACB=Anglar-houlder carinted bowl
TNJ=T&U neck jar SRB= Straig ria bowl
RNJ=Resicted neck jar ROV=Resticted orifce vessel
B 0T=Bottle RB=Roundd bowl
IND=hndtemninate punched rim ja GH= Globula-b se hive-shp ed jar
FRB=FIard rim bowl FWV--fl-walled ves el
FPR=Fl1a-base pitched rim jar








Oven Hill is recognized as an exceptional site for several
reasons. First, it was excavated by the well-known Florida
archaeologist, John Goggin. Goggin's long-term interest in
Seminole culture and history paved the way for future archaeo-
logical studies of the Seminoles. In addition, Goggin's
inventive methods, particularly those used in the riverine
section of the site, broadened the scope of Florida archaeology
and contributed to the development of underwater archaeology
in the state.
The unique preservation of the Oven Hill vessels in the bed
of the Suwanee River resulted in an unprecedented collection
of eighteenth century Seminole artifacts. It also allowed for a
more thorough examination of pottery technology and function
than is usually possible with Seminole and Creek ceramics.
Findings of this study reveal that these ceramic assemblages
may have been more diverse than previously thought. Rather
than simply two forms of vessels-pinched rim jars and
carinated bowls-fourteen vessel forms were represented
within the Oven Hill assemblage. Each form had a unique
constellation of mechanical attributes that would have been
more beneficial for specific purposes than others: from
temporary water storage, to serving large or small quantities
of food, to boiling or cooking food at high temperatures.
Forty years after its excavation the Oven Hill site continues
to offer new information as the field of archaeology expands its
capabilities and research objectives. This study focused on
techno-functional characteristics of the pottery, made possible
because of developments in experimental and
ethnoarchaeological studies that have taken place in more
recent years. It is hoped that this particular focus will be
complemented by future studies of the aboriginal and Euro-
pean materials of Oven Hill and other contemporary Creek and
Seminole sites to paint a more detailed picture of aboriginal
life at this time.


I would like to thank Elise LeCompte and Scott Mitchell at the
Florida Museum of Natural History for providing access to the Oven
Hill materials. Accession/Catalog numbers of the Oven Hill speci-
mens at the Florida Museum of Natural History are: 4231/96457;
4502/101418; 71-23/A-284; 71-51/A-2073; 74-80/A-5201; 83-13/A-
15835. A version of this paper was presented at the 2002 Southeast-
ern Archaeology Conference in Biloxi. I would like to thank Ken
Sassaman, Jerald Milanich, Kara Bridgman, Ryan Wheeler and
anonymous reviewers of The Florida Anthropologist for reading
different versions of this paper.

References Cited

Braun, David P.
1983 Pots as Tools. In Archaeological Hammers and Theories,
edited by J. A. Moore and A. S. Keene, pp. 108-134.
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n.d. Some Remarks on the Shaping Technology of Seminole
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265-298. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.



A new video on florida's native peoples

FWrd dby d0e

Produced and Directed by Chaos Productions
Executive Producer: Brent Weisman
Written by Marshall Riggan
Artwork by Theodore Morris

C 1998 Florida Anthropological Society and the Florida Department of State

To obtain copies send $23.62 [$18.81 plus $1.31 (sales tax) and $3.50 (S&H)] to:
Terry Simpson, 9907 High Meadow Ave., Thonotosassa, FL 33592



Department ofAnthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306
E-mail: rksofd@hotmail.com


Analysis of human skeletal remains affords a glimpse into
prehistoric populations in an attempt to recreate their environ-
mental, social, and subsistence regimes. Examination of
traumatic injuries, infectious lesions, and indicators of stress,
allows inference of the types of injuries they sustained, the
pathologies they experienced, and the level of nutrition they
achieved within their environmental contexts.
The study of paleopathology examines the evolution and
progress of disease through long periods of time and examines
how humans adapted to changes in their environment (Roberts
and Manchester 1995). This paper focuses on a single
population that utilized a small pond on the eastern coast of
Florida approximately 7,000 years ago for the interment of
their dead. The remains from Windover (8BR246) afford the
analysis of skeletal remains from an Archaic population.
Windover Pond is a small, ephemeral but persistent freshwater
pond on the Atlantic coastal ridge in east central Florida near
Cape Canaveral. Excavations took place over three field
seasons beginning in 1984, producing the remains of 168
individuals, 91 of whom had preserved brain tissue (Doran
2002:75). Dated to over 7,000 years BP, the remains were
buried within a peat matrix, allowing for exceptional preserva-
tion (Doran and Dickel 1988; Doran etal. 1986; Doran 2002).
Excavations of Windover led to the recovery of a large number
of subadult remains. This research examines the pathologies
in subadult remains from Windover and the inferences they
allow into the level of health of an Archaic population.
The recovery and identification of subadult human skeletal
remains in the archaeological record can be problematic.
Differential preservation of elements between individuals is
dependent upon the density and porosity of bones (Stojanowski
et al. 2002), and because of the fragility of subadult remains
they are typically destroyed through diagenesis at a much
greater rate than denser adult remains. Recovery of subadult
remains also can be exceptionally challenging due to their
small size and difficulty in identification. Another factor that
may interfere in the recovery of subadult remains in archaeol-
ogy is due to differential disposal of the dead. In some cases,
subadults may be interred separately from adult remains and
therefore be excluded at the time of excavation. Subadult
remains also can be misidentified as faunal material. The
recovery of pathological subadult remains can pose additional
recovery problems, since bones affected by disease may be
more fragile than healthy remains.

A total of 67 subadults representing varying degrees of
completeness, were recovered from the Windover excavations,
affording a glimpse into the health of children from an Archaic
population. By utilizing the database created by David Dickel
and Glen Doran following the initial recovery and analysis at
the time of excavation, the remains exhibiting pathology were
isolated ("pathos population") and a breakdown of the various
disorders was compiled. The pathological conditions identified
included traumatic injury, periostitis/ osteomyelitis, cribra
orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia, and spinal disorders.
These disorders will be defined and their incidence in the
population examined.

The Windover Population

The term subadultt" refers to any individual below 18 years
of age, as aged using standard aging methods from the
dentition, long-bone lengths, post-cranial skeletal morphology,
and population seriation. Subadults from Windover comprise
approximately 40% of the total population recovered. Figure
1 provides age breakdowns for the subadult population
(midpoint of age estimations). The "pathos population" was
identified using examination notes from Dickel and Doran
created at the time of excavation as well as re-examination by
the author, and includes only those individuals demonstrating
evidence of pathology (Figure 2).
Of the total subadult population from Windover, 27
individuals, or 38%, show evidence of pathology. Among the
27 individuals showing pathology, 50% (13 individuals)
exhibit some form of bone inflammation, 50% (13) exhibit
evidence of cribra orbitalia, 15% (4) exhibit some form of
traumatic injury, and 23% (6) exhibit linear enamel
hypoplasias. Eighteen of the 27 individuals, or 66%, exhibit
evidence of multiple pathological conditions. Three individu-
als exhibit other forms of pathology, primarily spinal disorders.


Periostitis is a surface inflammation of bone, manifested by
fine pitting, longitudinal striation, and plaque-like new bone
formation on the original cortical surface (Roberts and
Manchester 1997:129). It is most often attributed to infectious
disease but can also occur secondary to traumatic injury.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone involving the marrow
(Ortner and Putschar 1981:41). It results from introduction of


VOL. 57(3)




Age Breakdown of Total SubAdult Population (N=67)


9 -



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Figure 1. Age breakdown of subadults from the total Windover population. *One individual of 18 years of age is included
due to immature skeletal morphology and the presence of extensive pathology.

Age Breakdown of Pathos Population



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

S11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Figure 2. Age breakdown of subadults from the "Pathos" population (N=27).

pyogenic, or pus-producing, bacteria into bone, secondary to
localized infection or trauma, or from systemic dissemination
of bacteria in the bloodstream. It produces pitting and
irregularity, as well as periosteal expansion, which produces
an enlarged, irregular appearance to the bone. Osteomyelitis
is typically accompanied by clocae, which are openings
through the bone from which pus can evacuate.

Evidence of bone infection may indicate stress within a
population in the form of malnutrition, decreased host resis-
tance, and elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. Among
the subadults of Windover, 19% showed evidence of some form
of bone inflammation, either in the form of periostitis or
osteomyelitis. Hutchinson (2002:118), in an analysis of inner
and out coastal populations from the Late Woodland phase in

2004 VOL. 57(3)



Percentage of SubAdults Affected by Pathology from
Total Subadult Population

-I! --











Figure 3. Pathology percentages from the total subadult population (N=67).


Distribution and Type from
Pathos Population


Bone Cribra Trauma LEH Other
Inflammation Orbitalia Disorders

Figure 4. Breakdown of pathological conditions from pathos population (N=25).

North Carolina, found low incidences of periostitis/
osteomyelitis among subadults (1% and 2% respectively).
Bone inflammation also can be secondary to various forms
of systemic infectious disease, such as tuberculosis and
syphilis. However, lacking the "typical" skeletal manifesta-
tions associated with such conditions, it is difficult to diagnose

these diseases in the archaeological record. None of the
subadults from Windover exhibit "typical" skeletal lesions or
patterns of known infectious disease, although the presence of
bone inflammation is quite prominent. None of the bone
inflammation was associated with traumatic skeletal injury.
However, issues of selective preservation combined with the





Figure 5. Example of cloaking periostitis with pathological fracture from the subadult population, Individual 77, age 10
(Photo courtesy of G. Sutton).

Figure 6. Cribra orbitalia in subadult remains, Individual 36, age 6 (Photo courtesy of G. Sutton).

2004 Voi- 57(3)



S 6 85 90 100 105 110
aa 6 o ,.' 85 5 00 10,5

Figure 7. Example of a healed clavicular fracture in a 2-year old, Individual 134, age 2 (Photo courtesy of G. Sutton).

possibility of traumatic injury not manifesting on the skeleton
must be taken into consideration. Lacking associated trauma,
it may cautiously be assumed that the periostitis found among
the subadults from Windover was the result of infectious
processes or nutritional deficiencies experienced within the

Cribra Orbitalia

Cribra orbitalia is defined as lesions in the form of bilateral
pitting of the orbital part of the frontal bone (White 2000:524).
It has been associated with iron deficiency anemia, infectious
disease, and nutrient losses due to diarrheal diseases. In an
examination of over 400 crania from European, tropical, and
sub-tropical individuals, it was concluded that iron deficiency
anemia, resulting primarily from parasitism, was strongly
associated with the occurrence of cribra orbitalia (Mittler and
Van Gerven 1994:293). Cribra orbitalia has also been linked
to nutritional deficiencies associated with scurvy (Ortner et al.
1999:322). The high incidence among Windover subadults
could be due to any of these causes. Cribra orbitalia is often
associated with diploe expansion of the cranial bones, known
as porotic hyperostosis. Analyses based on carbon and
nitrogen bone-collagen values and archaeobotanical informa-
tion were consistent with a subsistence strategy that utilized
river-dwelling fauna and a range of terrestrial flora (Tuross et
al. 1994:296). Although the people from Windover followed

a typical gatherer/hunter/fisher subsistence strategy, they could
have suffered from deficiencies in nutrition leading to anemia.
They also could have been exposed to infectious agents or
parasites, which could subsequently have caused bony changes
in the form of cribra orbitalia among sub-adults from this
population. However, when the number of subadults less than
ten years of age exhibiting cribra orbitalia was compared to
other preagricultural groups from the southeastern Georgia
Bight (Larson et al. 2002:424), the subadults from Windover
exhibited a lower incidence of this condition (11% in
Windover subadults versus an overall 38% from subadult
samples from the Georgia Bight).


Trauma can be defined as any bodily injury or wound and
is one of the most common pathological conditions seen in
human skeletal remains, appearing regularly in the
paleopathological literature (Roberts andManchester 1995:65).
The examination of fractures among individuals and fracture
patterns within populations provides us with a great deal of
information about their daily activities (Nakai et al. 1999:77).
In a previous analysis of fractures from Windover (Smith
2003), it was noted that the frequency of traumatic injury
among subadults was low. Of 67 sub-adults, only four dis-
played evidence of fracture. The fractures observed included
one depressed cranial fracture, one clavicular fracture, one

I i Ii



2004 VOL 57(3)

Figure 8. Example of enamel hypoplasias in a maxilla, Individual 112, age 14 ('hoto courtesy o1 i. sutton).

fracture of the ischiopubic ramus, and one pathological
fracture of the tibia. All fractures, with the exception of the
tibial fracture, were well healed at the time of death. When
compared to another large archaeological skeletal population,
from Libben, Ohio (Lovejoy and Heiple 1981:537), the
subadults from Windover exhibit equal numbers of traumatic
injuries (four fractures from subadults <20 years of age from

Linear Enamel Hypoplasia

Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is a condition character-
ized by transverse lines, pits, and grooves found on the
surfaces of tooth crowns and indicative of general stress to the
individual (White 2000:115). Often termed "indicators of
stress" they consist of deficiencies in the enamel matrix
composition and are well represented in the archaeological
record. Enamel hypoplasia is judged to be a non-specific,
although sensitive, indicator of stress because it can be brought
about by many factors, including nutritional deficiencies,
infectious diseases, and metabolic disruptions (Moggi-Cecchi
et al. 1994:299). Many recent studies have attempted to use
hypoplasias as indicators of the level of generalized metabolic
stress present in a given population (Duray 1990). Eight
percent of the total subadults (N=6) from Windover exhibit
LEHs, 23% of the pathos population. Hutchinson (2002:118)

found a significantly higher percentage of subadults affected by
enamel hypoplasias among inner and outer coastal populations
from the Late Woodland (18% and 9%, respectively). Along
with hypoplasias, the subadults from Windover also suffered
from dental attrition, caries, and abscesses.

Other Disorders

There are two other types of pathologies noted among the
subadults from Windover, both involving the spinal column.
One individual exhibits a separated neural arch in the first
sacral vertebra. Known as spondylolysis, this condition
consists of the failure in ossification union of the vertebra,
resulting in separation of the vertebra into two parts, ventral
and dorsal (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin 1998:63). The
other form of disorder is spina bifida. Spina bifida is a com-
monly mentioned abnormality in reports of archaeological
specimens (Ortner and Putschar 1981:356). A total of five
individuals from Windover exhibited spina bifida. Two of
these individuals were subadults, exhibiting various degrees of
expression of the disorder. The term spina bifida encompasses
a continuum of increasingly severe defects involving failure of
the vertebral neural arches to completely enclose the posterior
spinal column (Dickel and Doran 1989:325). The genetic
influence on the presence of spina bifida has been supported by
familial and genealogical data. However, some studies have



Figure 9. Example of spina bifida in an 18-year old, Individual 66 (Photo courtesy of G. Sutton).

noted short-term secular changes, seasonal fluctuations, and
changes in incidence after migrant resettlement in different
environments, leading to the strong possibility of external
influences (Dickel andDoran 1989). One individual (#66, age
18) has a more severe form of the disorder, with separation of

the neural arches from the third lumbar vertebra to the second
sacral vertebra (Figure 9). This individual has associated
pathologies, such as scoliosis and bone inflammation of the
lower extremities and appears to have suffered from loss of the
right foot as well as disuse atrophy of the long bones. The



second example of spina bifida is a less severe form, affecting
only the sacral vertebrae with no associated disorders.

Summary of Pathologies

"Stress" in a population is a product of three key factors,
including (1) environmental constraints; (2) cultural systems;
and (3) host resistance (Larson 1997:6). A summary of the
pathologies observed among the subadults from Windover
indicate that 1/5 of the total population of individuals under 18
years of age exhibited some form of skeletal anomaly that can
be attributed to stress. The frequency of periostitis, cribra
orbitalia, and enamel hypoplasia suggests the possibility that
the diets of subadults were either not fortified with adequate
amounts of iron, they suffered from some form of infectious
disease, they were subjected to parasitism, or a combination of
these factors.
Stable carbon and nitrogen analysis from bone collagen
indicates the people of Windover were subsisting primarily on
riverine fauna and local flora. These may have included turtle,
catfish, and duck, as well as prickly pear and hickory nut
(Tuross et al. 1994:296). Although the temperate climate of
Florida provides a variety of flora and fauna year-round,
perhaps the people of Windover encountered periods when
protein sources were less than abundant. Cribra orbitalia and
other types of porotic hyperostosis are valuable markers of
nutritional stress, which have been applied widely to archaeo-
logical remains (Mittler and Van Gerven 1994:287). Iron
deficiency anemia could have accounted for the incidence of
cribra orbitalia and also could have made the subadults more
prone to infectious disease. Tibial periostitis has been sug-
gested by many to be one of the many indicators of stress
visible in the skeletal record (Roberts and Manchester 1995).
As stated above, periostitis is associated with stress, trauma,
and infectious disease. Generally, populations undergoing
adaptive shifts from foraging to part-time or intensive farming
show an increase in prevalence of periostitis and bone infec-
tion (Larson 1997:85). This is not to suggest that the people
of Windover were shifting subsistence strategies. However,
archaeobotanical evidence suggests that they were utilizing the
mortuary pond in the latter summer/early fall period (Newsom
2002), which means they were traveling to different areas at
different times of the year. This mobility could have been due
to fluctuations in available resources. These fluctuations could
have been severe enough at times to cause periods of malnutri-
tion among the subadults of this population.
Another factor that could account for nutritional deficien-
cies among the children of Windover is parasitism. Even
when diets contain sufficient amounts of iron, parasitic
infections can result in severe iron deficiency anemia (Larson
1997). In a study on rural Guinea children in Africa, 53% of
a total of 286 children sampled tested positive for infection
from soil-transmitted nematodes (Glickman et al. 1999). This
study attributed a large percent of these infections to
geophagia, the cultural practice of ingesting dirt. The denti-
tion from Windover exhibits severe attrition, indicating they
must have encountered high amounts of grit in their diet.

Perhaps some of this grit was in the form of dirt, which could
act as a means of transmission for these types of parasites.
Close proximity to water also could have provided a source of
parasitic infection.
The sensitivity of the human skeleton to impoverished
environments, especially during the years of growth and
development, is revealed by the study of a range of stress
indicators, including various skeletal and dental pathological
conditions (Larson 1997:61). The availability of comparative
data from subadults in the archaeological record is limited.
However, in comparison to other subadults from varying
regions and temporal periods, the subadults from Windover
experienced similar incidences of traumatic injury, lower
incidences of cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasia, yet
significantly higher levels of periostitis/osteomyelitis. What-
ever the cause for the number of skeletal indicators of stress
that appear among the people from Windover, 20% of the
subadults from this population exhibit bone lesions that can be
attributed to stress. The analysis of subadult pathologies
among Archaic populations can attest to the challenging aspect
of subsistence in early Florida populations.


I wish to thank Dr. Glen Doran for the use of the Windover
collection and for his guidance and assistance throughout this project.
I wish to thank Greg Sutton for his beautiful photography and for his
continuous support, each and every day.

References Cited

Aufderheide, Aurthur C., and Conrado Rodriguez-Martin
1998 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology.
Cambridge University Press, Cambirdge.

Dickel, David N. and Glen H. Doran
1989 Severe Neural Tube Defect Syndrome from the Early
Archaic of Florida. American Journal of Physical Anthro-
pology 80:325-334.

Doran, Glen H. (editor)
2002 Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early
Archaic Florida Cemetery. University Press of Florida,

Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site. In
Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara A. Purdy. Telford
Press, Caldwell.

Doran, Glen H., Dave N. Dickel, William E. Ballinger, O. Fran Agee,
Philip J. Laipis, and William W. Hauswirth.
1986 Anatomical, Cellular and Molecular Analysis of 8,000-yr-
old Human Brain Tissue from the Windover Archaeological
Site. Nature 323: 803-806.

Duray, Stephen N.
1990 Deciduous Enamel Defects and Caries Susceptibility in a
Prehistoric Ohio Population. American Journal ofPhysical
Anthropology 81:27-34.

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Glickman, L. T., A. O. Camara, N. W. Glickman, and G. P. McCabe
1999 Nematode Intestinal Parasites of Children in Rural Guinea,
Africa: Prevalence and Relationship to Geophagia. Interna-
tional Journal ofEpidemiology 28:169- 174.

Hutchinson, Dale T.
2002 Foraging, Fanning, and CoastalBioculturalAdaptation in
Late Prehistoric North Carolina. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville.

Larson, Clark S.
1997 Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human
Skeleton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Larson, C. S., A. W. Crosby, M. C. Griffin, D. L. Hitchinson, C. B.
Ruff, K. F. Russell, M. J. Schoeninger, L. E. Sering, S. W. Simpson,
J. L. Takacs, and M. F. Teaford.
2002 A Biohistory of Health and Behavior in the Georgia Bight.
In The Backbone ofHistory, edited by Richard H. Steckel
and Jerome C. Rose. Cambridge University Press, Cam-

Lovejoy, C. Owen, and Kingsbry G. Heiple
1981 The Analysis of Fractures in Skeletal Populations with an
Example from the Libben Site, Ottawa County, Ohio.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 55:529-541.

Mittler, D. M., and D. P. Van Gerven
1994 Developmental, Diachronic, and Demographic Analysis of
Cribra Orbitalia in the Medieval Christian Populations of
Kulubnarti. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Moggi-Cecchi Jacopo, Elsa Pacciani, and Juan Pinto-Cisternas
1994 Enamel Hypoplasia and Age at Weaning in 19h-century
Florence, Italy. American Journal ofPhysical Anthropol-
ogy 93:299-306.

Nakai, Masashi, Koji Inoue, and Sinsuke Hukuda
1999 Healed Bone Fractures in a Jomon Skeletal Population
from the Yoshigo Shell Mound, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 9:77-82.

Newsom, Lee A.
2002 Paleoethnobotany of the Archaic Mortuary Pond. In
Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early
Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by Glen H. Doran.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Ortner, Donald J., Erin H. Kimmerle, and Melanie Diez
1999 Probable Evidence of Scurvy in Subadults from Archaeo-
logical Wites in Peru. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 108:321-331.

Ortner, Donald J., and Walter G. J. Putschar
1981 Identification of Pathological Conditions inHuman
SkeletalRemains. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washing-
ton, D.C.

Roberts, Charles, and Keith Manchester
1995 The Archaeology of Disease. Second edition. Cornell
University Press, New York.

Smith, Rachel K.
2003 Analysis of Skeletal Fractures from Windover (8BR246)
and Their Inference to Lifestyle. Unpublished Master's
thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State Univer-
sity, Tallahassee.

Stojanowski, Christopher M., Ryan M. Seidemann, and Glen H.
2002 Differential Skeletal Preservation at Windover Pond:
Causes and Consequences. American Journal ofPhysical
Anthropology 119:15-26.

Tuross, Noreen, Marilyn L. Fogel, Lee Newsom, and Glen H. Doran
1994 Subsistence in the Florida Archaic: The Stable-isotope and
Archaeobotanical Evidence from the Windover Site.
American Antiquity 59(2):288-303.

White, Tim D.
2000 Human Osteology. Second edition. Academic Press, New



Florida Anthropological Society Chapters

9 n7

1) Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Ave., Miami, FL 33142

2) Broward County Archaeological Society
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1522 The 12th Fairway, Wellington, FL 33414
E-mail: mkessel@aol.com

Lignumvitae Key burial mound, 8MO13, in the Florida
Keys is a unique site that offers insights into the precontact
keys occupants' life style. The skeletal recoveries are meager
but the potential for research makes the site worthy of note.
Utilization of meager fresh water resources is deemed crucial
to keys occupation. Keys geology is quite different from other
mainland south Florida aboriginal habitats.

Natural Environment


Lignumvitae (Lig'num vi'tE) Key (Figure 1) is located in
Monroe County, Florida, off the Overseas Highway that leads
to Key West, Florida. It is on the Florida Bay side of
Islamorada Key at mile marker 78.5 (MM 78.5 starting from
Key West) and accessible only by boat. At 24 54' north
latitude it practically straddles the Tropic of Cancer (230 30'
north latitude). Its proximity to this dividing line between
tropical and temperate zones and the effect of the nearby Gulf
Stream make the climate subtropical and completely frost free.
It is a Pleistocene limestone key with an elevation of 18 feet
above mean sea level, along with Windley Key (MM80), the
highest elevations in the keys. The average elevation of the
other keys is seven or eight feet above mean low tide. Its
position, shielded by larger keys on the Atlantic Ocean side
and its elevation may have made it one of the most desirable
places in the keys for aboriginal occupation. It is protected
from storm surges that occasionally wash clear across other
lower keys (Goggin and Sommer 1949; Jutro 1975:127). In
addition, the presence of nearby Indian Key Channel connect-
ing the Atlantic Ocean side to Florida Bay provided abundant
fishing (Goggin 1946:6 ; Jutro 1975:4).
The key gets its name from the Holywood Lignum Vitae
(wood of life) trees (Guaiacum sanctum) that grow 30 feet tall
on the virgin hammock (Brockman 1968). The wood, among
the densest in the world (Gibbons-Humms 1996), is so dense
it does not float. It weighs 88 pounds per cubic foot compared
to salt water at 64 pounds per cubic foot.


Lignumvitae Key presently is a 280 acre State Botanical
Site located within the boundary of the Florida Keys National
Marine Sanctuary. It constitutes one of the last remaining
virgin stands of natural vegetation (Alexander and Crook

1984:205). The key contains a 12,000 gallon cistern to
provide fresh potable water to the present occupants. The
precontact Indians had no such luxury. In any occupation of
the keys, the assured availability of a potable water supply had
to be of critical importance. Still their successful occupation
of the keys, based on recovered pottery samples (Goggin
1944:15; Goggin and Sommer 1949), demonstrates that they
must have known how to dig wells to locate and utilize the
fresh water lens that forms on keys as it does on similarly
situated Pacific island coral atolls (Carr and Fay 1990:6). This
fresh water lens accumulates from rainfall percolating down to
the water table where it "floats" on top of the denser saline
water table layer beneath it, depressing it into a cross-sectional
shape of a lens in accordance with the Ghyben-Herzberg
equations (Cox 1951; Freeze and Cherry 1979; Reader
1988:13; Fetter 1994). The equations describe the ability of
the fresh water to exclude the salt water intrusion into the lens
thus making potable water available to the key occupants
without which the keys would have been uninhabitable. If
fresh water is extracted from the lens faster than it can be
replaced with rainfall, salt water will intrude into the lens
producing brackish water, unsuitable for drinking. Annual
rainfall rates could prove to be a rough measure of the maxi-
mum sustainable population a key or atoll could carry based on
naturally occurring potable water.

Archaeology and History


The Florida Keys are subsumed under a distinct subregion
of south Florida referred to as the Tekesta Region (Griffin
1974:342) or Everglades Region (Milanich 1994:277,300;
Wheeler 2000:10) whose occupants are observed to have
shared a common material culture. In southern Florida,
archaeologists define cultural areas based on shell artifact
characteristics, settlement patterns, ceramic and projectile
point typologies, etc. (Keegan 1992:93). An extensive data
base has accumulated over the last 100 years that allow
anthropologists to compare sites in the region.
For the same purpose, physical anthropologists look at
human skeletal characteristics. The different data base
accumulated by osteologists, though it is smaller, most likely
will distinguish different boundaries based on the human
skeleton's physical attributes. While this is a small site (N=3),
its addition to the already limited osteological data base should


VOL. 57(3)



S0 3 6 Miles
I- m

Figure 1. Location of Lignumvitae Key.


make this investigation worthwhile. We should expect
cultural and osteological demarcations to differ, but there
should be an expected convergence of the two schemes'
boundaries with some overlap. One of the biggest distinctions
in culture of keys Indians may well be their dependence on
rain water to recharge the aquifer resting on top of the salt
water, a problem of which mainland Indians were free. This
must have contributed to a modification of life style different
from mainland Indians. This alone could be worth consider-
ation as creating a separate cultural "Keys" region. We should
keep in mind that culture areas do not just happen; they are,
for the most part, ecology driven.


The term "Florida Keys" can be construed loosely as any
key off the southern coast of Florida. Here, we designate a
more exclusive area of concern as incorporating those keys
that extend from Biscayne Bay along a chain that passes Key
West and extends to the Marquesas Keys. We note that the
name Key West may be a corruption of "Cayo Hueso", thus
"Bone Island" after early explorers came upon scattered
human bones littering the key.
In reporting on the available osteological record of
Lignumvitae Key, anecdotal unpublished stories of skulls
recovered from the mound and subsequently reburied have
been deliberately excluded. These cannot be included in this
analysis until further controlled excavations are conducted
providing additional evidence bearing on precontact Indian
inhabitants of the keys.
The Florida Keys are terra incognita to physical anthro-
pologists. Lignumvitae Key burial mound, as a rare exception,
is a unique site. There are only a few articles published in
journals on keys archaeology, even less on keys cultural
anthropology and next to nothing on keys osteology. For this
reason alone the present paper helps (in a small way) to fill the
large gap in Florida Keys Indian research.
Southern Florida has been described as a "cultural cul-de-
sac" (Stirling 1936) and the precontact occupants "victims of
scholarly neglect" (Hudson 1976:vii) with scant archaeological
work done in the area (Carr and Fay 1990:9; Goggin 1944).
How much more so can we envision the precontact occupants
of the Florida Keys, perhaps the least known of southern
Florida's aboriginal occupants, though not the only claimants
to that title (Hann 1993:111).
The insular existence of the prehistoric local population
needed little that might be obtained by travel outside their
immediate domain. Many Indians "knew nothing of the
country fifty or sixty miles from their own village;" a comment
by Bakeless (1961:48) about south Florida Indians that could
well apply to the ancient occupants of the Florida Keys.
They were well provided with plentiful marine food
resources such as fish, turtle, clams, even an occasional seal or
whale (McGoun 1993). And to offset the swarms of mosquitos
that make life difficult even today, they may well have been
aware of the efficacious use of gar oil as an insect repellent
(McKee 1988; Niedhauk 1973). The alternative was to

develop a high level of tolerance to insects so as to make life
bearable (Goggin and Sommer 1949).
There is no evidence in the skeletal record among southern
Florida Indians of wound scars in the bones that would
indicate a problem with circumscription, or overpopulation
leading to migration or war for lebensraum (Boserup 1965:41;
Harner 1970). When primitive populations reach a point
where there is a shortage of hunting land or insufficient
potable water they split up and migrate to a less populated
area. The low population figures cited for keys Indians would
indicate that a maximum population was far from being
reached. And when postulating the movement of people into
the keys from the north, the keys would be the last areas of
Florida to become overpopulated. Aside from migrations into
an area, population growth is an inevitable effect. Reader
(1988) considers it "the most important single determinant of
the way human societies are organized and of the way people
behave towards one another." It should be noted that some
writers have described the coastal Indians as having ocean-
going canoes that could travel from Miami to Havana
(Sturtevant 1994:146).
Following European contact, Lignumvitae Key has had a
colorful history. The newly arrived Spanish explorers en-
slaved the Matecumbe Indians who inhabited the island at that
time. In 1762 the British received the Florida Keys in ex-
change for Cuba and then returned it to Spain rather than risk
its possession by the young United States. Spain used
Lignumvitae key as a base for operations until 1818 when the
United States purchased it. In the 1820s pirates used it as a
home base and cache for their plunder. In 1840 an Indian raid
on nearby Indian Key stopped at Lignumvitae Key as a
jumping-off place for their raid. By 1851 a settler was
growing sisal on the key (Niedhauk n.d.). From this time on
there is considerably more historical and archaeological
documentation. During the 1700s and 1800s Lignumvitae Key
was rarely visited, with only occasional mention of visits by
casual explorers (Tebeau 1968:75). The biography of a
Lignumvitae Key resident during the early 1900s offers the
feel of keys life during that period with the flavor of The
Adventures of Swiss Family Robinson by Johann David Wyss
(Niedhauk 1973).
The burial mound has been dug into many times in the past
by pot hunters. Because of these desecrations, the burial
mound must be considered a disturbed site (Straight 1967).
John Goggin (1944) describes the coral sand burial mound as
being 50 feet in diameter and 312 feet high. Other investiga-
tors have included G. A. Ellis and Albert Welberry in 1962-
1963, Magnus S. Altmayer, Jr., Gilbert Haas and William M.
Straight in 1967 and Robert Carr in 1970 (Straight 1967;
Straight 2000b). Considerable scavenging has afflicted the
mound since Goggin (1944) reported it as little damaged. For
such a small population as the key occupants were believed to
be, a great deal of effort appears to have been expended to
inter their dead. One can hardly discuss the burial mound
without concurrently mentioning nearby Matecumbe Key,
where it is most likely the people resided who eventually
populated the burial mound.




Figure 2. Fragmented human skeletal material from Lignumvitae Key Burial Mound (8M013).


There is a paucity of written material that describes the
research conducted over the past 60 years on the Lignumvitae
Burial Mound and what is extant has become well dispersed
over the years and difficult to track down. Some are in private
hands and some are in local libraries and historical society
Fragmented human skeletal material was received by the
author from the available material remaining from old
archaeological excavations and surface collections conducted
by William Straight, M.D. and his party in 1967 (Straight
1967, 2000a).
The bone fragments are all friable. Represented are about
44 pieces approximately the size of silver dollars (Figure 2).
Among them are the two halves of a juvenile mandible body
with ascending rami (12). The first and second molars are

fully erupted to the occlusal plane., The third molars are just
beginning to erupt. This indicates an age of about 14 years.
Sex determination of sub-adult skeletal material is, at best, a
guess. Secondary sex characteristics do not manifest them-
selves in the subadult human skeleton until puberty (Bass
There are four adult mastoid processes with petrous
portions; two left and two right (35,36,37,39). One left and
right pair is that of a female and the other pair that of a male
(with the zygomatic process extending posteriorly over the
mastoid process as a supramastoid crest). (Krogman and Igcan
1986:193; Bass 1987:82). There is a small frontal bone (29)
that could sort with the juvenile mandible. An additional
mandible is edentate with all alveoli completely resorbed (11).
This would be consistent with one of the adults represented by
one of the pair of adult mastoid processes. Two maxilla
fragments (26,27) displayed teeth that are consistent with the

2004 VOL. 57(3)



age of the adult mastoid processes. In addition there are three
long bone diaphysis fragments, an ulna (42), a humerus (43)
and a femur (44). The Lignumvitae human skeletal material
was C14 dated from A.D. 200-A.D. 1100 (Straight
None of the longbone fragments appear unusual in size but
reports of giant Indians continue to surface. One report
relating to the Calusa occupation of Lignumvitae Key claims
that "bone measurements show that these Calusas were much
taller than the average person. Their females averaged six feet
to six feet four inches tall, and the males were from seven feet
to seven feet four inches tall" (Niedhauk n.d.). Simpson
(1896), in his early manuscript gives a comprehensive over-
view of Indian mounds in Florida, touching on several ex-
plorer's reports of "enormous human skeletons," "giants of
monstrous size"and "persons of gigantic size." These uncon-
firmed reports of giant Indians in Florida have proliferated in
the literature for years. Goggin and Sommer (1949), in their
extensive report on Upper Matecumbe Key, contribute to this
corpus of ethnographic literature with reports that the natives
are described as "being large."
But there is no credible supporting osteological evidence
(Iscan and Kessel 1997). Until authenticated long bone
evidence is presented, giant Indians will remain a fantasy
(nevertheless, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).
The minimum number of individuals (MNI), sex, age,
stature, pathological conditions and dental anomalies were
assessed by standard techniques used in osteological analysis.
The MNI was based on taking the commingled recovered
material as the aggregate or analytical unit (White 1953;
Grayson 1984; Klein and Cruz-Uribe 1984; Iscan and Kessel
1992). Sex was determined from cranial and post cranial
osteometric and morphologic features (Krogman and Igcan
1986; Bass 1987). Age was estimated from dental develop-
ment and tooth wear (Bass 1987; Kovacs 1971; Krogman and
Igcan 1986; Lovejoy 1985).

Conclusions and Summary

The MNI (N=3) was based on very limited human skeletal
material. There was one juvenile based on the partially
erupted third molars. One male and one female adult was
based on the mastoid processes. It should be clear that if
further recoveries subsequently are included, we can expect
this MNI determination to increase. To develop an adequate
demographic picture of the Lignumvitae Key population
requires a systematic recovery of the mound's human remains.
Though the collection is not extensive, even small numbers of
individuals can help fill in gaps in a regional picture of the
lifeways and, occasionally, the cause of death of southern
Florida's aboriginal inhabitants (Rathbun 1986; Reiches
The presence of male, female andjuvenile skeletal remains
in this burial mound suggests an egalitarian social organiza-
tion of the group that utilized the mound. This would be
consistent with a hunting and gathering family sized social
group expected at this location in this time frame. Conversely,

in stratified societies, incidents are reported that when a
cacique dies a child is sacrificed to serve him in the afterlife
(Sturtevant 1994:147).
Conclusions which are of obvious scientific value and that
contribute generally to human knowledge come as the result of
comparative studies. This almost invariably means that
collections from several different parts of the region, and often
from different time periods, have to be examined in systematic
detail before a significant association can be recognized.


The author thanks Irving R. Eyster for making the skeletal
material available; to Barry Wagner for analog graphics and to
Michelle Creamer for research assistance. Thanks are extended to
Jim Clupper for use of his extensive research collection of manu-
scripts relating to the Florida Keys. The author extends his sincere
thanks to the anonymous reviewers whose constructive comments
have made this a better paper. Lastly, Gail Swanson deserves
recognition for encouraging this research and urging the report on
until it was completed.

References Cited

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Brockman, C. Frank
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Carr, Robert S. and Patricia Fay
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Grayson, Donald K.
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Griffin, John W.
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Hann, John H.
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Hudson, Charles
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Jutro, Peter R.
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1985 Dental Wear in the Libben Population: Its Functional
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1988 Man on Earth: A Celebration of Mankind. Harper and
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Reiches, Kathleen J.
1986 The Dickerson Skeletal Series: Bits and Pieces of Carolina
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Simpson, J. H.
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2004 VOL. 57(3)


Archives (Ms. No. 4326), Smithsonian Institution, Wash-
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Stirling, Matthew W.
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Straight, William M.
1967 Archaeologicallnvestigations atLignum Vitae Key 2/11/67
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2000b History Talks from the Upper Florida Keys. Journal of the
Historical Preservation Society, Winter 1999/2000:155-
157. Manuscripts on file with the Monroe County Public
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Sturtevant, William C.
1994 The Last of the South Florida Aborigines. In Tacachale:
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1968 Man in the Everglades: 2000 Years of Human History in
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American Antiquity 18:306-308.




EDITOR'S NOTE: This year, there were no nominations for the William C. Lazarus and Ripley P. Bullen Awards.



The Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (SWFAS)
was honored as the sixth recipient of the FAS Chapter Award.
At the Annual Banquet in Fort Lauderdale, SWFAS was
presented with a plaque for "outstanding achievements in site
preservation and study, field and lab work, and public educa-
SWFAS incorporated in January 1980, and soon was
helping conduct salvage work at the Bay West Site, a Middle
Archaic Period burial pond reported in The FloridaAnthropol-
ogist in 1981. Since then, SWFAS has promoted site preser-
vation and a great deal of archaeological research. A pride of
SWFAS is the Craighead Archaeological Laboratory on the
grounds of the Collier County Museum, in Naples, where
collections are housed and the public can see lab analysis in
Every March during the last decade, SWFAS has promoted
archaeological education during Archaeology Month. Speak-

Figure 1. 2003-2004 FAS President Sheila Stewart presents the
Chapter Award to Jack Thompson.

ers, and tours of the Craighead Laboratory, are highlights of
these activities. The chapter's regular monthly meetings
feature a variety of topics focused on Florida.
Heroic, sustained efforts by SWFAS member Art Lee led
to adoption of an Historic Preservation Ordinance in Collier
County in 1991. The ordinance created the Collier County
Historic Preservation Board, on which several SWFAS
members have served. Work by the Board and SWFAS
members led to salvage excavations at the doomed Satin Leaf
Site, an Archaic Period site on a Marco Island dune ridge.
Earlier chapter efforts helped investigate and protect the
Mulberry Midden and Heineken Hammock sites. In its first
decade, SWFAS recorded more than 100 sites in the Florida
Master Site File.
SWFAS field projects produce detailed lab reports, which
have generated publications about Mulberry Midden, Satin
Leaf, and Heineken Hammock in The Florida Anthropologist
in 1993, 1997, and 1998. SWFAS members have worked with
many professional archaeologists in southwestern Florida,
such as Carr, Dickel, Luer, Marquardt, Masson, Newman,
Russo, Schober, Torrence, Walker, Weisman, Widmer, and
Worth. For example, SWFAS members assisted archaeolo-
gist Randolph Widmer in salvage work at Old Marco in
1995 and again at the Olde Marco Inn in 1998 and 1999.
By working with the Miami-based Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy, SWFAS has helped salvage and
protect sites, such as the Hopewellian-influenced Oak Knoll
Mound and the Archaic Period Bonita Shellworks, both in
Bonita Bay. By working with the State of Florida and
Florida Museum of Natural History, long-time SWFAS
members Pat and Don Randell preserved Josslyn Island and
much of Pineland. Another long-time SWFAS member,
Bud House, has been working through the Calusa Land
Trust to preserve parts of the Pine Island Canal.
In 1996, SWFAS helped display the Smithsonian
Institution's "Key Marco Cat" at the Collier County Mu-
seum. It was the star of a Centennial Exhibit about Cushing
and Sawyer's work at Key Marco. SWFAS worked hard to
host FAS Annual Meetings in 1990 and 2000.
SWFAS members have been active in FAS at the state
level. Several have served as FAS Presidents and in other
offices on the FAS Board. Jack Thompson has been
particularly devoted, serving as FAS Treasurer for a decade,
followed by two terms as FAS President. SWFAS members
have helped FAS run harmoniously as an outstanding
democratic, educational organization.


VOL. 57(3)




Figure 2. Sheila Stewart presents an FAS service award to
Ryan Wheeler.


President Sheila Stewart presented plaques to three FAS
members for outstanding service in furthering archaeology,
preservation, and the work of the Society.


Ryan Wheeler became Editor of The Florida Anthropolo-
gist in 1999. Following in the footsteps of Bob Austin, Ryan
has worked diligently to publish important Florida research in
a timely manner and to produce a good-looking professional
journal. Ryan has worked creatively on cover designs and
special thematic issues, such as "The Miami Circle," "The
Archaeology of Jupiter Inlet and Coastal Palm Beach County,"
and papers from "The Second Northeast Florida Plantation
Symposium." He also laid outFlorida Anthropological Society
Publication Number 15, "Archaeology of Upper Charlotte
Harbor, Florida."
Ryan has taken time to help edit flyers, pamphlets, posters,
and other publications involving FAS. He currently is in
communication with the University of Florida Libraries to
make back issues of The Florida Anthropologist available on-
line in the future. His energy and dedication are rare. All
FAS members, as well as all Florida archaeologists and
citizens at large, benefit from his talents.


Phyllis Kolianos has served on the Florida Archaeology
Month (FAM) Committee since 2002, chairing it as First Vice-
President of FAS. Phyllis has applied her organizational skills
to FAM, guiding the committee to produce two outstanding
themes and poster designs. They are the FAM Tenth Anniver-

sary poster, "Florida's Lost Landscapes and Archaeological
Legacy," and this year's "Touching the Past" poster. Both
quickly became collector's items.
Phyllis is a scholar and a gentlewoman, who, in difficult
situations, remains considerate of those around her. Her
commitment to archaeology has been as strong as her support
of the work of our Society. FAS President Stewart has
appreciated her thoughtful approach and experience during
board and committee meetings, in the field, on the road, and
on the phone as they have worked on FAS business.


Steve Martin has been an integral member of FAS for
many years, serving as Second Vice-President and First Vice-
President. As a member of the FAM Committee, Steve has
worked long hours with graphic designers, and he has written
text for the "Florida Springs: Portals to the Past" poster and
pamphlet and for the FAM Tenth Anniversary poster,
"Florida's Lost Landscapes and Archaeological Legacy."
Steve has an outstanding capacity to work on detailed
projects with large groups of people and to build consensus
and cooperation, often surprising us with his subtle humor.
His commitment to the preservation of Florida archaeological
sites extends beyond his job as Cultural Resources Manager for
the Florida State Parks, Bureau of Natural and Cultural
Resources. Indeed, Steve continues his work into vacations
and many weekends.
For the last two years, he has written the grants for FAM,
designed a grant workshop for the FAS 54th Annual Meeting
in St. Petersburg, organized the FAS 55th Annual Meeting in
Tallahassee, and served on the FAS Government Affairs
Committee. Steve's dedication will benefit Florida's future

Figure 3. Phyllis Kolianos receives an FAS service
award from Sheila Stewart.

2004 VOL. 57(3)



Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (SWFAS)


Betsy McCarthy joined SWFAS volunteers at the
Craighead Archaeology Laboratory in 1997. As an artist and
art teacher, she brought unique skills. She draws freehand
every artifact to scale. We find that her drawings reproduce
much better than photographs in our reports. At the same
time, Betsy is a willing participant in all our endeavors.


Jo Gray is a long-time SWFAS member and serves as
Recording Secretary. Thanks to her professional experience,
she produces meeting minutes that meet all requirements of
the State ofFlorida. She has worked in the field on "digs" as
well as at special occasions, such as during Archaeology
Month in March. Her work at the Collier County Museum's
S"Old Florida Festival," held in October and November, helps
SWFAS in its goal to educate the public.

Figure 4. Steve Martin receives an FAS service award from
Sheila Stewart.


Individual FAS chapters honor members for outstanding
service. President Sheila Stewart presented the certificates.

Pensacola Archaeological Society (PAS)


Jan Lloyd has been a member of PAS since its beginning.
She has served in several positions on the PAS Board of
Directors, including PAS President, and most recently as PAS
Newsletter Editor. She has worked in the field as a volunteer.
As a University of West Florida archaeological staff member,
she has patiently taught lab techniques and methods to dozens
of students and volunteers. Jan is a wonderful resource for her
expertise, common sense, and good nature.


Kay Gautier is a long-time PAS member, who has sup-
ported our projects and membership. After retiring from a
full-time career, Kay joined the PAS Board of Directors as
Recording Secretary. Then she became PAS Treasurer and
computerized our financial records and put our banking
accounts on-line a huge undertaking! Kay has stepped in
and helped with many other projects, large and small. She
handles fine details with good humor and patience.


Pioneer in Space and Time: John Mann Goggin and the
Development of Florida Archaeology. Brent Richards
Weisman. 2002. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. xxi
+ 176 pp., illus, biblio, index. $49.95 (cloth).

Soltec International Inc., 222 30Yh Street East, Tuscaloosa, AL
35405; E-mail: duke@soltecinternational.com

I think most of us take a certain pleasure in regaling in the
tales of the men and women who came before us. Sitting at a
table with our favorite graybeards in the conference hotel bar,
working late hours in the lab, or during lunch breaks on a hot
day in the field, we all enjoy tales of our predecessors.
Weisman in this book provides a biographical sketch of one of
these progenitors, and illustrates the role he played in the
debates that shaped American anthropology.
The first chapter details John "Wotta Mann" Goggin's
childhood, growing up in south Florida. Young Goggin spent
his teenage years gathering tree snails and mapping the
distribution of varieties in the hammocks along the Miami
River adjacent to his home. The presaging of his future career
is clear, as it seems Goggin was a born classifier, a skill that
would serve him well throughout his life. Tromping over
prehistoric sites in his quest for snails, Goggin paid attention
to the deposits and artifacts that lay beneath his feet, indicating
an occupation of the area that long preceded Flagler's single
rail. Goggin would eventually return to south Florida as an
archaeologist with the perspective that only someone intimate
with the region can bring.
Weisman's second chapter is devoted to a brief history of
archaeology in Florida from the nineteenth century through
the 1930s. Goggin enters the picture in the mid-1930s, about
the time he met Matthew Stirling, who was digging under the
auspices of the Civil Works Administration Smithsonian
project at the Surfside site in south Florida, and Vernon
Lamme, one of Stirling's field supervisors. By 1933, Goggin
was digging, and seems to have found his vocation. This land
of the insemination of Goggin's interest in archaeology would
always remain close to his heart, and he would return years
later to conduct serious research.
Chapter 3 recounts Goggin's years at the University of New
Mexico (1935-1942), after a less than stellar beginning at the
University of Florida. At UNM, Goggin would study with
Donald Brand and Leslie Spier, setting the trajectory for his
work throughout his life. Goggin was imbued with a notion of
anthropology as a true holistic approach, one that integrated
all subfields and emphasized all aspects of culture. He would
spend time participating in field school in the Southwest and
Mexico, and would take much of what he learned back to

Florida where he would study not only the archaeology of his
homeland, but also conduct ethnographical research among
the Seminole. Though Goggin would not complete his
dissertation until 1948, his time at UNM helped shape the
cultural tradition perspective he would bring to Florida upon
his return.
Chapter 4 covers the time span from 1942-1948, when
Goggin returned to Florida with his wife Dorothy in tow.
During this time span, Goggin continued to excavate Florida
sites while he and his wife worked among the Seminole.
Following a stint as a surveyor for the Cross Florida Barge
Canal, Goggin began graduate study at Yale University,
working with Irving Rouse. Despite several hardships during
this period, Goggin produced some of his most important
work. His "Archaeology of the Glades Area, Southern
Florida" is a still unpublished volume that remains one of the
most influential works on Florida prehistory. Goggin man-
aged to finish his dissertation, became the major influence for
Marjory Stoneman Douglas's book The Everglades: River of
Grass, and inserted himself into the developing "golden days"
of Florida archaeology. He also developed his notion of
"cultural tradition" at this time, a concept that still heavily
influences Florida archaeology.
In Chapter 5, Goggin's triumphant return to the University
of Florida and his years there are documented. In addition to
providing a guiding influence to generations of Florida
archaeologists, this was the time when Goggin explored new
vistas and developed some of the vital archaeological site
management tools that we employ today, notably the Statewide
Archaeological Site Recording System. It is also during this
time that the burden of John Barleycorn took its toll. By May
of 1963, John Mann Goggin was no longer of this world,
passing away at the age of 46.
Chapter 6 details the breadth of Goggin's interests, illustrat-
ing that the holistic approach instilled early continued to
constitute his perspective. Goggin worked with the Seminole
(including being the first to excavate Seminole burials), in
Latin American archaeology (including his famous work with
majolica), traveled to Europe to observed bead-making,
published on the Calusa, worked on olive jar ceramics, and
spent time diving underwater sites. One area that Goggin
made immense contributions was in the study of the adaptation
of material culture by native groups during the early historic
period, and how this material can inform us on the relation-
ship between artifact and cultural tradition. This chapter
drives home the immense intellectual capabilities of Goggin,
and just how wide he cast his net.
The final chapter attempts to describe the legacy of Goggin
in American archaeology. This is a difficult task, not in the
least due to a prevalence of institutional amnesia about our


VOL. 57(3)




predecessors. This is the one chapter where Weisman tends to
wander, lamenting the state of legislatively mandated archae-
ology and the misapplication of some of Goggin's principals.
Regardless, the depth of Goggin's influence, even if it's not
consciously recognized by all, is evident. One feels that
Weisman is affected emotionally by the writing of this book;
I was certainly affected in the reading. Let us celebrate great
men by reviewing their legacy and embracing their spirit.
The appeal of this book is that it is not simply a biography
of John Mann Goggin, but also an incursion into the history of
Florida archaeology and the context of its development.
Weisman accomplishes this task by deftly intertwining the
narrative of Goggin's life with contemporary developments in
archaeology in the state. The net result is a book that helps the
reader not only to understand the man, but to appreciate his
accomplishments. The amount of research that Weisman has
invested in the writing is evident throughout; everyone who
reads it will probably learn something new about Goggin. The
extensive bibliography provides a useful tool for anyone
working in Florida archaeology, and demonstrates the output
of a man who simply died too young.

The Future of the Past. Alexander Stille. 2002. Farrar, Straus
and Giroux, New York. 339 pp., $25.00 (hardcover).

National Park Service, Timucuan Ecological & Historic
Preserve, Jacksonville, FL 32225

Alexander Stille presents a fascinating examination of issues
related to preservation of the past, including diverse cultural
views about preservation and the paradox of modern techno-
logical advance. This work explores how new technologies are
assisting people around the world to better their current
socioeconomic situation, but often at the cost of losing much
of the physical record of the past. He provokes thought about
how globalization may improve the lives of many around the
world, but at the same time the fruits of these same benefits
maybe bringing about homogenization of the world's cultures.
Stille examines how new technologies allow us to store
tremendous amounts of information and provide quicker
access by more people, yet these same technologies advance so
quickly that much of the information becomes inaccessible as
much of the technology used to store the information becomes
obsolete. In addition, Stille points out that many curators,
archivists, and other keepers of such information are forced to
consider space and time constraints resulting in decisions to
discard no longer decipherable information.
Questions are posed as to what information is being lost, and
what factors are considered by those making such judgments?
How are they influenced by their cultural biases and local
societal pressures? Stille explores the double-edged sword of
the computer, as he examines use of "virtual" experiences of
the past and the Internet; the latter is flooded with ideas and
speculations that make it difficult for many to discern what is
fact, speculation, or simply misguided attempts to make a
connection with the past. In his introduction Stille asks "Will

a wired world be better informed than any other, or will
information crowd out knowledge as we struggle to sort
through the flood of messages and images with which we are
bombarded each day?" (p. xiv).
Among the many searching questions this work explores is:
what does it really mean to have a living relationship with the
past? What is the perfect method of conservation? Is it best to
keep the past buried? While the industrial revolution may
have spurred recognition of the need to somehow preserve the
past, Stille asks what is the survivability of our electronic and
digital culture compared with the "less" technological tools of
historical record keeping over thousands of years. Stille's
sobering message is that the byproducts of the very technolo-
gies to hurl us into the future may slowly but inevitably erase
the future of our past. This work provokes the reader to take
a deeper look at the advantages and disadvantages of techno-
logical progress on preservation efforts, as well as the influ-
ence of changing socioeconomic and political perspectives that
enhance or impede the preservation of the past.
One of the more interesting and thought provoking issues
this work explores is introduced in chapter two. entitled "The
Culture of the Copy and the Disappearance of China's Past."
This chapter focuses on the observation that in Chinese
tradition, the copying of original works of art is as a sign of
reverence for the original works. Rather than striving for
permanence and conservation of original artifacts of the past,
the Chinese cultural perspective with regard to preservation,
is to perfect their methods of duplicating vanishing artifacts of
the past. Preservation as viewed from some Eastern cultural
perspectives, allows for originals to be replaced by copies. For
example, Stille observes that the Ise Shrine Japanese temple
constructed in the seventeenth century is ritually destroyed
every two decades and rebuilt. From the Japanese perspective,
the shrine is 1300 years old, nonetheless; UNESCO removed
the shrine from the list of World Heritage sites.
The core question forced by this perspective is: what really
is the essence of the past? Does the essence of the past lie in
the physical existence of the original object that is to be
conserved, or is it the meaning inherent in the physical object?
Can the essence of the past then be conserved in ways other
than in the preservation of the physical object? This is a
provocative idea and one that may have to be grappled with
when making future decisions about physical objects of the
past threatened by modern technology and progress. The issues
Stille raises caused me to consider many questions. For
example, one of the startling thoughts that came into my mind
is that perhaps the view of some Eastern cultures is more likely
to preserve the meanings inherent in the physical objects
rather than the physical objects themselves, at least as long as
the copies are held true. But even then, is the original essence
or meaning preserved by the copier? After all, don't
archeologists consider a physical object without context having
little or no meaning? Once the object's meaning is known and
understood, is it really all that important that the physical
thing be maintained in its original form; or is it wiser to
simply copy the physical thing and preserve its meaning?
What bias does the copier bring to the preservation process?


2004 VOL. 57(3)


These are certainly thought provoking and debatable ideas that
this work brings to the surface.
It seems often to be a powerful and meaningful experience
to touch an actual item from the past, which seems to transport
the toucher to the past and experience the past in the present.
Upon reading this work I was reminded of a scene in one of
the Star Trek movies where Captain Jean Luc Pickard, after
traveling back in time, touches a ship that had significant
historical meaning in his future. He is delighted to finally
touch the object as he only could make visual contact with it in
his own time at the Smithsonian Institution. This highlights
one paradox of preservation in that despite the fact that many
of us desire to touch a physical object of the past in order to
connect with it, our very touching contributes to its destruc-
tion. As a result the caring and prudent conservator will
protect the object thereby keeping most of us (except those
important occasions for scientific study) for making any
physical connection with the object. Would successive exact
copying of an object through time preserve its original mean-
ing? Does copying equate with preservation and conservation?
Is this idea a different yet viable approach to maintaining
authenticity? At the least, those engaged in the education and
interpretation of archeological and historic artifacts should be
aware of such cultural perspectives. As Stille points out in this
work, the Chinese cannot understand why exhibit reproduc-
tions of its famous terracotta soldiers are not embraced in the
West as the real thing.
In other chapters of the book, Stille wrestles with threats to
cultural memory, those ideas and traditions passed down orally
through generations, such as poetry and canoe making. Stille
explores the oral traditions of Kitawa, a remote island off the
coast of Papua New Guinea, and Somali language in the
Republic of Somaliland in Africa, to underscore how oral
traditions are changing and being lost. In another chapter,
Stille examines one man's attempt to resurrect Latin and
create a relevant future for the language. A particularly
interesting chapter, entitled "The Ganges' Next Life,"
explores the relationship between science, religion, and once
again the conflict between the fallout of human technological
progress, traditional use and the preservation of the Ganges
River with all its associated cultural meanings.
This work brings to the surface many other issues including
issues in wildlife and natural resource preservation. In the
chapter "Saving Species in Madagascar" he explores many
issues surrounding the Ranomafana rain forest preserve in
Madagascar. Preservation of plant and animal species,
including primates, holds important information about the past
of both humanity and other forms of life on the planet. In the
process of attempting to preserve these natural resources, the
local people are not able to use the land the way they did
before. Stille examines the struggles of those trying to
reconcile the conflict between human and species survival for
the benefit of all, observing the sometimes controversial efforts
of primatologist Patricia Wright.
What this work does not explore is the crucial question: how
do we more effectively incorporate varying cultural viewpoints
into successful strategies for worldwide preservation efforts?

Is such a strategy even appropriate? Should Western conserva-
tion practices consider some of the strategies of the East? Do
we all not have a stake in the preservation of our human
heritage that includes all cultural perspectives? This work was
not intended to provide the answers but simply to identify and
look at how our ideas of the past influence the future prospects
of what of the past will be preserved into the future.
This work is an important read for those concerned and
actively working in the various subfields of anthropology and
history, and perhaps most importantly those engaged in public
anthropological interpretation and education. In an increas-
ingly multicultural and technologically advancing society, the
issues raised in this work are relevant to those concerned with
preservation and conservation of our cultural resources in
Florida. The strength of this book is in its presentation in a
non-technical and engaging style for the amateur, professional,
and interested lay person to grapple with some basic philo-
sophical questions regarding the preservation of the past. If
professionals are to not only educate but empower members of
the public to participate in the critical evaluations of interpre-
tation of the past, professionals must evaluate and present
multiple perspectives of the past and thereby make the past
relevant to the present (Davis 1989; Jameson 1994a, 1994b).
For all who recognize the importance of interpreting and
educating an increasing culturally diverse public about the
work of anthropologists, historians, museum curators, exhibit
designers and educators, this work is a must read. While the
work does not provide solutions to the interesting preservation
issues explored, it will most likely stimulate many questions
and hopefully discussion on the road to solving preservation
challenges for those concerned about the future of the past.

References Cited

Davis, H.
1989 Is an Archeological Site Important to Science or to
the Public, and Is There a Difference? In Heritage
Interpretation: The Natural and Built Environment,
edited by D. Uzzell, pp.96-99. Belhaven, London

Jameson, John. H., Jr.
1994a The NPS Public Interpretation Initiative Program.
Public Archaeology Review 2 (3):2-5.

1994b The Importance of Public Outreach in Archaeology.
Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 12

About the Authors:

VirgilRoy Beasley is presently ABD at Northwestern University. His research interests include the archaeology of the Middle
St Johns River basin, the archaeology of aquatic adaptations, and the application of GIS to issues of developmental
complexity. Mr. Beasley has conducted research in Florida, much of the southeastern United States, Brazil, and Central

Jane Anne Blakney-Bailey is a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida. Her current research examines eighteenth and
nineteenth century Seminole settlements in north peninsular Florida and related Creek settlements in the Chattahoochee River
Valley. She is currently conducting fieldwork at Paynes Town, a Seminole town inhabited in the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries.

Morton H. Kessel holds a BE (Mechanical Engineering) from The City University of New York and an MA (Anthropology)
from The New School for Social Research, New York. His research interests include human skeletal biology, skeletal and
dental pathology, demography of prehistoric Florida Indians and development of osteological demographic techniques.

Dan Tardona is currently the Resource Interpretive Specialist at Timucuan Ecological & Historic Preserve, Jacksonville,
Florida. He has been with the National Park Service for 17 years. His academic background includes the study of comparative
animal behavior, cognitive ethology, multicultural resource education and anthrozoology.

Rachel Wentz is a doctoral student at Florida State University. Her research focuses on physical anthropology, specializing
in human osteology and paleopathology. She is interested in burial analysis and skeletal pathology in Native American


2004 VOL. 57(3)


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Editor's Page

A Seminole Site on the Suwannee River: Functional Analysis of Oven Hill (8DI15)
Pottery Vessels. Jane Anne Blakney-Bailey

Examination of Subadult Pathology in a 7,000-year-old Population from Florida. Rachel K. Wentz

Human Skeletal Remains from Lignumvitae Key Burial Mound,
Monroe County, Florida. Morton H. Kessel



Weisman: Pioneer in Space and Time: John Mann Goggin and the Development
of Florida Archaeology. Virgil Roy Beasley II

Stille: The Future of the Past. Daniel R. Tardona

Copyright 2004 by the
ISSN 0015-3893

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