Front Cover
 Title Page
 A Microlithic Tool Assemblage from...
 The Microlithic West Bay Site
 Further Notes on the West...
 Microliths of South Walton...
 Two Crooked Creek Nonceramic...
 Membership Information
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00169
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference: Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00169
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Table of Contents
    A Microlithic Tool Assemblage from a Northwest Florida Site
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    The Microlithic West Bay Site
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Further Notes on the West Bay Site
        Page 119
    Microliths of South Walton County
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Two Crooked Creek Nonceramic Sites
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Membership Information
        Page 133
    Back Cover
        Page 134
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September 1974



THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March, June,
September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society,Inc., c/o
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A Microlithic Tool Assemblage from a Northwest Florida Site
Dan F. Morse and Louis D. Tesar . . 89

The Microlithic West Bay Site, Florida by Thomas C. Watson 107

Further Notes on the West Bay Site by R. P. and A. K. Bullen 119

Microliths of South Walton County by David C. Reichelt 120

Two Crooked Creek Nonceramic sites by James M. Haisten. 125


President John W. Griffin
P. O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32084

slt Vice President Benjamin I. Waller
4911 NE 7th St., Ocala, FL 32670

2nd Vice President Wilma B. Williams
2511 McKinley St., Hollywood, FL 33020

Secretary Robert H. Steinbach
P. O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32084

Treasurer Donald L. Crusoe
P.O. Box 2416, Tallahassee, FL 32304

Editor-Resident Agent Ripley P. Bullen
102 Florida State Museum, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Executive Committeemen

Three years: Wesley Coleman
Miami, Florida

Two years: J. Anthony Paredes
Tallahassee, Florida

One year: Yulee Lazarus
Ft. Walton Beach, Florida

At large, for one year

Arthur F. Dreves, Orlando

E. Thomas Hemmings, Gainesville.

Roger Grange, Tampa




Dan F. Morse and Louis D. Tesar

The Palm Court site (Fig. 1) was first mapped during a 1963-1965 archaeological survey
of Bay County, Florida, by Tesar (1965). It is located, approximately 5 miles southwest of
Panama City, in a development called "Treasure Cove" on the north bank of Grand Lagoon. Ini-
tially designated "Site No. 1," it was subsequently cataloged as 8-By-43 under the statewide
Florida system. Tesar revisited the site several times during 1965-1968 and once in December
1971. This paper is in two parts: 1, a description of the site and its components by Tesar
and Morse and 2, a description of its lithic artifacts and an attempt to relate them to known
microlith traditions in the southeastern United States by Morse. The accompanying illustrations
and the artifact counts in Tables 1 and 2 were made by Tesar.

During the 1963-1965 survey period, Treasure Cove was covered by scrub oaks, slash
pine, magnolia, palmettos, rosemary, and miscellaneous grasses. A white Pleistocene beach
sand and a yellowish sandy substratum were exposed in several areas, probably due largely to
land clearing about 1955. House and seawall construction had removed or badly disturbed much
of this surface area by 1971.

The site (Fig. 1) consists of an acre defined by contiguous artifact distribution with a
shell midden subunit ("A") and, two small areas of artifacts located away from the acre of
artifact concentration ("B" and "C"). All 4 units may belong to a single 2 1/2-3 acre site;
certainly the Weeden Island ceramics and the microlith elements were associated together in
the shell midden (Subarea A) within the general acre of artifact concentration and at subarea
"C" (Table 1). The relationship of the Weeden Island shell midden to the rest of the site is
critical for determining conclusively that the microliths belong with the Weeden Island compo-
nent. The midden was approximately 2000 square feet in extent and 1-2 inches thick where it
was exposed by wave action. Tesar's opinion, based on his 1963-1968 field observations, is
that the shell midden is an integral part of the microlith chipping area. An alternative hypo-
thesis is that the shell midden is culturally distinct and post-dates the larger microlith chip-
ping station.

The only pottery found at Palm Court is attributed to Weeden Island II. It is possible be-
cause of the inherent vagaries in distinguishing between Deptford Check Stamped and Wakulla
Check Stamped pottery (Smith 1971:120), that an earlier ceramic component existed here. How-
ever, sherds indicate a major Weeden Island component at the site, and the lack of Deptford
Linear Check Stamped or of Swift Creek Complicated Stamped pottery pinpoints this to within
Weeden Island II times (Willey 1949). The date is estimated to be between about A.D. 700 and

Besides stone debitage, 5 non-diagnostic unifaces (Fig. 2H) a biface fragment, and mi-
crolith elements, the only chipped lithic artifacts found consist of points (Fig. 2A-F). None are
particularly diagnostic. A point not figured is a triangular specimen with concave body edges and
a convex base, probably related to the late prehistoric Madison point. Another point (Fig. 2A)
appears to Morse to be similar to styles found elsewhere in the eastern United States on a Weeden
Island I-II time level. There is a possible terminal Archaic Savannah River point rechipped as
an end scraper in the collection (Fig. 2B). A stemmed graver, made on a stemmed point (Fig. ZC)
and a group of crude stemmed points (Fig. 2D-F) could date almost anywhere from terminal Ar-
chaic into Weeden Island times based on their occurrence in the rest of the eastern United States.
In addition to these artifacts, there are 2 abraders, 28 shell "borers, 1 shell pin (Fig. 21) and 1
shell pendant (Fig. 2J). If it were not for the 1057 microliths and assorted stone debitage, this
site would seem to be relatively insignificant and not unlike other badly disturbed sites with Wee-
den Island ceramics and Archaic-like points.

Florida Anthropologist, vol. 27, no. 3, September 1974


Fig. 1. Map of Palm Court site (8-By-43) locating subareas A-C.
Insert locates sites listed in Table 2 (No. 1 is 8-By-43).

In Table 2, 7 of 38 sites located along Grand Lagoon and at the end of the West Peninsula of
St. Andrew Bay are compared trait-wise to Palm Court (Site 1 in Table 2). All are shell middens


TABLE 1. Artifact Assemblage from the Palm Court site (8-By-43).

1971-1972 ARTIFACT
Original Subarea
CATEGORY 1963-1965 1965-1968 Site Area "B" "C" Total

Microliths.............................. 83 12 37 10 47 142
Other Unifaces.......................... 2 2 1 3 5
Blades.................................. 24 4 17 9 1 27 55
Cores.................................... 9 3 3 2 8 17
Other Debitage.......................... 644 72 97 22 5 124 840
Points........... ................... 7 7
Biface Fragment (Point?) ................ 1 1 1
Limestone Pebble (Abrader?) ............. 1 1 1
Ironstone Abrader....................... 1 1 1
TOTAL LITHIC ARTIFACTS.................. 769 88 158 44 10 212 1069

Fragmentary Conch Spiral "Borers"....... 26 2 2 28
Bipointed Conch Spiral Pin.............. 1 1
Grooved Pendant......................... 1 1
TOTAL SHELL ARTIFACTS................... 28 2 2 30

Weeden Island II
Wakulla Check Stamped ................. 7 1 1 1 9
Indeterminate Check Stamped............ 3 3
Weeden Island Plain* .................. 28 28
Residual Plain*....................... 34 3 3 3 40
TOTAL CERAMIC ARTIFACTS................. 72 4 3 1 4 80

OTAL ARTIFACTS......... ................ 869 92 161 44 13 218 1179

*Sherds were classified as Weeden Island Plain when represented by rims and near-rims and Residual Plain elsewhere.

with possible late Archaic components since we wish to emphasize the terminal Archaic occupation
of the area which has been occupied for approximately 10, 000 years. There was a Dalton period
hunting or fishing camp at or near the present end of the peninsula. Sporadic hunting and/or fishing
continued until terminal Archaic. By the first millennium B. C. there appears to have been a larger,
possibly more stable population. At Site 9 was located a late Archaic village with steatite and fiber-
tempered sherds. At Sites 3 and 11-13 Elliot' s Point complex clay balls also were present. These
objects are morphologically, functionally, and culturally related to the Poverty Point objects of the
lower Mississippi Valley (Lazarus 1958; Fairbanks 1959) where they were used in earth ovens.
Sites 11-13 continued to be occupied in the Deptford period but there may have been a significant
temporal break in the actual occupation of most of the peninsula during the Santa Rosa-Swift Creek
and Weeden Island I periods. During Weeden Island II, all sites but Site 2 were occupied. With the
exception of a Fort Walton village (Site 28), most of the remaining prehistoric occupation of the
area was for sporadic hunting and fishing.

In conclusion, the Palm Court site apparently was only settled to any extent in Weeden Island
II. The terminal Archaic occupation seems to have been minor, particularly when compared to
other sites on the peninsula. There is, however, a possibility that a special microlith chipping sta-
tion was located away from a terminal Archaic village.

The Microlith Collection

Table 1 presents the individual and cumulative artifact assemblages collected from the Palm
Court site during the 3 principle collecting periods. With the exception of a representative collection



S cM. __ CM
0 1
Fig. 2. Non-microlithic artifacts from the Palm Court site.

A-F, points (B, reworked into a scraper; G, ironstone abrader;
H, uniface tool; I, shell pin; and J, shell pendant.


Fig. 3. Core and blade terminology. Modified after

Sanger, McGhee,and Wyatt (1970: Fig. 1).



8 7


TABLE 2. Artifact Assemblage from the Palm Court site (8-By-43) compared with that
from seven sites on West Peninsula of St. Andrew Bay, Bay County, Florida.
Site 1 is 8-By-43. See Table 1 explanation about Plain Pottery Classification.

CATEGORY 1 2 5 9 11 12 13 14 TOTAL

Other Debitage
Chert Axe
Tallahassee Point
Other Points
Other Chipped Chert Artifacts
Limestone Pebble (Abrader?)
Sandstone Abrader
Steatite Bar Gorget
Grooved Stone Plummet
Perforated Stone Plummet
Unfinished Stone Bead
Steatite Sherds
Fragmentary Conch Spiral Borer
Bipointed Conch Spiral Pin
Grooved Incisor-like Bead
Disc Bead
Terminal Archaic Complex:
Orange Plain (fiber-tempered)

142 -
840 3

8 2

1069 5

1 -


- 1 47 8 1 6

Deptford Complex:
Deptford Linear Check Stamped
Deptford Simple Stamped
Alexander Incised
Residual Plain
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek Complex:
Alligator Bayou Stamped
Crooked River Complicated Stamped
Weeden Island Complex:
Wakulla Check Stamped
Biscayne Check Stamped
Ruskin Dentate Stamped
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
Weeden Island Plain
Weeden Island Punctate
Ruskin Linear Punctate
Weeden Island Incised
Indian Pass Incised
Carrabelle Incised
Residual Plain
Fort Walton Complex:
Fort Walton Incised
Lake Jackson Elain
Check Stamped
Fabric Marked

Elliot's Point Clay Balls

- 1 1 2
- 1 1 2




- 1
- 4

- 1
- 4

3 -

- 3 1 1 2 9

- 16


80 3

32 225 189 182 107 57 875


1179 8 125 361 206 203 142 133 2363

*Found between site numbers 11 and 12


- 63


Table 4. Metric Data for Microliths from 8-By-43.



Made on Lame'a Crete 6 33.6 33.6 8.0-11.9 9.3 5.1-9.7 6.8

Bulbous Based
Unretouched on Base 12 18.0-23.6 20.3 7.0-11.0 8.5 3.4-6.2 4.8
Retouched Laterally on Base on Base 6 14.3-19.4 17.0 5.0-10.0 7.8 2.4-4.8 3.8
Retouched Laterally and Proximally 11 15.3-26.8 20.0 6.5- 9.6 7.8 3.3-5.9 5.0
Retouched on Base with Lateral Spur 3 24.1-28.6 26.7 7.1- 8.9 7.8 4.4-5.7 5.1

Cylindrical Without Proximal Retouch 2 18.0-20.1 19.0 4.1- 5.8 4.9 3.6-4.6 4.1

Tanged (Stemmed) 15 15.2-27.6 19.9 5.3-10.1 7.5 3.0-6.0 4.9

Nipple Tipped (Blunt)
Unretouched on Base 5 13.8-17.4 15.7 7.0- 9.8 8.6 5.4-6.2 5.7
Retouched Laterally on Base 4 17.4-18.9 18.0 8.8-10.8 9.8 4.0-6.9 5.4

Laterally Retouched Blade
Lightly Retouched 2 30.2-47.6 38.5 9.0-15.0 12.0 3.5-3.8 3.6
Heavily Retouched 2 28.5-30.1 29.3 6.5- 7.7 7.1 3.3-4.4 3.8

Broken 5 -

Unfinished (?) 8 -

TOTALS & AVERAGES 81 13.8-47.6 20.9 4.1-15.0 8.2 2.4-9.7 5.0

of lithic materials, many of the artifacts collected during the entire 1963-1968 survey period were
misplaced in storage during the intervening 1968-1971 period. Represented from this 1963-1968 pe-
riod in the present collection are 1 core, 2 blades, and 34 microliths. Morse saw this material in
early 1971 and suggested they be reported. In mid-1971, Tesar revisited the site and recovered a
great deal of additional artifacts referable to the microlithic industry. In early 1972 another trip was
made and a few additional specimens collected. Tables 3 and 4 contain metric data concerning the
specimens observed by Morse.

Unfortunately, relatively little has been published concerning blade and core industries in the
southeastern United States. However, true blades are now recognized as being an integral part of
Paleo-Indian/early Archaic (Morse 1973; Goodyear 1971) and middle Woodland (Ford 1963:44-45;
Kellar, Kelly and McMichael 1962). Microlithic true blade industries are known for terminal Ar-
chaic (Haag 1951; Haag and Webb 1953) and Mississippi periods (Mason and Perino 1961; Morse 1971,
1973b). Apparently, assemblages lacking true blades constitute the rarity, not as generally believed
the other way around. In this section are described the elements of the microlith assemblages which
are then compared to the Jaketown and Cahokia industries. Perhaps this will help resolve our identi-
fication difficulty. At the least, this paper should focus attention on blade and core industries in the

Blade Cores. There are 4 basic categories of complete cores. Figure 3 presents the basic core
terminology. Since the sample is so small--only a total of 9 cores are represented--our interpreta-
tions are accordingly limited.

There are 3 "blocked or rectangular cores" (Fig. 4B, F). Maximum dimensions range between
46-52 x 40-42 x 19-34 mm; the mean is 49 x 41.3 x 26 mm. All 3 are apparently made on thick,
chunky flakes (possibly detached by percussion from a long, narrow stock?) One face tends to bulge
and the other is distinctly depressed; however, it is quite possible that additional modification has
masked evidence that each is a trimmed pebble. Each has been trimmed laterally--i only very slightly
and 2 fairly extensively on 3 edges. Figure 41 is an example of the type of flake removed to straighten
the core edges and to create sharp corners. These probably were removed by a hard hammer per-
cussion technique. These flakes tended to be removed bi-directionally. The next step seems to have


consisted of removing the corners of the sharp edges. Most of the primary and secondary blades so
removed must have looked similar to Bordes' "lame a create" (Crabtree 1972:43, 4-5). The number
of observable blade scars range from 3 (Fig. 4B) to 8 (Fig. 4F). The range in fluting length is 42 to
46; the mean 44.6 mm. Chord length varies from 11 to 30, the mean 16. 6 mm. Two cores have ad-
jacent edges with blade scars, the third has 3 with a bidirectional fluting surface. The striking plat-
form for 1 fluting surface was the surface of the blade scar (s) on the adjacent surface. Thus, plat-
form angles are almost impossible to compute but seem to range between 80 and 1000 with a tenden-
cy to be clustered at about 900. Striking platforms do not appear to have been prepared by crushing
or grinding; but, perhaps because of a multiplicity of fluting surfaces, platforms are multiple faceted.

These 3 cores are made of "chalky chert" ranging from mottled gray to gray-reddish-yellow
and containing crystallized cavities. This kind of chert occurs in large boulders, probably locally
available, although we have seen no primary outcroppings. This chert type, plus the presence of
sharply hinged scars on the cores, probably helps explain why such large chunks were not further

A single conical core is in the collection (Fig. 4A). It appears to have been blocked out from a
preheated chunk, of which only a half of 1 surface still remains. This surface is dark with red mot-
tling, and the remaining creamy white surfaces are somewhat glossy. If preheated it probably was
essentially made of the same chert as the three blocked cores. Platform length is 27. 1, chord length
30.0, fluting length 35. 8 mm, and platform angles are around 850-900. The steepness of platform
angle and the curved fluting surface might constitute possible reasons for core "exhaustion". There
are 5 observable blade scars. The platform edge is not significantly battered, although there is slight
crushing present, and is not ground. Negative bulbs of percussion are prominent and fluting borders
end in peaks at the proximal platform. The slight crushing present accentuates these peaks. The
striking platform is multiple faceted; apparently to allow a better "grip" for the knapping implement.

A single bidirectional core (Fig. 4C) is made of a light grap novaculite-like stone. Based on
the presence of crystallized cavities, it may have been preheated and hence modified from the type of
chert described above. Essentially a cylindrical-shaped core, it measures 34.0 x 18.4 x 9. 2 mm.
Platform angles may have varied between 65 and 1000 and there are 11 observable blade scars. The
core is fairly obviously exhausted. One edge of the largest end is crushed but this may possibly be
due to knapping frustration rather than platform edge preparation.

Two ends of cores are in the collection (Fig. 4D). One is probably the distal end of a conical
core and the other is part of the end of a bidirectional core. Neither seems to be a core rejuvenation
flake, merely accidental removals as the core became exhausted.

Core debitage is present at the site and clearly indicates that the cores are being blocked out
and exhausted there. In fact, little was noted in an admittedly limited and quickly viewed 1971-1972
sample that could not logically be called core debitage. Only 2 definite flakes of bifacial retouch
preformm or resharpened biface debitage) were recognized and 1 of those was made of quartzite.
Most of the debitage was classifiable into a chalky, mottled gray and a reddish chalcedony-like stone.
An occasional flake was seen colored a mottled pink, indicating the possibility of some preheating
treatment of the mottled gray chert.

In the collection are 4 bipolar cores (Fig. 4E, G). Maximum dimensions range between 18-23 x
10-20 x 7-12 mm thick; mean 21 x 15 x 9 mm. Two are made of mottled white and gray, 1 of mottled
tan, and 1 of mottled white chert. From 2 to 5 blade scars are present. All 4 may be pieces esquilees,
thought to have functioned as wedges to split longitudinally grooved bone. They seem to be associated
with all stone-age cultures although their major attribution by eastern United States archaeologists is
with Paleo-Indian (MacDonald 1968).

A single piece esquilte made on a blade resulting from bipolar chipping (1 end held against an
anvil while the opposite end of the core is struck) is in the 1971 collection. It probably was used as a
wedge. Made of a white, chalky chert it measures 15 x 8 x 4 mm thick.






L M N 0 P 0 R

Y Z A'
ii I ix

Fig. 4. Micro cores, blades, and associated debitage, Palm Court site.
A, conical core; B, F, blocked or rectangular cores; C, bidirectional core;
D, core end; E, bipolar core; G, bipolar core used as piece esquille
(wedge); H, lame a crlte; I, initial core triming flake; J-A', true blades
(K, O, laterally "wear retouched").


Jaketown microcores basically are prepared by truncating pebbles. Occasionally platform sur-
faces will be multiple faceted but normally they are not. Usually cores are single directional with a
single fluting surface. Sometimes there will be 2 opposite surfaces with a common platform core
edge and sometimes the core will be bidirectional. Occasionally, a Jaketown core will be conical
and look very similar to an exhausted Illinois Hopewell polyhedral core. The point is that there are
variations in Jaketown cores and there is an overlap with the Palm Court sample.

However, none of the Palm Court cores have ground platform edges while a large majority of
Jaketown cores exhibit evidence of edge grinding. Multiple fluting surfaces and bidirectionality are
characteristic of Cahokia cores and they almost never exhibit edge grinding. Platforms are often
multiple faceted. Palm Court cores appear to be a variation of Cahokia rather than of Jaketown
techniques. The main difficulties for precise identification are twofold. Is this similarity to Cahokia
cores due to the stock source (pebble versus blocky flakes) ? Are there two basic different blade re-
moval techniques reflected here with a specific kind of preform blade in mind?

Blades. Bordes and Crabtree (1969) distinguish between a "true blade" and a blade. Both are
at least twice as long as wide but the former exhibits one or more arrises on its obverse surface.
This distinction allows the investigator to recognize purposeful blade technologies since only very
rarely if at all are "true blades" accidently detached by a non-blade technology. The 29 blades col-
lected at Palm Court are "true blades". In Table 3, metric data are presented for all 29 blades.
Four blades might have been left out on the basis that 2 are exceedingly small and thin, 1 is shattered
almost as if bipolar, and 1 is abnormally wide and probably includes much of the fluting surface of a
conical core. However, the only major metric shift in figures for selected as versus all blades oc-
curred within lateral angles. For instance, the total left and right lateral angle mean shifted from
95. 00 to 90. 40

In Figure 3 is a schematic drawing of a true blade with basic terminology indicated. This figure
and Table 3 are based upon a paper by Sanger, McGhee and Wyatt (1970) outlining the basic date nec-
essary for microblade description. Just as we must assume for the most part that cores have been
exhausted and discarded, we must hold that unretouched blades were unsuited for manufacture into
microliths. Description is important from the standpoint of inferring the technique of manufacture
as much as the type of blade desired for use.

Looking at the group of blades as a whole (Fig. 4J, L-A') it appears that a triangular cross
section was consciously being anticipated. Fourteen exhibit a single arris and another 4 have a
strong central arris. Core edge preparation is very difficult to describe. None of the blades have
ground platforms. Five blades, including the wide multiple arris blade, exhibit retouch which ap-
pears to have defined or emphasized a peaked platform centered on the arris. On 7 platforms, also
including the wide blade, lateral scars exist suggesting preparation on top rather than lateral or dis-
tal to the core edge. The tendency towards a single arris, the peaked proximal end, and the multiple
faceted platform surface suggest a pressure crutch, or indirect punch technique of blade detachment
(Crabtree 1972:12-13, 14, 72).

There are 11 mottled light gray, 14 mottled reddish-yellow and 1 pinkish white chert blades.
All these colors tend to grade together and very possibly are a single, highly weathered type of chert.
In addition, 3 blades are made of a reddish-yellow chalcedony. Some of the grays are coarse and
some of the other colors are chalky in appearance. The pinkish white color of 1 blade may indicate

In addition to these 29 blades, there were 2 apparent lames a creates. One (Fig. 4H) was found

in the original site area between 1963 and 1968 and the other in subarea "B" in 1972. Maximum di-
mensions are, respectively, 45 x 15 x 10 and 25 x 11 x 8 mm.

Both flakes appear to be primary blades removed from along the edge of a rectangular core.
One has an extensively battered crest. The proximal end is shattered. Flake scars oriented perpen-
dicular to the long axis exist on both sides of the crest. The other lame a crete has a striking plat-

TABLE 3. Metric Data of Blades from 8-By-43 Compared to a Sample of Blades from the
Cahokia and Jaketown Sites. Terminology and Technique of Measurement After
Sanger, McGhee, and Wyatt (1970). All measurements are in mm.


Length of Complete Blades
Mean, Std. Dev.
Length of Proximal Fragments
Mean, Std. Dev.
Length of Distal Fragments
Mean, Std. Dev.
Width just Distal to Bulb
of Percussion
Mean, Std. Dev.
Thickness just Distal to Bulb
of Percussion
Mean, Std. Dev.
Thickness Times 100/Width
Mean, Std. Dev.
Platform Angle
Mean,Std. Dev.
Left Lateral Angle 10 mm
from Proximal End
Mean,Std, Dev.
Right Lateral Angle 10 mm.
from Proximal End
Mean Std. Dev.
Sum of Left and Right
Lateral Angles
Mean Std. Dev.
Breakage Class (%)
Proximal Fragment
Distal Fragment
Medial Fragment

Arris Class (%)
One Arris
Two Arrises
Three or More Arrises

Platform Preparation (%)
Battered (B)
Multiple Faceted Platform (MFP)
Both B and MFP

25.8,5. 3




3.6, 1. 3










7.0, 2.4

2.8, 1.4




47.4, 20.2

97.7, 27. 3






9.8, 2.9



65.0,11. 39



80.1, 21. 7




form angle of about 800. There are perpendicular flake scars on one side of the crest and the pro-
bable remnant of a single large one on the opposite side. The presence of such blades as these were
predicted earlier in the paper on the basis of the probable technique of core manufacture.

No lames a create are known for the Jaketown industry but this is certainly related to the use of
pebbles as stock and the resultant predominant single directional core technique and cannot be con-
sidered an independent diagnostic trait. Lames a crete-like flakes are known for Cahokia industry.
In Table 3 are metric data of the blades from the Palm Court site compared to similar data from
Cahokia and Jaketown. Overall similarity of the 8-By-43 sample is with the sample from Cahokia.
Specific similarities are in length, platform angle, and perhaps most importantly in platform pre-
paration. The only specific similarity to Jaketown blades is in width. The 8-By-43 sample is inter-
mediate between the 2 but slightly more similar to Cahokia in the thickness/width ratio and com-
bined lateral angles. The small samples and overlapping standard deviations certainly do not inspire
a great deal of confidence in these data.

Platform preparation as indicated by the discussion on cores appears most crucial. None of
either the Cahokia or Palm Court blades have ground platforms. A total of 45. 5% of the Palm Court
and 32. 3% of the Cahokia blades appear to have no specific platform edge preparation. Only 7. 6% of
the Jaketown sample show no preparation. Significantly, on 50. 0% and 31. 8% of the Cahokia and
Palm Court blades, respectively, platforms are multiple faceted, indicating platform surface mod-
ification rather than platform edge modification (onto the fluting surface) is primary. The Jaketown
and Hopewell core platform modification is somewhat similar to each other and in striking contrast
to the Cahokia tradition. The significance of this must be explored by experimentation.

Introduction to Microliths. There are a total of 85 microliths in the collection. Forty-seven
were found in 1971-1972 at the Palm Court site together with 8 cores and 27 blades. Four microliths
were found at Sites 5 and 9. Three from Site 5 (Fig. 50", P") are unique in the collection and little
can be made of them; they may even be part of some other artifact category not familiar to me. That
found at Site 9 (Fig. 5Q") belongs within 1 of the categories of microliths discussed for 8-By-43. It
is the only such microlith known to Tesar in his survey to not be from 8-By-43. Most microliths are
made of mottled olive gray, gray, or white; a few of coarse and chalky white; and, more rarely,
brownish yellow chert. Occasionally reddish chalcedony is found and in 2 cases a reddish tint as if
from a preheated core. The following categories are not to be mistaken for "types", although some
may so correspond. These are, for the most part, categories of convenience and often only differ
from each other by a single formal attribute. The classification is purposely "open-ended. "
Microliths made on lames a creates. A total of 6 microliths seem to have been made on flakes
removing the edges of blocked cores. Three of the 4 complete or almost complete specimens have
been truncated at the proximal end (Fig. 5C", F"). The fourth (Fig. 5D") is untruncated and in addi-
tion has had its crest removed by a previously made blade. Figure 5B" has a shattered base but pre-
sumably still could have functioned as a microlith. The sixth "microlith" is a broken base and pro-
bably is either unfinished or a truncated distal blade end (Fig. 5N"). One (Fig. 5E") has a broken
tip which was used as a graver. This may have been a secondary use since the 3 with complete tips
(including Fig. 5B" and F") were used as drills. Four of the 5 with proximal ends have been re-
touched laterally, presumably for hafting. Three of 4 tips examined were retouched bilaterally to-
ward the single or double arrises. Two, triangular in cross-section, had a single edge chipped bi-
directionally and 1, trapezoid in cross-section, was single directionally chipped on both dorsal and
ventral surfaces. The fourth (Fig. 5F") was retouched bifacially. One of the three complete tips
(Fig. 5D") is "burinated" and another (Fig. 5B") is thinned from the tip.

Calling the preform blades "lames a creates" may be misleading. Four microliths almost cer-
tainly are secondary blades and another two are retouched too extensively to be sure of the original
blade appearance. The blocked cores with one exception do not exhibit the preparation typical of
lames a crates removal (Crabtree 1972:43) but we may be dealing with a different sort of core, i.e.,
one prepared to produce thick, essentially triangular or rectangular cross-section blades rather
than thin blades.


The overall similarity of this category is to the Cahokia industry, since lames a creates are
not known for the Jaketown industry. However, the similarity is not so striking as to the particular
flake type as it is to the emphasis on a triangular-shaped cross-section and to an apparent primary
function. Care taken with rounding the tip and at least 3 mm of lateral use retouch at the tip end
tend to indicate a drill function.

Bulbous based microliths. There are 32 microliths with bulbous or expanded bases. These
have been further subdivided on the basis of the extent of basal retouch and the presence or absence
of lateral spurs. Since each subclass grades into another, all that is reflected here is extent of
workmanship with a possible relationship to basic function as a drill bit or a graver.

Actually 4 of the 12 which are unretouched on the base (Fig. 5C-J, M-N) have a single
(accidental?) shatter-like flake scar located lateral to the long axis and at about midpoint on the
bulbous base. All 12 are made on chunky blades and, with 1 exception (Fig. 5C), the proximal end
is the bulbar end. Seven were retouched bilaterally from the ventral surface and 3 were so treated
from the dorsal surface. The other 2 were retouched from 1 edge on the ventral surface and from
the ventral surface on the other edge. The blunted, smoothed tips are triangular in cross-section and
tend to be beaked. The total portion of the specimen retouched as an indented tip ranges from 9. 4 to
12.2 with a mean of 10.8 mm. Anywhere from 1.0 to 5.6 of the tip seems to exhibit "heavy wear";
the mean is 3. 6 mm. Range of the tip in thickness is 1.7 to 3. 8 and in width 1. 5 to 3. 3; mean values
are 2. 7 and 2. 3 mm. These tip measurements were made at the distal-most end before the tip con-
tracts to a point. Based on a general short length of heavy wear and the beaked tip shape, these tools
appear to have functioned mainly as gravers with two possible exceptions which because of the nature
of lateral wear may have functioned as drills.

There are 6 additional microliths retouched on their base (Fig. 5X, A', W', H", I"), 2 bi-
laterally, 1 unifacially from the ventral surface, and 3 from both surfaces but single directionally on
opposite edges. Rarely triangular in cross-section, tips tend to be similar to a crude square oriented
at a 450 angle. This is due to a very steep retouch and the opposite direction of the bilateral retouch.
The sole exception is uniquely triangular in cross-section. One (Fig. 5A') has a blunt tip and could
have as easily been classified as such. It was classified here simply because it is better made and
like the other 2 complete tips has had its ventral face trimmed and presents a battered, rounded tip.
A fourth tip is broken but continued to be used, apparently as a graver. The total range of the re-
touched tip is 5.0 to 9.0, .the mean 7. 2 mm. The range of heavy use is 4.0 5.0, the mean 4.3 mm.
Total range in tip thickness is 3. 1 to 4. 0 and in width 2. 1 to 4. 0; means are 3. 6 and 3. 0 mm. These
specimens appear to have functioned mainly as grave rs but could have as easily been used as drills.

A third category of bulbous microliths are not only retouched laterally but proximally as well
(Fig. 5Q-S, U-W, Y-Z, I', K', J", K". They are steeply retouched distally and have round to
square cross-sectioned tips. There are 3 bases bilaterally and 2 unilaterally retouched from the
ventral surface; 1 is retouched bilaterally from the dorsal surface, 1 is unilaterally bidirectionally
retouched and 4 are unidirectionally retouched from alternate surfaces. Bases are shattered, trun-
cated and/or retouched, presumably to remove the bulb of percussion. This is an indication that these
particular specimens were hafted. Tips were retouched in a variety of directions, including bilaterally
from the dorsal surface (1), and from 3 edges (6). This latter category is important because it accen-
tuates the attempt to round the tip. In addition to these categories of primary retouch, 6 tips were
chipped over 1 or more additional surfaces at the heavy use tip end. One was "burinated" and used
as a graver. With this and possibly another exception, these tools looked like they had been used as
drills, based on extent of heavy use, roundness of tip, edge wear, and polish. None of this seems to
be characteristic of Jaketown microliths. The range in total tip indentation is 8. 0 to 18. 0, the mean
11.1 mm. Microliths from Palm Court taken together reflect a bimodal distribution in the "heavy
use" length of the tip. The total range here is 4.5 to 7.0, the mean 5.9 mm. Range in thickness of
tip is 1.8 to 3. 5, in width 2.4 to 3. 1, with means of 2. 5 and 2.7 mm. The range in difference between
width and thickness of individual specimens is 0. 0 (2 examples) to 1. 1 mm (the "burinated" graver;
the next highest value is 0. 7). Two broken, reused tips were not used for these statistics; otherwise
the means would have been higher (2. 6 and 2. 8 mm. ).


Fig. 5. Microlith tools from Palm Court (except O"-Q").
A-B, laterally retouched blades; C-J, M-N, bulbous based; K-L, B'-D', nipple
tipped; O-P, G", unfinished; Q-S, U-W, Y-Z, I', K', J"-K", retouched bulbous
based; T, Z', A", bulbous with late-ral spur; X, A', W', H"-I", bulbous with
lateral retouch; E'-H', nipple tipped with lateral retouch; J', N'-V', X'-Y',
L"-M", tanged; L '-M', cylindrical; B"-F", N", microlith on lames a cr@te;
O"-P", drill tips from Site 5; Q", lateral retouched from Site 9.


One specimen (Fig. 5W) exhibits a polished facet with striations oriented perpendicular to the
long axis of the microlith. The 1 mm long polished and striated facet is located on the dorsal surface
2. 5 mm from the tip and slightly to the right on a minutely protruding area. It is difficult to inter-
pret this specimen as anything but a drill. It measures 19. 3 x 7. 8 x 5. 5 thick and has a total tip in-
dentation of 11.0 with 6. 2 mm of "heavy" tip use. The tip measures 3. 5 thick and 2. 8 mm wide.

Another specimen (Fig. 5K') appears at first glance to have a spur. However, this is a result
of the base being reworked and then used as a beaked graver. The proximal tip end measures 4. 8
thick and 3. 2 mm wide.

The final 3 bulbous based microliths have been classified as laterally spurred (Fig. 5T, Z',
A"). The spurs are located on the right side where the tip indentation begins. Otherwise the three
are very similar to the immediately proceeding subcategory except for being slightly larger. All 3
apparently were drills; 1 has a shattered tip and another has part of the side of the tip broken away.
The third (Fig. 5A") exhibits a 1 mm long striated and polished facet on the right edge of the ventral
surface 2. 5 mm from the tip. The whole 17.0 mm indented tip shows heavy use but only 6 mm is
actually polished. This tip measures 3. 1 thick and 2. 5 mm wide at the point. The whole microlith
measures 28. 6 x 7. 5 x 4. 4 mm thick.

Cylindrical microliths. Both specimens (Fig. 5L', M') exhibit heavy tip wear for at least
4 mm, have a bulbous battered tip with slight polish present, and have tip points which measure
2. 7 and 2. 8 by 2. 2 mm. One has a truncated base and the other still retains its 750 angle striking
platform. The basal ends measure 5 x 4 and 5 x 3 mm in extent. One is bilaterally retouched its
whole length, mainly toward the ventral surface. Near the tip it is chipped toward the dorsal sur-
face from one edge and was thinned from the tip as well. The other specimen is also retouched its
whole length, but mainly toward the dorsal surface. At the proximal end it also is chipped across
the dorsal surface from the left and at the distal end it is chipped across the ventral surface from
the right. Both would appear to be drills based on type and extent of tip wear as well as the apparent
care taken to round the tips. The cylindrical shaped microlith is rare if present at all in the Jake-
town Industry whereas it is the major type of Cahokia tool.

Tanged microliths. One of the things that really sets the Palm Court microliths as a whole
apart from the Jaketown Industry is the presence of a large percentage of hafted tools. The evidence
for hafting consists simply of modification of the proximal half to one-third of the concerned speci-
men. Even on tanged microliths, maximum thickness tends to be at or near the junction of the tang
with the tip indentation, the part where maximum width also occurs. Jaketown perforators usually
have bases which are unmodified or only sparingly so, an indication that they were hand held. Gra-
vers can often be better controlled if hand held whereas drills have to be hafted.

Tanged microliths (Fig. 5J', N' V', X' -Y', L"-M") range from cylindrical bipointed to
contracting stemmed with or without striking platform remnants. Four retain a remnant of the striking
platform, 6 are entirely retouched proximally, 3 are truncated, and on 2 specimens the flat area may
be truncated or part of the original platform. The basal portions range between 7 and 16 long with a
mean of 9. 8 mm. Usually larger than the tip indentation, the range of the percentage of the basal por-
tion of the microlith to the whole tool is 42 to 75%. Three specimens with the highest values, 63, 64,
and 75% were reworked, next highest value is 61%, mean 57%. Eight bases were bilaterally trimmed
from the ventral surface, 2 were trimmed either across or from the dorsal surface, 1 has bilateral
retouch from the dorsal surface, 1 has unilateral retouch from the ventral surface and across the
dorsal surface and on alternate edges from both surfaces, and 1 is retouched bilaterally from the dor-
sal surface in addition to retouch across the dorsal surface.

Tip indentations average 7.8 long, ranging between 3 (resharpened, Fig. 50') and 11 mm.
The area of heaviest wear or retouch ranges between 3 (Fig. 50') and 6 mm; mean is 4. 8 mm.
Thickness and width range between 2. 5 to 4. 0 and 2. 0 to 3. 4 mm with means of 2. 7 and 2. 6 mm.
Difference between tip thickness and width on a single specimen ranges between 0. 0 and 0. 9 mean
0. 4 mm.


Retouch of the tip area is as follows: bilateral from the ventral surface (6), unilateral
from the ventral surface and bidirectional on the other edge (4), and other up to 4 directions
(4). Seven of these had additional distal tip retouch from additional directions.. This retouch
was meant to round off the distal tip of these microliths and most cross-sections range from
crude squares to crude hemispheres. Most of these tips seem to have been used as drills but
in some cases were slightly broken and apparently reused as gravers. Seven were thinned at
the tip and 1 was "burinated". One (Fig. 5V') has a small polished facet located on the right
side of the ventral surface 3.5 mm from the tip. There may be striations on this facet. Sev-
eral specimens exhibit polish or edge crushing expected from extensive drill use. However, we
are at a point where our logic must be tested by use experiments.

Nipple-tipped microliths. The main distinguishing characteristic of this class is a blunt tip
which is not longer than 6 mm and often is much smaller. "Blunt perforators" made on micro-
blades were relatively rare at Jaketown (Ford, Phillips, and Haag 1955: 141, Table 44) but are
unknown elsewhere as far as we are aware. There are, however, similar blunt gravers or "per-
forators" made mainly on non-blade debitage at the Zebree site (Morse 1973b: 83-84) associated
with the Cahokia tradition. The 9 specimens from Palm Court are divisable into 2 categories, de-
pending upon whether the base is retouched or not.

Four of the 5 blunt tipped microliths with unmodified bases have beaked tips (Fig. 5K, L,
C', D') and one has a rounded almost bulbous tip (Fig. 5B'). All tips exhibit 2. 6 to 3. 0 mm of
heavy use on the 4. 8 to 6. 0 mm retouched tip indentation and range in size from 2. 6 to 4. 5 thick
and 1.4 to 4.4 mm wide with means respectively of 5.3, 3.5, 3.3, and 2. 3 mm. Three tips are
trimmed from the point and in 1 case the 4 mm long scar looks like a burin scar. Retouch is nor-
mally from the ventral surface and when it is from the dorsal surface it is a result of bidirectional
retouch. Only one specimen has a single chip removed from the ventral surface at the tip end.
This retouch seems to have accentuated the beakiness of the tip for possible graver use. Platform
angles of the unmodified bases ranged from 75 to 900 with a mean of 81.

An additional four microliths with blunted or nippled tips are represented in the Palm Court
assemblage (Fig. 5E'-H'). They differ mainly from the other 5 by virtue of bilateral basal retouch.
Two have shattered (modified?) bases; 2 still retain an 800 angled striking platform. Two have been
basically retouched toward the ventral surface, 1 toward the dorsal surface, and 1 on alternate sur-

All four tips are beaked. The range and mean of the total area indented as the tip are 3. 4 to
6. 0 and 4. 2 mm. "Heavy use" is 3 mm or less. Range of the tip' s thickness is 2. 8 to 6. 9 with a
mean of 4. 0 mm. Range and mean of tip width are 2. 0 to 3. 5 and 2. 8 mm. Tip retouch on 3 speci-
mens was bilateral from the ventral surface and on the fourth was done from alternate surfaces.
One specimen had a single flake removed from the ventral surface of the tip. The accent on a
beaked tip and the 3 mm or less of apparent heavy wear (battering and slight polish) indicate a gra-
ver function. The specimen found at Site 9 is typical of this category of microliths ( Fig. 5M").

Laterally retouched blades. Four blades exhibited as sole modification a lateral retouch.
There are two distinct categories. Two blades (Fig. 4K, O) appear to have light "use or wear re-
touch. Platform angles are about 800 and platforms multiple faceted. The largest has 2 arrises
and has "retouch" on its left medial and distal edge. Its distal end appears to be part of a prepared
striking platform of the opposite end of the core. There is an area of battering but, since no blades
were removed from this end of the blade, this is apparently just a shattered distal end. The smaller
blade with three arrises exhibits oblique transverse wear on the left side and possible distal wear on
the right side. Blades with this sort of light "wear retouch" occur in both the Cahokia and Jaketown

The other 2 blades (Fig. 5A, B) are steeply retouched bilaterally toward the ventral surface,
have a single arrises, and retouched proximal ends. Distal ends are slightly bulbous and tips show use.
Tips measure, respectively, 2. 0 x 2.7 x 1.1 and 3.0 x 3.3 x 2. 2 mm thick. At the Cahokia site, the


only vaguely similar artifacts are unfinished tools and it is fairly clear that these 2 blades are fin-
ished tools. Not only were they used but the direction of lateral retouch is not normal to the other
Palm Court microliths. At the Jaketown site, there was a category established for "needles" which
may include similar specimens (Ford, Phillips, and Haag 1955:141-142).

Broken microliths. There are 3 distal and 2 medial fragments. One of the latter possibly
could be the truncated proximal end of a small microlith. Three of the fragments may be from
tanged or basal retouched bulbous based microliths. One of the tips may, on afterthought, not be
from a microlith, particularly since it has more extensive retouch than any of the other tools from
Palm Court.

Unfinished (?) microliths. A total of 8 fragmentary blades appear to be unfinished microliths.
Several probably were aborted simply because the blade snapped (Fig. 50-P). Little actual retouch
was accomplished. One (Fig. 5G") made on a lame a create (?) may simply be a scraper. It is ex-
tensively retouched proximally and medially on both right edges (left in the figure) and has been trun-
cated proximally. It easily could have been made into a graver which is why it is included here.
Most of the other 7 appear to have been meant for the bulbous base category.


In the preceding pages an assemblage of northwest Florida microliths have been described.
The site where they were found is basically Weeden Island II; however, there is a terminal Archaic
component present as well. There are two known microlith traditions in the southeastern United
States. One, the Jaketown microlith industry, is associated with terminal Archaic. The other, the
Cahokia microlith industry, is associated with initial Mississippi.

Recently it has been recognized that there are strong cultural ties along the Gulf Coastal plain
from Louisiana into northern Florida. These ties seem most evident during terminal Archaic times
with a Poverty Point culture flavor existing along these areas (Lazarus 1958; Fairbanks 1959; Webb
1968). In view of the presence of the Elliot' s Point clay balls, projectile point styles, steatite ves-
sels, fiber-tempered pottery, and similar ground stone artifacts, investigators expect to find Jake-
town-like microliths as well. (It is well to note at this point that the use of clay balls in earth ovens
in the Mississippi Valley continued into late Woodland times, up to about A. D. 700. )

On the other hand, the emergence of early Mississippi (Chiefdom based on agriculture the
apparent main innovation) in the southeastern United States possibly involves the Cahokia microlith
industry (Morse 1971, 1973b) This industry is best expressed at the Cahokia site near St. Louis
and has been recognized at the Zebree site in northeast Arkansas (Morse 1973b). This Arkansas
site is fairly clearly a site intrusion from within the Cairo lowlands located between Cahokia and
Arkansas. The apparent date is around A. D. 900-1100 based on similarity to the Cahokia Fairmount
phase, and the assemblage at Zebree is regarded as initial Mississippi in northeast Arkansas. The
manufacture of shell beads during this initial thrust of Mississippi may have been crucial to the es-
tablishment of trading partner relationships since the actual intrusion of people probably was involved.
The same site intrusion situation exists at Macon Plateau (Fairbanks 1946:107; Wilson 1964; personal
communications, John Walker, Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee), although to date
microliths have not been associated.

The Palm Court microliths together with microblades and microcores have been described and
compared metrically to both known industries. In all the samples used, total numbers of artifacts
were small and standard deviations of the means large. No replication or functional experimentation
were carried out, thus further limiting our conclusions. Replication and experimentation are neces-
sary; and descriptions of larger, better controlled samples of the Jaketown and Cahokia expressions
are mandatory before any definite conclusions can be made.

All in all, the Palm Court microlithic assemblage is more similar to the Cahokia than to the
Jaketown tradition. An association with Weeden Island II would fit such an interpretation and events


such as that postulated for the Macon Plateau culture would be an expected occurrence. However,
bone and shell work by chipped stone technologies are expected to involve similar kinds of hand tools,
e. g. pieces esquilees and gravers. The stock utilized in the respective known microlithic traditions
are quite different and this may influence the specific techniques involved. There is an apparent
functional difference in the primary use of microliths in each tradition and this might influence the
techniques of blade removal. If these can be assumed to be independent variables, we can infer the
Palm Court assemblage as part of the Cahokia microlith industry.

Our interests here are oriented toward understanding the beginnings of Mississippi (Chiefdom)
culture and the function of microlith production and use in inter-community relationships. We have
emphasized that not only are there several blade industries in the southeast but at least two micro-
blade industries differentiated by time period, technique and basic functional orientation.

References Cited

Bordes, Francois, and Don E. Crabtree
1969 The Corbiac Blade Technique and Other Experiments. Tebiwa, Vol. 12, No. 2,
pp. 1-21. Pocatello.

Crabtree, Don E.
1972 An Introduction to Flintworking. Occasional Papers of the Idaho State University
Museum, No. 28. Pocatello.

Fairbanks, Charles H.
1946 The Macon Earth Lodge. American Antiquity, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 94-108. Menasha.
1959 Additional Elliot' s Point Complex Sites. Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XII, No. 4,
pp. 95-100. Tallahassee.

Ford, James A.
1963 Hopewell Culture Burial Mounds near Helena, Arkansas. Anthropological Papers
of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 50, Part 1. New York.

Ford, James A., Philip Phillips, and William G. Haag
1955 The Jaketown Site in West-Central Mississippi. Anthropological Papers of the
American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 45, Part 1. New York.

Goodyear, Albert C.
1971 The Brand Site: The Dalton Tool Kit with an Intrasite Analysis. Unpublished M.A.
thesis. Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas. Fayetteville.

Haag, William G.
1951 The Jaketown Flint Industry. Newsletter of the Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 7-9. Oxford, Mississippi.

Haag, William G., and Clarence H. Webb
1953 Microblades at Poverty Point Sites. American Antiquity, Vol. 18, No. 3,
pp. 245-248. Salt Lake City.

Kellar, James H., A. R. Kelly, and Edward V. McMichael
1962 The Mandeville Site in Southwest Georgia. American Antiquity, Vol. 27, No. 3,
pp. 336-355. Salt Lake City.

Lazarus, William C.
1958 A Poverty Point Complex in Florida. Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XI, No. 1,
pp. 23-32. Tallahassee.


MacDonald, George F.
1968 Debert: A Palaeo-Indian Site in Central Nova Scotia. Anthropology Papers,
National Museum of Canada, No. 16. Ottawa.

Mason, Ronald J. and Gregory Perino
1961 Microblades at Cahokia, Illinois. American Antiquity, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 553-557.
Salt Lake City.

Morse, Dan F.
1971 Two Recent Microblade Core Discoveries in Mississippi County, Arkansas.
The Arkansas Archeologist, Vol.12, No. 1, pp. 1-8. Fayetteville.
1973a Dalton Culture in Northeast Arkansas. Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 25, No. 1,
pp. 28-38. Gainesville.
1973b Zebree: A Frontier Site in the Penetration of Northeast Arkansas by the
Mississippi Stage. Manuscript on file with the Arkansas Archeological Survey.

Sanger, David, Robert McGhee, and David Wyatt
1970 Appendix I: Blade Description Arctic Anthropology, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 115-117.

Smith, Samuel D.
1971 Excavations at the Hope Mound with an Addendum to the Safford Mound Report.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 107-134. Gainesville.

Tesar, Louis D.
1965 An Archeological Survey of the West Peninsula of Saint Andrews Bay [Florida]
(Part One). Manuscript on file with the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian

Webb, Clarence H.
1968 The Extent and Content of Poverty Point Culture. American Antiquity, Vol. 33,
No. 3, pp. 297-321. Salt Lake City.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,
Vol. 113. Washington.

Wilson, Rex L.
1964 A Radiocarbon Date for the Macon Earthlodge. American Antiquity, Vol. 30,
Bi, 2m oo, 202-203. Salt Lake City.

Arkansas Archeological Survey
Florida State University
November 1973


Thomas C. Watson


Surface collecting at a wave-eroded site (Fig. 3b) during the past five years has revealed an
early occupation in Bay County, Florida, of a people whose cultural remains include a well-devel-
oped microlithic industry. Similarity with the lithic element of the Poverty Point culture of Louisi-
ana may be suggested. One feature that points intriguingly to an early date is the total absence of
aboriginal ceramic material at or in the immediate vicinity of the site. Another striking feature is
the absence of shell material, considering that the site is located on a bay that has supported an
abundant marine shell life for millenia. Perhaps when these non-ceramic people occupied the site
the sea level was considerably lower and St. Andrews Bay had not been formed. Shell middens are
common at many other sites around the Bay, but the presence of ceramic material in these sites
indicates they were occupied during more recent times.

In this report a cursory comparison is made between the recovered artifacts and the micro-
lithic assemblage of the Poverty Point culture. In a personal communication, Louis Tesar of Flor-
ida State University' s Anthropology Department suggested that the material be compared with the
microlithic element of the Cohokian culture as Dr. Dan Morse has done [in the preceding article]
with similar lithic material collected at a nearby Bay County Site. The quality and number of cer-
tain types of lithic artifacts recovered are adequate for such an in-depth comparative analysis. It is
hoped that this short article encourages someone to undertake such a study.

Site Location and Physical Features

The site (8BY45) is located on the shoreline of West Bay, an arm of St. Andrews Bay, one
half mile west of the mouth of Botheration Bayou (Fig. 1). Figure 2 is a scaled plan view of the
site showing where the lithic material has been found. Also shown is a plot of the surface elevation
along a line running approximately northwest to southeast (350 west of north). This elevation line
traverses what appear to be the central portion of the site. Figure 3 contains an aerial view facing
east toward Botheration Bayou and ground level photographs of the site from several directions.
The arrow in the bottom part of Figure 3a points to the site.

Size of the site has been determined only roughly by the extent of the area where the lithic
material has been recovered in the shallow water zone and in the eroding beachline, by probing with
a steel rod in the sand and mud bottom near the shore and by a few small holes dug inland. Most of
the material has been found within a 100 yard stretch along the beach and as far as 30 yards out
from shore, as indicated in Figure 2 by the crosshatched area.

Physical features which made the site location attractive to ancient man are difficult to dis-
cern at this time. Maximum elevation of the site above the high tide waterline is less than one foot.
Such a low elevation indicates that most likely the water level was considerably lower during the
period when the site was occupied. Material recovered from the small test holes was approximately
8 inches below the high tide water level. The site' s proximity to a small drainage (Fig. 3c) hints
that there may once have been a creek emptying into the Bay at that point. Immediately south of the
site is a tidal flat that contains many cypress tree stumps. Still further inland there are a few cy-
press tree stumps. Still further inland there are a few cypress trees, indicating the whole area to
the south may once have been a pond or lake. East of the site and up Botheration Bayou the area is
marshy and backed up by a tidal flat, as shown in Figure 3a. About one-half mile west of the site
the land is several feet higher and has a growth of live oaks, but the dominant vegetation is slash
pine, wire grass, palmettoes, yaupon berries, gall berries and titi trees. This growth is typical of
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 27, no. 3, September 1974




NOTE: Artifacts found in
crosshatched areas


I +-2 Ft

A-:LE=!fp--2 Ft
Elevation contour along A-A'
referenced to high tide line

0 50 100 Ft



Toward Mouth of Botheration Bayou

c. View of Drainage Facing South

Figure 3. Views of West Bay Site

d. View of Eroding Beach Facing South


the low-lying sandy soils of Bay County bordering the Bay.

St. Joe Paper Company, owner of the land on which the site is located, has recently harvested
and replanted the pine trees immediately adjacent to the site. Pine trees on the site, which is actu-
ally on a small island at high tide and surrounded entirely by marsh and/or silted-sandy beaches,
were cut but the ground was not plowed and replanted. Numerous dead trees and stumps along the
beach line and loss of juncas grass attest to a high rate of erosion which will ultimately obliterate
the site (Fig. 3d). Presently there are no permanent sources of fresh water within two miles of the
site. There are reports of an underwater fresh water spring in the Bay some 1. 5 miles to the north-
west, but this has not been confirmed. Before drainage ditches were dug by St. Joe Paper Company,
numerous ponds existed between West Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, as evidenced by the many low-
lying areas filled with cypress and bay trees. During rainy seasons, much of this wooded area
still fills with water, despite the extensive drainage system

Recovered Artifacts

As noted above, all recovered artifacts have been of lithic material. These have been sorted
into categories defined by Ford and Webb (1956) for the Poverty Point site and by Ford, Phillips and
Haag (1955) for the Jaketown site. Not all categories of the Poverty Point lithic assemblage were
present at the West Bay site, but those represented are discussed below. Attention is called to some
obvious similarities and differences between features of these artifacts and those from the Poverty
Point and Jaketown sites. Table 1 lists the number of artifacts placed in each category and the per-
centage of the total number represented by the number in each category. The microlithic tools are
discussed first.

Microlithic Tools

Blunt Perforators
According to the description given by Ford, Phillips and Haag (1955) for a certain class of
micro-tool in the Poverty Point lithic assemblage, 497 of the artifacts found at the West Bay site are
perforators. This grouping includes the microliths labeled "End Scrapers" and "Side Scrapers" by
Ford and Webb (1956), who recognized both these categories as early stages of perforators. These
blade tools are remarkably similar to those of the Poverty Point culture. Four hundred sixteen of
them can be classified as "blunt" perforators, some of which are illustrated in Figure 4. Most of
them are made from prismatic blades, presumably struck from prepared cores. Length of these
blunt perforators ranges from 12 to 25 mm; width, from 6 to 13 mm. According to Ford and Webb
(1956) Poverty Point perforators are shaped by usage as scraping tools, rather than by intentional
flaking. Flaking occurs when the major plane of a blade is moved almost at right angles along the
surface of the material being worked. Flaking details on three blunt perforators can be seen in
Figure 5.
Jaketown Perforators
Sixty-four of the small blade tools having bulged ends or mid-sections can be classified as
"Jaketown" perforators, some of which are shown in Figure 6. In some cases these perforators are
flaked around the entire perimeter, indicating that every millimeter of available working edge was
utilized. These artifacts range from 14 to 44 mm in length and from 6 to 11 mm in maximum width.
Figure 7 shows flaking detail on three Jaketown perforators.
Sixteen of the perforators can be classified as needles, which are similar to the Jaketown
variety except the bulged section is not present. Needle length ranges from 11 to 31; width, from 5
to 7 mm. Some needles are shown in Figures 6 and 8.
Examination revealed that most of the 96 flint and chert cores recovered at the site had been
used extensively as sources for blade material. Some of these are shown in Figure 9. Only 6 of the
cores had no prismatic flake revoval scars (these are not shown here). In some cases blade removal
on all sides resulted in a conical or wedged-shaped form, as illustrated by the core in Figure 9, Row
B, 3rd. from the left. It appears that many cores broke in the blade removal process, creating an


additional surface which then was used as a striking platform. The removal of a single flake to
provide a core striking platform was common at the Poverty Point and Jaketown sites, but this
practice was not followed at the West Bay site. Perhaps the material was not as readily worked
as that available at the Louisiana sites. The cores reveal many sharp breaks, indicating the
maximum possible blade length was not always achieved (see Figure 9, Row B, 3rd from left).
Others appear to have broken in the attempt to remove as many blades as possible (Figure 9,
Row A, 4th from left). The irregular shape and poor quality of many of the unused blades indi-
cate either a poor quality material or perhaps a high quality prismatic blade was not required
for the use which resulted in the formation of perforators. In many instances blades were re-
moved almost at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the cores (Figure 9, Row C, 5th from
left). A detailed comparison of these cores with those of the Louisiana sites would be of great
interest. Unlike the Poverty Point cores which are normally worked only on one side, most
core material at the West Bay site is worked on all sides. Perhaps the difficulty in obtaining blade
material led to the practice of using a core until it was exhausted. In 2 cases where the cores
were worked on all sides, the dimensions at the narrow ends were reduced to 12 and 15 mm,
respectively (Figure 10). Many of the highly irregular shaped pieces of flint from which blades
have been removed appear to be remnants of cores that broke under the knappers efforts and
were then further used as long as they were sufficiently large to be held for blade removal. Core
lengths ranged from 34 to 57; widths, from 17 to 39 mm. Details of blade removal scars on two
conical shaped cores are shown in Figure 10. Each core was rotated 90 degrees to provide the
views shown at the right hand side of the figure.
Six hundred sixty-two unused prismatic blades were sorted out from the material collected
at the site. Some of these are shown in Figure 11. About the same number of extremely thin and/or
short blades and badly formed blades were excluded from this count. Also excluded were approx-
imately 50 thin conchoidal flakes, which measured up to 41 mm by 23 mm, of the type generated in
the manufacture of large flaked tools. The only criteria used in selection of these prismatic blades
was that they have three or more large longitudinal flake removal scars to indicate they had been
removed from a core. Blade sizes ranged from a few mm in length and width to a maximum length
and width of 51 and 22 mm, respectively. Many of the blades are triangular in cross section, as
were a large number of the extremely short blades excluded from the count. A majority of the blunt
perforators came from blades of triangular section. Perhaps the large number of relatively wide
thin blades is due to their being unsuited to what ever use blades were put that led to formation of
the perforators. This contention is bolstered by the fact that most of the perforators are made from
relatively narrow blades.

Another group of 78 blades shows some evidence of use, either as scrapers or cutting tools.
Some of these are obviously in the initial stages of use that led to the perforator form. Some show
wear only at the tip. Both prismatic and conchoidal forms are included in this group of partially used
blades. Figure 12 is a photograph of a representative sample of these blades. Some of these would
have been classified as end scrapers and side scrapers by Ford and Webb (1956).

Large Stone Tools

Other lithic material recovered at the West Bay site does not fit into the microflint assemblage
as defined for the Poverty Point culture. Elements of this group are listed in the lower half of Table
1 under the heading "Large Stone Tools. These artifacts have no obviously distinctive features that
suggest a unique association with any particular lithic tool assemblage. Similar stone tools are pre-
sent in assemblages of all the major cultural periods in the Southeast. Again the typology is that used
by Ford and Webb (1956) for the Poverty Point material.

Projectile Points
Nine complete or only slightly damaged projectile points were found at the West Bay site. These
are shown in Figure 13 and are labeled A-H and L. Those labeled B, C, D, E, F, G and L are made
from white or blue and white chert. The one labeled A is from gray and white chert and can be identi-
fied as Gary Typical type according to Ford and Webb' s typology. The other points are not obviously


Figure 4. Blunt Perforators

Figure 5. Flaking Detail on

Three Blunt Perforators



a123 in ntmtr
Scale in Contimatera

Jaketown Perforators and Needles

NometC I AI

Figure 7. Flaking Detail
on Three Jaketown Perforators

31 91 5

Figure 8. Flaking Detail
on Three Needles

Figure 6.

, 1.



Figure 9. Typical Cores From West Bay Site

I IIrtrr I IIh I tUJII I I tl I iiI u

Figure 10. Details of Blade Removal Scars on Two Cores



B 4


0 1 2 3 4 5
Scale in Centimeters

Figure 11. Unmodified Prismatic Blades

Figure 12. Blades Showing Some Use Wear


similar to the types found at the Poverty Point and Jaketown sites. Turning to Bullen' s (1968) pro-
jectile point identification guide, the point labeled H exhibits features of the Hernando type, espe-
cially the basal notching. The material is a gray quartzite with a brown and white tint; it is foreign
to northwest Florida. The number of points is obviously too small a sample to draw even tentative
conclusions about cultural associations. According to Bullen (1968) the point labeled A could be a
Florida Archaic stemmed variety. The one labeled B has features similar to the corner-notched
Lost Lake type given by Perino (1968). It is made from a white chert, commonly found in the lime-
stone outcroppings in the Florida Panhandle. Points F and G were found on the west side of the
beach indentation across the mouth of the drainage from the site and may not be a part of the assem-
blage. Only 4 small flakes have been found in this remote area, where F and G were found. Por-
tions of several other chipped stone artifacts, labeled 1 M, N and O in Figure 13, could be the dis-
tal ends of projectile points. The 2 artifacts labeled J and K are hafted scrapers. Another hafted
scraper was found after the material in Figure 13 was photographed. The projectile points do not
fit comfortably into the typologies given by either Ford and Webb (1956) or Bullen (1968).
Chipped Adze
The artifact shown in Figure 14 is a chipped adze according to the typology adopted by Ford
and Webb (1956). It is made from a blue and white chert containing fossil shells. Signs of heavy
usage are evident on the more pointed end and along both long edges. Others would probably classify
the artifact as a hand axe or chopper. Only one such object has been recovered at the site and it is
similar to those found in the Poverty Point lithic assemblage.
Pitted Stones
Three artifacts shown in Figure 15 fall into Ford and Webb' s (1956) category labeled pitted
stones, so-called because of the shallow indentations caused by use as whetstones or abraders. The
left-most one is a quartzite river pebble found approximately 15 yards inland in a small test hole.
It is 57 millimeters in length, 38 in width and 25 in thickness. Only one side exhibits a polished
depression caused by use. The center object is also a quartzite river pebble, but has an unusually
coarse, granular texture. Considerable wear on 2 edges show hammerstone usage. Both sides have
shallow depressions from usage. This artifact is 85 millimeters in length, 66 in width and 34 in
thickness. The remaining pitted stone has three surfaces that exhibit a high polish from usage. One
surface is very flat, while the other two have shallow depressions. Evidence of use as a hammer-
stone is also present. The material is a fine grained sandstone. Its dimensions are 72 millimeters
in length, 55 in width and 33 in thickness. This type of artifact was found in large numbers at the
Poverty Point and Jaketown sites. But they are also elements in nearly all other cultural traditions
in the Southeast.
Large Flake Scrapers
The 4 artifacts shown in Figure 16 are large flake scrapers. Each shows some evidence of
having been used as a scraper or knife, although that labeled C was used very little. The material
is white chert. All flaking is very crude on these artifacts.
Other Lithic Material
Several other artifacts should be mentioned. One is a typical thumbnail scraper, formed by
intentional pressure flaking around the entire perimeter of the flake from which it is made. This
small scraper is shown in Figure 17 and labeled A. Only one of the flaked tools could be identified
as a drill. This is shown in Figure 17 and labeled B. Four pieces of very granular, red sandstone
were found, but none exhibited evidence of use. One small steatite fragment was recovered. It
could not be positively identified as a pot sherd.

Total weight of the material recovered at the West Bay site is a little less than 20 pounds. The
artifacts described above accounted for approximately half of this total weight. The remainder con-
sists of small conchoidal flakes, broken and fragmented blades, small flakes produced by pressure
flake retouch, outer surface layers of chert nodules removed to form the prepared cores, and lumps
of chert that were difficult to work because of poor flaking characteristics. This rejected portion of
the lithic material is very much like the debris found in lithic workshop areas in the Florida Pan-
handle (Sharon and Watson 1971). Undoubtedly, a more careful examination of the material adjudged
to be refuse would yield a few more worked artifacts and selection of more unused blades. It is un-
likely that such a screening of the material would cause an appreciable change in the relative per-
centages of the artifacts as shown in Table 1.


Scale in Centimeters Figure 13.

Projectile Points, Hafted Scrapers and Flaked Tool Fragments

0 1 2 3 h 5

Scale in Centimeters

Figure 14. Chipped Adze Figure 15. Pitted Stones
Most flakes and nodules of flint with the cortex still present indicate the material had not been
exposed to flowing water. The nodules are not smooth like river pebbles, but are rough, pitted cal-
careous objects typical of the flint and chert nodules found in limestone layer outcroppings. Lime-
stone nodule outcroppings abound in Jackson County, which lies immediately northeast of Bay County.
Similar outcroppings occur in Northern Bay County on the Econfina Creek, 20 to 30 miles from the
site. At the present time there are no known limestone outcroppings south of West Bay. Perhaps
outcroppings now drowned by the rising sea were accessible to the inhabitants of the West Bay site.
But this presumes a very early date of occupancy for the site. So far as can be determined all lithic
materials had to be imported and probably from a neighboring area some fifty or more miles distant.


Figure 16. Large Flake Scrapers

Figure 17. Miscellaneous Artifacts "

Some of the West Bay site material is indistinguishable from the chert found in Jackson County at the
Two Egg Quarry Site (Sharon and Watson 1971); while other materials such as the quartzite and stea-
tite must have come from more distant sources. Perhaps early man found it difficult to transport
his lithic materials to the West Bay site and this fact may account for the prepared cores being used
so intensively for blade material.
References Cited
Bullen, Ripley P.
1968 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Florida State Museum. Gainesville.
Ford, James A., Philip Phillips, and William G. Haag
1955 The Jaketown Site in West-Central Mississippi. Anthropological Papers of the
American Museum of Natural History, Volume 45, Part 1. New York.
Ford, James A., and Clarence H. Webb
1956 Poverty Point, A Late Archaic Site in Louisiana. Anthropological Papers of the
American Museum of Natural History, Volume 46, Part 1. New York.
Perino, Gregory
1968 Guide to the Identification of Certain American Indian Projectile Points.
Special Bulletin, Number 3, Oklahoma Anthropological Society. Oklahoma City.
Sharon, D. W., and T. C. Watson
1971 The Two Egg Quarry Site. Florida Anthropologist, Volume 24, Number 2.
Gaine sville.
Panama City, Florida
November 1973


Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen

September 16, 1973, Thomas C. Watson took us to the West Bay site which he discusses in
the proceeding article. As he had done in the past we found both worked and unworked bladelets on
the sand of the eroded shore in the central part of the site. Walking around the eroded peat (Watson
Fig. 3d, lower right corner) to the east we noted the flat sand "filled in" area behind the site as
shown in Figure 1. The small sand ridge or dune, which forms the highest part of the A-A' profile
in Watson' s Figure 2, is located under the brush and trees between this flat area and the eroded
part of the site. We dug a very small test hole in this sand ridge which produced the profile shown
in Figure 2. The lower peat deposit is the same as the eroding peat of the beach.


S6- White Sand
Dark BrownSand Fig. 2. Profile
a and Peat in sand dune
12" immediately
a Brown Sand southeast of
Xa x x x West Bay site.
1- Dark Peat with
Some Sand
Fig. 1. Looking west from low land to rear of
West Bay site. Sand ridge or dune is behind x, location of specimens
pine tree in right center of picture.

We found four microblades, two worked and two not, in the basal part of the intermediate
brown sand (Fig. 2, x). They were lying horizontally in the sand less than an inch above the top of
the lower peat zone. Apparently our test was made near the eastern part of the site as a higher con-
centration would be expected near the center to judge from Watson' s collection.

Presently the sand ridge is triangular in shape and about 50 feet on a side. Judging from the
area over which Watson found microliths, the original area must have been substantially more. The
upper sand and peat layer (Fig. 2) is suggestive of a higher stand of water than that present today but
our data is too limited to support such an assumption to the exclusion of other possibilities. The ero-
sion of the site, and the filled in area behind it, correlate with the recent rise in sea level but there
is no way to use this to date the site. While we have some idea of the rise in sea level over time, we
do not know how high the West Bay site was above sea level at time of occupation.

Morse and Tesar, in the first article of this issue, have presented a strong case for a correla-
tion of the microliths from the Palm Court site with those from Cahokia and thus to date them to early
Middle Mississippian (late Weeden Island) times, while Watson tends towards a Poverty Point (ca.
1000 B. C. ) date for the West Bay microliths. Reichelt in the following article suggests a similar fiber-
tempered pottery date. West Bay site appears to be more eroded than Palm Court but, as we have
mentioned above, that does not prove the West Bay site to be substantially the older of the two. It is
worthy of note, however, that the geological situation at the two Crooked Creek sites discussed in a
following report by Haisten and that at a St. Petersburg site to be reported on shortly by William G.
Webster and James D. Knight is similar to that at West Bay. At West Bay and the two Crooked Creek
sites no sherds were found. If these microlithic stations were used during ceramic times, the absence
of pottery seems strange. Could the manufacture of shell beads been associated with taboos or is it
perhaps that different shell bead producing sites were occupied at different times while the similarity
in the tools is the result of the same or a similar functional use?

American Anthropologist, vol. 27, no. 3, September 1974


David C. Reichelt

The area south of Choctawhatchee Bay in the county of Walton is locally known as South Walton
County. It is this region that the author has primarily directed his efforts in the collecting and study-
ing of prehistoric artifacts. While pottery is the most abundant and sought after artifact to be found
in this region, an equally plentiful supply of stone tools of various types are also found. It is the tools,
primarily the small tools often referred to as micro-tools or microliths, that will be discussed here.

All sites in the area--particularly the archaic ones--yield a variety of'tools, but there are a
few sites that yield an unusually large number of small micro-tools. Prominent among these is
8WL29, known as the Alligator Lake site. This multicomponent site, after three years of excava-
tion and surface hunting, has produced over 700 tools and points of which over 250 are micro-tools.
Then there is 8WL92, the Four Mile Point site, where over 300 tools and points have been recovered
by the author. Some 200 are micro-tools or microliths. In addition-a few other sites have yielded
similar tools but only a small number by comparison.

All of the sites previously mentioned are located on a peninsula of land beginning at Point
Washington on the bay and Grayton Beach on the Gulf of Mexico. The peninsula runs west to Destin
in Okaloosa county, where the bay empties into the Gulf. Approximately twenty miles in length and
three miles in width at the eastern end this region, like most of northwest Florida along the Gulf,
is comprised almost entirely of sand with a heavy cover of pine and scattered areas of hardwoods.

Site 8WL29 is located a half mile east of Grayton Beach, a summer resort with only a few
year round residences. In this area the pine forest is separated from the Gulf beach by a strip of
sand dunes over a quarter mile wide. It is in these dunes that 8WL29 is situated. In almost three
years of semi-continuous excavation at this site, the author has uncovered all accessible areas of
the site not currently covered by sand dunes. This work yielded some 700 artifacts of chipped and
polished stone, and sherds of steatite bowls, as well as hundreds of clay ball fragments and a few
complete balls. In addition sherds from approximately 200 pottery bowls were found. In no way does
the author' s artifact count reflect an accurate picture of the size or content of the site as many local
collectors have surface hunted this site in the past. The periods and cultures represented by the
materials recovered are: Paleo-Indian, by four Dalton points and a possible set of pebble tools; early
and middle Archaic with a small group of stemmed points; late Archaic or Transitional by a large
quantity of Poverty Point clay objects, points, steatite sherds and a large quantity of fiber-tempered
pottery; and Woodland by the closely related Tchefuncte, Bayou La Batre and Deptford pottery. The
last evidence of prehistoric use of the site is pottery of the Weeden Island period.

It is with the fiber-tempered pottery that the vast majority of stone artifacts were recovered.
Over 90 percent of all worked stone in this zone had its start in the form of large or small blades.
This working of large blades produced points that were uniformly thin and well made. It also is the
reason for the uniformity of the tools and allowed the manufacture of small and delicate micro-tools.
To the casual observer there would appear to be little difference among the small tools. But after
considerable sorting and resorting the author was able to observe some variations of the basic blade
form, principally of size and shape. After sorting into six groups the author was able to establish a
series to which any new recoveries of micro-blades could readily be placed without contrasting with
others in the group (Fig. 1). Basically all have the same shape with the exception of Type 5 which
only differs in the form of one end. All were started as small blades then finished on the opposite
longitudinal edges by careful pressure flaking. This gave most of them a generally' flattened form.
It is the ratio of width to thickness that readily separates the types (Table 1).

Type 1 (Fig. 1 a, upper) with a high ratio of 3. 7 to 1 is truly a blade tool. Type 2 (Fig. 1 a,
lower) with a narrow 2 to 1 ratio can easily be separated from Type 1. Types 3, 4 and 5 are basically

Florida Anthropologist, vol. 27, no. 3, September 1974

a, Type 1 above, Type Z below b, Type 3 above, Type 4 below

Fig. 1. Microliths from Site 8WL29.


Fig. 2. Other specimens
from Site 8WL29.

a, knife or Clay type
projectile point; b, g,
perforated and incised
fine-grained red stone
gorgets( ?); c, trianguloid
knife or sa\x of gray chert:
d-e, partially drilled
steatite beads; f, solid
piece of worked, red, fine-
grained stone.

Fig. 3. Specimens from
a cache(?) at Site 8WL29.

a-c, e-g, quartz crystals; d,
Nuckolls Dalton-like point;
h-i, k-o, broken sandstone
pebbles (foreign to South
Walton County); j, chipped
disc of low grade chert.

1I i 112 I 113 I 14 115 1t 117 118 119

31 41 'Z3i -61 71 '81 91


Fig. 4. Small tools from other sites in South Walton County.

Left, from Site 8WL92; right, from various sites

Table 1 Dimensions of Selected Microliths from Site 8WL29




T .p nth


Type 1 Fig. la, upper

Type 2 Fig. la, lower

A 23.5 mm
B 31
C 27. 5
D 30
E 225
Av. 26.9

A 14 mm
B 12.5
C 13
D 13.5
E 12
Av. 13

15 mm

4 mm


Type 3 Fig. lb, upper


Type 2A Fig. Ic

A 25 mm
B 24.5
C 23
D 23
E 31.5
Av. 25.8

24 mm

35 mm

Type 4 Fig. Ib, lower

Type 6 Fig. Id


1/1 A
5/1 B
9/1 C
3/1 D
4/1 E
6/1 Av.



/Tr I /r

6 mm

3 mm




12. 5


E2g-*-f I.__ __ I --L .



square, with Type 3 (Fig. 2 b, upper) averaging only 13 mm. in length, being distinguishable from
Types 4 and 5. Type 4 and 5 could easily be mixed, it is here that the distal ends are the prime
factor in sorting. Type 4 (Fig. 1 b, lower) has blunted ends, sometimes tapered at both ends.
Type 5 (Fig. 1, c) has one end that comes to a very sharp, chisel-shaped edge. The opposite end may
be blunted like Type 4. The basic blade shape of Type 5 may be like Type 3, flat or 4, square. Type
6 (Fig. 1, d) are best recognized by their size, a tendency to be pointed at one end and a lesser
quality of workmanship.

In attempting to ascertain use and reason for such a large number and variety of microlithic
tools at this site the author can only describe other artifacts and features of the site that appear
relevant. The most obvious feature was the near total lack of shells or debris of shell that could
have been used in the manufacture of beads or other ornaments and tools. The only shells found at
the site were small quantities of rangia shells (rangia cuneata) found in the Deptford and Weeden
Island zones. As only a few bone fragments have survived the ages there is no positive evidence of
either shell or bone material having been worked with the microlithic tools.

The only evidence found were a few holes drilled in stone artifacts and pottery. All types of
pottery at the site displayed holes used in repair of damaged vessels. The higher the quality, such
as in Tchefuncte or Deptford Complicated Stamped, the oftener repair holes were employed. Drills
were obviously used in the manufacture of items such as stone gorgets and beads. The author was
fortunate to uncover an area where the manufacture of steatite beads (Fig. 2, d-e) may have taken
place. In this area were a number of fragments of a steatite bowl and two beads made from the same
grade of stone (steatite varied greatly in color and texture at the site). It was evident that the beads
were made at the site due to the fact that one of the beads was unfinished. In drilling the hole the
maker had been unsuccessful in starting the second hole--in an attempt to drill from end to end--so
as to meet the first hole at the center. He made at least two starts before discarding the unfinished
bead. The second bead is split from end to end, possibly a result of drilling, this shows a clear
cross-sectional view of the drilling. It is highly unlikely a discarded, unfinished bead would appear
other than where it was made.

Midway between Point Washington and Destin, on the south shore of the bay is the Four Mile
Point site (8WL92). This site also produced unique small tools (Fig. 4, left) easily identifiable from
others in the area. At this site all drills were made on flakes. In most instances the flakes were
finished with very fine pressure flaking. Normally unifacial, a few were made with bifacial work-
manship. One example (Fig. 4, left middle of lower row) exhibited two drills on one flake. At 8WL92
all artifacts were recovered from the bay. A few other uniface and biface tools, and an assortment of
points, were also found in the general area; but due to the lack of stratigraphy, it is impossible to
suggest accurate associations. For comparison a group of drills and reamers from other bay sites
are illustrated in Figure 4, right.

The author wishes to thank Dr. Clarence H. Webb of Louisiana for his time spent studying the
micro-blades from 8WL29, and for being so gracious as to visit the site and dig with the author. In
addition special thanks goes to Mr. Marlin Marshall of Oxford, Michigan, who spent part of his va-
cation the past two years helping at 8WL29. And to both for being so generous as to leave all items
recovered in the custody of the author.

Santa Rosa Beach
March 1974


James M. Haisten

Late in 1973 surface collecting began along two eroding beaches on the north side of West
Bay near the mouth of Crooked Creek (Fig. 1). In addition to stemmed projectile points, finds
at two well defined sites, denoted here as Crooked Creek A and B, included a number of micro-
lithic artifacts similar to those found at Site 8BY45 on the south side of West Bay and approxima-
tely 5 miles away. Photographs of the material found by me at both Crooked Creek sites and at
Site 8BY45 are presented in this article for comparison. No shell or ceramic materials have been
found in the immediate vicinity of either of the Crooked Creek sites. Judging from the recovered
material, both sites appear to be entirely nonceramic. Some pottery sherds have been observed a
few hundred yards from each site, but none in association with the microlithic material.

Location and Description of Sites

Crooked Creek A and B are located in Bay County, Florida, on the north shore of West Bay,
an arm of St. Andrews Bay. As indicated in Figure 1 (traced from the 1944 USGS West Bay Quad-
rangle), Site A is approximately 1000 feet west of the mouth of Crooked Creek and just west of a
small inlet. It lies in Section 26, Township 2 South, Range 16 West. Site A can be approached on
land by turning off State Highway 388 onto a graded road that leads south on the west side of Crooked
Creek. Wave action has revealed the site by eroding away the low beach. The upper soil layer is
sand held in place mainly by a thick growth of palmetto and gall berry. A layer of very hard, blackish,
peat-like material has been exposed on either side of the site (Figure Za). The exposed peat layer is
one to two feet in thickness. In the eroded area where the microlithic artifacts were found, the peat
layer is not present (Fig. 2 b-c) Exposed tree stumps and roots beside the site suggest heavy ero-
sion may have completely removed the peat layer at the site proper. There a layer of silted sand of
undetermined depth is found at this time. The entire site area is covered by a dense mat of small,
vertically oriented roots, probably from juncas grass and palmettoes (Fig. 2c) Numerous large
tree stumps in the wash area just west of the mouth of Crooked Creek (Fig. 2d) attest to a high rate
of erosion. Some of these stumps were identified as pine, the dominant type of growth presently on
the low-lying land north of the Bay. Dimensions of the site have been estimated roughly by the loca-
tion of recovered artifacts. It is approximately 15 feet wide by 25 feet long, the larger dimension
being parallel to the beach line.

As indicated in Figure 1, Site B is approximately 2500 feet east of the mouth of Crooked Creek
and lies in Section 25, Township 2 South, Range 16 West. It is cut off from the mainland by marshes
and can be approached most conveniently by boat from Crooked Creek or West Bay. Site B also is
being eroded away by wave action. Exposed roots on living pine trees attest to a rapid rate of erosion.
The site is located on the edge of a tract of land sufficiently elevated (approximately 3 feet above high
tide water level) to allow a stand of pine trees. At high tide when the marshes are flooded, the wooded
area, approximately 200 yards long and 30 yards wide, appears to be an island. Palmetto and yaupon
are also present. Lithic material has been recovered from a strip of white sandy beach 50 yards long
and less than 5 yards wide. Photographs of Site B were not available while this article was being

Microlithic Artifacts

Fifteen artifacts qualifying as microliths have been found at Crooked Creek Site A. Fourteen
of these are shown in Figure 3. Shape and flaking features allow them to be classified as perforators,
according to descriptions given for perforators by Ford, Phillips and Haag (1955) and Ford and Webb
(1956). Those having swelled midsections are the Jaketown variety. The right-most artifact in Row A,
Figure 3, is an example of this type. According to Ford and Webb (1956) a perforator is the terminal
form of a prismatic blade resulting from its use as a scraper type tool. The scraper function is un-
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 27, no. 3, September 1974


Figure 1. Locations of Crooked Creek Nonceramic Sites A and B
in Bay County, Florida

known. There is enough difference in the shapes of most of the artifacts shown in Figure 3 and the
perforators described by Ford, Phillips and Haag (1955) that it is difficult to separate them into
blunt and Jaketown varieties. Dr. Dan F. Morse (personal communication) suggests an affiliation
with the Cahokia culture rather than the Poverty Point. Ten of the 15 perforators from Site A were
made from flakes having more or less parallel surfaces. The right-most artifact in Row C of Figure
3 has a triangular cross section. Some of the microliths are highly patinated. Those showing traces
of color are either light grey, tan-white, or blue-white. All appear to be of chert material.

Sixteen microlithic tools from Crooked Creek Site B are shown in Figure 4. Jaketown (3-6 in
Row A, 2 in Row B, Fig. 4) and blunt (first items of Rows A and C, Fig. 4) types of perforators
can be identified in the collection. Four other perforators not shown here have been collected by the
author and Dr. Charles Rein (also of Panama City) at Site B. So far none of the "needle" type per-
forators have been recovered at the site.

Eight prismatic blades and four ill-shaped cores from Crooked Creek Site B are shown in
Figure 5. The cores show well-defined flake removal scars, but none of 12 found by me or 4 found
by Rein have the columnar or conical shape expected of prepared cores. Dr. Rein' s collection also
contains a dozen prismatic blades from Site B.

Similar microlithic artifacts recovered by the author from West Bay Site (8BY45) are shown
in Figure 6 for comparison. Elsewhere in this issue Watson points out that the lithic materials from
Site 8BY45 exhibits some of the features that characterize the microlithic element of the Poverty
Point culture, but, as mentioned earlier, Morse (personal communication) feels the material is

Figure 2a. Exposed Peat Layer East of Site A

Figure 2b. Mr. Haisten Standing in Site A

Figure 2c. View of Root Mat in Site A

Figure 2d. View of Severe Erosion of West Bay Beach


0 1 2 3 L 5

Scale in Centimeters

Figure 3.

Perforators from Crooked Creek Site A

Figure 4. Perforators from Crooked Creek Site B

more closely associated with the Cahokia culture. In the upper row of Figure 6 perforators are
Jaketown and blunt types; those in Row B of Figure 6 are Jaketown and needle types. The left-most
artifact in Row C of Figure 6 is part of a scraper; the other two on Row C are utilized blades.

Other Lithic Artifacts

One complete and one badly damaged projectile points have been recovered from Crooked Creek
A. The complete point (Fig. 7A) is made from white chert and is highly patinated. It appears to be


Fire 5. Cores and Blades from Crooked Creek Site B
Figure 5. Cores and Blades from Crooked Creek Site B

.ake Tool Fragments from Site 8BY45

Figure b. Perforators and


Figure 7. Projectile Points from In and Near Site A
Figure 7. Projectile Points from In and Near Site A

Figure 8.

S0 1 2 3 4 5

Scale in Centimeters
Remnants of Projectile Points and Tools from Site A

an Archaic stemmed type. The damaged point is shown in Figure 8 (central of Row B). The base is
flared and appears to have been ground or smoothed in some manner. The material is white chert
with a blueish hue. It is not patinated. Six of the flaked artifact remnants shown in Figure 8 are stems
broken from projectile points or some other hafted tools. The right-most artifact in Row C of Figure 8
appears to be a fragment from the midsection of a point or knife.

Remnants of four other flaked tools recovered at Site A are shown in Figure 9. The one labeled
A is part of a scraper or knife made from a conchoidal flake. Item B could have been a large knife or
chopper. Item C is part of a knife or chert saw. Item D is probably a projectile point tip.

The other projectile points shown in Figures 7 (Items B and C), 10, and 11 were not found in
Site A, but along the beach on either side of it. Distances from the site ranged from 150 to 1000 feet.
Most of them appear to be Archaic stemmed types. The material is white and grey chert in most cases.


Figure 9. Remnants
of Other Flaked
Tools from Site A

^l^ //
? /

A 40 CW

S .3 h 5 Figure 10. Projectile Points

Scale in Centimeters

Figure 11. Projectile Points from Beach Near Site A


The point labeled D in Figure 11 is made from a translucent quartzite with white streaks impregnating
it near the tip. Items C in Figure 10 and A in Figure 11 are grey, grandular quartzite.

Five stemmed projectile points (not illustrated) have been found at Crooked Creek Site B, one
by me and four by Dr. Rein. Dr. Rein also reports finding a well-flaked chert hand axe at Site B.


The small number of microlithic artifacts recovered at Crooked Creek Site A may be a result
of the main portion of the site not yet having been found. The absence of prepared cores, prepared
blades, broken blades and other lithic debris noted at Site 8BY45 and Crooked Creek Site B may in-
dicate the site was not a workshop area. Perhaps the inhabitants carried the microlithic tools to the
site and performed the unknown function for which they were designed. Is there a correlation be-
tween the perforators and the relatively large number of detached projectile point stems found at
Site A ?

Crooked Creek Site B appears to have been a work shop area. Large numbers of lithic arti-
facts, a wider variety of types and the presence of chips, broken blades, broken chert nodules and
other debris support the contention that Site B was a work shop area. Like Site A and Site 8BY45,
Site B was occupied by a people with a microblade culture who apparently made no use of ceramic
materials of any type.

The property adjacent to both Crooked Creek Sites A and B belongs to St. Joe Paper Company,
while both sites appear to be entirely on the state-owned bottom land of West Bay. Excavations
would be required to show if the sites extend inland onto St. Joe' s property. The sites are endan-
gered at present only by the rapid rate at which the beach is being eroded away by wave action.
Continued surface collecting at these sites could provide material to define associations with other
microlithic cultures.

References Cited

Ford, James A., Philip Phillips, and William G. Haag
1955 The Jaketown site in west-central Mississippi. Anthropological Papers of the
American Museum of Natural History, Volume 45, Part 1. New York.

Ford, James A., and Clarence H. Webb
1956 Poverty Point, a late Archaic site in Louisiana. Anthropological Papers of the
American Museum of Natural History, Volume 46, Part 1. New York.

Watson, Thomas C.
1974 The microlithic West Bay site, Florida. Florida Anthropologist, Volume 27,
Number 3, pp. 107-18. Gainesville.


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