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 Table of Contents
 Two Creek Pottery Vessels from...
 Florida Archeology -- 1950
 Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota,...
 Contributors to this Issue
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Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
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 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
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 Subjects
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00178
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Two Creek Pottery Vessels from Oklahoma
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Florida Archeology -- 1950
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Contributors to this Issue
        Page 31
    Membership Information
        Page 32
        Page 33
Full Text





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FLOR/DA

ANTHROPOLOGIST




p' ;T7~


913, 759
T6367
1950
Mha


PUEIP4ED 3Y THE


-'-FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
MlR 9IWB WeMI MlBIM


NOS. 1-2


MAY, 1950


'OL. 2I









THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


May, 1950


CONTENTS


Page
Two Creek Pottery Vessels From Oklahoma
------------_-_ _- Karl Schmitt 3

Florida Archeology -- 1950
-_ - -- - -ohn M. Goggin 9

Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida
---- --------- -- -Ripley P. Bullen 21

Contributors to this issue
-------------------- ------- -- 31


Published at the University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida


May, 1950


Vol. III


Nos. 1-2









TWO CREEK POTTERY VESSELS FROM OKLAHOMA


Karl Schmitt





Historic artifacts of known provenience can have considerable significance
for archaeology since they are one important means of linking the archeological
past and the ethnological present. Recently the Museum of the University of
Oklahoma acquired the Robert B. Selvidge collection which includes a number
of historic Creek artifacts from eastern Oklahoma, among which are two pottery
vessels attributable to Creek manufacture.

Because of its relative indestructability and the frequency of its occurrence,
pottery has come to be of paramount importance in determining the relationship
of many archeological manifestations. Knowledge of Creek pottery from Okla-
homa, including the two vessels described herein, could be of aid in solving
some of the problems of late prehistoric and historic archeology of the south-
eastern portion of the United States.

DESCRIPTION AND DATA ON VESSELS

Vessel No. 1 is 23.5 cm. high, has a maximum diameter of 24.7 cm., and has
a rounded orifice 12.1 cm. in,diameter (Figure 1, A, B). The lip is slightly
thickened, everted, and rounded, and is 7 to 9 mm. in thickness. The body is
globular in shape with a rounded shoulder and a flattish, rounded base. The
vessel is 7 to 8 mm. thick at the shoulder and appears to vary little over the
remaining portion, except that the neck is slightly thinned. Color varies from
a predominant reddish-grey to a brownish-grey while the base is an ashy- grey.

Surface finish also varies; the rim and shoulder area possesses a smoothed
but not polished finish, while the lower half of the vessel has a roughened fin-
ish as if it had been wiped with grass or with a brush similar in texture to a
modern whisk-broom.1 The striations tend to run horizontally around the vessel,
but on the base are more haphazard in distribution (Figure 1, B). From the
arrangement of striations the pot would appear to have been turned upside-down
when the bottom was brushed. The vessel interior is smoothed but many rough
striations are visible. The lip possesses a decoration of forty-six fingernail-
like incisions; these are spaced 2 to 5 mm. apart. More incisions were undoubt-
edly present where the rim has been damaged.


1Miss Alice Marriot (personal communication) tells me that her Creek informants stated
that a brush of grass was used to roughen vessels.


















































Fig. Creek Vessels from Oklahoma.














Fig. 1. Creek Vessels from Oklahoma.





The texture of the paste is compact but has a tendency to flake away
from the tempering particles which lie near the surface. Tempering material
consists of chunks of reddish sandstone up to 4 mm. in size and is present
in moderate amounts. Only occasionally is the aplastic visible on the exteri-
or surface, while it is very evident on the interior surface, indicating that the
exterior was accorded more careful treatment than the interior. Hardness was
between 3.5 and 4.0 both on the exterior and interior.

Vessel No. 2 is 33.6 cm. in height, has a maximum diameter of 29.2 cm.,
and has an oval orifice with diameters of 12.7 and 14.0 cm. (Figure 1, C).
The lip is thickened, rounded, slightly everted, and 1.3 to 1.5 cm. in thick-
ness. The body is somewhat elongated with rounded shoulder and base. The
vessel is 1.3 to 1.5 cm. thick at the shoulder and appears to vary little else-
where, except that the neck is slightly thinned. In color, the top tends to a
reddish-brown, the body has large areas of dark grey and bluish color, and the
base is a whitish-grey from contact with ashes.

Surface finish is very similar to that of vessel No. 1. The rim and shoulder
area has been smoothed but not polished while the sides and bottom have
been wiped or brushed with a grass-like material. The striations tend to run
horizontally to the shoulder and then slope off to the right and become vertical
on the sides. Impressions near the base become horizontal again; the vessel
was evidently turned over when the basal area was roughened. The vessel
interior was smoothed, but only carelessly, so that many striations are visible.
There is no decoration, unless the roughening is considered as such. The
paste duplicates in all details that of vessel No. 1.

Mr. Selvidge has stated that he was a small boy when his parents moved
to the Indian Territory in April, 1882 and settled among the "Muskogee Indi-
ans."2 Vessel No. 1 is reported to "have been made back in Alabama and
brought to this state by the Indians,"3 while vessel No. 2 is reported to have
been "made about eighty years" previous to 1948. Indentification of vessel
No. 1 as being from Alabama should not be taken as absolutely certain; many
old objects of material culture appear to have mythology develop around them.
In details of appearance, and particularly that of paste, the two vessels could
well have been made by the same person and almost of a certainty were made
in the same locality. Although Mr. Selvidge has not stated categorically that
the vessels are Creek, there would appear no doubt that they are of that pro-
venience.
OTHER DATA ON CREEK POTTERY
One Creek vessel recently has been described in the literature.4 This
2Notes of Robert E. Selvidge in files of the Department of Anthropology, University
of Oklahoma.
3If so, the specimen would be approximately 120 years old, or older.
4Quimby and Spoehr, 1950, pp. 249-51.






specimen is extremely similar to those reported herein as to the smoothing of
the upper portion of the pot and the roughening by brushing over the remaining
portion, but differs in the possession of carbonized organic tempering, in shape,
which is that of a jar with a flaring rim, wide orifice, and flattened base, and
in being of lesser hardness.

Swanton has summarized the relatively meager information concerning
Creek pottery manufacture. Several informants mentioned tempering with
sand, potsherds, or burned bone; decorating with incisions before firing or
with quills and red paint while firing; smoothing with stones and clam shells;
and three mentioned roughening with corn cobs. One of the latter stated that
very large pots to be used for cooking were roughened in this manner. Firing
was accomplished by inverting the vessels and building a fire around them.

Some of the Creek vessels illustrated by Speck7 are similar in form to
those considered here. Judging from the illustration the surfaces were some-
times brushed.

One historic Hichiti Creek pottery type, Walnut Roughened,8 from central
Georgia has a surface finish closely similar to that of the two vessels des-
cribed here and to that discussed by Quimby and Spoehr. This type has a
number of vessel shapes, including one similar to that of the latter vessel.
However, Walnut Roughened shapes appear not to have the greatly constricted
vessel mouths of the two from the Selvidge collection, and also that type
differs in the possession of shell-tempering, applique bands, small strap
handles, and decoration by incising, punctating and pinching the rim.


OTHER POTTERY WITH ROUGHENING TECHNIQUE

Kassel has recently described two pottery types which are attributable to
historic Chickasaw occupation of south-central Oklahoma of 1840-50. These
are Rock Creek Brushed and White Brushed.9 The former includes a restorable
vessel which was roughened with small reeds or straws over the entire exteri-
or surface and was smoothed inside. Temper of this type is of fine-grained
sand, charcoal, and sandstone fragments. Shapes are globular with everted
rims and rounded flattened bases indicated. The latter type is represented
by only a few sherds which possess similar brushed surfaces but are tempered
with a mixture of sandstone, charcoal, and clay pellets.

Quimby and Spoehr point out the superficial resemblance of their vessel
6Swanton, 1946, pp. 551-53.
7Speck, 1907, pl. V.
Newsletter, Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Vol. II, No. 2, 1940.
Kassel, 1949, pp. 29-32.





to the pottery type, Plaquemine Brushed, "found in the proto-historic and
historic horizons of eastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi.10
Ford also considers some sherds with a brushed surface treatment of more
regular nature to be historic Caddo.11 Other vessels with brushed surfaces
are reported by Krieger for the late prehistoric Frankston and Titus Foci of
northeast Texas12 and for Glaze V and later times at Pecos Pueblo in New
Mexico.13 Brushed types are also reported for Florida.14


CONCLUSION

The main purpose'of this paper is to place on record two more pottery
vessels of historic Oklahoma Creek provenience. Other available data, those
of Quimby and Spoehr and Swanton, indicate that vessel shape, decoration,
and aplastic of Creek pottery may be quite variable, but that brushing with
grass or corn cob has high frequency. Brushing of pottery surfaces appears
to be a technique common in late archaeological times from the historic Creek
of Georgia to Pecos Pueblo. Within this range of brushed wares, the vessels
reported herein and the one reported by Quimby and Spoehr seem most closely
related to the types Rock Creek Brushed and White Brushed from mid-nine-
teenth Chickasaw sites of Oklahoma. This may be an indication that late
diffusion, along with the decline in the importance of native pottery, .may
have resulted in great similarity of the pottery of the so-called Five Civi-
lized Tribes of Oklahoma. Another possibility is that vessels were manufac-
tured and traded or sold across tribal boundaries during the early period of
unsettled conditions in the Indian Territory. It should also be pointed out
that additional shapes, as well as vessels with completely smoothed surface
finish, should be expected from Creek sites since pottery for actual table
use was also manufactured. Those reported on herein were identified as "sofki
pots" by Creek informants.


100p. Cit. p. 250.
11Ford, 1936, p. 83 and Fig. 18g.
12Krieger, 1946, pl. 33 a,b,g.
13Ibid., p. 246; and the University of Oklahoma collections.
14Editors note. At the time of writing this paper, the author did not have available
information concerning late types of brushed pottery in Florida. One such type,
Chattahoochee Brushed, has been correlated with "Lower Creek" occupation on
the Chattahoochee River (Bullen, 1950). It is a sand or grit tempered ware, with a
light colored, partly brushed surface. No data are available for vessel shapes.
A second type, Stokes Brushed, has been recognized in Northeastern Florida and
ascribed to late 18th century Seminole (Goggin, 1949). It is a thick ware with a
contorted paste containing large crushed grit temper. The surface, in part, is
heavily brushed with a coarse textured material. Vessel shapes are uncertain;
but they were apparently globular, and in some cases have an everted lip bearing
pinch punctations on the rim.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


BULLEN, RIPLEY P.
1950. "An Archeological Survey of the Chattahoochee River
Valley in Florida." Journal of the Washington Academy
of Sciences, Vol. 40, pp. 103-125. Washington.

EOBD, JAMES A.
1936. "Analysis of Indian Village Site Collections from Louisi-
ana and Mississippi." Anthropological Study No. 2, State of
Louisiana Department of Conservation. New Orleans.

GOGGIN, JOHN M.
1949. "A Florida Indian Trading Post, Circa 1763-1784." Southern
Indian Studies, Vol. 1, pp. 35-38. Chapel Hill.

KASSEL, E. MARILYN
1949. An Analysis of Archaeological Material Attributed to the
Chickasaws. M. A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
University of Oklahoma. Norman.

KRIEGER, ALEX D.
1946. "Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas."
The University of Texas Publication, No. 4640. Austin.

NEWSLETTER SOUTHEASTERN ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONFERENCE,
Lexington, Kentucky.

QUIMBY, GEORGE I. AND ALEXANDER SPOEHR
1950. "Historic Creek Pottery from Oklahoma." American
Antiquity, Vol. 15, pp. 249-51. Menasha, Wise.

SPECK, FRANK G.
1907. "The Creek Indians of Taskigi Town," American Anthro-
pological Association Memoir, Vol. 2, pt. 2. Lancaster, Pa.

SWANTON, JOHN R.
1946. "The Indians of the Southeastern United States." Bureau
of American Ethnology Bulletin, No. 137. Washington, D.C.


Department of Anthropology
University of Oklahoma





FLORIDA ARCHEOLOGY -- 1950


John M. Goggin



It has been only eight years since Gordon Willey and Richard Woodbury
(1942) presented the first chronological culture sequence for the state.
In this brief period of time.archeological sequences have been developed for
other regions which have been correlated and cross-tied to give a general
picture for the whole state. The first such outline was presented three years
ago by the writer (Goggin, 1947); but soon, as is often the case, rapidly
accumulating knowledge necessitated a revised chart published the following
year in The Florida Anthropologist (Goggin, 1948).

Since then this state-wide picture has stood with only minor revisions,
such as in Goggin (1949a); and with a somewhat more conservative dating a
similar picture is given by Willey (1949b). Although the writer has presented
these chronologies, revising them on occasion, he has felt, and previously
stated (Goggin, 1947: 116), that they were not wholly successful in presenting
a true temporal picture. Culture units from some regions, particularly the Glades
area, had to be squeezed beyond relative proportions to fit the apparent picture
from elsewhere. However, new data are available which allow us to resurvey
the basic picture and to make a readjustment which seems to fit much of the
data more comfortably. It is the primary purpose of this paper to present this
new chronological chart (Fig. 2) and to briefly explain the basis of its construc-
tion.1

Secondly, recent published material of a chronological or cultural nature
will be briefly reviewed and considered under its regional subheading. Only
material appearing since the last summary (Goggin, 1948) will be included.

THE CHRONOLOGICAL CHART

The new chronological chart (Fig. 2) is most distinctive for its change
in dating. As can be seen by inspection the periods before 1200 have been
lengthened, pushing the earlier culture units back many hundreds of years.
Such a change necessitates an explanation since it is different from most
existing systems.

As was mentioned,the writer has long felt certain incongruites in regional
1This paper represents a contribution from the research program of the Department of
Sociology and Anthropology, University of Florida aided by a grant from the Viking
Fund, Inc. The first section of this paper, including the revised time chart, was read at the
annual meeting of the Society for American Archeology, May 19, 1950, at Norman, Oklahoma.









Control Gulf
Northwest Gulf Coast and Mon- Glades Indian Rier North.rn Centrol
Coast Are at.e Ragions Are. Area St. John. Florida
Seminole
Seminole Seminole Seminole Seminole Seminole
1700 Leon- St. St.
Jefferson Glades Aurustine Auustine Potano
1600 Safety IIIC St. Johns
Harbor Ir l Alachua
1500 Fort Walton Glades IIIB Malabar St. 1hs

1400
1300 Weeden Weeden Glades St. Johns lHickory
S Island Island IIIA IIA Pond
1200 I II
I.-0


Weeden
Island
I


Weeden
Island
I


-.... ?......-- ...- -----


Santa Hosa-

Swift Creek


Deptford


Orange ?
















Preceramic ?


Santa
Rosa-

Swift
Creek









Deptford




Y

9/


Perico


Glades
IIC


Glades

Iin, late



IIR, early



Glades

IIA


Island
--?--- Glades


Orange ?






















Suwannee
Points ?


Pre-Glades
(Preceramic)


Malabar

I'


St.
Johns
IA, late


St.
Johns
IA, early


Malabar Orange,
I late

.---?----- .....


Orange
















Mt. Taylor


Orange
















Mt. Taylor


Cades
Pond




..... ? ... -.



Pre-

Cades

Pond


.........--


S
a


Orange a

F
e

C

m
P
1
I
e
x





Preceramic




Suwannee
Points ?


Fig. 2. Temporal Chart for Florida.





chronological pictures, especially in the Glades area. Yet, because of apparent
equation with other culture units whose dating was made by correlation with
accepted sequences, it was necessary to fi. (or as it seemed, to distort) the
Glades picture into the balance of the Florida picture.

However, recent test excavations in the Glades area give us such an abun-
dance of stratigraphic data, in fact more than is available for any other region,
that it appears the time has now come when the Glades picture can be reexam-
ined and readjusted. Specifically this recent work includes tests at three sites
in the Shark River and Cape Sable area (Goggin, 1950a), at Paradise Key (un-
published notes) and Tamiami Trail 3 (Goggin, Chapman, and Spangenberg,
n.d.) in the Central Everglades, at Old Fort Center and the Platt site on Fish-
eating Creek in the Northern Everglades (unpublished notes), and at Onion Key,
Lostmans River (unpublished notes). The seriation sequence at Goodland
Point (Goggin, 1950b) adds much information.2

Even a casual inspection of this new data indicated that what had long
been suspected was true-that the Glades II period was relatively much longer
in duration than Glades III. This is contrary to their relative ages as presented
in the charts published to date where the whole of Glades II is accepted as
being of equal duration with Glades IIIA.

A good example of the relative age of Glades II and Glades IIIA exists at
Bear Lake 1. This site is a homogeneous black dirt midden with little change
in refuse composition throughout, suggesting a uniform accretion rate assuming
a stable population. A study of the stratigraphic picture there (Goggin, 1950a,
Tables 35 and 36) indicates a considerable change in ceramic culture through-
out the occupation. Assuming little variation in population (because of the
limited living area of the site itself) and a relatively constant rate of deposi-
tion of refuse (as indicated by its similarity in composition at all levels we
can conclude that the Glades II occupation was of much longer duration than
Glades IIIA. This is clearly indicated by the ten levels including Glades II
material and the three with Glades IIIA material.

With the Bear Lake 1 sequence as the starting point the other stratigraphic
pictures in the area were examined and found to substantiate the picture. It
was next logical to find a way to translate the various relative patterns into
time periods. One approach seemed to be desirable.

For various reasons it is thought that the span of Glades IIIA from A.D.
1125 to A.D. 1400 is an approximation which approaches reality (Goggin, 1947:
116). If this period duration of 275 years can be accepted, it is then possible

2
All of this work by the Department of Sociology and Anthropology of the University
of Florida was supported by the Viking Fund, Inc.





to compare the relative age of Glades IIIA with the relative age of Glades II
and to translate the proportional differences into years. This was done using
all available data for the area, including the tests mentioned above and those
at Upper Matecumbe Key (Goggin and Sommer, 1949) and Belle Glade (Willey,
1949).

Beginning with Glades IIC period a comparison was made between it and
Glades IlIA, a ratio was then established and translated into years. Similarily
correlations were extended backwards to Glades I times. Some correlations
could be made only at a single site, but, on occasion it was possible to make
the same correlation at several sites obtaining a series of ratios, not identical
but of a same general order (for example in one case they were 4 to 5, 5 to 6,
6 to 7). Using this system a new dating presented in Figure 2 was developed
for the Glades sequence.

This represents a substantial change extending the beginning of Glades II
back to 25 A.D. How close this is to actual reality cannot be known, but it
does represent an attempt to derive dates by a system, rather than by guessing.
Internally its presents a more satisfying picture.

Assuming that the inter-region culture unit correlations made previously
were valid, they were made again between the Glades area and other Florida
regions. With these new time values the contrast between the old and new is
startling.

The best demonstrable ability of this system to derive dates lies in the
way the sequence will fit into other systems. In terms of most existing South-
eastern sequences this revised Florida picture is quite radical. Yet, in examin-
ing recent developments suggestive correlations may be found. In the Indian
River area it is found that these dates equate more favorably with Rouse's new
dates for the Orange period based on sea level correlations (Goggin, 1949a;
Rouse, n.d.).


Comparing Eastern United States as a whole, the local Hopewellian develop-
ment in Florida can be equated with similar developments elsewhere, Prelimi-
nary absolute dates for Northern Hopewell recently derived by C 14 dating are
said to fall into two groups separated by a considerable span of time. One such
group closely equates with the Florida dating. However, until the final and
official figures are released on the C 14 analysis the value of these dates one
way or another is doubtful. These points do show, though, that different as
the new dating is from our previously accepted standard, it is not entirely
out of line with other interpretations. Based on a systematic approach it is
more objective than guesses, and if the preliminary assumptions are correct
it produces dates which may approach reality.






ARCHEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS


The steadily growing work in all aspects of archeology in Florida has
resulted in considerable new data. That which is directly of a chronological
nature or pertinent in defining the nature and/or position of some culture
period or unit will be summarized here. Specifically there can be considered
that material appearing since Goggin (1948a).3

Special attention shouldbe drawn to the conference held at Rollins College
in April, 1949. A series of interesting papers were given presenting the
Florida archeological picture and its relation to the Southeastern United
States, the West Indies, and Central and South America. The papers edited
by John W. Griffin appeared as a book The Florida Indian and His Neighbors
(Fairbanks, 1949; Goggin, 1949a; James B. Griffin, 1949; John W. Griffin,
1949; Rouse, 1949; Willey, 1949c and 1949d).

On comparing the chart in this paper (Fig. 2) with the writer's previous
ones (Goggin, 1947, 1948, 1949a) it will be seen that separate sequences for
two subareas, the Manatee and Kissimmee, are omitted. These are rather poorly
known and little new information on them has appeared. An interesting reader
can quickly make the necessary date adjustments for these regions using this
chart and the earlier ones.

Northwest Gulf Coast. The most significant work in this region has been
carried out for the Florida Park Service by Ripley P. Bullen (1950a). His
survey of the Jim Woodruff Dam basin on the Chattahoochee River represents
the most intensive study of any interior section of this area. Numerous sites
from Deptford to historic times were found. Of special significance is the Leon-
Jefferson material, and, the "Lower Creek" sites which probably represent
Seminole Indians. This is the first archeological evidence for the known his-
torical Seminole occupation in this area. Somewhat different material, also
perhaps Seminole (probably representing another of the many tribes that went
to make up the Seminole "nation"), is that reported by John W. Griffin (1950a)
from old Fort Gadsden on the Apalachicola River. Other brief papers on the
area by Griffin (1949b) and Bullen (1949) have appeared.

Recent and current (1949-1950) investigations of Hale G. Smith of Florida
State Univeristy in this area, particularly around Tallahassee are yielding
much data for the whole range of recognized periods. Especially noteworthy
is the substantial quantity of fiber-tempered pottery perhaps coeval with the
Orange Period to the east.


3The original Florida outline (Goggin, 1947)was based in part on stratigraphic data
then in manuscript form but now published (Goggin and Sommer, 1949; Willey, 1949a;
Willey, 1949b). It will not be reviewed here.






Central Gulf Coast. 'ISis puzzling but interesting region has fortunately
been the center of considerable recent research activity although much of
the data perhaps, temporarily at least, adds'to the confusion. The most im-
portant chronological contribution in the region is the excavation made by the
Bullens (Bullen and Bullen, 1950) on Johns Island at the mouth of the Chassa-
howitza River. The work was primarily planned to follow up A. J. Waring, Jr's.
report (in Willey, 1949b: 327-328, 351) of a preceramic horizon underlying a
ceramic level, each associated with a differing molluscan fauna.

The Bullen's were unable to find data to substantiate that report but have
obtained results which show an interesting ceramic sequence dating back to
the early pottery making peoples and extending into Safety Harbor times.

Two new culture periods, Johns Island I and I, as well as Weeden Island
and Safety Harbor periods were recognized. Johns Island I apparently closely
follows fiber- tempered pottery times of east Florida and in part at least
equates with the Deptford period, as it has been recognized on this coast.
Johns Island H also equates in part with Deptford Period, with Santa Rosa-
Swift Creek and perhaps even in part with Weeden Island I as usually
recognized.

These new periods have not been included on the temporal chart because
their validity as regional or subregional culture units has yet to be established.
They are certainly discernable units at Johns Island. However, their existence
as culture period units depends on their recognition at other sites. Insomuch
as work in the region is limited it is impossible to predict their eventual
status. In any case the site represents a-great contribution to our knowledge
of the area.
Stratigraphic testing by Duncan Thomas for the University of Florida, at
Maximo Point on Tampa Bay, now in progress, may give more data for the early
horizons.

Another contribution from the Florida Park Service is the monograph on
the important type site of Safety Harbor (Griffin and Bullen, 1950). Tests
in village debris and mounds gave depth to our picture of the Safety Harbor
culture ranging from late prehistoric into historic times. Armistead's (1950)
brief paper is an interesting interpretation of certain Indian artifacts from the
same site.

Manatee Region. The Florida Park Service's interest in the central Gulf
coast has resulted in three papers by Ripley Bullen. Tests at the Whittaker
Site, Sarasota were made in both a sand mound and shell midden (Bullen 1950b).
The limited amount of pottery found made dating difficult. There were sugges-
tions of possible Perico Island and Weeden Island occupations and probable
Safety Harbor occupation.





In another small report excavations on Perico Island are described (Bullen,
n.d. 1) and a manuscript is nearing completion on work at the Madiera Bickel
State Monument and Terra Ceia Island (Bullen, n.d. 2).

Glades Area. As opportunity has permitted stratigraphic testing has con-
tinued in many parts of the area (see earlier references in this article). The
most important series are summarized in Goggin (1950a).

The general results of this work has been the defining of a new subperiod,
Glades IIC, a greater understanding of the nature of the Glades I, and the dis-
covery of an apparent pre-ceramic horizon underlying Glades I at Tamiami
Trail 3 site near Miami (Goggin, Chapman, and Spangenberg, n.d.).

In respective periods some modifications of previously held concepts are
necessary. In Glades I, for example, it appears that a decorated type may be
present, Cane Patch Incised. Glades II times, it now appears, was the era,
in which some of the large shells works of the southwest coast were built
(Johnson Hammock on Lostmans River, for example). Busycon picks are now
recognized to be present at least from Glades II times on in all parts of the
area.

Quick work by Florida Anthropological Society members recovered data
from two mounds undergoing destruction (Voss, 1949 and Griffin, 1950b).

Kissimmee Region. No excavations have been made in this area but
surface collections made by the writer at sites on the Kissimmee River suggest
no changes in our meagre picture of the area. A small paper describing flint
projectile points is a recent contribution (Watson, 1948).

Indian River Area. This is the new name for the former Melbourne area.
No recent excavations have been made, but surface collecting was carried
out in 1949 by Irving Rouse and John M. Goggin. Rouses' (n.d.) important
summary of the area is finished and will shortly be published. The revised
culture names in Figure 2 (but not the dating) have been taken in part from
Rouse's work.

Northern St. Johns. Chronological developments are prominent in this area.
Work at Green Mound and its integration into the regional picture has been
described by John W. Griffin (1948a and 1948b). Variations in St. Johns Check
Stamped pottery during St. Johns II times include a fluctuation in size of checks
from large to small and back to large throughout the period. The report on
Nocoroco (Griffin and Smith, 1949) gives us data on late prehistoric and early
historic periods for a documented Indian site.

On the St. Johns River, the University of Florida has been conducting a






long range excavation program at Spaldings Lower Store, a British trading
post (circa 1763-1784) for the Seminole Indians (Goggin, 1949b). Although with
predominantly a Colonial occupation, the area has a long history with heavy
occupation in St. Johns I and II times. In some parts of the site a stratigraphic
picture ranging from the Orange Period through historic times can be clearly
demonstrated.

Recent tests at Fort San Francisco de Pupa on the St. Johns River dis-
close a stratified refuse deposit in which 18th century British material over-
lies Spanish and Indian material of the St. Augustine period (Goggin, Kokomoor,
and Miles, n.d.).

Work of the Florida Park Service, now in progress, on Amelia Island should
fill an important gap in our knowledge of the Florida-Georgia archeological
frontier. Initial excavations have disclosed Fort San Carlos, a Spanish fort,
overlying a fiber-tempered pottery occupation (personal communication, John
W. Griffin).

Central Florida. The considerable changes in this section of the chart are
the result of activities of the University of Florida. During the summer of
1949 the Archeological Field School attacked the problem of early occupation
in the area digging two stratified, ceramic over preceramic, sites. One was
located on the Suwannee River and the other on Paynes Prairie south of Gaines-
ville. This led to the recognition of the Santa Fe lithic complex (Goggin, 1950c.

During 1949 and 1950 attention also was turned to the other end of the time
scale and studies were made of Spanish-Indian sites defining the Potano
period, comparable in time to the St Augustine. Work at Fig Springs, in Co-
lumbia County, yielded great quantities of remains, probably early 17th century.
During the summer of 1950 the Archeological Field School excavated the
Zetrouer Site near Gainesville a typical Potano period site and probably a
small mission or mission outstation. Intrusive burials attributable to the
Seminole were found here previously (Goggin et al, 1949).

In the southern part of the region Frederick Sleight gives additional data
on a site partially dug by Clarence B. Moore (Sleight, 1949).


SUMMARY

A new chronological culture chart of Florida archeology has been pre-
sented. It is based on a series of dates developed in the Glades area for those
periods. These dates were derived by comparing the relative deposits of the
earlier subperiods with Glades HIA deposits. The dates for the beginning and
ending of Glades IIIA have been accepted giving a length in years for that






period. Using this time, the length of the other periods was computed in terms
of their proportional deposits. While this new chart cannot be presented as the
absolute picture of Florida archeology, it is temporally based on a systematic
analysis rather than on guess work. It may prove through further work to be
more correct than the previous; in any case, for the Glades area the data fit
-the new periods more comfortably.

Recent work in Florida archeology has also been reviewed. In the overall
picture the most impressive gains have been in the historic periods, eras need-
ing much work. Two years ago the Seminoles were known from historic source
material alone, now archeological remains from northwest and central Florida
have been attributed to them. The Spanish-Indian picture is also greatly
developed.

One of the most impressive development is the great quantity of publica-
tions appearing on Florida archeology. Few states in the South have yielded as
much in the last two years. Most encouraging is the future picture; with the
teaching of archeology in the two state universities many students are com-
mencing work in the field.


BIBLIOGRAPHY



ARMISTEAD, W. J.
1950. "An Indian Stone Saw." The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. 2, pp. 47-48. Gainesville, Fla.

BULLEN, RIPLEY P.
1949. "Indian Sites at Florida Caverns State Park." The Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 1-9. Gainesville, Fla.

1950a. "An Archeological Survey of the Chattahoochee River
Valley in Florida." Journal of the Washington Academy
of Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 101-125. Washington.

1950b. "Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida." The
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 3, pp. 21-30. Gainesville,
Fla.

1950c. "The Woodward Site." The Florida Anthropologist, vol.
2, pp. 49-64. Gainesville, Fla.

n.d. 1 "Perico Island: 1950." The Florida Anthropologist, in
press.






Manuscript on Terra Ceia Island. Florida Park Service.


BULLEN, ADELAIDE K. AND RIPLEY P. BULLEN
1950. "The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida." American
Antiquity, vol. 16, pp. 23-45. Menasha, Wisc.



GOGGIN, JOHN M.
1947. "A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and
Periods in Florida." American Antiquity, vol. 13, pp. 114-
127. Menasha, Wisc.

1948. "A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archeology." The
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, pp. 57-60. n.p.

1949a. "Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory." In The Florida
Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor), pp. 13-44.
Winter Park, Fla.

1949b. "A Florida Indian Trading Post, Circa 1763-1784." Southern
Indian Studies, vol. 1, pp. 35-38. Chapel Hill, North
Carolina.

1950a. "Stratigraphic Tests in the Everglades National Park."
American Antiquity, vol. 15, pp. 228-246. Menasha, Wise.

1950b. "Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida." The
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 65-91. Gainesville, Fla.

1950c. "An Early Lithic Complex from Central Florida." American
Antiquity, vol. 16, pp. 46-49. Menasha, Wisc.

GOGGIN, JOHN M., EMILY CHAPMAN, AND ROBERT SPANGENBERG
n.d. "An Everglades Midden Site." Manuscript in preparation.



GOGGIN, JOHN M., MARY E. GODWIN, EARL HESTER, DAVID PRANGE, AND
ROBERT SPANGENBERG
1949. "An Historic Indian Burial, Alachua County, Florida."
The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 10-25. Gainesville,
Fla.

GOGGIN, JOHN M., DONALD KOKOMOOR, AND EUGENE MILES
n.d. "Fort San Francisco de Pupa -- A Spanish Frontier Out-
post." Manuscript in Preparation.


n.d. 2






GOGGIN, JOHN M. AND FRANK H. SOMMER III
1949. "Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida." Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, no. 41. New
Haven, Conn.

FAIRBANKS, CHARLES H.
1949. "A General Survey of Southeastern Prehistory." In The
Florida Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor),
pp. 55-75. Winter Park, Fla.


GRIFFIN, JAMES
1949.





GRIFFIN, JOHN W
1948a.



1948b.



1949a.




1949b.



1950a.



1950b.




GRIFFIN, JOHN
1950.


GRIFFIN, JOHN
1949.


B.
"Meso-America and the Southeast: A Commentary." In The
Florida Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor),
pp. 77-99. Winter Park, Fla.


i.
"Towards Chronology in Coastal Volusia County." The
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, pp. 49-56. n.p.

"Green Mound -- A Chronological Yardstick." The Florida
Naturalist, vol. 22, pp. 1-8.

"The Historic Archeology of Florida." In The Florida
Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor), pp.
45-54. Winter Park, Fla.

"An Authentic Glass Artifact." American A tiquity, vol. 15,
pp. 56-57. Menasha, Wise.

"An Archeologist at Fort Gadsden." The Florida Historical
Quarterly, vol. 28, pp. 255-261. St. Augustine, Fla.

"Notes on the Archeology of Useppa Island." The Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 92-93. Gainesville, Fla.


W. AND RIPLEY P. BULLPEN
"The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida."
Florida Anthropological Society, Publication No. 2. Gaines-
ville, Fla.


W. AND HALE G. SMITH
"Nocoroco, A Timucua Village of 1605, Now in Tomoka
State Park." The Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 27,
pp. 340-361. St. Augustine, Fla.






ROUSE, IRVING
1949. "The Southeast and the West Indies." In The Florida
Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor), pp.
117-137. Winter Park, Fla.

n.d. A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Manuscript,
Yale Peabody Museum. New Haven, Conn.

SLEIGHT, FREDERICK W.
1949. "Notes Concerning an Historic Site of Central Florida."
The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 26-30. Gainesville,
Fla.

VOSS, GILBERT L.
1949. "An Indian Mound at Hypoluxo, Palm Beach County."
The Florida Anthrobologist, vol. 2, pp. 31-33. Gainesville,
Fla.

WATSON, VIRGINIA
1948. "Projectile Points from the Kissimmee Region." American
Antiquity, vol. 14, pp. 127-128. Menasha, Wise.

WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949a. "Excavations in Southeast Florida." Yale University Pub-
lications in Anthropology, no. 42. New Haven, Conn.

1949b. "The Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 113. Washington, D. C.

1949c. "The Southeastern United States and South America: A
Comparative Statement." In The Florida Indian and His
Neighbors (John W. Griffin, editor), pp. 101-116. Winter
Park, Fla.

1949d. "The Florida Indian and His Neighbors: A Summary." In
The Florida Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin,
editor), pp. 139-168. Winter Park, Fla.

1950. "Crystal River, Florida: A 1949 Visit." The Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 2, pp. 41-46. Gainesville, Fla.

WILLEY, GORDON R. AND RICHARD WOODBURY
1942. "A Chronological Outline for the Northwest Florida Coast."
American Antiquity, vol. 7, pp. 232-254. Menasha, Wise.

Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Florida






TESTS AT THE WHITTAKER SITE, SARASOTA, FLORIDA


Ripley P. Bullen



The Whittaker site, consisting of various mounds and shell ridges or
middens, is located where Whittaker Bayou joins Sarasota Bay in the City
of Sarasota, Florida. The midden area comprises a series of shell ridges
bordering the bay and extending a considerable distance southward from
33rd. Street (Fig. 3). Apparently, the greatest width and depth of these mid-
den deposits is situated just to the north of the mouth of the bayou. To the
east of the main portion of the midden are three mounds (Fig. 3, Nos. 2, 3,
and 4). Further to the northeast was the large Whittaker ceremonial mound
(Fig. 3, No. 1).


800


1600


FEET


Fig. 3. Plan of the Whittaker Site.






Homes now occupy most of the site and the topography has been substan-
tially modified since abandonment by Indians. The accompanying sketch map
gives an approximate idea of remains still to be seen but may not adequately
represent the situation in aboriginal times. Several roads have been omitted
from the sketch map for sake of simplicity.

In April, 1950, a bulldozer encountered three Indian skeletons while
spreading mound No. 2 (Fig. 3) preparatory to the erection of a dwelling.
Realizing the importance of such remains, Mr. Carl L. Weber, owner of the
land, stopped work and notified Mr. Karl A. Bickel of Sarasota, member of
the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials. As a result the Archaeolog-
ical Survey of the Florida Park Service tested the site to determine whether
or not the mound should be excavated before construction of the dwelling
would prevent further archaeological investigation. We are very grateful to
Mr. Weber for bringing this matter to our attention and for graciously permitting
us to make tests in the nearby shell middens. Information about other units
of the Whittaker site, secured while doing this work, has been included in
this paper for purposes of record.

WHITTAKER CEREMONIAL MOUND

The large Whittaker mound (Fig. 3, No. 1) was removed by the City of
Sarasota around 1925. Mr. J. E. Moore of Sarasota, who has for a long time
been interested in Indian remains and was present during partof the removal
of this mound, says it was built of sand and scattered shells. The mound
stood 35 feet high with a flat top and had a ramp leading towards the village
or shell midden to the west. Apparently, it had been dug into previously as
what appeared to have been an old hole, containing disarranged bones and
broken pottery, was found in the top. Otherwise, the mound was sterile except
for deposits of midden material and a pile of rocks. The latter, composed of
limestone "boulders", each about 30 inches across, was in the base of the
mound at ground level.

The Whittaker mound seems to have been similar to other flat-topped
ceremonial mounds of the Safety Harbor period on the central gulf coast of
Florida.

WEBER BURIAL MOUND
This mound (Fig. 3, No. 2) is the one in which burials were encountered
during bulldozer operations., We tested it by means of an east-west trench,
90 feet long and 10 feet wide. Due to the unconsolidated sand construction
of the mound, the trench had to be made narrower with depth to prevent cav-
ing of the walls. At a depth of 3 to 4 feet it was reduced to a width of 5 feet.
Digging was discontinued in most squares at a depth of 5 to 6 feet but four
squares were excavated to a depth of 8Y2 feet where the water table and the






surface of the underlying marl was encountered. Two additional tests, each
5 feet square, were made in the mound, one 30 feet to the southwest and the
other 40 feet to the southeast of the main trench. Smaller test holes were
also dug at four places in the surrounding land.

Before we arrived at the site, approximately 5 feet of material had been
removed from the top of the mound and distributed laterally so that the mound
appeared considerably larger than it had been originally. Apparently, most of
this material had been pushed towards the south. The elevation of the remain-
der of the mound was 5 feet higher than that of the surrounding land.

'This mound is reported by Mr. Wilmer S. Richter of the Ringling School
of Art, Sarasota, to have been about 60 feet in diameter and 10 to 12 feet in
height in 1948.1 This agrees with a previous estimate made by Mr. H. L.
Schoff.2

To the north of the mound is a pit, some 30 feet in diameter, partially
filled with water. This may have been the borrow pit or source of material
used in the construction of the Weber mound. Material may also have been
taken from the surface of land around the mound which appears to be lower
than adjacent ground.

To the east of the mound is a shallow ditch in which a small amount of
water flows from the borrow pit into Whittaker Bayou. This ditch has been
considered by some to be the remains of a canal dug by Indians. It appeared
to us to have been formed naturally by water draining from the pit.

A profile of the western part of the trench across the Weber mound is
presented in Figure 4. The upper zone of gray sand contained charcoal,
occasional fragments of Venus and Busycon shells, rarely a sherd, one projec-
tile point, a fairly large number of pebbles of fossil bone, limestone, and
ISlE IS1W IS W 1S3W I84W
GRAY SAND --

WHITE SAND


BROWN SAND
MARL
0 H 10
FEET

Fig. 4. Profile of Trench, Weber Burial Mound.

1Letter of Oct. 15, 1948, in Florida Park Service files.
2Willey, 1949, p. 344.





sandstone, and the three burials disturbed by the bulldozer. Much of this zone
appeared to have been previously disturbed.

The intermediate zone of white sand contained occasional lenses of
brownish sand, rarely a pebble, a sandstone grindstone, and one St. Johns
Simple Stamped sherd.3 The latter was at a depth of 5 feet. One or two
diffuse, narrow, horizontal bands of gray sand containing flecks of charcoal
were also present. In general, however, this white sand was essentially
sterile, archeologically.

The lower zone of brown sand rested on marl. Surface of marl, slightly
below the elevation of the water table, was 8% feet below the top of the
mound, at time of excavation. The brown sand zone was archeologically
sterile and produced no pebbles except for 22 found in a "pocket" in one
location. This basal zone is a natural formation, undisturbed by Indians,
antedating the construction of the mound. It was found in all tests of the
land surrounding the mound. Its color is, in part at least, the result of pro-
cesses which form soil profiles.

As shown on the profile (Fig. 4) Indians deposited a layer of shell and
midden debris on the western side of the mound. This deposit was found not
only in our main trench but also in the test towards the southwestern edge of
the mound. Most of the sherds excavated at the Weber mound were associated
with this deposit of midden material. To the east and southeast a similar de-
posit was not encountered.

Tests in land surrounding the mound uncovered, to the northeast and
southeast, a section from the top downward of light gray sand, 2 to 2% feet
thick, then dark gray sand, 4 to 10 inches thick, and finally brown sand, 1%
to 1% feet thick, which rested on marl. The situation to the southeast was
similar except that marly-sand separated brown sand and marl. No pebbles
were found in these tests except in the sandy-marl just mentioned.

Profiles of these tests are so similar to that of the mound as to suggest
Indians used a convenient sand dune as a base for the mound. Sand from the
surrounding land was used in the construction. Presence of many pebbles in
the upper portion of the mound suggests that sandy-marl, containing such
pebbles, was also used. Presumedly such material came from the lower part
of the borrow pit to the north of the mound. Shells and midden debris, de-
posited on the western side, may have been placed there to prevent erosion.

Specimens excavated from the Weber mound include a projectile point, a
grindstone of sandy limestone, two St. Johns Simple Stamped, one Biscayne
Check Stamped, two Biscayne Plain (chalky paste), seven plain, sand-tem-
3Griffin and Smith, 1949, pp. 346-348.


















B


INCHES




Fig. 5. Artifacts, Whittaker Site.





pered sherds made of a contorted paste, four Glades Plain sherds with Belle
Glade-like rims, and ninety Glades Plain (tempered with quartz sand) sherds
including six with simple rims.

The grindstone consists of an irregularly shaped piece of sandy limestone,
1'4 inches thick, in the top of which is a wide groove, 3/8 of an inch deep
(Fig. 5, C). This groove curves upward longitudinally as well as laterally.
The leaf-shaped projectile point with concave base is pressure chipped from
a flake of chert (Fig. 5, A).

Little can be said about the three burials from the Weber mound. Not
only had they been disturbed and partially crushed by the bulldozer but there
was a suggestion they had also been previously disturbed. All three skeletons
were of those of adults. In only one case was enough of the skull available
for any osteological comments. In this case the bones appeared to be those
of a middle-aged male with prominent brow ridges, large mastoids, thick skull
cap, and massive mandible. Both lower third molars had been lost in life.
Tooth wear, while extensive, was not extreme.

Our collection of pottery is not very helpful in an attempt to date this
mound as Glades Plain sherds are found in all known ceramic periods of the
Manatee region in which Sarasota is located. The Biscayne Check Stamped
sherd would suggest construction to have occurred during either the Weeden
Island or Safety Harbor periods. It should be mentioned that while one of the
St. Johns Simple Stamped sherds was found at a depth of 5 feet, the other
came from the top foot.

A small decorated rim sherd (Fig. 5, B), found by Mr. J. E. Moore of
Sarasota on the surface of the southern part of the mound, has an incised and
punctuated decoration extremely close to that found on Perico Incised pottery.4
This sherd differs, however, in that it is not limestone-tempered. Tht surface
is uneven, the paste flaky, and the temper, apparently, quartz sand. Based on
present theories this sherd should represent a very early ceramic period.

It will be remembered that the upper portion of the Weber mound had been
removed prior to our tests. For this reason and because the upper 1 to 3 feet
of the remaining portion appeared disturbed, we made inquiries among local
residents who might know about this mound. ffe learned it had been extensive-
ly dug over by many people in years gone by. These investigators report both
flexed and prone burials. Sometimes limestone rocks were found over or beside
the skull. Pottery, both plain and "engraved," was uncovered but none is
available for analysis.

Willey records a small collection sent to the National Museum by Mr.
4Willey, 1949, p. 365 and pl. 14, d.






Harry L. Schoff, which presumedly came from the Weber mound. This collection
includes one Safety Harbor Incised, three Pinellas Incised, eleven Pinellas
Plain, and one Biscayne Check Stamped sherds. 5 If this collection came from
the Weber mound, it was built or used, in part at least, during the Safety Harbor
period, circa 1450-1650.

OTHER MOUNDS

Two other mounds, presumedly built for burial purposes, are present at
the Whittaker site (Fig. 3, Nos. 3 and 4). One of these is a grass covered knoll
about 50 feet across and 4 feet high. It is said never to have been dug into.
The other (Fig. 3, No. 3) is at present the site of a residence. When this
mound was spread, preparatory to building the house, several skeletons were
uncovered.

SHELL MIDDENS

We dug five stratigraphic tests in the southern part of the shell middens
north of Whittaker Bayou, removing material by arbitrary one foot levels. As
definite evidence of changes in pottery styles with depth was not found,
details of provenience will not be given.

It is convenient to mention Test 1 First. This test was made in a gully
between shell ridges (Fig. 3, No. 7). Black dirt and shell, 9 inches thick,
overlay fine shell and ash, 1 foot 11 inches thick, which, in turn, overlay
shell and gray sand, 7 inches thick, which rested on greenish marly clay.
Apparently, the midden rested directly on marl at this point. Shells were
mostly those of the Venus clam plus a few Busycon and Strombus shells.
Many pebbles of fossil bone and sandy limestone as well as three sherds of
Glades Plain pottery were found.

Tests B and C were made a short distance north of the bayou (Fig. 3,
No. 6). Here the deposit consisted of whole and crushed shells Venus,
Strombus, Ostrea, and Pecten in order of frequency and ash. These tests
were discontinued at a depth of 32 feet so the base of the deposit was not
reached. Many pebbles of fossil bone and sandy limestone were encountered,
especially in the top foot. Pottery fragments from these tests, eroded and
rounded from water action, included two sherd-tempered, one sand-tempered
with laminated structure, forty-one Glades Plain, two sand-tempered with
rare limestone inclusions, and five Perico-Pasco Plain (limestone-tempered).
The latter had a relatively deep provenience. A Strombus pugilis hand hammer
and a perforated Noetia shell were found below a depth of 3 feet.

Tests A and E were located towards the south in a relatively rich part

Willey, 1949, p. 344.





of the midden (Fig. 3, No. 7). The profile consisted of 9 inches of duff and
recently accumulated material over a deposit of black dirt, ash, and whole
shells, 2% feet thick. Below was gray ashy sand, 1 foot thick, which ov:;-
lay gray, compact, marly sand. A foot deeper this deposit became "pure"
marl. Apparently, some sand was present over the marl when the growth of
the midden started at this point.

As before shellfish were represented by Venus, Strombus, Busycon and
Ostrea shells, in order of frequency. Food bones, in order of frequency, were
those of turtle, fish, deer, and bird. Fossil bone, including a fossil shark's
tooth, and pebbles of sandy limestone were abundant. One chert chip and two
columella hand hammers were found.

Pottery included one Miami Incised (?), one hundred and fifty Glades
Plain, eleven sand-tempered sherds with occasional limestone inclusions,
and two Perico-Pasco Plain sherds. Of the latter (limestone-tempered) one
was in the top foot and one in the third foot from the surface. The sherd of
Miami Incised (?) bears four or five crudely incised, parallel, slanting lines.
Sherds from the lowest zone of Test E (ashy sand) were eroded and rounded.

DISCUSSION

Tests in the Whittaker shell middens produced pottery similar to that
found in the Weber burial mound with minor exceptions. A few limestone-
tempered sherds were found in the midden but not in the mound while the
converse was true of a few chalky (Biscayne and St. Johns paste) sherds.
The percentage of such sherds is too small to believe that Indians, other
than those whose remains formed the midden, built the Weber mound (and
presumedly the other mounds at the site). However, such slight discrepancies
may reflect different chronological periods at the site.

The lack of any appreciable quantity of limestone-tempered pottery is
interesting. Willey, in tentatively setting up the Perico Island Period as the
pre-Weeden Island ceramic period of the Manatee region, defines it on the
basis of "preponderant percentages of the pottery types Glades Plain and
Perico Plain."6 Glades Plain (sand-tempered) has a very long life. He de-
fines the temper of Perico Plain as "Sand and lumps of crushed limestone."7

Lack of any appreciable quantity of limestone-tempered pottery in our
tests at the Whittaker site would, by definition, eliminate any suggestion
that this site was occupied during the Perico Island Period. However, there
is some evidence, admitedly very tenuous, which suggests such occupation.
This evidence consists in the lack of any preponderance of late pottery, the
6Willey, 1949, p. 361.
Willey, 1949, p. 364.





presence of one sherd of possible Miami Incised and of the sherd found by
Mr. Moore. The latter would unquestionably be classified as Perico Incised
if it contained any limestone tempering.

While our tests are very inconclusive, due to the size of the site, it may
be suggested that limestone tempering of pottery in much less common in the
Perico Island Period than has been thought, or is limited to an early phase of
that period. In this connection it should be noted that tests made in May,
1950, at the Perico Island site itself, while also inconclusive for various
reasons, failed to uncover any quantity of limestone-tempered pottery.8

Evidence for occupation during the Weeden Island period is also tenuous.
Mr. Chester Bullock of Sarasota, who lived at the Whittaker site as a boy and
did a lot of digging there, found plummets, stemmed points, and pottery in the
shell middens. Plummets, while not limited to a Weeden Island time horizon,
seem to have been more common during that period. Bullock says the pottery
was both check-stamped and plain. The check-stamped sherds may be Wakulla
Check Stamped and so diagnostic of Weeden Island or later times, or may be
Gulf Check Stamped and so pertain to an earlier period. The Biscayne Check
Stamped sherd from the Weber mound, unfortunately, is not too clearly marked.

There is more evidence for occupation during the Safety Harbor Period.
Large flat4opped mounds like the Whittaker ceremonial mound are typical of
that period along the Gulf Coast of Florida. The small collection of pottery
from the site, presented by Mr. Schoff to the National Museum, includes
Pinellas and Safety Harbor Incised sherds, diagnostic of the Safety Harbor
Period.

Tenuous evidence has been presented suggesting that the Whittaker site
at Sarasota may have been occupied by Indians during the Perico Island and
Weeden Island Periods, but the major occupation seems to have been during
the Safety Harbor Period. It is unfortunate to have such poor data for such
an important site. This paper must close with the all too frequent archaeol-
ogical plea for more field work--more controlled digging in the historic pages
of the earth--for data upon which definite conclusions can be based.
REFERENCES

BULLEN, RIPLEY P.
n.d. Perico Island: 1950. Manuscript in files of Florida Park
Service, Gainesville, Fla.

GRIFFIN, JOHN W., AND HALE G. SMITH
1949. "Nocoroco." The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 27,
pp. 340-361. St. Augustine, Fla.
8Bullen, n.d.






WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949. Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscel-
laneous Collections, vol. 113. Washington, D. C.


Florida Park Service
Gainesville, Florida





CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE


Karl Schmitt. Dr. Schmitt is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the
University of Oklahoma.

Ripley P. Bullen. Mr. Bullen, Assistant Archeologist for the Florida
Park Service, has been carrying out intensive work in the Tampa Bay-
Sarasota region. This present paper is one of a series of reports; another
will appear in the next issue.

John M. Goggin. Dr. Goggin is on the staff of the University of Florida.







FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS

Hale G. Smith, Department of Anthropology, Florida
State University, Tallahassee.


1st Vice President:

2nd Vice President:


Secretary:


Treasurer:


Editor:


Executive Committee:


Frederick W. Sleight, P. O. Box 94, Mt. Dora.

Lucius S. Ruder, 1102 Palmview, Bellaire Estates,
Clearwater.

Raymond Price, Department of Anthropology, Florida
State University, Tallahassee.

Ripley Bullen, Florida Park Service, Seagle Build-
ing, Gainesville.

John M. Goggin, Department of Sociology and An-
thropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

John W. Griffin, Florida Park Service, Seagle Build-
ing, Gainesville.
Albert C. Holt, 3011 Riverside Ave., Jacksonville.
Charles M. Brookfield, 4767 Paxon St., Coral Gables.


NOTICES


Address general inquiries to the Secretary. Membership is open to all inter-
ested in the aims of the Society, dues $3.00 per year. Application may be made
to the Treasurer. Address him also concerning receipt of publications.

Send all manuscripts to the Editor.


Address items for the Newsletter to the President.


President:





LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The Florida Anthropologist

Vol. I, Nos. 1-2, 3-4
Vol. II, Nos. 1-2, 3-4
Vol. 111, Nos. 1-2

Each Double Number

Members -------------------- -1.00
Non-Members ----------------- -1.50


News Letter, Florida Anthropological Society

Nos. 1-9

Each Number

-- ---- -- ----- ------ -0.15


Publications, Florida Anthropological Society

No. 1 Hale G. Smith, "Two Archeological Sites in Brevard
County, Florida" - - - -0.50

No. 2 John W. Griffin and Ripley P. Bullen, "The Safety
Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida" -0.50



These may be obtained from the Treasurer:

Mr. Ripley P. Bullen
Florida Park Service
Seagle Building
Gainesville, Florida




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