Membership Information
 Archaeological Survey in the Cape...
 The Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery...
 The Philip Mound: A Historic...
 The Zabski Site, Merritt Island,...
 The Culbreath Bayou Site, Hillsborough...
 European Trade Beads in Florid...
 Two Dredged Sites on Bear...
 Cut Wolf Jaws from Tick Island,...
 A Unique Wood Carving from Tick...
 Information for Authors
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00176
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference: Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00176
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Archaeological Survey in the Cape Coral Area at the Mouth of the Caloosahatchee River
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery Site, 8SA36
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    The Philip Mound: A Historic Site
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    The Zabski Site, Merritt Island, Florida
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    The Culbreath Bayou Site, Hillsborough County, Florida
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    European Trade Beads in Florida
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Two Dredged Sites on Bear Creek
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Cut Wolf Jaws from Tick Island, Florida
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    A Unique Wood Carving from Tick Island
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Information for Authors
        Page 181
    Table of Contents
        Page 182
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Volume 20, Nos. 3-4
September-December, 1967


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly by The Florida Anthropological Society during
March, June, September, and December. Subscription is by membership in the society for individuals inter-
ested in the aims of the society. Annual dues are $4.00; student memberships, $2.00. Requests for member-
ship and general inquiries should be addressed to the secretary; subscriptions, dues, and back issue
orders to the treasurer; newsletter items to the president; and manuscripts and books for review to the
editor. Second-class postage paid at Taolahassee, Florida.


J. Floyd Monk
1960 SW 61st Court

Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum
Gai nesville

James W. Covington
University of Tampa

Carl A. Benson
2310 Resthaven Drive

William M. Goza
Box 246

Roger T. Grange, Jr.
University of South Florida

David S. Phelps
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida 32306

L. Ross Morrel!
Florida Board of Archives
and History; Tallahassee

Noel P. Herrmann
6267 SW 12th Street

David S, Phelps
Florida State University


Yulee W. Lazarus
Box 29-
Fort Walton Beach

Cliff E. Mattox
Box 521
Cocoa Beach

Charlton W. Tebeau
University of M arT
Coral Gables


Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum
Gainesv, le


EditCial Review Co r- tree
Robert C. Dailey
Florida State Ur versity
L. Ross Morrel!
Fior;da Board of Arch ves and H sacr

tan ey J. (jsen
Florida Geologica



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ime may be purchased from the Treasurer of the

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William H. Sears

In July of 1966, the Department of Anthropology at
Florida Atlantic University surveyed shoreline property at
the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River in Lee County, Florida
for, and primarily at the expense of, the Gulf American Cor-
poration. The area surveyed (Fig. 1) ran from the west end
of their presently developed area downstream on the Calo-
osahatchee, and then north up Matlacha Pass to the Highway
78 bridge. The corporation wished to know what prehistoric
sites were on their land in order to plan future development
in such a way as to avoid loss of historical values.

This Department thanks the Gulf American Corporation
for their substantial financial and other support. We are
obligated to them even further for their attitude toward ir-
replaceable prehistoric remain'. We can only hope that this
attitude will be emulated by other land development corpo-

Part of our interest in the area arises from our cur-
rent large scale research project up stream, in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. We are trying to work out, through exca-
vation and survey, the outlines of major prehistoric devel-
opments in that area. Indians in the Lake Okeechobee Basin
were part of a political system, a conquest state apparently
existing in the 16th and 17th centuries, with the Calusa of
the Southwest Florida coast at its head. The chief town of
the Calusa in the 16th and 17th centuries was in the Fort
Myers area.

There is evidence, in our Okeechobee area excavations
and elsewhere, for contact between the Calusa and the lake-
dwelling peoples going back as far as the birth of Christ.
We need, in our project, to know something about these
coastal peoples.


Our knowledge of this area is woefully scant. Data
available include brief descriptions of a large number of
sites, of which some 20 are on shorelines of the bays and

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


SO I0 2 miles
Fig. 1. Map of the survey area. X's represent approximate
site locations.

sounds at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River. Fully use-
able data is available from only 12 of these. The greatest
number of sites, properly located and adequately collected,
is to the south in Everglades National Park. To the north a
few miles, Ripley P. Bullen excavated 5 sites on Cape Haze
Peninsula, and reported on collections from 3 more (Bullen
1956). Most of what we do know about the Southwest Florida
Coast consists of data on pottery type occurrence in time
and space.

South of our area, where decorated pottery of the
Glades sequence is more common, the culture outline is as

Dates Periods Diagnostic Pottery Decorations

300 B.C. Glades I Glades Plain, St. Johns Plain

300 A.D.-850
A.D. Glades II Incised lines, dashes, ticks

850 A.D.-1715 Tooled rims, St. Johns Check
A.D. Glades III Stamped

(Sequence based on Goggin 1947; dates adapted from
Bullen 1965: 306.)

Bullen found almost no sherds of these decorated types
in the Cape Haze area. Most of the few decorated sherds he
had to work with related to cultures to the north, and these
are predominantly, as are ours, from the late period. Gen-
erally, however, both the Cape Haze and Caloosahatchee area
cultures made most of their pottery in the form of plain
open bowls, which certainly makes the task of the archaeolo-
gist more difficult.


Survey, using a small aluminum boat and an outboard
motor as the primary means of transportation, was performed
by Kurt Peterson and Donald Harris under my direction in the
month of July, 1966. Their instructions, which they carried
out very well, were to thoroughly investigate all of the
shoreline area described in the introduction to this report.
When sites were found, a collection was made, a sketch map
produced with tape and compass control, and the location of
the site was accurately tied down on maps and the site cards

There were several difficulties. Virtually all of the
shore line was littered with shells, and careful investiga-
tion was required to determine if a beach ridge of shells

was a natural deposit or an archaeological site. Collec-
tions required a great deal of time, since sherds were ex-
tremely scarce. To complicate things further, sites were
uniformly covered with a thick undergrowth which included
many species of annoying, and even dangerous, plants with
thorns and sharp spikes.

Sites in Lee County

The following six archaeological sites are located on
shoreline areas owned by, or adjacent to, Cape Coral prop-
erty. Two other large sites in the area were visited and
collected to provide additional comparative information.
They are discussed at the end of this section.

Full locations, descriptions, and other pertinent
information on all sites, generally located in Fig. 1, are
available in the main and regional files of the Florida
Archaeological Survey* at the University of Florida and
Florida Atlantic University. They may be consulted by
qualified investigators. Representative ceramic types from
the survey sites are shown in Fig. 2.


A very large shell midden, although, like others in
this area, not especially high. It has been somewhat eroded
by wave action. The site forms an angle as it follows the
shoreline. One leg of the angle is 146' long; the other


Sand-tempered plain (includes 2 excep-
tionally thick sherds) 51

Belle Glade Plain 4

Jefferson Ware. Typical rim with
notched fold base, clay and grit
tempered 1

Total 56

*Editor's Note: The main files of the Florida Archaeolo-
gical Survey are maintained by the State Archaeologist at
the Florida Board of Archives and History, Tallahassee;
regional files are maintained at Florida State University,
the University of Florida, the Florida State Museum, and
Florida Atlantic University.

The Jefferson rim dates from the 17th or 18th cen-
turies. However, the lack of Pinellas Plain ware, a late
period marker for the west coast of Florida Which turns up
in other of our collections, suggests a general lack of late
occupation. Belle Glade Plain is clear evidence of contact
with the Lake Okeechobee Basin, which includes the upper


An elongated shell ridge, 594' long but only about 30'
wide. It is eroded on the beach side.


Sand-tempered plain 18

St. Johns Check Stamped 1

Pinellas Plain 6

Total 25

The Pinellas Plain is late, dating to the 15th or 16th
century. St. Johns Check Stamped gives us a minimum date of
about 1,000 A.D. (Bullen 1965), and continuous use of the
site from then into the 15th century is a reasonable assump-


Another long, narrow midden, somewhat curved due to
the shape of the beach. Dimensions are 700' and 405' on the
two legs. Widths at two spots are 80' and 66'. Twenty-six
sherds were found, with the following type distribution.


Sand-tempered plain (may include
several eroded Belle Glade Plain) 16

Belle Glade Plain 6

Pinellas Plain 3

Incised, single line, sand-
tempered 1

Total 26

The quantity of Pinellas Plain suggests intensive
15th-16th century occupation. Belle Glade Plain again dem-
onstrates contact with the interior, perhaps a rather inten-
sive contact since it is a quarter of the collection.


This is the largest site discovered. It extends for
1,820' along the shoreline, although it averages only 50' in
width. In spite of its size, the heavy cover, lack of ero-
sion, and the normal difficulty of finding specimens in
shell middens, combined to produce a collection of only 7


Sand-tempered plain 7

This small collection could represent any period in
this area.


A badly wave-eroded midden, with shell and artifacts
extending out into the water. It is 1,092' long, but only
about 30' wide in that part above normal tide action.


Sand-tempered plain 42

Pinellas Plain 43

Total 85

The Pinellas Plain sherds have a definitely contorted
fracture, and large quantities of coarse grit and/or clay
temper. Its quantitative presence (50% of the collection)
demonstrates a late dating for this deposit, probably fif-
teenth century. It is surprising that some Glades culture
decorated types such as Glades Tooled were not included,
since they are present in the area.


This site is separated from L-91 by a narrow creek.
Total length of the site, which is L-shaped with frontage on
both the creek and the bay, is 108'. The width reaches 108'
at one point.


Sand-tempered Plain 39

Pinellas Plain 3

Glades Tooled 3

Total 45

The L-91 comments with respect to Pinellas Plain apply
here too. The quantity is lower, but a late, 15th or 16th
century, placement is also suggested by the Glades Tooled

Fig. 2. Pottery types from the survey sites. 1, Belle
Glade Plain; 2, sand-tempered plain; 3, Jefferson
Ware rim; 4, Jefferson Complicated Stamped; 5,
Glades Tooled rim; 6, St. Johns Check Stamped.

No other sites were found, and I am quite certain that
very few, if any, exist. The survey covered the mainland
shoreline all the way up Matlacha Pass to the Highway 78
bridge. There are beach-edge shell ridges in many spots on
the mainland side of the pass, but all of them appear to be

C 9. ,.
Be. n
;.r i.
i .: c
-' ~.C
) 5~ cc,


natural deposits. Apparently, the fresher water of the
river mouth produced more shell fish. A similar situation
appears to exist at Cape Haze (Bullen 1956: Fig. 1).


Large Sites

There are two large sites of particular importance in
this river mouth-bay region. The largest one, on a key some
distance away, is almost certainly the historic 16th century
capital town of the Calusa Indians, and was a major port of
call for Spanish ships in the 16th and 17th centuries. The
other, essentially across the Bay from the Cape Coral prop-
erties, appears to be an earlier site with a considerable
amount of ceremonial usage.

Historic Site

Structures and midden cover almost the entire key.
Several mounds are included.

Collection: (Combines several available collections, but
not all of which are in existence.)

Spanish olive jar 3

Other European utility ware 1

Sand-tempered plain 25

Pinellas Plain 5

Jefferson Complicated Stamped 2

Leon Check Stamped 1

Jefferson Ware rims 4

Belle Glade Plain 4

St. Johns Plain 1

Total 46

Other collections include more of the 16th and 17th
century Spanish and Indian sherds and artifacts. All of the
above collection could be historic; the plain wares are not
in undue proportion for such temporal assignment. It is of
course at least possible, and almost probable, that there is
some fully pre-contact occupation.


Prehistoric Site

This is a large complex which includes a sizeable sand
mound, estimated to be 90' by 14'. Around it are obvious
midden areas, and some shell deposits interpreted as cause-
ways. Historic materials have been found at the site, but
the sherd collections, insufficiently quantifiable for pres-
entation here, suggest predominantly prehistoric usage, per-
haps centering around the 10th century as the most probable
period of mound construction and use.

Other Sites

There are many sites in this area listed in the state-
wide survey files. Most of them are shoreline midden
deposits comparable to those located in our survey. Unfor-
tunately, we have usable sherd counts for only 12 of these.
Generally, they suggest the same cultures and culture
periods as do the sites located in our survey. Glades Plain
or, the preferable term used herein, sand-tempered plain,
runs from 90 to 100 percent in most of the collections. The
later periods are represented by Pinellas Plain and St.
Johns Check Stamped. Collections with 50 or more sherds
usually have a few specimens of Belle Glade Plain. An early
period of occupation is documented by a few fiber-tempered
or semi-fiber-tempered sherds at two of these sites. A few
Spanish olive jar sherds at several sites indicate some
usage after the middle of the 16th century.


Six archaeological sites in the Cape Coral area, all
shell middens of considerable size, show aboriginal occupa-
tion from the 10th through the 17th centuries. A starting
date is uncertain, due mostly, I suspect, to the lack of
stylistic variation in the indigenous pottery of the lower
west coast. Our comparatively small collections may also be
a contributing factor. Since nearby sites have fiber-
tempered or semi-fiber-tempered sherds suggesting an occupa-
tion starting at least by 700 to 800 B.C., it is possible
that the lower levels of some of our sites begin this early

Most of them have some evidence for contact upstream
with the Lake Okeechobee Basin in the form of Belle Glade
Plain sherds, which are the characteristic pottery of the
Belle Glade Culture area. There are also Pinellas Plain
sherds which suggest contact with the Tampa Bay area center
for this ware, and a few sherds of the more southerly Glades
area type, Glades Tooled. These people were not then cut
off from the rest of the world, primitive shell fishers
though they may have been.



As work continues in south Florida, the number of dis-
tinctive culture areas increases. Culture area outlines
which appeared perfectly satisfactory a few years ago, with
the data then available, are no longer fully useful. It is
now clear that the Glades area, as defined twenty years ago
by John Goggin (1947), included far too much. Later sub-
divisions too have their faults.

For our purposes, it appears that the mouth of the
Caloosahatchee River was, for one to two thousand years, the
center for a culturally distinct area which runs north to
somewhere between Cape Haze and Tampa Bay. To the south, we
are in a different area by the time we reach Key Marco. The
Lake Okeechobee Basin, including some part of the South
Kissimmee drainage, is clearly another culture area.

This is not the place to go into detail. This discus-
sion is intended only to point out that the "Glades" is not
a single culture area and that generalizations from one part
of the area as defined cannot be applied, or tested, else-
where. To understand the prehistory of the lower Caloosa-
hatchee, we are going to have to do archaeology there. The
Cape Coral sites are, from this point of view, important,
promising, and deserve investigation.


Bullen, Ripley P.

1965 Florida's Prehistory, In Florida from Indian
Trail to Space Age, Vol. I, pp. 308-316. South-
ern Publishing Company. Delray Beach.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen

1956 Excavations on Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences, No. 1. Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.

1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological
Areas and Periods in Florida. American Antiquity,
Vol. 13, No. 2. Menasha.

Department of Anthropology
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida



Yulee W. Lazarus, W. C. Lazarus, and Donald W. Sharon

The cemetery site on the Navy Liveoak Reservation near
Gulf Breeze, Florida, appears to represent the peak of Fort
Walton culture in its aboriginal state immediately preceding
European contact. Based on a report by Lazarus (1959), such
a site was believed to be near the ten middens on Santa Rosa
Sound east of Pensacola. The materials predicated an un-
usual cemetery adjacent to the area. During 1965 the mate-
rials recovered by Mr. and Mrs. Don Sharon and children
under supervision of Bill Lazarus for the Temple Mound Mus-
eum of Ft. Walton Beach have proven of considerable worth in
assaying the culture of a late Ft. Walton occupation. The
writer here presents notes from the Lazarus files and field
notes and reports of the excavators. It appears that rem-
nant groups of aborigines lived in the area and reached a
peak in their ceremonial culture evidenced by the practices
apparent in the cemetery.


Scientific excavation of an untouched aboriginal ceme-
tery site is a goal in archaeology. Almost all cases of
burial recovery for information of culture practices are
preceded by amateur digging which spoils the purity of mod-
ern technical approach. The Navy Liveoak Reservation ceme-
tery site was found 1.6 miles east of the Pensacola Beach
overpass along U. S. Highway 98 and about 200 yards north of
the water's edge of Santa Rosa Sound. It is occupied by the
Girl Scout Council and used as a camp area. The site is
northeast of the foundations of an old house which sat on
the bluff overlooking the water. The area is roughly two
acres in size and abounds in oak and numerous hickory and
magnolia trees with thin underbrush. The terrain is gen-
erally flat and on the west side of a gradual slope. Possi-
bly it was originally typical of many other sites in having
low rises scattered over the area similar to minor mounds
formed by particular burials and their offerings. Scattered
digging areas prohibited exact survey of the area prior to
excavation. The Reservation has been owned by the U. S.
Government and State of Florida and has been under litiga-
tion. In 1956 the Council gave W. C. Lazarus permission to
conduct archaeological surveys and excavations and his

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


report on the Ten Middens followed. The soil is gray sand
with a humus level about 6" below the surface. Predomi-
nantly the soil was more or less uniform with some lensing
down to the 3 1/2 foot level where the typical yellow sand
common to the Northwest Florida coast is encountered. Below
this level seemed to be undisturbed and sterile. Of the ten
village sites in that report, the principal concern here is
with 8Sall and 8Sal2. The latter is inland from the shore
while 8Sall is adjacent but overlooking the sound. 8Sall
produced trade goods as well as aboriginal materials. The
comparison of materials from these two major sites evidences
an influence among some of the villagers of outside ethnic
practices. Site 8Sa36 appeared to be the cemetery and the
nearest to an untouched site yet available.

In the course of the first few days the Sharons dis-
covered that each time they visited the site it was more and
more potholed and they encountered as many as 30 individuals
at one time collecting and digging, some with handaxes. A
concentrated effort was then prompted to recover, with
records, as much material as possible. It is believed that
although other people may have a large collection of arti-
facts from the site the collection made by the Sharons with
the records kept concurrently with digging will provide a
complete and significant report of the site 8Sa36. It was
soon evident that any pit had to be completed the same day
or would not be recognizable the next trip.

The map layout of the pits and the materials recovered
leads to the conclusion they were working the central area
of the cemetery. Other dig areas add to the known size of
the area (Fig. 1). Report of some of these other artifacts
is included in this report where information was reliable.
The 20 pits which were excavated were controlled in size and
location by trees and disturbed areas of previous diggers.
The most productive pits were contiguous, with the outlying
productive pits separated from the central pits by disturbed
areas probably productive for someone else. A good quantity
of materials were recovered from the major portion and the
ceremonial procedure seems to have been the same pattern as
evident in other ceremonial sites--human remains deposited
in the lower level, some fire, some offering, crowned by a
layer of sherds near the perimeter. The burials were all at
the 28" to 40" levels. The sherds were heaviest at the 3"
to 18" levels and the offering either intact or reconstruct-
able averaged at the 17" level.

Dominant factors of importance in 8Sa36 include the
bundle burial of a child, trade goods of late 17th and very
early 18th century, miniature funerary bottles of exotic
ceramic craft combination, and a unique, black drink, three-
bowl stacking. Individually these factors would be consid-


ered of interest, and collectively they make 8Sa36 an im-
portant Ft. Walton Culture site.

+ burial
9 burial with inverted pot
0 ceramic vessel


0 5 10 15 20


Fig. 1. Excavated area at 8Sa36.


A generalized appraisal of other cemetery sites of
this culture period gives us a rather impressive list of
material affinities. Among the more than 50 sites in the
general area there are six major cemeteries. All of them



show a florescense of the culture in pottery grave goods
and have similarities as well as individual uncommon items.
These are Pt. Washington 8W133, Hogtown Bayou 8W150, Alaqua
Bayou 8W130, Holly Branch 80k35, Temple Mound 80k6m, and
Bear Point iBal. All of these share the similarity of sand
and shell tempering in varying ratio, blackware (some pol-
ished) in both tempers, Moundville Engraved, and Hogtown
Bayou Epigonal which Fairbanks (1965: 259) dates as late Ft.
Walton Culture, A.D. 1650 1710. All of them have a craft
technique which bespeaks of individuality in execution in a
few vessels. Two of the sites, 80k6m and 80k35, do not seem
to have European trade materials, and they are considered of
a slightly earlier vintage. Of the European trade materials
present it is of interest to point out that there are no
ceramics of any kind. Iron, copper, silver, and glass make
up the items showing European contact.It may not be amiss to
assume explorer contact, in contrast to mission, in this
case. In summary, the sites with European contact have the
most florescent pottery manufacture and ceremonial prac-
tice, as pointed out in the Fairbanks report.


The grave goods recovered at site 8Sa36 compare favor-
ably with the accepted practices of the culture. The black
drink bowls deserve first examination. These three small
bowls were stacked together, the smallest set within a bowl
and both capped by the one on top (Fig. 2). They were sit-
ting upright at a level of 6". The lower bowl is black
Pensacola series incised, globular in shape. Rim diameter
is 4", maximum diameter 5", and 3 1/4" deep. The rim is
notched and the design encircles the bowl 1 1/2" deep below
the rim. It is similar to the Ft. Walton running scroll,
more or less stylized, and in 2 and 3 line execution. It is
impact-killed from the inside. Nested halfway in this bowl
was the smallest bowl, not killed, and decorated with the
same design in 1" depth and 3 and 4 line execution. It,
too, is Pensacola series black ware with notched rim of
3 1/2" diameter. Maximum diameter is 4" and depth 2 1/4".
The inside surface is gray buff and a brown line left from a
liquid is clearly evident. It shows the bowls were not sit-
ting exactly level. The third bowl was inverted over the
black drink container completely. It is similar ware with a
rim diameter of 4 1/4" and maximum diameter of 5", impact
killed from the inside. Its pattern of 1 1/2" depth is dif-
ferent from the others in that the design is composed of 4
half-circles nested upright from the incised line around the
line of maximum diameter and executed in 4 line incising.
Still evident on all three bowls is a residue of what must
have been pink paint or paste rubbed over the surface. When
the details of ceramic technique in manufacture are consid-
ered it is difficult to decide whether or not the designs
were cut into a sun dried surface before firing or engraved


Fig. 2. Stacked Pensacola In-
cised vessels. Max.
dia. of lower speci-
men is 5".

after firing. The lines in
general are wider and deep-
er than the accepted en-
graving apparent on other
pottery of the area, yet
the cutting of the lines
have chipped the edges of
the incisions and it is
certain the work was not
done on soft paste. Per-
haps these should be called
shell tempered Hogtown Bay-
ou Epigonal. At any rate,
it is clear evidence of a
highly ceremonial black
drink offering. The black
drink was a ritual for men
only, to cleanse body and
soul and to remove sin and
cement friendships (Kne-
berg and Lewis 1960: 117).
These bowls could have been
the possession of the in-
terred individual (Funda-
burk and Foreman 1957: 13).
Because of the numerous
collectors at this site it
is not possible to know if
this was directly associa-
ted with a burial, though
the burials recovered for
the museum were at a deeper
level. There was another
bowl in direct association,
recovered at the same time.
It is a Pensacola series
low bowl, tan, not killed,
and intact. A 1 1/2" pat-
tern of inverted triangles
encircles the bowl below
the rim (diameter 6") and
opposite each other are the
tail and combed head of a
bird effigy. Its depth is
2 3/4".

Ceramic miniature funerary bottles were associated
with burials and although the ones recovered at this site
are of better than average quality they deserve recognition
if only for quantity. Moore reports bottles of similar de-
sign and use (Moore 1901: 425). At the Bear Point site
reference is made to at least ten blackware vessels, one of


them a bottle with white paste inlay, which probably fits
the definition of Hogtown Bayou pottery design, though he
does not identify temper. At the Point Washington site, now
called Choctawhatchee Beach 8W133, he found four bottles in
all but only one seems to have had white paste inlay (Moore
1901: 475-477). Three of the four bottles were with the re-
mains of 17 individuals. In the mound near Jolly Bay (Moore
1918: 461), he found a bottle which had a few vertebrae of a
child inside and he identified this bottle as Moundville En-
graved. At 8Sa36 two caches of six blackware, shell temper-
ed bottles were found in what appears to be the central
burial area. Some have matching layout of design pattern
and others are individual in design, yet all with the cer-
tain similarity lent by shape, size, color, and craftwork.
Each cache was in an upright position. Six were lined up on
the north side of Pit 5 to the east, and the other six were
bunched on the east side of Pit 5 amidst several burials but
not in direct association (touching) with any of them. The
diameters run the gamut from 7/8" to 1 1/2" on the rims, 2"
to 3" maximum diameter, and depth from 2 1/4" to 3 3/8".
Incorporated in the designs is an unusual elongated circle
used on the majority of the bottles and not common among Ft.
Walton Culture designs (Fig. 3). Line drawing is mostly 3-
line and encircle or half circle the bowl areas. Decoration
covers the whole bowl area. At the base of each neck two

Fig. 3. Miniature bottles. Incised lines in the polished
black surfaces are filled with pink paste.


drilled holes opposite each other appear to be for suspen-
sion. Each bottle is prekilled before completion of the
shaping--in other words, the slant of the cut in the wet
clay is from the inside at an angle that could not have been
done with the constricted necks in place. Most of the kill
holes are a half inch diameter except in the smallest bases
and they exceed 1/4". The incising or engraving could have
been of higher quality; scratch marks occasionally show a
slip of the tool. Yet the polish of the black ware, the
elaborateness of the design, and the pink paste filling must
have made of them a highly prized ceremonial offering. Much
of the sherd count from the pits show a great use of the
pink paint, or slip, on other bowls.

Ceramic goods of museum quality also include the fol-
lowing: Eight large globular casuela bowls of 10" 15" rim
diameter. Three of these are Moundville Engraved or similar
ware, with typical Ft. Walton Culture running scroll design,
and the fourth the same design but in buff red slip finish.
Three of the other four are Pensacola series incised ware
and pink or red slipped, two with the foot design combined
with the tilde. The third is a stylized running scroll.
The fourth of these is a dark gray paste, Ft. Walton Incised
bowl with stylized four-finger hands. All eight are killed.
One small, globular bowl of Pensacola series incised black-
ware has a 4" rim diameter and the foot design; it was not
killed. One small Pensacola series plain ware miniature
bowl has a four noded rim of 4" and was killed. The total
fine ware, recovered by the Sharons, is 26. Two other bowls
were viewed by the Sharons. One is approximately 12" in
diameter and semiglobular with a frog effigy in the design
pattern around the upper one third of the bowl. The line of
maximum diameter is expanded with a rope-like pinching
treatment. It has a mottled-color finish and is shell tem-
pered. Another bowl is a beaker in buff color. One other
plain bowl examined by the Lazarus' is discussed with buri-
als. In addition, three bird effigies, an eagle effigy, 4
adornos, and a dipper handle testify to other broken bowls,
or at least to more grave offerings.

Pound weight of sherds per pit adds up to nearly 150
pounds. Surface collection of sherds left by the numerous
collectors weeks after the area was more or less completely
"worked" by everyone amount to another 65 pounds. The pre-
ponderance of shell temper ware fulfills the characteristic
of'8Sall and 8Sal2 and averages to a ratio of three to one.
Of the whole bowls recovered (29 discussed herein) 23 were
filmed in either red or pink on blackware and/or buff, 19 of
these on blackware base.



To date this site does not seem to have produced the
hundred bowls accounted for at 8W130 and 8W133, and possibly
8W150. It may or may not be an exhausted site as to exca-
vation. However, the few unique features it has surely
identifies it as one of the sites with advanced ceremonial
practices. Thirteen distinct burials are on record and two
of these were unique. One may be classed as an urn burial
without an urn in that the skull was placed on a platter of
considerable size. We had occasion to view this burial but
not the opportunity to take any measurements. A small plain
shell tempered bowl was inverted over the skull but it was
too small to cover the crania and sat more as a hat on the
head. The crania was thin and white and was possibly an
adult female. The bowl, not killed, was recovered in excel-
lent condition. It was found at a shallow depth adjacent to
one of the Sharon pits and should be counted among the cen-
tral area burials. We count it as Burial 11.

The other burial was a child's bundle burial in Pit 5,
listed as Burial 4. The bundle contained a rib, scapula,
about half of one humerus, and 13 teeth including 8 molars
and a shovel shape incisor. Analysis determined the age at
death to be approximately eight years. The bones were in a
better state of preservation because of a brass disk (Fig.
4a) which had obviously been placed over the chest within
the bundle. The disk is round, 10.2 cm in diameter, with a
true round hole in the center of 3.3 cm diameter. Maximum
thickness is 3-5 thousandths of an inch. Corrosion causes
this to vary. There are no decorations or coherent scratch-
ing on the disk on either side. On one side there is an en-
crustation of shell strongly adhered. Magnification clearly
shows impressions of cloth weaving (Fig. 4b). Shell in poor
condition was recovered from this area and leads one to be-
lieve the burial contained a shell pendant over the brass
disk, all wrapped in a fabric shroud for interment. Rains,
acid from the oak trees, and other natural elements trans-
ferred the fabric impression to the shell residue. The cop-
per and zinc salts excellently preserved the human bones be-
neath it in the bundle. They have a dark green color. Four
tiny shell beads, 5 large shell beads, 4 glass beads, a
large sherd, and a spall from an iron pot were also in asso-
ciation. The origin of a brass disk of this size may be
difficult to establish. It could be part of a ship. It
must definitely be of European origin. Brass disks of half
the size have been found elsewhere (Smith 1956: 28).

Burial 1 was uncovered at a depth of 18" in Pit 4. It
was a single skull with a massive mandible, possibly a male
of 40 50 years of age. The face features were missing but
the crania had evidence of occipital flattening and had a
cephalic index of 100+. In association were copper frag-
ments, iron fragments, and flint chips. Inverted over it


was a large, Moundville Engraved casuela bowl already dis-

Fig. 4a.

Brass disc
Burial 4.
10.2 cm.

Fig. 4b. Magnification of fa-
bric impression ad-
hering to back of

Burial 2 was also in Pit 4 and was at the 26" level.
It was an assortment of cranial and jaw bones, one bone 3 -
4 inches in length, and 7 teeth. In direct association were
5 shell beads, an iron fragment (possibly a hoe or tomahawk)
and 7 sherds from 3 bowls. The bones were in such a state
of decomposition they will be reinterred. Two feet away
at the 20" depth was a burned log from which a carbon sample
was taken for dating purposes. At the 40" level and near
the southern wall of Pit 4 was Burial 3, composed of verte-
brae, large skull fragments, and one rib bone. In assoc-
iation were 65 disk-like shell beads and 3/4 of a shell pen-
dant showing two suspension holes. It was two feet from the


pot-over-skull Burial 1. Burial 4 is the bundle burial al-
ready discussed. Just a few inches from the child burial
and at the same 28" level was a single skull, Burial 5, face
down and with no grave goods associated.

Pit 5 was extended east four feet to the edge of a
disturbed area. Immediately adjacent to Pit 5 and in the
northwest corner at the 28" level was a single skull, Burial
6, half of which was completely decomposed beyond recovery.
A small conch shell was associated with it and inches away
at the 26" level the Sharons found one cache of 6 bottles.
One had apparently shifted in the bank but the other 5 were
roughly in a north-south row. Other human remains and char-
coal were present but are not considered a separate burial
for lack of sufficient evidence. The north end of this pit
had a heavy concentration of sherds at the 3 6" level.
Extending Pit 5 north they found the other cache of bottles
in a cluster at the 30" level near a few teeth of a child.
The two caches of bottles and the single burials seem to
form a half circle pattern east of the child bundle burial.

Extending Pit 4 eastward for 8 feet forms Pit 11. Two
feet apart at the 30" and 32" levels were two more burials.
Burial 7, at 30"', was of skull and long bones in badly de-
composed condition. A bowl had been inverted over the skull
but root action had broken it badly, as well as shifted the
position of bones and pottery. A hematite hone, chert chips
and iron fragments were also in association and it is possi-
ble the remains were of more than one individual. Burial 8,
at 32", consisted of skull and long bones and was also badly
decomposed. Vessel rim sherds, a worked shell object, large
shell bead, 7 glass beads, iron fragments and chert chips
were associated. Fragmentary remains which potentially are
actual burials were in three areas. In Pit 14 there were
bone splinters and, in a row as though left from a decayed
mandible, a number of teeth, Burial 9. In addition there
was a chert chip and charcoal, and a bird effigy, all at the
30" level. In Pit 15, under a large sherd at the 29" level,
were skull fragments and face plate pieces stained green, 2
teeth and 2 ball ends of long bones, giving the impression
of a burial with brass or copper object since disintegrated.
There were also iron fragments, charcoal, bits of shell, and
a bird effigy. We count this as Burial 10. Burial 11 has
been discussed. In Pit 5 extension north were some child's
teeth and fragments of two shell pendants, fragments of long
bones with charcoal and fragments of a skull and teeth--all
at the 28" level and scattered. With circumspection we call
this Burial 12. In Pit 11 there were numerous long bones in
very poor condition which gave an overall impression of a
possible mass burial.

To our knowledge four other possible identifiable
burials were uncovered, but were not in condition for much


information, and were discarded. Grave goods in association
is not known. Excepting the mass burial possibility, this
brings the burials to a total of 16. A cautious estimate of
a total of individuals represented at the cemetery, includ-
ing scattered fragments encountered by the Sharons, would
not be over 20-25. However, of the total area which has
been dug, the 20 pits herein represent about one third of
the area.


Beads--One more feature points to the site as one that is
unusual. This is the presence of more than 40 European
trade beads (Fig. 5). Seven representative examples of our
40 beads were selected for classification by Dr. Charles
Fairbanks. The general time period falls from 1650-1735
(C. H. Fairbanks, personal communication). There are 17
translucent dark blue beads with 4 longitudinal stripes in
opaque white or white and red (A.D. 1600-1725, both French
and Spanish sites). A small chevron bead is multilayer
crafting and is more expensive (A.D. 1650-1700). The oddity
is the Seminole-like blue faceted bead (post A.D. 1750),
but its presence here may establish an earlier manufacture.
Two dark blue beads have 10 longitudinal white stripes.
Four plain blue beads are patinated and look like jade.
There are 5 Ichtucknee plain beads more common on Spanish
mission sites, the type found sing.y at 8W150 (Fairbanks
1965: 259). The lavender bead was found within one of the
bottles--either intentionally put there, or a fortuitous
happenstance over the years. Shell beads were numerous--76
in all. Four are considered relatively average but 68 are
large. Four are the tiny ones with the child burial, and
are less than 1/2 cm in size. The Sharons are to be com-
mended to have recovered such small items.

Miscellaneous Grave Goods--One shell spoon in good condition
is 4" by 4 1/4" and fits under the right thumb with ease.
The shell pendant with Burial 2 has two notches on each side
at the top for suspension. Considerable other shells and
shell fragments, some tool worked, were recovered but have
not yet been restored for identification or cannot be assem-
bled. Most of the miscellany have been included in burial
associations except the presence of hematite in three in-
stances, and one hematite hone. A flint chip, 4 chert
chips, chert scrapers, broken shell objects added to the
previously listed quartzite axe possibility, 3 iron spikes,
knife or sword fragment, and other iron fragments testify to
additional grave goods. The presence of charcoal is a con-
tinual listing in the field notes.


I I l 211 13

Fig. 5. Trade beads from 8Sa36.


There are numerous possibilities to be considered re-
garding the source of these trade materials and the source
of the aboriginal culture not exactly typical of Ft. Walton
Culture as seen in other sites. Killed pottery vessels and
bundle burials are reported in several other places. Moore
considered the killing practice as coming out of peninsular
Florida and the blackware from Mississippi and Alabama.
Lazarus (1965: 223) agrees with Smith's "speculative dating
(late 16th century) for the comparable cemeteries at Hogtown
Bayou and Point Washington." However, the coin from 8W130
admittedly showed pitting and wear on one side in consider-
able excess, and suggests the possibility of having been
worn as an ornament for some extensive time before burial.
The possibility of middle or late 17th century before burial
cannot be ignored. During the late 17th century the Spanish
were in and out of Pensacola Bay frequently. In 1686 Juan
Jordan mentions his visit to the village of the "Panzacola"
Indians (Manucy 1959: 227). Pez and Siguenza were there in
1693 and referred to the "insignificant Indian tribe resi-
dent nearby." (Ford 1939: 22). There is a possibilitythat


Robledad was at Tom King Bayou (8Sa34) in 1693 according to
records in the Pensacola Historical Museum (Lazarus 1959).
Arriola was there in 1695 and again in 1698. The Indian
population was small, apparently due to telling blows ad-
ministered by the Mobiles. Arriola had three priests who
would have attempted contact with the natives. Arriola's
letter regarding the local population refers to gifts of
glass beads, knives, fabrics, and other presents (Manucy
1959: 235). At 8W150 Florida State University found an
Ichtucknee Blue Bead, the same as five of them at 8Sa36
(Fairbanks 1965: 259).

At first glance the cemetery at 8Sa36 posed the possi-
bility of being the burial ground of the Indians dealing
with Santa Rosa Pensacola (8Es22) of A.D. 1720-1752. A re-
view of the materials discards the idea due to the absence
of majolica and other trade goods which should have exchang-
ed hands, and the extreme paucity of brushed ware. Though
both have shell temper ware, there is no Hogtown Bayou pot-
tery at 8Es22 (Stacy 1965: 128). The time dating of the
site is proposed as late 17th century and possibly about
A.D. 1710, the end of the Hogtown Bayou Epigonal period.
This is based on the ware typical of other cemeteries, with
the additional exotic ware and/or ceremonial practice cited.
The remnant population from tribal forays and from Moore's
raid of A.D. 1704, almost isolated on the shores of the
sound, still could have had contact intermittently with the
Spanish as ships hovered in the bay and in the sound. Some
evidence of mission contact is present with the mission
beads, perhaps survivors from the Apalache. The religious
peak evident in the black drink deposit and the unusual bot-
tle designs correlates with the religious flareup of the
death cult originating in Alabama--or originating on the
sound and moving north into Alabama.


Grateful thanks are extended for aid in excavation to
Elston Fagan, Mrs. John Black and John Black, Jr., Major and
Mrs. Ben Eubanks and Marie, Jack Webb, and Laurence Owen;
and for aid in preparation of this report to Dr. Charles
Fairbanks, Mr. Harry Hilton, Pensacola Medical Center, and
Vandegriff's Jewelers.


Charles H. Fairbanks
1965 Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound,
1960. The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XVIII,
No. 4. Gainesville.


Ford, Lawrence C.
1939 The Triangular Struggle for Spanish Pensacola,
1689-1739. Catholic University of America Press.

Fundaburk, E. L. and M. D. Foreman (editors)
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands. Luverne, Alabama.

Kneberg, Madeline and T. M. N. Lewis
1960 Tribes That Slumber. University of Tennessee
Press. Knoxville.

Lazarus, William C.
1959 Ten Middens on the Navy Liveoak Reservation.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIV, No. 3-4.

1965 Coin Dating in the Fort Walton Period. The
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XVIII, No. 4.

Manucy, Albert C.
1959 The Founding of Pensacola-Reasons and Reality.
Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXVII, No. 3-

Moore, Clarence B.
1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest
Florida Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. XI, Part 4. Phil-

1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited. Jou-
rnal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil-
adelphia, Vol. XVI, Part 4. Philadelphia.

Smith, Hale G.
1956 The European and the Indian. Florida Anthropo-
logical Society Publication, No. 4. Gainesville.

Stacy, Pheriba
1965 Aboriginal Pottery at Santa Rosa Pensacola. In
Archaeological Excavations at Santa Rosa Pensa-
cola. Notes in Anthropology, Vol. 10. Florida
State University. Tallahassee.

Swanton, John R.
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States.
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 137. Wash-

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113.

Temple Mound Museum
Fort Walton Beach, Florida



Carl A. Benson

Reports of beads and other objects that were uncovered
near Lake Marion, Polk County, Florida prompted the writer
to investigate these stories further. The site in question
was located on the east side of Lake Marion, near Marion
Creek, on property owned by Mr. Philip Berkovitz of Winter
Haven, Florida. A tentative examination of the mound indi-
cated thorough destruction by previous excavations. Ques-
tioning of natives in the area revealed that the site had
been explored for many years by various individuals.

The Philip Mound is roughly 40' wide and 50' long
measuring from the extreme edges. The contour is oval shap-
ed and is about 3 1/2' to 4' high in the center. An earth-
ern ramp protrudes off the northern portion of the mound and
extends nearly 200' in an easterly direction to a large cir-
cular borrow pit. It then turns back in a westerly direc-
tion to within 5' of the southern portion of the mound (Fig.
1). The width of the ramp averages 12' to 15', with the



0 20 40 60 80 100


Fig. 1. Site Plan of the Philip Mound.

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.

height approximately 4'. Earth used for construction of
the mound and ramp was taken from around the mound, the
center of the ramp area, and from the pit at the eastern
turn of the ramp.

The possibility of salvage efforts was considered, and
kind consent to attempt this was given to the writer by Mr.
Berkovitz and Mr. Jack Pines.

The areas previously disturbed were clearly obvious
and only a thin margin of undisturbed palmetto remained on
the fringe of the mound. Further investigation ruled out
any benefits of controlled digging in the disturbed region.
A small area on the south side of the mound was cleared of
palmetto and a test pit approximately 2 1/2' by 4' was star-
ted. The first 6" consisted of tangled roots, humus, and
sand. Our efforts were rewarded in the second level by the
appearance of four Busycon shell dippers. All contained
"kill" holes and three were inverted. One of the inverted
dippers covered a portion of a pot, identified as Englewood
Incised. Adjacent to this was a pair of scissors and a cop-
per "coin" bead. This was the extent of material found in
this test. Test number two approximately 20' away was un-

Results of screening the disturbed area were interest-
ing, and it is hoped that the salvaged objects can be bene-
ficial as comparative material.


Fragments of human bones were found throughout the
mound but not one undisturbed burial was encountered. From
the meagre clues we had, it can only be suggested that some
of the burials were of the primary extended type. Quite a
number of unassociated, loose teeth were found; most of
these were from adults.


Numerous glass beads were salvaged from the Philip
site. A sample of the different types and styles is shown
in Fig. 2, and described below. The number in parentheses
following each type name is the quantity found, each row is
described from left to right.

Row 1

Oblate Spheroidal (4)-Opaque blue, two vertical opaque
white stripes with inlaid star or eye design. There are
usually three star inlays per bead. Three of these lack the
white stripes.



00 000o

go OOOe

- *

S* 0 0 0 0 0

Fig. 2. European trade beads.


Ovate Spheroidal Chevron or Star Bead (3)-These are
made of six superimposed layers of colored glass. Opaque
white, translucent pale green, opaque white, opaque red,
opaque white and translucent blue.

Spheroidal, "Eye Bead," Eye of India (1)-Opaque white
core with layers of opaque red, opaque white, and translu-
cent green; the last layer of white is combed or scratched
to give the effect of lines. There are 12 of these lines.

Oblate Spheroidal (29)-Nine opaque white stripes on
translucent blue; size range from 5 mm to 8 mm long; number
and uniformity of stripes vary also.

Oblate Spheroidal (4)-Translucent blue green with four
vertical opaque white stripes, in each of which is an opaque
red stripe.

Ovate Spheroidal (1)-Two opaque white spirals on
translucent deep blue; opaque white circle around eye.

Row 2

Cylindrical (5) -Opaque black with three vertical
opaque white stripes; average length 12 mm.

Oblate Spheroidal (2) -Amber, translucent yellow;
extensive patination loss.

Oblate Spheroidal, Gooseberry (10)-Clear with 12 ver-
tical opaque white stripes; size range from 3 mm to 6 mm in
length; number of stripes varies also.

Oblate Spheroidal (9)-Translucent blue with four al-
ternating opaque blue and white stripes; size range 4 mm to
7 mm length.

Ovate Spheroidal (4)-Opaque white with six alternating
opaque blue and red stripes.

Ovate Spheroidal (1)-Opaque black with three opaque
white spirals.

Row 3

Spheroidal (38)-Translucent turquoise; size range 4 mm
to 11 mm.

Ovate Spheroidal (36)-Translucent dark blue.

Elongated Spheroidal (1)-Translucent light blue. Hand
pressed faceted.


Ovate Spheroidal (3)-Translucent light blue. Wire
wound method of manufacture.

Oblate Spheroidal ("Cornaline d'Aleppo")-Clear light
green core with outer layer of opaque red (only two but in
seed bead class).

Ovate Spheroidal (1)-Translucent green.

Row 4

Oblate Spheroidal (38)-Ichtucknee plain; sky blue,
between opaque and translucent; size range from 5 mm to 8

Oblate Spheroidal (36)-Translucent light blue.

Oblate Spheroidal (1)-Opaque light blue.

Ovate Spheroidal (10)-Opaque black.

Oblate Spheroidal and Ovate Spheroidal (38)-Opaque
white; size range 3 mm to 6 mm.

Oblate Spheroidal (1)-Clear.

Row 5

Oblate Spheroidal (84)-Translucent green; size range
5 mm to 9 mm.

Oblate Spheroidal (8)-Translucent amber color.

Oblate Spheroidal (10)-Three superimposed layers of
glass, clear core, opaque white, translucent amber color.
The purpose of the white layer is to bring out the bril-
liance and depth of the latter color as suggested by Goggin
(n.d.) in his description of the Nueva Cadiz Beads which
have a similar arrangement.

Oblate Spheroidal (8) -Two superimposed layers of
glass; a clear core with an exterior layer of translucent
purple. The clear shows through around the eye. This bead
lacks the opaque white layer described in the immediately
preceding, and two following types.

Oblate Spheroidal (4)-Three superimposed layers of
glass; clear core, opaque white, and translucent green.

Oblate Spheroidal (6)-Three superimposed layers of
glass; clear core, opaque white, and translucent blue.


Row 6

Ovate Spheroidal (1)-Three sided amber, reddish brown.

Appears to have been molded. Substance medium soft,
will flake off; opaque white.

Spheroidal (1)-Faceted amber-colored glass; 14 facets;
tan color.

Oblate Spheroidal (1)-Quartzite material, faceted.

Ovate Spheroidal Opaque Grey (1)-Pressed mold facets.

Row 7

Ovate Spheroidal (10)-Clear, pressed mold facets ap-
pear to be same mold as last bead in Row 6; heavy patina-

Cylindrical, Quartz Crystal (3)-Ground, faceted; 14
facets; 7 mm.

Oblate Spheroidal, Quartz Crystal (1)-Spiral faceting.

Oblate Spheroidal, Quartz Crystal (1 )-Circular facets

Oblate Spheroidal, Chevron (1)-Six superimposed layers
of glass; opaque white, translucent pale green, opaque
white, opaque red, opaque white and translucent blue; 16 mm.

Row 8

Tubular (round cross section) Dark Blue Core (2)-
Opaque white stripe around eye with three groups of opaque
red stripes, three stripes per group.

Tubular (round cross section) Cornaline D'Aleppo Type
(1)-Clear light green core, opaque red outer layer; three
opaque white vertical stripes with brown stripe in center of

Tubular (round cross section) Translucent Dark Blue
(9)-Size range, 6 mm to 11 mm in length.

Tubular (square cross section) Dark Blue Core (1)-
Opaque white outer surface.

Tubular (square cross section) Clear Glass (1)-Proba-
bly Nueva Cadiz Plain.

Row 9

Tubular (square cross section) Clear Glass Over Opaque
White Core (1)-Corners at ends ground off to long facets.
Probably Nueva Cadiz Plain.


Flattened Oblate Spheroidal (2)-Translucent, green
"Corn Bead" made to represent a corn kernel.

Oblate Spheroidal (4)-Translucent dark blue; four
hand-pressed facets.

Oblate Spheroidal, "Seven Oaks Gilded Molded" (5)-Line
and dot designs in relief on clear or olive glass; surface
is covered with thin gilt layer.

Oblate Spheroidal (1)-Opaque blue on opaque white

Ovate Spheroidal (1) -Opaque white.

Oblate Spheroidal (6)-Translucent dark blue 6 vertical
white stripes, opaque white circle around each eye.

Spheroidal (1)-Translucent blue, four opaque white
stripes with opaque red stripe in center of each.

Row 10

"Seed" Bead (144)-Translucent light blue.

"Seed" Bead (71)-Translucent lavender.

"Seed" Bead (1)-Clear glass core, opaque white outer
layer with alternating red and blue vertical stripes.

"Seed" Bead (3)-Clear glass core, opaque white outer
layer with vertical red stripes.

"Seed" Bead (225)-Cornaline D'Aleppo; clear pale green
core, opaque red outer layer.

"Seed" Bead (7)-Pseudo Cornaline D'Aleppo; imitation
of the previous described bead; dark circle around eye to
simulate original bead.

"Seed" Bead (7,177)-Opaque white.

"Seed" Bead (3,943)-Opaque dark blue.

"Seed" Bead (3,620)-Opaque light blue.

"Seed" Bead (54)-Translucent green.

"Seed" Bead (525)-Opaque yellow.

"Seed" Bead (8)-Opaque peach.

"Seed" Bead (101)-Translucent amber.


The number of beads salvaged and noted, is probably a
rather small percentage of beads the mound originally con-

The archaeological range for the beads presented here
is, for the most part, that of the same types found else-
where in Florida and other areas of early European occupa-
tion in adjoining states. The quartz crystal beads are,
however, generally rare outside of Florida. These, as well
as styles of amber beads, are not usually considered trade
beads, but are a part of Spanish dress. Bead types and
styles from the Philip Mound were similar to those recorded
at the Goodnow Mound, Lake Butler, Albritton Mound, Osceola
County, Seven Oaks, Bull Creek, and the Lightsey Mound, to
name a'few.

The chevron beads are a poor time marker since they
are found in much earlier sites in other areas of the world,
and are still manufactured for African trade. The same is
true for many styles of seed or garment beads which can
still be obtained today in most of our stores.

Cornaline D'Aleppo, Ichtucknee, Nueva Cadiz Plain,
Amber Beads, Cut Crystal, and Seven Oaks Gilded Molded are
better markers which date in the 16th century and early part
of the 17th century.

Fairbanks, Goggin, Griffin, and Smith have added much
to glass bead nomenclature and dating in Florida, but there
still remains considerable work to be done in this field.


Beads made of metal were found also. These included
silver coin beads (first five, top row, Fig. 3), copper and
sheet silver tubular beads (last three, top row, Fig. 3),
and small "rod" beads, cut from a perforated silver rod
(first four, 2nd row, Fig. 3). "Coin" Beads were so named
because the method of manufacture was to pierce a coin and
flatten the edges until the desired effect was obtained.
Some of these holes were square and were probably made with
the early, handmade, square-cut nails.

Metal tubular beads were made from sheet silver, gold,
and copper that was cut and rolled to the desired length.
One silver tubular bead had previously been used as an oval
shaped pendant pierced at the top. Cordage, preserved by
salts, still protrude from last bead (top row, Fig. 3).

Round convex metal disks of silver and copper (last
two, 2nd row, Fig. 3) were obviously used as veneers or in-
lays on a wooden button, or some other ornament. Fragments
of pitch, or similar adhesive, still cling to the concave
side of several.



Several beads of other than glass or metal were found,
and are of aboriginal manufacture. These are pictured on
the bottom row of Fig. 3. From left to right, they are:
Tubular polished stone, steatite, convex-shaped, polished
stone, oval shaped, flat shell bead, cylindrical shell bead,
olivella shell bead, and small "seed" shell beads barely 3
mm in diameter.


Metal pendants of various sizes and shapes are pictur-
ed in Fig. 4. Most of these are cut from sheet silver and
are of aboriginal workmanship. The large silver disk with
central perforation, (top row, Fig. 4) and pointed pendant
(top row end, Fig. 4) are too thick to be classed as sheet
silver and were probably made from large coins.

Bottom Row (left to right)

The first four objects in the bottom row of Fig. 4 are
of European manufacture. The first is a copper hook, gro-
oved at top for suspension; the second appears to be part of
a religious necklace with fractures at the edges of the ex-
tended nodules, suggesting other areas for continuation of
the necklace. This could be the center piece for holding
the crucifix or medal. The third object is a silver thimble
with the crown pierced for suspension. The figure of a
heart pierced with an arrow adorns one side, a band of words
separated by triangular symbols encircles the bottom of the
thimble. Corrosion has made the letters almost illegible,
but they appear as ESPERANCA A EREI 4 FORE v AE A MORE.
The fourth object is a round, copper, "dangle" object about
the size of a #1 buckshot, with flat eye attached for sus-


The iron tools pictured in Fig. 5 were discarded by
previous excavators as apparently worthless, or were un-
noticed in their back fill. In the top row of Fig. 5 are a
knife blade and scissors. The scissors was reconstructed
from fragments. Two were found, both fragmentary. In the
bottom row are an iron axe with eye for hafting, and a celti-
form iron axe.


In Fig. 6 are shown the stone objects recovered from
the site. From left to right in the top row there is a
polished stone celt, projectile point, and a drill. In the
bottom row, left to right, are small ovate projectile
points, a triangular point, and a drill.


0 0 0
b y


Fig. 3. Metal, stone and shell

Fig. 4. Metal pendants, tools,
and ornaments.

I -
9, '

Fig. 5. Iron tools.

Fig. 6. Chipped and polished
stone tools.







CM 1 2

Fig. 7. Polished stone pendants.

Fig. 8. Belle Glade Plain rim
profiles (interiors to


Fig. 9. Sarasota Incised, Pinel-
las Incised, and Engle-
wood Incised sherds.

Fig. 10. Pinellas Plain, Belle
Glade Plain, and
unclassified sherds.

r': i ~J~PZ:~FQ, ~,

Fig. 11. Various Indian and European sherds.

The stone pendants pictured in Fig. 7 were scattered,
as were the other objects. The third from the left in the
top row resembles a duck bill.. All the pendants are hard,
polished stone, except for example at lower right. It is
made from a native Florida sandstone.


The pottery taken from this mound by the writer was
fragmentary, but some pieces were rather large. Some
sherds, pieced together, gave an inkling to vessel shapes
and sizes in some instances. Sources of information related
that whole pots were removed at one time or another. Un-
fortunately, we were unable to associate pottery and other
grave goods directly with burials.

Continuing the circle on graphs from some rim sherds
indicated vessel sizes from about 10 cm to 30 cm, or larger,
in diameter. Form classifications appear to be simple,
flattened globular, and collared globular bowls.

Fig. 8 illustrates Belle Glade Plain rim profiles with
interiors to right. The third profile from left, top row,
has extra thick layer of clay across middle of sherd. This
could be intended as part of the design or just poor work-
manship. The paste does not compare well with other Belle
Glade sherds because of a lack of sand tempering. There
could be doubt in classification. The other profiles fit
well with Belle Glade descriptions given by Vera Ferguson
and John Goggin. Pottery sherds recovered were as follows:

1 Sarasota Incised (left, top row, Fig. 9).

3 Pinellas Incised (right, top row and right, bottom
row, Fig. 9).


1 Englewood Incised (left, bottom row, Fig. 9).

1 Pinellas Plain, with node below rim (top Fig. 10).
This is probably a copy because of Belle Glade paste charac-

1 Unclassified (left, bottom row, Fig. 10).

253 Belle Glade Plain (right, bottom row, Fig. 10).

37 Biscayne Plain (left, top row, Fig. 11).

32 Biscayne Check Stamped (right, top row, Fig. 11).

2 Gordon's Pass Incised or variant (bottom row, Fig.


One fragment of Majolica made up the total inventory
of European ware that was recovered in the Philip Mound
(Fig. 11, center). Charles Fairbanks (personal communica-
tion) indicated that the specimen was definitely related to
San Luis Polychrome but that the paste and enamel colors are
not those usually found with San Luis Polychrome. A sug-
gested date of 1650-1700 A.D. was given because this is the
most popular time period for this type.


Small triangular and ovate triangular projectile
points, Pinellas pottery, Busycon dippers, reworked European
metals taken from wrecked Spanish ships, plus trade beads
and iron tools, indicate a Safety Harbor Period with an
overlap from the earlier Englewood Period. The latter was
designated by the Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised

The Belle Glade and Biscayne Pottery is contempora-
neous with both periods, and is often associated with other
Safety Harbor sites. The Philip Mound has a close temporal
and material association with the Goodnow Mound (Griffin and
Smith 1948) which lies a short distance south in Highlands
County. Goggin's "Archaeological areas of Florida" would
put the Philip mound in the Kissimmee area with the Goodnow
site, and very near the borders of the Central West Coast
and Manatee areas. The Philip site contained considerable
more pottery and a larger variety of types than the Goodnow
mound. Belle Glade and Biscayne Plain were found in both
mounds, but Goodnow lacked Biscayne Check Stamped and the
Pinellas and Englewood complex found in the Philip Mound.

To my knowledge there were no silver ceremonial tablet
pendants, as described by Griffin and Smith (1948: 16, 26),


found at the Philip site. Glass beads, iron tools and other
previously mentioned objects were very similar in both

Griffin and Smith related Goodnow to the culture of
the Glades area in late times, while the Philip site has
strong characteristics of both late Glades and late Gulf
Coast influences.

In conclusion, it is probable that the time period for
the Philip Mound is 1600-1700 A.D., or possibly a little
earlier. The 17th century is the range given to the Goodnow
Mound by Smith (1956: 56).


I wish to thank Mr. Philip Berkovitz for permission to
excavate, Dr. Charles Fairbanks for assistance in bead iden-
tification, and Sara Benson for field and clerical assist-


Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the
Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. River
Basin Surveys Papers No. 14, Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 169. Washington.

DeJarnette, David L. and A. T. Hansen
1960 The Archeology of the Childersburg Site, Ala-
bama. Notes in Anthropology, Vol. 6. Dept. of
Anthropology, Florida State University. Talla-

Fairbanks, Charles H.
1949 A General Survey of Southeastern Prehistory.
In The Florida Indian and His Neighbors (J. W.
Griffin, editor), pp. 55-75. Rollins College.
Winter Park.

Ferguson, Vera M.
1951 Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No.
45. New Haven.

Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St.
Johns Archeology, Florida. Yale University Pub-
lications in Anthropology, No. 47. New Haven.

n.d. Spanish Trade Beads and Pendants. Unpublished
MS, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Florida.

Gregory, Hiram A. and Clarence H. Webb
1965 European Trade Beads from Six Sites in Natchit-
oches Parish, La. The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. XVIII, No. 3, Part 2. Gainesville.

Griffin, John W. and Hale G. Smith
1948 The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County, Florida.
State of Fla. Florida Board of Forestry and Parks
Florida Park Service. Tallahassee.

Griffin, John W.
1949 The Historic Archaeology of Florida.
Florida Indian and His Neighbors (J. W.
editor), pp. 45-53. Rollins College.

In The

Heisey, Henry W. and J. Paul Whitmer
1962 Of Historic Susquehannock Cemeteries. Pennsyl-
vania Archaeologist, Vol. XXXII, Nos. 3-4. Har-

Kinsey, W.

Fred III
Additional Notes on the Albert Ibaugh Site.
Pennsylvania Archaeologist, Vol. XXX, Nos. 3-4.

Orchard, William C.
1929 Beads and Beadwork of the American
Museum of the American Indian, Heye
tion, Vol. XI. New York.


Pratt, Peter P.
1961 Oneida, Iroquois Glass Trade Bead Sequence.
The Fort Stanwix Museum. Rome.

Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No.
44. New Haven.

Smith, Hale G.
1956 The European and the Indian. Florida Anthropo-
logical Society Publications, No. 4. Gainesville.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949a Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113.

1949b Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale Univer-
sity Publications in Anthropology, No. 42. New

Orlando, Florida



Steve Atkins and Jeannie MacMahan

The Zabski site is located in Section 10, Township 27
South, Range 37 East, Brevard County, Florida, on the east-
ern side of the southern tip of Merritt Island. The site is
on a fairly high bluff overlooking the Banana River. There
are no surface indications that Indians once camped and
lived here; however, occasional sherds erode from the edge
of the river bank.

The Zabski site may have originally covered quite a
large area, but houses and other modern conveniences, in-
cluding sea walls, have destroyed a fairly good part of it.


Three stratigraphic tests (1-3) each five feet square,
were excavated by six inch levels at the site; the first on
March 1, 1967, the second on March 2, 1967, and the third on
March 22, 1967 (Fig. 1). Two other tests (4-5), each taken
down one 12 inch level, were dug into the river beach to see
if some of the midden might have eroded away (Fig. 1). The
first was a three by ten foot trench with a five by five
foot pit adjoining it (Fig. 1); the second was a five by ten
foot pit.

Results are presented in Tables 2 and 3. Test 2, be-
cause it produced only 37 St. Johns Plain sherds and 2 chert
chips, has been omitted from Table 2. Specimens from pre-
vious collecting on the beach and from uncontrolled tests
there are included in the second column of Table 3. Table 1
lists food remains from the tests in the midden on the
bluff. Fig. 3 includes a picture of Tests 1 and 3 during
excavation. The north profile of these tests forms Fig. 2.

In the first test pit we accumulated a large amount of
St. Johns Plain potsherds (Table 2). Other types of St.
Johns sherds such as incised, pinched, punctated, and side-
lugged were also found but in very small numbers (Fig. 4).
A large steatite (soapstone) pot fragment (Fig. 4j), origi-
nating in Alabama or Georgia, was found in the third level
of Test 1. Other artifacts found in that test were a com-
plete projectile point (Fig. 3a) in Level 3, a broken pro-
jectile point, and a conch shell tool with a blunted end.

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


----- --






,- N


Beach --.


Fig. 1. Sketch map of the Zabski site and surrounding area,
with location of Test Pits 1-5.


-E /

---s ~^^

M5 M4

After the first six levels had been excavated down to
a depth of 36", we ran into a hardened, orange-colored sand
deposit containing an admixture of charcoal, burnt animal
bones, and shell. This seemed to have been a fire place or
area where they cooked their food. To the west was a pit
partially filled with white sand (Fig. 2). We proceeded to
dig through this hard substance and after one foot we ran
out of it and into plain semi-hardened orange sand.

In the second pit, the remains were very limited in
quantity. Apparently it was dug at the extreme western end
of the site. For this reason it was taken down .only four
levels and omitted in Table 2.

The third test was dug adjoining the first to the east
(Fig. 1). In this test, we secured a larger amount of St.
Johns Plain pottery than in Test 1. Other types such as
pinched, incised, punctated, and side-lugged, as well as
limestone- and sand-tempered sherds, were also found in fair
quantities (Table 2). Other artifacts found in Test 3 were
the lower part of a projectile point (Fig. 3b), three pro-
jectile point fragments, sixteen chips, and one pierced
(drilled) piece of shell.

As in Test 1, we ran into the same hard orange sand
with the mixture of charcoal, shells, and burnt animal bones
(Fig. 2). As before, we took this down one foot and ran in-
to hard orange sand without traces of bones or charcoal.

On previous visits to the Zabski site, we had col-
lected large amounts of St. Johns Plain, Incised, Punctated,
and side-lugged pottery along with limestone- and sand-
tempered sherds. We had also found large numbers of pro-
jectile points and other artifacts. These are pictured in
Figs. 5-8, together with the specimens we found in the two
beach tests. No midden was found in the beach but it is
likely part of the site eroded into the river years ago.

The pottery and projectile points found in the beach
digs match those found in the test pits on the bluff. It
would seem that only one occupation occurred at the Zabski


The pottery found at the site belongs in the Florida
Transitional period, dating to approximately 750-1,000 B.C.
(Bullen 1959). The early St. Johns Plain and St. Johns In-
cised pottery are typical of this period but the finger
pinched and punctated sherds are very much like pottery
found at the Tchefuncte site in Louisiana. Our pinched and
fingernail "punctated" sherds are almost identifiable as


Tammany Pinched from that site (Ford and Quimby 1945: Fig.
20). For this reason we are suggesting the name St. Johns
Pinched for the similar Zabski site examples which are made
of chalky paste and do not seem to have been clay-tempered
(Fig. 4a; 6a-f). For the sherds with triangular punctations
we would suggest St. Johns Triangular Punctated (Figs. 4b-c;




. . . . . . . . .

-.,,LM. MI

0 .5 1.0 15 2.0 25 3.0


Fig. 2. North profile of Test Pits 1 and 3.

Some of the Tchefuncte Incised decoration (Ford and
Quimby 1945: Pl. 3,a-j) could pass as St. Johns Incised.
One of the characteristics of Tchefuncte Plain is thickening
of the rim (Ford and Quimby 1945: Fig. 16), a trait also
present on St. Johns Plain rims at the Zabski site. The
chalky paste of Tchefuncte Plain is also very similar to the
soft, chalky, early St. Johns paste as found at the Zabski
site. An important difference, however, is the presence at
Tchefuncte, and the absence at Zabski, of tetrapodal feet.

The triangular punctations found at the Zabski site
are sometimes arranged in panels (Fig. 7i). Such panels are
found on linear punctated pottery at Stallings Island in
Georgia (Claflin 1931: Pl. 18). Another connection with
Georgia, or possibly with northern Alabama, is the presence
of steatite vessel sherds.

A few sherds at the Zabski site also show connections
with early post-Orange pottery of the Gulf Coast of Florida


north of Tampa Bay. Both the Perico Plain and Perico Linear
Punctated (Fig. 7a-b) are attributable in all details to
that region.

Potsherds found along the beach and in beach test pits
were somewhat larger than those found on the bluff. While
undoubtedly part of the midden eroded into the river it is
also possible that broken vessels were discarded by tossing
the sherds into the river. Such sherds might be expected to
be less trampled and hence larger than those found in the
midden on the bluff.


The projectile points, scrapers, and knives at the
site were all made out of Florida chert (Fig. 8). Points
range in size from the largest, about four inches long, to
the smallest which was slightly over one inch in length.
The stem shape is expanding, and the bases are mostly
straight. Corner notches are wide and barbs sometimes
droop. Within these limits there seems to be considerable
variation. Hafted scrapers and triangular knives conform to
the usual Florida types (Figs. 3; 8).


According to the food remains, the diet of the Indians
at the Zabski site seems quite limited. Their main diet
seems to have been fish, mostly catfish, drum, ray, and
shark. While oyster, clam, and other shells were present,
their quantities were surprisingly small. The few fresh
water shell fish listed in Table 1 were limited to the low-
est levels. Could it be possible these people had just ar-
rived at the coast and had not yet learned to depend on
marine shellfish?

Rabbits and larger animals like deer and bear were
also included in the diet but fish bones seemed the most
common food remain. The inhabitants probably chose fish as
their main diet because of the location of the site. As may
be seen from Figure 1, they were between two rivers which
gave them many opportunities to fish. The diet that the
Indians chose is still available today.


The pottery and projectile points found in the river
beach tests are comparable to those from tests on the bluff.
The Zabski site apparently represents only one period of
time. It is the first single period Florida site dominated
by St. Johns Incised pottery.


Table 1


Gopher Turtle
Snapping Turtle
Soft Shell Turtle
Musk Turtle


Porcupine fish
Drum fish
Tiger shark
Sea catfish

Spade fish

Gopherus polyphemus
Chelydra osceola
Trionyx ferox
Canis familiaris

Odocoileus virginianus

Sylvilagus sp.
Alligator mississipiensis
Ursus americanus

Pogonias cromis
Galeocerdo cuvieri
Galeichthys felis
Caranx hippos

Archosargus sp.
Chaetodipteius faber

Marine shells: oyster, conch (Busycon), Ear
Shell, Lamp Shell, Strong Cockle, Rayed
Cockle, Oyster drill, Conquina, Murex.

Fresh-water shells: mussel, large and small
snail (a few of each).

The similarity in pottery found to that of the Tche-
functe period of Louisiana, and the steatite fragments from
Ceorgia or Alabama, suggest that these people had trade
with, or were influenced by, other tribes from other states.
The finding of limestone-tempered pottery types also shows
they had trade with Indians of the Florida Gulf Coast.

The only other known comparable Florida site is site
J-5 on the Chattahoochee River in West Florida (Bullen
1958). In Zone 9, radiocarbon dated at 1195 B.C., were
St. Johns Incised, Orange Plain, and steatite sherds as well
as points and hafted scrapers somewhat similar to those
found at the Zabski site. Both sites indicate extensive
trade and communication during the Florida Transitional


Table 2


Test 1 Test 3
SPECIMENS Levels 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

St. Johns Plain
St. Johns Incised
St. Johns Pinched
St. Johns Triangular Punctated
St. Johns miscellaneous

St. Johns indented
St. Johns side-lugged
Perico-Pasco Plain
sand-tempered plain
sand-tempered incised

steatite (soapstone)
projectile points
(Fig. 3, a-b)
fragments of points
chips of chert
drilled shell fragment
Busycon tool

31 21 19
2 1 2
1 1

1 18 21 61 46 17
3 8 5
1 1

10 6

1 2

1 1

2 4 2 2

2 3


7 1 3

Table 3


Tests Previous

St. Johns Plain 71 195
St. Johns Incised (Fig. 5) 31 51
St. Johns Pinched (Fig. 6, a-f) 6 7
St. Johns punctated and indented
(Figs. 6, g-h; 7, f-i) 18 41
St. Johns side-lugged (Fig. 6, i-j) 7 28

Perico-Pasco Plain (Fig. 7, a, e) 18 9
Perico Linear Punctated (Fig. 7, b) 1
Perico unique punctated (Fig. 7, c) 1
sand-tempered plain 1

projectile points (Fig. 8) 4 7
fragments of broken points 4 8
chips of chert 48 300
hafted scrapers (Fig. 8, b-c) 1 1
ovate knives (Fig. 8, E-c) 1 1

pierced shark's teeth (Fig. 8, a) 2
Busycon hammers 2

As has been mentioned previously, we encountered char-
coal and burnt animal bones at a depth of 36 inches in both
Tests 1 and 3. Some of this charcoal was saved and has been
tested at the Florida State University at the request of the
Florida State Museum. The date (Sample FSU No. 190) is
2910 + 80 years before present or about 960 B.C.

This date is the earliest post-fiber-tempered pottery
period date known for Florida. It compares well with the
1195 B.C. date just mentioned for Zone 9 at site J-5 where
Orange Plain (absent at the Zabski site) was found as well
as St. Johns Incised pottery. It supports well the earlier
Tchefuncte dates and agrees exactly with a date for the very
early post-fiber-tempered Refuge site in Georgia (Bullen
1961). Apparently the end of the fiber-tempered Orange
Period occurred around 1000 B.C., not later.

As yet the Indians that inhabited the Zabski site are
unidentified. The variety of different pottery types leads
us to believe one of three theories; the Indians were in-
fluenced by other tribes in other states, they had trade
routes with other tribes, or it was a tribe that migrated
from northern Florida or surrounding states.


4. 1

0 I2 IN.
0 I 2 3 4 5 CM.

h i

0 2 IN.
0 I 2 3 4 5 CM.

Fig. 3. Test Pits 1 and 3 during
excavation, below; exca-
vated projectile points,

Fig. 4. St. Johns and steatite
sherds from Tests Pits
1 and 3.

T- h



Fig. 5. Variations in St. Johns
Incised designs, from
tests in beach. k has a
modeled handle.


Fig. 6. St. Johns Pinched, indented,
and side lugged, from tests
at Zabski site.

Ir ~-I---

i :Sto


o I 2
0 2 3 4 5

p. q

p q-

Fig. 7. Miscellaneous sherds from
tests in beach.

Fig. 8. Perforated shark's tooth
and chipped stone artifacts
from beach.



0 1 2 IN.
S0 2 3 4 5 CM.


We tender appreciation to Mr. Tom Zabski, owner of the
site, for permission to excavate; to Mr. Ripley P. Bullen,
Chairman of the Department of Social Sciences of the Florida
State Museum, University of Florida, for his helpful sug-
gestions and for pictures of the specimens; and to Dr.
Elizabeth S. Wing, of the same institution, for identifi-
cation of food remains other than shellfish. Gratitude is
also expressed to those who helped with the digging and
screening; Dee Hartley, Bob Gross, and Buzzy Underhill.
Specimens from Tests 1-3 have been deposited at the Florida
State Museum where they form part of the Museum's research


Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the
Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. River
Basin Surveys Papers, No. 14. Bureau of Ameri-
can Ethnology Bulletin, 169, pp. 315-357. Wash-

1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. Southeast-
ern Archaeological Conference Newsletter, Vol. 6,
pp. 45-53. Chapel Hill.

1965 Florida's Prehistory. In Florida: From Indian
Trail to Space Age, Chap. 23, pp. 308-316.
Southern Publishing Co. Delray Beach.

1961 Radiocarbon Dates for Southeastern Fiber-Tem-
pered Pottery. American Antiquity, Vol. 27, No.
1, pp. 104-106. Salt Lake City.

Claflin, William H., Jr.
1931 The Stalling's Island Mound, Columbia County,
Georgia. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Ameri-
can Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University
Vol. 14, No. 1. Cambridge.

Ford, James A. and George I. Quimby, Jr.
1945 The Tchefuncte Culture, an Early Occupation of
the Lower Mississippi Valley. Memoirs of the
Society for American Archaeology, No. 2. Men-

Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St.
Johns Archeology, Florida. Yale University Pub-
lications in Anthropology, No. 47. New Haven.


Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113.

Indian Harbour Beach, Florida

Melbourne, Florida



Lyman O. Warren, William Thompson,
and Ripley P. Bullen


The real estate development known as Culbreath Bayou,
on the east shore of Old Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida, was
once the property of Hugh Culbreath, former sheriff of Hil-
Isborough County. It is located about one mile south of the
Howard Frankland Causeway in the middle of Section 30, R18E,
T29S, and is transected from north to south by West Shore
Boulevard. Earth moving and land clearing activities from
November 1966, through April 1967, temporarily uncovered
portions of an Indian site in the western part of this de-
devopment and made possible an archaeological salvage proj-
ect, the subject of this report. Included in this recent
extension of the Culbreath Bayou development was the dredg-
ing of a boat basin through the approximate center of a pre-
viously unknown, rather thick, partially buried, shell mid-
den (Fig. lb).

The location of the site was well suited for an ab-
original population; a small creek at the north edge of the
tract afforded a source of fresh water. Nearby, beds of
oysters and the excellent fishing of Old Tampa Bay yielded a
partial food supply. Small game was available in the nearby
swamps and woodlands. Adjacent clay beds were useful for
pottery making. Off shore silex beds contained silicified
coral and chert for a chipped tool and projectile point


Our initial survey, in November 1966, disclosed three
archaeological features (Fig. 2): (A) A workshop in chipped
stone, perhaps 75 yards in diameter, was suggested by num-
bers of spalls scattered irregularly over the scraped soil
of one area. There bulldozers had scraped off the topsoil
and pushed it to the edges of the tract to form coffer dams
and retaining embankments for the sand, clay, and rocks soon
to be pumped in from bay bottom to inundate the site. (B)
A thin midden of brown sand and oyster shells was located
near the then present high tide mark. (C) A large and

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


Fig. 1. Edges of the Culbreath Bayou site in north (a) and
south (b) sides of recent boat basin.


thick midden of black dirt and oyster shell was located
about 150 feet south of the thin midden with which it may
have been contemporaneous. The surface of the large midden
was planted to cabbage palms and was strewn with plain,
sand-tempered sherds. At this time the humic top zone of
this midden had already been partially bulldozed. The ap-
proximate locations of these three areas (A, B, and C) are
shown in Figure 2.

0O O
O 0 A- Workshop area
O O B- Traces of midden
B A 0 debris

< /fl 0 C- Thick shell midden
< XYZ-Locato---o
/ XYZ- Locations of
SDredged channel 0 profiles
Sj O- Trees

S 0 0 0 Surface slopes

fill 0 downward westerly

from A

Fig. 2. Sketch map of the Culbreath Bayou site.

A couple of months after our initial survey, a deep
salt water channel, 120 feet in width, was dredged through
the center of the tract at a right angle to the shore line.
It formed, on its north bank, a profile through the south-
erly extension of the workshop (A), and the thin midden (B)
(Fig. la). Its south bank sliced a profile through the large
midden (C) (Fig. lb). These relationships are shown in Fig.
2. Profiles from these three features (Fig. 2X, Y, Z) are
presented in Figs. 3-5.

In Fig. 1 these profiles may be seen across the boat
basin. Area A, or the workshop, is near and among the trees
at the right hand side of the upper picture. An extension
of this area is shown at the right as a small beach below
the dark root and humic zone in front of these trees. The


Present surface

Recent fill

< = Old surface

Midden deposits
Dark brown sand

Present surface
Recent fill
Old surface
0 probably bulldozed

Ca.6" Chips and worked
Gray sand fragments


Fig. 3. Profile at X of
Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Profile at Y of
Fig. 2.


Shell layers in light
and dark bands

Clean oyster shells
3- ls, bla
Shells, black dirt,






-, Assumed old surface

Conta ins

and ashes

Black dirt and shells J Yellow-red
-stain (high tide)
cemented zones
Dark brown


SContains chips
and projectile points

9- water at
low tide

Fig. 5. Profile at Z of Fig. 2.


extension of Area B will be seen below recent fill to the
left of the center in the same picture. To the left of the
center, the dark zone is thicker and composed of pockets and
small pits of midden material. To the right, the equivalent
zone is thin and composed of roots and the lower part of the
surface humic deposit. In the face of the bank, this root
zone is sterile, while chips and occasional points are found
on the beach and in the underlying sand. Small tests sug-
gested the chips were concentrated in a six inch deep layer
below the base of the root zone as shown graphically in Fig.
4. The situation to the west at Area B is shown in Fig. 3.
There, plain sand-tempered pottery was found in association
with the thin midden deposits and in the pits leading down
from the midden, but not in the underlying sand. One or two
chert chips were found in this underlying sand but not as
frequently as was the case to the east near Area A (Fig.

A cross section of the thick midden in Area C is shown
in the lower picture (Fig. lb), near the center below the
cabbage palms. It is very dark in color and easily identi-
fied from the light-colored fill deposited on its eastern
and western flanks. Details of its composition are given in
Fig. 5. Sand-tempered plain pottery was found in very small
amounts throughout this midden but not in the dark brown
sand below it. This lower deposit produced a few chips and
projectile points.

This main midden was shown to be about 7 feet thick in
its midportion, about 100 feet long from east to west, and
was composed of layers of shells, predominantly oysters, al-
ternating with layers of black dirt and shells (Fig. 5).
This midden rested on a base of grayish and brown sands con-
taining pea- to peanut-sized, irregular concretions repre-
senting, presumably, lime leached from the overlying shells.
While most of the shell and dirt was fairly loose, concen-
tration had occurred in various places near the base to form
a very hard deposit reminiscent of concrete. Except for
occasional inclusions of small charcoal lumps, this basal,
cemented zone appeared sterile.

Before the dredging of the boat basin, stratigraphic
excavations were made in Area A, the chipped stone workshop.
There a grid was set up consisting of twenty 5' x 5' squares
comprising a homogeneous unit. The location was selected
through the surveying activities of Susan Stokes, age 11,
who had noted a high concentration of spalls and one large
trianguloid knife in the sides of a hole where a tree had
been removed. Eighteen squares were excavated with small
tools in the grid, plus one northern extension, and a sepa-
rate 5' x 5' test, 20 feet farther to the north, or a total
of 500 square feet. Chips were collected and the depths be-
low the surface recorded for all classifiable specimens.


The bulldozer had already scraped off an indeterminate
amount of top soil, probably not more than 3 or 4 inches,
for palmetto and other roots lay undisturbed in the new
superficial surface deposit. This grayish sand layer varied
from 5 to about 10 inches in thickness. Below was light-
colored sand of undetermined thickness. Test holes were dug
down 2 feet into this lower layer, which seemed archaeolog-
ically sterile, without sounding bottom.

This work exposed an uncomplicated workshop with none
of the features of a workshop-domiciliary site. There was
no evidence of post-molds, midden soil, skeletal remains, or
charcoal. Not a single sherd was found. Extremely numerous
spalls and not infrequent tools and points were scattered
through a fairly narrow zone between depths of 4 to 10
inches. Above and below this artifact-rich zone spalls were
rare, and it was most difficult to discipline one's self to
expend energy in a sterile search below this zone. The
separate 5' x 5' test square, 20 feet to the north of the
grid, was sterile except for a few spalls to a depth of 28

The outstanding feature of the grid, and we were later
to learn that it was the common artifact type of the site,
was a projectile point of characteristic features. It was a
broad-bladed, fairly thin, usually corner-notched point with
excurvate blade edges, and drooping barbs (Fig. 6a-c, f-h).
These points are predominantly symmetrical, made of silic-
ified limestone or Tampa Bay coral, and have faces marred by
hinge fractures. Associated with the typical Culbreath
points were variants; some with asymmetric barbs and faces
may be knives (Figs. 8d; 9c), some have relatively short
barbs in relation to the prominent stem (Figs. 6d; 8c; 91;
llc), others have barbs descending to the bottom of the stem
(Fig. 6i; 9h, o). Despite these differences, there is con-
siderable similarity in all these points. The typical Cul-
breath points are fairly well made, probably by percussion
flaking. They are 2 to 3 inches in length, about 1 1/2
inches in greatest width, and around 5/16 inches thick. The
variants tend to be larger, particularly longer, and some
may be hafted knives.

Other stone artifacts from the excavations in Area A
are a hafted scraper, thin ovate to trianguloid blanks or
knives, and a stone pick or hammer (Fig. 7). The last is
like a little bat. It, and similar tools from other parts
of the site, have been pounded more along the long edges
than at the ends or tips. While it was probably used as a
chipping hammer, we will use the term "pick" as that desig-
nation has priority in archaeological literature. These
picks duplicate those found at the Eva site in Tennessee
(Lewis and Lewis 1961: Pl. 25).


This chipped stone complex--typical Culbreath points,
Culbreath-like variants, hafted scrapers, ovate and triangu-
loid knives, and stone picks--repeats itself in all the non-
ceramic collections from the Culbreath Bayou site. Fig. 8
illustrates specimens from the fill of a coffer dam made by
bulldozing dirt from Area A. A hafted scraper, Culbreath
points and variants, trianguloid knives, and a stone pick,
are pictured. Fig. 9 includes practically all our classifi-
able specimens from the bulldozed surface of Area A, eroded
places along the shore, and the sides of the recently dug
boat basin. The only types not included in the Culbreath
complex are end scrapers and Archaic stemmed, Levy-like,
points (Bullen and Dolan 1959). Similarly, Culbreath points
and their variants as well as a stone pick are included in
the McKibben and Iglesias collection from the Culbreath
Bayou site (Figs. 10a; 11).

No specific reference has been made so far to Archaic
stemmed points which are present in rather small numbers at
the Culbreath Bayou site. In the stratigraphic excavations
in Area A, two stemmed points were found. The first (Fig.
6k), at a depth of 11 inches, was 6 inches below a Culbreath
point. It is the only point made of quartzite in the col-
lections from the site. The other (Fig. 10c) was found in a
shovelful of sand from the 12 to 18 inch level. These were
the two lowest classifiable artifacts found in the strati-
graphic excavations. A third stemmed point (Fig. 10b) was
found in situ at a depth of 28 inches in a small test made
in Area B. While these data are perhaps inconclusive, they
strongly suggest that the Culbreath complex may be placed
very late in the preceramic Archaic period. In this area,
the complex may possibly be the temporal equivalent of the
Orange period.

Before discussing the pottery from Areas B and C,
further comments on the stone tools seem appropriate. Be-
cause of their thinness, many specimens in our collections
(Figs. 7c-f; 8f-g) are classified as knives instead of as
choppers. Conceivably, some of them may have been used as
blanks for notched points. In Figs. 6, 9, and 11 we have
left the black background in the illustrations of a few
specimens to show how the points depicted might have been
flaked out of an ovate-trianguloid blank, or unstemmed
knife. However, most "knives" are larger and better finish-
ed than the projectile points at this site and only a minor-
ity have a shape and size that would conform to "blanks."
Perhaps they were daggers as well as knives.

Snub-nosed scrapers are another interesting item.
They occur as thin discs, as thick elongate tools, and in a
stemmed or hafted form. The hafted examples from the Cul-
breath site (Fig. 8a; 9s), except for one (Fig. 7a), have


drooping barbs and stems duplicating those found in Cul-
breath points. The unstemmed ones are invariably plano-
convex. They may be ovate, circinate, trianguloid, or trap-
ezoidal in shape and a little of the original cortex is
often still present on the dorsum. Perhaps their shape was
determined to a substantial degree by the shape of the flake
struck off from the core by the maker. Functionally all
these forms should perform the same mission. The bit end,
which may be the only part of the edge to be tooled, is in-
variably chipped most precisely so that a snub-nose profile
is created with an unbroken convexity reminiscent of the
forehead of a porpoise, or the end of one's thumb. Presum-
ably they are woodworking tools. The bit edge and bottom
have a high degree of albedo, or luster. In the Tampa Bay
area, they are almost invariably made of coral as opposed to
silicified limestone. The coral is, of course, a superior
material for chipped tools.

As has been mentioned, pottery was found in associa-
tion with the small and thin midden deposits in Area B. The
northern edge of the boat basin cut across several of these
small deposits (Fig. 3). As investigated by us, the de-
posits along the bank of this cut represented the lower
parts of small middens which led downward into pits. The
upper portion had been removed previously by bulldozers. We
dug two or three of these deposits and found pottery in the
midden material and in the pits but not in the underlying
and surrounding dark brown sand (Fig. 5). We did find one
or two chert chips in the brown sand. These surface middens
appear superimposed upon the edge of the nonceramic workshop
found chiefly in Area A. These middens are undoubtedly ex-
tensions of the large or main midden found in Area C.

A profile of the main midden is presented in Fig. 5.
Many sherds were found on its bulldozed upper part early in
the history of our investigations at the Culbreath Bayou
site. At that time the excavation of a stratigraphic test
in the compact oyster shell midden seemed beyond our weekend
capabilities. Fortunately, the digging of the boat basin
permitted an examination of the inner parts of this midden.
At first we were of the opinion that the lower central por-
tion of this midden might be preceramic but repeated in-
spections of the face eventually disclosed a few sand-temp-
ered sherds embedded in its profile, one only a foot above
its sandy base.

The action of tides and waves eventually eroded little
grottoes at the base of the main midden. These had concre-
tized roofs of either shells or dirt and floors of sand.
Within one of these grottoes we found two large sherds of a
small, black, sand-tempered bowl (Fig. 12a). They bore some
encrustation on their inner surfaces. On a little ledge of
shells and midden dirt, a foot above the midden base, was a



""LI" "'" "'" cm.

I. 'I I cm.


Fig. 6. Projectile points from
excavations at Area A.

Fig. 7. Hafted scraper, knives,
and stone pick or pounder
from excavations at Area A.

a b

a b


Fig. 8. Hafted scraper, projectile
points, knives, and stone
pounder from fill of
coffer dam.

Fig. 9. Miscellaneous points and
scrapers from the Cul-
breath Bayou site.

VWp qi

b: a b c

0 I 2 IN.
S 0 I 2 3 4 5 CM. d 0


Fig. 10. Stone pick and stemmed
points. a, McKibben
collection; b, from 28
inch depth, Area B; c, ,
from below workshop,
Area A; d, from below
main midden, Area C.

Fig. 11. Culbreath Bayou specimens
in McKibben and Iglesias

0 2 iN.

o 2CN
1 i 2 3 4 5 C M.

Fig. 12. Sherds from the Culbreath Bayou site. a-c, sand-
tempered plain; d-f, coarse sand-tempered (e, Dep-
tford Check Stamped tetrapod; f, Deptford Simple
Stamped); g, sand-tempered incised; h, Pasco
Plain; i, St. Johns Plain.

well made, basally notched, Citrus point (similar to Fig.
le). In another grotto, was found the basal part of classic
Levy point (Fig. 10d), the distal end of a well-made, thin
point, and several chips. All bore evidence of the lower


concretized zone on their upper faces and had originally
been lying in the upper part of the sand under the main mid-

We deduce from these data that: (1) the main midden
was entirely ceramic and characterized by sand-tempered pot-
tery; (2) basally-notched Citrus, and presumably Hernando,
points were in use during the time in which the early or
lower part of the midden was deposited; (3) the Levy point
may belong to an earlier preceramic period.

The ceramic collection from the Culbreath Bayou site
consists of 171 sherds of which 54 came from the north side
of that boat basin, and 123 from the main midden to the
south. Typologically, they include 149 sand-tempered plain,
1 St. Johns Plain, 1 Deptford Check Stamped tetrapod,l Dept-
ford Simple Stamped, 1 miscellaneous incised, and 22 Pasco
Plain sherds (Fig. 12). Both the Deptford period sherds and
the St. Johns Plain sherd came from the small midden de-
posits on the north side of the boat basin.

Most of the sand-tempered sherds from Culbreath Bayou
are from thick, rather crudely made, vessels. Vessel walls
average 12 mm. in thickness and both inner and outer sur-
faces are scraped but very poorly smoothed. Rims are usual-
ly straight, but sometimes incurving. Lips are rounded but
one sherd has a pronounced upward-pinched lip. Temper is
usually fine (Fig. 12a-c), but sometimes includes coarse
sand (Fig. 12d-f). In some cases the surface has flaked off
due to poor firing (Fig. 12c). Only a half dozen sand-tem-
pered sherds are thin and well made. Pasco Plain and St.
Johns Plain sherds are fairly thick but otherwise typical of
their types (Fig. 12h-i).

The sand-tempered sherds are like those found in the
lower levels of the Abel shell midden at the Terra Ceia site
(Bullen 1951), and associated with St. Johns Incised and
Pasco Incised sherds on the beaches at Johns Island, Battery
Point, and Wash Island. The St. Johns Plain and Pasco Plain
sherds, while undecorated, resemble closely in paste and
thickness St. Johns Incised and Pasco Incised sherds. This
ceramic inventory must pertain to an early post-Orange time
period. The only really definitive sherd, the Deptford
Check Stamped tetrapod, clearly relates to such a time
period, probably a few centuries before the time of Christ.


At the Culbreath Bayou site, we have two components.
One is the rather large and thick shell midden which belongs
to an early post-Orange ceramic period which would fall
within the Perico Island period as defined by Willey (1949),
and is the regional equivalent of Deptford. Below this mid-
den, but much more heavily concentrated to the north, is a




A'- t?^
i- o e
r"I^ .^ "'"' ". '.""~ c m .


/ .


/ *

Fig. 13. Chipped stone artifacts and St. Johns Incised
sherd from Flint Ridge, New Port Richey. Mark
Brooks collection.

putatively preceramic workshop site. This earlier component
is defined by a lithic complex which includes Culbreath
points and their variants, hafted scrapers, end scrapers,
ovate and trianguloid knives, and stone picks.
This complex, particularly the emphasis on Culbreath
points (corner or side notching with excurvate blade edges
and drooping barbs), at first glance appears new to Florida
archaeology. Similar points, however, have been dredged up





Fig. 15. Sherds from Canton Street
site, Goodyear collection.

Fig. 14. Points, knives, drills,
and scrapers from Canton
Street site, Goodyear

from Tampa Bay at the Apollo Beach site near Ruskin (Warren
n.d.). There the dredged material included Orange Plain,
Norwood Plain, sand-tempered plain, and Pasco Plain sherds.

Frank Bushnell, Al Goodyear, and others have found
Culbreath points at the Canton Street site in southern St.
Petersburg. Figs. 14 and 15 illustrate specimens from that
site, including Perico ceramics and St. Johns Incised pot-
tery, in the Goodyear collection. It should be mentioned
that the Canton Street site is a complex one and the speci-
mens illustrated here from there do not cover the complete
inventory of that site. However, presence there of the Cul-
breath complex is clearly marked.

Near New Port Richey, at a site known locally as
"Flint Ridge" (a sand dune overlooking the Pithlachascootie
River, just east of U. S. 19) and investigated chiefly by
Mark Brooks, similar points were found in a narrow, buried
zone, 6-8 inches thick, along with St. Johns Incised pot-
tery. The representative collection shown in Fig. 13, is,
except for the pottery, remarkably similar to the Culbreath

Going further afield, our attention is directed to-
wards specimens from Zone 9 at Site J-5 on the bank of the
Chattahoochee River in north Florida. There a few Culbreath
points were mixed with Archaic stemmed points (including
Levy points), many hafted scrapers, steatite, Orange Plain,
and St. Johns Incised pottery (Bullen 1958: Pls. 66-68).
The hafted scrapers are a little different in shape than
those from the Culbreath Bayou site but most have the dro-
oping barbs characteristic of Culbreath points. Zone 9 had
a radiocarbon date of 1200 B.C. + 250 years (Bullen 1958:

Culbreath points are surprisingly similar to Cypress
Creek I and II points from the Eva site in Tennessee (Lewis
and Lewis 1961: Pl. 9a-i). Such points at the Eva site con-
centrated in Stratum II and in the upper part of Stratum IV,
while the 5200 B.C. + 500 years radiocarbon date for the
site refers to the lower part of Stratum IV (Lewis and Lewis
1961: 13). Interestingly, the Eva site also produced many
ovate and trianguloid knives, end scrapers, hafted scrapers,
and stone picks (Lewis and Lewis 1961: Pls. 14, 16, 18, 21,
25). The majority of these artifacts tend to concentrate in
Stratum II, the Three Mile phase deposits, in levels charac-
terized by projectile points similar to Culbreath points.
The Culbreath Bayou site is more limited in its lithic in-
ventory than is the case for the Eva site. While all stone
artifacts found at the Culbreath Bayou site can be dupli-
cated at the Eva site, many Eva site artifact types are not
included in our sample from the Culbreath Bayou site.


In summary, Indians with a material culture similar to
that of inhabitants of the Eva site during its Three Mile
phase settled and had a workshop at the location we now call
Culbreath Bayou. This probably occurred very late in the
Archaic period. While no pottery was found in Area A at the
Culbreath Bayou site, this does not necessarily mean that
the workshop there was preceramic (pre- 2000 B.C.). It is
quite possible that people, especially if they were migrants
from a more northerly preceramic culture, might have lived
at the Culbreath Bayou site when fiber-tempered or even St.
Johns Incised and Pasco Incised pottery may have been made
elsewhere. It is also possible that people with a Culbreath
lithic complex might have continued to make Culbreath points
after they had adopted the use of pottery. The information
from "Flint Ridge" near New Port Richey suggests such might
be the case.

The large or main shell midden at the Culbreath Bayou
site was certainly built up during an early post-Orange
ceramic period. Our few Deptford period sherds, being found
at the presumed periphery, may well correlate with the high-
est levels of this midden. While we found only sand-temper-
ed pottery in the face of the midden or in the little grot-
toes eroded by water into its base, our sample is small. It
is possible the lower levels might have produced Transition-
al period pottery if completely excavated.

It is also possible, but we think less probable, that
Indians with a Culbreath lithic complex were living at the
site but not making pottery at a time when sand-tempered
pottery was introduced to them. The lack of specimens above
a depth of 4 inches in Area A argues for an hiatus at the
site between occupation by late Archaic perceramic people
with a Culbreath lithic complex and that of more recent ce-
ramic manufacturers who placed much more reliance on shell-
fish and horticulture than on hunting for their sustenance.

Lewis and Lewis (1961: 173) estimate the Three Mile
period to have begun about 4000 B.C. and to have lasted un-
til about 2000 B.C. Judging from what we know about Florida
archaeology, their dates would be about right for people
with a lithic complex like that of the Three Mile people at
the Eva site to enter Florida.


We wish to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. Joe C.
Byars and Mr. George R. Thompson in giving us permission to
investigate the Culbreath Bayou site. Taking part in the
excavations were Lucille Thompson, Helen and Morris Dexter,
Susan and John Stokes, Rosemary and Fred Wright, T. David
Anderson, David L. Anderson, Dwight Ferguson, and Helen,
Kai, Cris, Bill, and John Warren.


Tom McKibben and Ray Iglesias kindly permitted photo-
graphs to be taken of their collections from the site. Ray
Iglesias very kindly donated the Deptford Check Stamped tet-
rapodal sherd to the Florida State Museum. Specimens from
the excavations in Area A and mobt of the pottery found in
Areas B and C have also been donated to the Florida State
Museum, University of Florida, where they form part of the
research collections of that institution.


Bullen, Ripley P.
1951 The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society, Publication No.
3. Gainesville.

1958 Six Sites near the Chattahoochee River in the
Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. River Bas-
in Surveys Paper No. 14. Smithsonian Institut-
ion, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 169.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Edward M. Dolan
1959 The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.
77-94. Tallahassee.

Lewis, T. M. N. and M. K. Lewis
1961 Eva: An Archaic Site. University of Tennessee
Press. Knoxville.

Warren, Lyman O.
n.d. The Apollo Beach Site, Hillsborough County,
Florida. Unpublished manuscript.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113.

St. Petersburg, Florida

St. Petersburg, Florida

Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida



Karlis Karklins

The beads most often found in burial mounds of the
early European contact period in this state were manufactur-
ed in Venice during the late 15th and the 16th century when
that city was still the glass-making center of Europe. Dur-
ing that period the manufacture of small glass beads was
prospering to such an extent that at one time their export
to Czechoslovakia was more important than the export of
other glasswares (Hettes 1960: 27). At the close of the
16th century, the art of glass manufacturing had spread to
all parts of Europe. As a matter of fact, the first glass
factory in America was already operating in 1609 at James-
town, Virginia. Here, "beads, bottles, and trinkets were
manufactured for barter with the Indians" (Phillips 1941:
16). However, it, like another built in 1621, lasted but a
few years.

The manufacture of beads in general is accomplished in
the following manner. Two glass blowers attach a glob of
melted glass to their blowpipes and blow them into small,
hollow bulbs which are then opened and joined so as to form
a large bulb. When this has been done, the blowers walk
rapidly apart all the while blowing into their pipes, thus
drawing the glass out into a long, narrow, hollow tube, as
the air blown into the liquid glass creates the hollow
center. This whole process takes place in a matter of
seconds while the glass is still very hot and plastic.

When cool, the formed tube is broken up into lengths
of about a foot to facilitate easier handling. These are
then annealed to strengthen the glass. After this process,
they are chopped up on a sharp cutting edge to form rough

In the next step of production, the rough beads are
placed in an iron drum containing a mixture of charcoal dust
and plaster. The drum is then heated and rotated simultan-
eously. This rounds the sharp, broken edges. The charcoal
and plaster prevent the beads from sticking together as the
edges melt and round off.

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


The most common type of glass bead found in pre-Semi-
nole sites is a small perforated disc some 3 mm. wide,
though they range in size from 2 to 4 mm. These are termed
"seed beads." Though most commonly white or various shades
of blue, their colors range almost the whole spectrum, in-
cluding two-tone varieties. Another rather common form is a
spheroidal bead averaging 7 mm. in diameter, usually being
some shade of blue.

Other less frequently encountered types are so varied
in form and color that to describe them would take more
space than is here available. Suffice it to say that they
come as tubes, spheres, ovoids, and numerous faceted types,
and that they are often embellished with vari-colored lines
and stripes, or composed of several layers of differently
colored glass. Their size variation is quite vast, ranging
from around 2 mm. to over 2 cm. in width.

It should be noted here that not all trade beads are
made of glass. Some are made of silver--either in the form
of seed beads, or as tubes made from a small sheet of sil-
ver. Others are amber, rock crystal, copper, lead, gold, or
gilt-covered glass.

These same beads occur over much of the East. Their
presence there is not difficult to explain due to the fact
that early expeditions traveled great distances in North
America, either by boat or by foot, encountering numerous
Indians with whom they traded the same items.

We are now confronted with the question; who brought
the European beads to Florida, and what purpose did they
serve to both the European and the Indian?

The earliest mention of trade beads in the New World
was made on October 12, 1492, by Christopher Columbus who,
having landed on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas and
taken possession of it in the name of Spain, gave some of
the natives "red caps and glass beads to put around their
necks, and many other things of little value, which gave
them great pleasure..." (Olson 1906: 111).

In 1516, a pilot named Diego Miruelo sailed northward
along the Florida West Coast on a trading cruise and reached
Pensacola Bay. "Here he found the Indians friendly, and ex-
changed his store of glass [more than likely including
beads] and steel trinkets for silver and gold" (Winsor 1886:

One of the first direct references to trade beads in
what is now Florida was made by the Spaniard, Cabeza de
Vaca, a member of the ill-fated Narvaez expedition. On June


17, 1528, he reports that they met the Indian chief Dulchan-
chellin a few hours march east of the Apalachicola River.
They "gave him beads, little bells, and other trinkets, and
he gave the Governor the deerskin he wore" (Vaca 1961: 37).

When they had first reached Florida just two months
previously and anchored in what is now Tampa Bay, the Span-
iards traded "trinkets" (which probably included beads) to
the Indians for fish and venison. Also in the neighborhood
of Tampa Bay, in the year 1549, Friar Luis Cancer presented
some gifts to the inhabitants in the hopes of gaining their
friendship so that they might be converted to Christianity.
The gifts consisted of such things as rosaries, knives, and

Pedro Menendez de Aviles, having sailed into Charlotte
Harbor in February of 1566, gave the local Indians "beads,
scissors, knives, bells and mirrors, wherewith they were
much pleased" (Meras 1964: 148).

However, the Spanish were not the only Europeans trad-
ing or giving beads to the natives. In 1565, Rene de Lau-
donniere, the French Huguenot founder of Fort Caroline,
writes that he "exerted every effort to trade mirrors,
beads, knives, and hatchets for Indian corn to feed the col-
onists and for other commodities to establish trade between
America and France"(Bennett 1964: 29).

From the above it can be seen that the Spanish, as
well as the French, were primarily responsible for bringing
trade beads to Florida. Other nations had nothing to do
with this area. Even England had excluded itself until
1763, when, by the Treaty of Paris, Florida became a British
colony. Also, the use of beads as tokens of friendship and
items of trade to procure food are quite evident. However,
trade for items usable in Europe was also slowly developing.
The Indians were very eager to trade anything they had for
whatever the Europeans would give them in return, and there
were a number of colonists at Fort Caroline who occupied
their time in trade. Articles obtained through trade with
the native population consisted mainly of gold and silver
(these are not native metals, but were obtained in barter
from north Georgia Indians, or salvaged from wrecked treas-
ure ships), pearls, hides, "civet-marten" skins, tobacco,
and sassafras. For these commodities, the Indians were
given trinkets and tools of no great value.

The trinkets, of course, included beads of which the
Indians appear to have been very fond. Jean Ribaut, French
Huguenot and friend of Laudonniere, states that he gave the
Indians "littell beades of glasse, which they love and es-
teme above gould and pearles for to hang them on their eares


and necke" (Ribaut 1964: 93). This statement also indicates
the manner in which the natives wore the beads as jewelry.

Another article of trade obtainable by the Indians
living along the coast, and in much demand by the Spaniards,
was ambergris. This is a solid, fatty substance secreted by
sperm whales, and is used as a fixative in the manufacture
of perfumes. In 1587, Father Alonso Gregorio de Escobedo
wrote: "The Indian knows that the reward for one who finds
such ambergris is great and hence he looks about for the
whales so that he can gather large quantities of the mate-
rial. When a ship approaches, he exchanges the ambergris
with the Castilian who, in turn, give him glass beads. He
delights in receiving these articles for he can then dress
himself in a fashion he thinks attractive" (Covington 1963:
145). He also relates the "rate of exchange": "What the
Indian received in trade at the frigate is not as valuable
as the ambergris he exchanges. Ambergris is very valuable
and there are no pearls, emeralds, gold or silver to equal
its value. The Indian leaves one object and receives an-
other worth one-hundredth its value, but he goes away happy
and careful that no one steals what he has received" (Cov-
ington 1963: 146).

A problem arising here concerns the way in which the
beads were presented in trade and gift. Were they traded
loose, or by the string? Columbus tells us that upon en-
countering natives at Fernandina Island on October 16, 1492,
he "ordered each one to be given something, such as a few
beads, ten or twelve of those made of glass on a thread"
(Olson 1906: 118), and that on November 2, he sent some of
his men looking for spices, giving "them strings of beads
with which to buy food if they should be in need" (Olson
1906: 137). In Florida itself, in May of 1566, Menendez
had, among other things, "necklaces of glass beads" (Meras
1964: 192) to use for barter with the Calusa Indians in the
area of Charlotte Bay. Thus, the indication is that the
beads came along strung, in some instances at least, and it
would seemingly appear that a string of beads, which can be
worn immediately, would be more appealing and effective,
especially as a gift, than a handful of loose beads.

Before proceeding further, it should be pointed out
that all of the Indians mentioned in the narratives hereto-
fore were of native tribes (Apalachee, Timucua, Calusa), and
all of the beads involved were undoubtedly of Venetian manu-
facture, save perhaps those traded for the ambergris in
1587, which may be either Venetian or Spanish, as this was
about the time that glassmaking was spreading over Europe.

The Spanish missionaries had been trying to convert
the Indians ever since Ponce de Leon landed in Florida in
1513, and had varying degrees of success in the different


areas. By 1650, many of the natives were living around
Spanish missions and were Christians, principally in the
northern part of the state, and the St. Johns River drainage
area. The Indians in the southern part and up along the
west coast to Jefferson County were unaffected for the most
part, and lived in their traditional ways.

In the very early part of the eighteenth century,
several devastating raids were made by the English and their
Creek allies on the Spanish missions. The result was that
almost all of the Apalachees and Timucuas were either killed
or taken prisoner. A similar fate befell the other tribes.

Those Indians who escaped the raids fled into the
swamps and forests for refuge. Here they eventually met
other Indians of various tribes who had migrated to Florida
from Alabama and Georgia due to pressures put upon them
there by the white man. A number of escaped Negro slaves
were also encountered. They integrated, and about 1750, the
"Runaways" or "Seminoles" were formed.

On November 15, 1765, at the Congress of Picolata, the
English, who had two years previously taken possession of
Florida, delivered numerous presents to the Creek-Seminoles
of southern Alabama and Georgia, and northern Florida, in
order to persuade them to peacefully relinquish their hold
on two million acres of their territory located in the
northeastern part of the Florida peninsula, so that the land
would be open for safe settlement by Englishmen. The inven-
tory of gifts included fifteen bunches each of black, and
white, small, round beads. Additional items were given the
next year and included thirty bunches of white "barley corn"
beads (Covington 1960: 71).

In the Everglades area, MacCauley writes that in 1883-
1884 Seminole squaws were very particular about the beads
they wore. They utilized only cut glass beads, about a
quarter of an inch or more in length, which were usually
some shade of blue (Swanton 1946: 517). However, these
beads were more than likely of American manufacture, thus
not concerning us here. However, this does indicate what
the Seminoles were using in the late nineteenth century.

Glass beads of European manufacture are not easily
identified due to the fact that references are few and hard
to come by. As trade beads have long been neglected in the
literature, it is hoped that this paper has added some use-
ful information to the subject.



Bennett, Charles
1964 Laundonniere and Fort Caroline.
Florida Press. Gainesville.

University of

Covington, James W.
1960 English Gifts to the Indians: 1765-1766. The
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, pp. 71-
75. Gainesville.

1963 Pirates, Indians and Spaniards.
Publishing Co. St. Petersburg.

Hettes, Kerel
1960 Old Venetian Glass. Spring Boo

Meras, Solis de
1964 Perdo Menendez de Aviles. Uni
ida Press. Gainesville.

Great Outdoors

ks. London.

versity of Flor-

Olson, J. E. and E. G. Bourne
1906 The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot.
Scribner's Sons. New York.

Phillips, C. J.
1941 Glass: The Miracle Maker.
Corporation. New York.

Pitman Publishing

Ribaut, Jean
1964 The Whole and True Discoverye of Terra Florida.
University of Florida Press. Gainesville.

Swanton, John R.
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States.
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 137.

Vaca, Cabeza de
1961 Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America.
Collier Books. New York.

Winsor, Justin
1886 Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol.
2. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. New York.

Tampa, Florida




Lyman O. Warren

Bear Creek flows into Boca Ciega Bay between the in-
corporated cities of Gulfport and South Pasadena, Pinellas
County, Florida. In 1958, two Indian sites were dredged up
from creek bottom; one, designated for this paper as Bear
Creek One, is presently located just north of the South
Pasadena Marina; the second, Bear Creek Two, just south of
the Boca Ciega Marina.

Bear Creek One, now a sea-walled real estate lot, ap-
proximately 10,000 square feet in area, had a surface of
white sand strewn with a great many spalls of small size.
Just beneath this layer, at the southern end of the lot, was
a yellow, coarse sand stratum rich in small lumps of bog
iron and large, yellow, iron-stained stone tools and cores
of heavy handed manufacture giving an impression of consid-
erable age. Fig. la shows a broken, stemmed point, or blank
for a point, measuring 1/2 inch in thickness. Fig. lb is a
heavy percussion flaked point or knife, with rather well
made blade edges and lateral grinding (or battering) to the
stem; it is bifacially worked and has shoulders which are
not quite as strong as those shown in Fig. la and Fig. 2.
Fig. Ic is a crude scraper, hardly more than a blank, and
about 1 1/4 inches thick. Fig. Id is a rust-stained, min-
eralized molar tooth of a horse (Equus), presumably Pleis-
tocene, which was dug up in close spatial context with the
artifacts. Not shown because of difficulty in getting mean-
ingful photographs were (1) a thick, bifacially worked, per-
cussion flaked "chopper," (2) a small, high crowned plane
resembling a little horse's hoof, and (3) a thick, turreted,
or peaked hammer stone with a battered point at one end, and
at the other, a thick base or stem, which had been grooved,
perhaps for hafting. The entire assemblage seemed to be of
a kind; the thickness and massiveness is being emphasized,
in part because of its distinctiveness, and in part for con-
trast with the thinness and delicacy of the artifacts from
the down stream site.

Bear Creek Two, lying about three hundred yards south
and west of Bear Creek One, was a dredged up fill and ad-
jacent artificial beach of white and yellow sand and bay-
bottom mud. Although the site was pumped out of the salt
water of Boca Ciega Bay, there is little doubt that at the

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.




Fig. 1.

b c

-0 2 4 6


Stone artifacts and fossil from Bear Crrek One.

a b

Fig. 2. Projectile points from Bear Creek Two.
4.9 cm.

Length of e,


time of its occupancy it was either on the creek bank or at
its mouth. Except for countless fragments of beach shell
and a few unbroken guahog shells there was little to suggest
midden either in shell or soil. The sand was clean except
for a sparse admixture of bog iron, probably rather good
evidence for an earlier fresh water context.

Artifacts were found along a 150-foot stretch of
beach and adjacent artificial upland. On the beach, but not
on the upland of the fill, were a dozen or two plain, sand
tempered sherds, so typical of many of the beaches of Pinel-
las County, and so useless as diagnostic phase markers.
The beach and adjacent fill yielded the rather distinctive
points and scrapers or blades depicted in Figs. 2 and 3, as
well as a number of small spalls, not shown. These arti-
facts seemed to be washing out of beach sand, and not out of
midden soil or clay, as in certain other (and presumably
earlier) sites. The entire fill on which this sharply cir-
cumscribed site is located is at present known as Pasadena

The projectile points (Fig. 2a-e), of a type known
locally as "bat wings," are much alike. They are thin, del-
icately made, essentially symmetrical, with blades broad in
proportion to length, the edges slightly excurvate, and with
broad angular basal notches. The stems, small, thin, and
contracting with convex bases, seem to have been easily
broken (Fig. 2a, c-e). Their thinness and delicacy calls to
mind the Hernando Points defined by the Bullens (1963) but
there are, of course, important typological differences.
One point, Fig. 2f, does not fit the rest of the set; it is
asymmetrical, twice as thick as the others (3/8 inches as
compared with 3/16 inches), and less precisely made. Its
asymmetry calls to mind a common feature of points found in
Hillsborough, as contrasted with Pinellas County, and is
reminiscent also of the St. John's River (Moore 1894) and of
Stallings Island (Claflin 1931), where the "lop-sided point"
characteristics have been noted for some time. But the
other five points, representing the total found, are defi-
nitely of a type, and seem to resemble those illustrated by
Phelps (1966) from the Tucker site in Franklin County,
Florida. Similar points from Tick Island were excavated
from a stratum which produced a radiocarbon date of 3000
B.C. (R. P. Bullen, personal communication). A large num-
ber of points of this type from a site near Newnan's Lake
are presently being written up by Carl Clausen as his M.A.
thesis. They have been designated "Newnan Points" (R. P.
Bullen, personal communication).

The knives or side scrapers, like the points, seem to
have a similarity one to the other as shown in Fig. 3a-c.
They are thin, well proportioned flakes, having a distinc-
tive unifacial beveling on the two lateral edges which may
be re-touched (Fig. 3a-b). Fig. 3d is a thin, well made


lei C

a -

d e

Fig. 3. Chipped stone blades and scrapers, Bear Creek Two.

bifacially tooled, rectangular knife of graceful and sym-
metric proportions. It seems to me that the knife-scrapers
and the points, coming as they do from the same site, may be
placed together, tentatively at least, in the same assem-
blage. Where the plain, sand tempered sherds belong is any-
one's guess. Mrs. Warren found a Deptford Simple Stamped
sherd 100 yards or so to the north, not on the Pasadena
Isles fill but closer to Bear Creek One. John Warren and
Matthew Bowcock found a Deptford Linear Checked Stamped
sherd about 1/2 mile to the west on "Rabbit Island" near
Corey Causeway, at a site to be reported later. It is un-
likely, however, that these Deptford sherds are coeval with
the stone material of the Bear Creek Two site which is pre-
sumably much earlier in time.


Bullen, R. P. and A. K. Bullen
1963 The Wash Island Site. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist, Vol. XVI, No. 3. Gainesville.

Claflin, W. H., Jr.
1931 The Stallings island Mound, Columbia County,
Georgia. Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard
University, Vol. XIV, No. 1. Cambridge.

Moore, C. B.
1894 Shell Heaps of Florida.
January, pp. 18-20.

American Naturalist,

Phelps, D. S.
1966 Early and Late Components of the Tucker Site.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIX, No. 1.

St. Petersburg, Florida



Ripley P. Bullen and Carl A. Benson

The recent find of three cut and perforated wolf(?)
jaws at the Tick Island site on Harrys Creek, near the St.
Johns River, in east Florida seems sufficiently noteworthy
to be brought to the attention of readers of The Florida
Anthropologist. Two of the jaws are pictured in the accom-
panying illustration (Fig. 1). One is a little larger but
otherwise they are identical, as both are cut off and per-
forated in the same places and manner. The third is frag-
mentary and has not been reconstructed. It apparently does
not differ significantly from the other two.

Tick Island was one of the largest and most important
fiber-tempered and preceramic stations in Florida. Occupa-
tion also occurred during the Florida Transitional (immedia-
tely post-Orange, St. Johns Incised pottery) and St. Johns
II (St. Johns Check Stamped pottery) periods. During the
Florida land boom of the 1920's, much of the midden was
hauled away for road construction. Within the past ten
years, all that was left, down to a depth of five or more
feet below water level, has been removed by dragline for use
as sanitary fill or in private roadways.

In 1961, the senior author salvaged some burial data
under American Philosophical Society Grant No. 2886. The
junior author, and his associates of the Central Florida
Chapter of the Florida Anthropological Society, have for the
past several years salvaged specimens otherwise doomed to

During this work, an isolated midden burial of an
adult was noted which had been partially exposed by the
dragline. Removal of this adult burial by Robert Strange,
now of Missouri, disclosed the cut wolf jaws, presently in
the collection of James Varner of Winter Park, Florida.
Their exact location is not certain but they were close to
the upper rib cage. The skull of the burial, like most of
those at Tick Island, had been crushed by shell pressure
after interment.

Dating of this burial is impossible, and no pottery
was found with it. However, the burial was located a short
distance above the present water table. St. Johns Incised
sherds were dredged from below the water table in the area

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.



Fig. 1. Cut and perforated wolf jaws from Tick Island.

where this burial was located. This suggests, but it is
only a suggestion, that the burial with the cut wolf jaws
might date to around the time of Christ.

As will be noted from Fig. 1, the jaws had been cut
off immediately behind the first side teeth, and a fairly
large hole was drilled near the base of the mandibles on
each side. It would seem that this was done to fasten these
jaws to a "handle" in a manner similar to that illustrated
by Webb and Baby (1957: 61-71) for cut upper jaws used in
Adena animal masks. The similarity is remarkable, and im-
plies a similar use. Dragoo (1964: 10-11) would place these
masks as Late Adena in time but believes their ultimate
origin may be in the Archaic.


Webb and Baby (1957: 66) record two cut lower cougar
jaws. A letter to Baby elicited the information that one of
these was from the "central grave" beneath the Westerhaven
Mound, an Ohio Adena site. Baby writes (letter of 19 Jan-
uary, 1966) that this jaw was cut, but not perforated. He
concurs in our opinion that the Florida cut and perforated
jaws are parts of animal masks. The similarity in the Ohio
and Florida jaws are very suggestive of similar masks and,
hence, of similar ceremonialism. Connections between Flor-
ida and the Adena-Hopewell cultures of the Ohio region have
been mentioned by many writers, usually as evidence of trade
(Prufer 1964: 75-77). We would suggest that some form of
ceremonialism, other than the practice of using burial
mounds, may also have been held in common.


Dragoo, Don W.
1964 The Development of Adena Culture and its Role
in the Formation of Ohio Hopewell. In Hopewel-
lian Studies (J. R. Caldwell and R. L. Hall,
eds.). Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers.
Vol. 12, pp. 3-34. Springfield.

Prufer, Olaf H.
1964 The Hopewell Complex of Ohio. In Hopewellian
Studies (J. R. Caldwell and R. L. Hall, eds.).
Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers, Vol. 12,
pp. 37-83. Springfield.

Webb, William S. and Raymond S. Baby
1957 The Adena People, No. 2. Ohio State University
Press. Columbus.

Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida

Orlando, Florida



Carl A. Benson

During the early part of 1966 the writer had an oppor-
tunity to examine an unusual wood carving that was found in
the commercial shell removal at Tick Island, in Volusia
County. Mr. Edgar Stackhouse, the owner of the carving,
kindly permitted me to photograph and record details of this

The artistic quality of the figure is striking, and
has a strong resemblance to the Florida turkey buzzard.
Fig. 1 depicts a simulated wrinkled skin around the head and
neck. Illustrations of the Cathartes aura, or turkey buz-
zard, show this same characteristic. The talons of an
eagle, or some other large bird, are clutching at the
throat, causing the beak of the bird to open as in anguish.
The artist left no detail out, even supplying the creature
with a tongue. The talons and head are carved from one
piece of wood, further illustrating the ability of the

Fig. 1. Three views of carved wooden bird; Tick Island.

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, September-
December, 1967.


The point of the beak is missing and probably extended
another 1/2" or so from the present termination. At the
center of the base is a dowel pin, probably used for fasten-
ing the carving to a staff. The object measures approxi-
mately 13 cm. from the top of the head to the end of the
dowel pin.

Examination of shell and pottery associated with the
carving indicated probable St. Johns I B period, as only St.
Johns plain pottery was evident. The midden in question is
site 8Vo24, and is located on the opposite side of the is-
land from the area excavated by Ripley Bullen several years
ago. It should also be mentioned that this midden is assoc-
iated with the sand mound explored by Clarence B. Moore in
1893 (Moore 1894). The ramp described by Moore lead to the
area from which the shell has been removed.

There are other reports of wooden objects found in
Florida. Most notable of these are the discoveries made by
Cushing at Key Marco, Ripley Bullen's (1955) report of the
owl totem, and Gordon Willey's (1949) work at Belle Glade.

Most ancient wooden objects recovered in Florida are
found in muck, mud, and submerged shell middens. Exposure
to the air without treatment soon reduces most objects of
this nature to unrecognizable fragments. Treatment by the
alum process, widely used by curators and proven very effec-
tive, was applied to the Tick Island effigy with satis-
factory results.

It is reasonable to believe that the Tick Island bird
effigy had a religious, or ceremonial, significance. This
theory is generally expressed by other writers on early
aboriginal wood carvings. The expression of violence indi-
cated on this unique relic is most interesting, but unfor-
tunately, the real meaning has been lost in time.


Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Carved Owl Totem, Deland, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. VIII, No. 3. Gainesville.

Eaton, John W.
1962 The Preservation of Wood by the Alum Process.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4. Tal-

Moore, Clarence B.
1894 Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River,
Florida. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 10. Philadelphia.


Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale Univ-
ersity Publications in Anthropology, No. 42. New

Orlando, Florida



The Florida Anthropologist publishes original papers in all subfields of anthropology, with an
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C- 1i: : -'

William H. Sears
Archaeological Survey in the Cape Coral Area
at the Mouth of the Caloosahatchee River

Y. W. Lazarus, W. C. Lazarus and D. W. Sharon
The Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery Site,
8Sa36 . . . . .

Carl A. Benson
The Philip Mound: A Historic Site .

Steve Atkins and J. MacMahan
The Zabski Site, Merritt Island, Florida .

L. O. Warren, W. Thompson and R. P. Bullen
The Culbreath Bayou Site, Hillsborough
County, Florida . . . .

Karlis Karklins
European Trade Beads in Florida . .

Lyman O. Warren
Two Dredged Sites on Bear Creek . .

. . 93

. . 103

. 118

. 133

. 146

. 164

. 170


Ripley P. Bullen and C. A. Benson
Cut Wolf Jaws from Tick Island, Florida

Carl A. Benson
A Unique Wood Carving from Tick Island

. . 175

. . 178

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