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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March, June,
September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. at
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editor. Second o fgt paid at Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Volume XV, No.
The Peace Camp Site, Broward County, Florida by
Bert Mowers and Wilma B. Williams . . .
Excavations at the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound by Jerald T. Milanich 21;
A Prehistoric Dugout Canoe from Southeastern North Carolina by
Robert H. Pittman and William D. Lipe . . .. 42
A Jacksonian Period Sword Handle from south Walton County by
William H. Wesley . . . . .. 45
A Here-to-fore Unclassified Stone Tool by Raymond Webb . .. 47
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President William M. Goza
P.O. Box 246, Clearwater, Fla. 33515
1st Vice President George Magruder
440 Tenth Ave., Indialantic, Fla. 32901
2nd Vice President John W. Griffin
46 St. George St., St. Augustine, Fla. 32084
Secretary Cliff E. Mattox
P.O. Box 531, Cocoa Beach, Fla. 32931
Treasurer Leon Reyniers, P.O. Box 8451
3301 College Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 33315
Editor-Resident Agent Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Three years: Yulee Lazarus
Ft. Walton Beach, Florida
Two years: Wilma B. Williams
One year: Thomas Gouchnour
At large, for one year:
Charles A. Hoffmann, Jr.,
Benjamin I. Waller,
THE PEACE CAMP SITE, BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
Bert Mowers and Wilma B. Williams
Peace Camp is a free translation of Seminole words Ia mon ia Okalee
meaning "place to talk, not fight'" Mr. Hully Stirling, present owner of the
property, said the site was a Seminole council area where the dissident Trail
Indians and the Seminoles of the Dania Reservation met to discuss their differ-
ences. Hackberry trees on the site were planted by Seminoles as a symbol of
peace, and where they are planted all violence is taboo.
The Peace Camp site, located in Section 21, Township 50 South, Range 40
East, is a low mound situated in an open pasture land west of Davie in Broward
County (Fig. 1). In shape it is a circular area elevated about 4 feet above the
surrounding fields. The mound is highest along the northern edge, and slopes
gently southward. On the southeast edge there is a windmill and water trough;
and, on occasion, calf pens have been put on the site but were removed when
An open grove of Hackberry Trees (Celtis mississippiensis), crowns the
mound with a ring of Strangler Figs (Ficus) around the edges. Beyond these
trees to the west, north and east the mound is circled by Florida Holly, filling
presumed borrow pits. Open pasture lies across the fence to the south.
Mr. Stirling, whose enthusiastic interest made possible a full excavation
under controlled conditions, recalls an old well, now filled in, on the south-
west edge of the site which may have been the water supply forprehistoric
Indians. Prior to modern drainage, this area was often under water and the
mound then a small hammock (Fig. 1). It was affected by the rise and fall
of the water table, as were others along the eastern edges of the Everglades.
Doubtless the Glades area was superior in food resources to the ocean
shoreline over 10 miles to the east. Most of the hammocks or high lands in the
Everglades supported small family groups, and the natural mode of communica-
tion was travel by water.
Excavation of the Mound
At the highest point of the mound, an iron datum stake was driven into the
ground. This was used for all subsequent measurements, level readings, and
contour mapping. With a transit and compass a magnetic north-south control
line was staked out beyond the limits of the mound with, at right angle to it,
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 25, no. 1, March 1972
PEACE CAMP SITE
Fig. 1. Peace Camp, site location map.
an east-west line. A large scale map of the site was made, using a grid
system of 5-foot squares, appropriately numbered and lettered. Contour
readings were taken, and a contour map drawn (Fig. 2).
The east-west "M" line was chosen first for excavation, cutting across
the mound with a 5-foot wide trench. This allowed for continuous work without
removing any trees. Later, a north-south trench was opened up, but it was
not continuous because of trees. Next another east-west trench was partially
dug, along the "U" line to the south of the "M" trench (Fig. 2).
Then, after a conference with Dr. William H. Sears of Florida Atlantic
University, it was decided to stake out for excavation 3 large areas 20 feet by
20 feet, near the center of the mound. These areas, designated A, B, and C
(Fig. 2) were to be dug with the use of a mechanical screen loaned us by Dr.
Sears. Blocks B and C were dug to a concreted layer. Block A was excava-
ted with the help of pneumatic drills to break up this concretion. These drills
penetrated about 10 inches, which was not enough to do any more than break up
the surface. From there on picks were used. Only the north-east corner was
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
taken down to bedrock. The recovery of artifacts did not warrant further digging.
Stratigraphy of the east wall of Block A was recorded for permanent record.
The actual work of excavation began in the "M" trench (Fig. 2) with the
arbitrary 6-inch levels which the group had been accustomed to using. A de-
posit of stony material prevented the digging of the second 6 inches, for the
entire 80-foot length of the trench. The north-south trench proved to have the
same stoney deposit with the exception of the last 5 feet. Later, after it was
discovered that this deposit was not bedrock but a concreted layer lying over
additional midden materials, we returned to the "M" trench with pick axes,
chisels, and a sledgehammer, removed the rocky deposit, and excavated the
undisturbed strata below it. Similarly we excavated the "N" trench.
The following description of strata applies to those areas where we pene-
trated the concreted layer. The strata were irregular in thickness and have
been shown in their relative locations in Figure 3. The figures under the
"INCHES" column give the minimum and maximum thickness respectively.
After the removal of grass and weeds, the black, sandy, mucky midden
was shoveled into rocking screen frames, of quarter inch mesh hardware
cloth. Everything unusual was saved bones, shells, modern and prehistoric
artifacts, such as cartridge cases, scissors, money, wire, nails, Seminole
beads, and many potsherds.
This appeared as a coarse, reddish midden, decidedly leached, full of
small bones, turtle shells, and many pieces of late potsherds such as Glades
Tooled and St. Johns Check Stamped.
This blackish midden, apparently unaltered by leaching, contained much
Glades Plain pottery and may, in part, belong as early as Glades I period.
This stratum was usually 3 to 4 inches thick, but thinner and more disturbed
in Blocks A, B and C.
The concreted layer, arbitrarily divided into:
4A Which was gray, soft to gravelly in texture, and
could be shoveled.
4B Which was dirty gray, rock hard, and had to be
broken with the pick.
PEACE CAMP SITE
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 I8 10 II 12 13 14 15 1i 17 II 1n 2 1 22 23 24 25 2 a 2 2 31 31 a a N 37
D .*. : :'. "
d ." ..* .. .
Fig 2. Excavation plan, north at top.
Stake interval, 5 feet; contour interval, 6 inches; interrupted dots, edge
of concreted layer; central dot, iron datum stake; light colored areas (in-
cluding large ones referred to in text as A, B, and C) dug to concreted lay
layer, grayer areas dug to Layer 5, black areas dug through Layer 6.
4C Which was a blackish midden below the stony layer,
and between stalactites of the concretion which
Stratum 4 was not barren, neither was it full of artifacts. Material re-
covered from it included sherds firmly imbedded in the concretion. The first
sherd of Norwood Plain pottery was found in this stratum (Table 1). Apparently,
the stratum was built up during occupancy over a long period by marl and sand
from borrow pits.
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
STRATUM 1 Black Midden
2 Reddish. Leached Midden
3 Black Midden
,A Gray, Soft to Gravelly
4B Gray, rocky concreted layer
4C Grou Black
5 Reddtsh-yellow, iron stained
Black Mtdden when
6 present (West portion)
SGrao Marlt s o cln
from dirty sand to clean yellowish
Bedrock Miami Oolite
Bedrock Miami Oolite
Fig. 3. Schematic profile showing position and relative thickness of strata.
This stratum was easily distinguished from Stratum 4 by color and texture.
It varied from yellow-orange to reddish brown from iron staining, It was thickly
studded with bones, turtle shells, fish vertebrae, and hundreds of Pomacea
(Ampullaria) snail shells. It also contained shell tool fragments and many
Strombus celts. Very little pottery was found, and much of that St. Johns Plain
and Norwood semi-fiber, semi-sand tempered ware plus some unclassified sherds.
PEACE CAMP SITE
There was a black midden underlying Stratum 5, but it was not continuous
over the mound. It was sandy, easily screened, contained food bones, about
like Stratum 5 but with no potsherds. Many shell tools, especially Strombus
celts, were found in this layer, particularly at its base (Table 2). Stratum 6
was present in Sqs. M-15 to 20, also Sqs. N-18 to 20. In both Sqs. M-20 and
N-20 this zone was thin and intermixed. There was no Stratum 6 present in Sqs.
M-21 to 25, or N-21-22, none in 0-21 or P-21. Figure 2, the grid plan of the
mound, shows where Stratum 6 was found.
Below Stratum 6 was the marly surface that was lived on at the be-
ginning of the Stratum 6 occupation period. The marl graded rapidly
downward into the clean yellowish Pamlico sand, then to bedrock. Sever-
al shell celts were found at the bottom of Stratum 6 on the surface of the
marl (Fig. 3). Possibly it was, in part, a lake bottom near the mound cen-
ter for some time, and artifacts drifted down into the top of the soft marl and
The Concreted Layer
One of the most unusual, distinctive and interesting features about Peace
Camp was the concreted layer, our Stratum 4. Here was a continuous cap of
rocky material as a uniform dome over the mound. After it was discovered,
we mapped the extent of the cap (Fig. 2) by probing with a steel rod. Later,
when other pits were excavated over the edge of the cap, we learned that it
thinned rapidly at the perimeter. It was locally uneven, with small embayments,
and had a few large holes completely through it at the edges only. It is possible
that these holes were made by trees growing at the mound borders, while the
cap was consolidating, and that the trees died and rotted away.
This concreted layer merits study into its process of forming, the nature
of the cementing materials, and the rate of formation, so that the information
might be of value at other sites. We believe that the process was a natural one,
by natural chemical agencies working on man-made midden and marl. Other
sites in South Florida have been reported with cemented layers, but to our
knowledge, no one has excavated through one and found other occupation levels.
Not until we had dug several pits completely to sterile sand did we find
what we believe to be the answer to the source of the cementing lime of Stratum
4. After removing Stratum 5 and Stratum 6 we discovered a dense, hard layer
of clayey marl which at first we took to be a packed floor area. This marl was
the initial living surface for some time. Judging by the number of Strombus
celts found at this level, Stratum 6 is the black midden left by the earliest
Indians, and as far as we know, it was a pre-ceramic culture.
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
As their numbers grew and the settlement expanded, the midden layer of
Stratum 5 was deposited on and beyond Stratum 6. Thickness of this layer
varied from 2 to 12 inches, with the thickest layers to the west of mound center.
The problem of the iron-stained appearance of Stratum 5 has not been
fully solved. In places the staining reaches the stage of an iron cement, some-
what like the hardpan found in northern states at the top of the water-table. It is
likely that we may have here a deposition of iron from soluble salts leached from
upper strata, upon contact with ground water of different Ph value.
Samples of this stratum were sent to Mr. Bullen at the Florida State
Museum. His report was to the effect that this phenomenon occurs in swamp
deposit, and that the stratum was probably under water periodically. Indians
lived upon the sandy layer, but that afterwards water covered it for some time.
Later, when the water subsided, the superior black midden was formed.
Dr. Elizabeth G. Wing of the Florida State Museum reported that the
fauna was a typical Glades midden assemblage, and that undoubtedly the fish,
newt, turtle, snake and large snails were eaten by the Indians.
After many years of living at the Stratum 5 level, the Indians apparently
decided to raise the level of their hammock, and utilized a mixture of sand and
marl from some source as yet undetermined. This operation may have been a
fairly slow one, of long duration, judging by the artifact content of the concreted
layer. It is in this layer that we found the oldest potsherds, Norwood Plain
(semi-sand semi-fiber tempered), St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Incised, and
Glades or sand-tempered plain (Fig. 4).
Marl and sand eventually covered the mound area to a depth of 24 to 30
inches. The time consumed in raising the level reached from the Florida
Transitional (Bullen 1965) into Glades I Period. Above the concretion, less
than one foot encompasses the last three strata with a sherd range from Glades
1, 2, and 3 to modern artifacts.
Experience showed us that our stratigraphic series, as shown in Figure 3.
is remarkably consistent over the whole mound. It must be stressed that our
strata are wholly physical in their changes of color, texture, and material but
in no way are specific cultural levels.
No burials of any kind were found at Peace Camp. No certain human
remains were found with the exception of two molars; one with a hole drilled
in one of the two roots, possibly for suspension, the other had the roots cut off
cleanly. Lack of burials may indicate presence of an undiscovered burial mound
in the vicinity. There is a confirmed report that 3 skulls were removed from
the area some 15 years ago by young boys. They have not been located.
8 PEACE CAMP SITE
L22 D 23
e8 O O0 O O O O
M 15 16 17 18 19 920 21 22 23 24 0 25
e 0 o
N ___ e
SNorwood Plain e
0 St.Johns Plain
e Glades Plain
Fig. 4. Horizontal distribution of early pottery in Strata 4 and 5, central area.
The total number of potsherds collected at Peace Camp is 24, 027
(Table 1). This total is divided into three parts, down to the concreted layer
in the following manner. In the early months of work at the site, digging was
done by traditional 6-inch levels. So we have some sherds from Levels 1 and
2. These number 8,480 sherds from 29 squares. Later, when we decided to
dig stratigraphically, other pits yielded 11,664 pieces, from Stratum 1,
Stratum 2 and Stratum 3 of 16 squares (including Blocks A, B and C). Still
later, in order to learn more of the extent of the earliest occupation, some
pits were dug as mixed Strata 1, 2 and 3 with no effort made to separate the
material. This salvage material numbered 2,965 sherds, from 11 squares.
Below the upper three strata, all material was dug stratigraphically.
Work was done to determine the relative value of level versus stratum
digging. In spite of the ease of separation of strata by color, texture, etc.,
decisive superiority of stratigraphic digging over 6-inch level digging was not
conclusively proven in this case. This may be due to many factors, such as
disturbed areas, which make a clear distinction impossible on a broad sta-
The total thickness of the top three strata over the whole mound is re-
markably even, at about 11 inches (thinning at the edges). Since the difference
between the two digging methods amounts to only around 1/2 inches plus or
minus per layer, often less, any careless workmanship in the physical separation
of the layers will obliterate any possible advantage of one method over the other.
There is the further consideration that the physical differences of the three
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
POTTERY DISTRIBUTION BY STRATA, PEACE CAMP
Pottery 1 2 3 4 5 6
St. Johns Check Stamped 35 61 7 6 109
Glades Tooled 39 54 6 1 100
Surfside Incised 3 1 4
Peace Camp Plain 59 33 2 4 2 100
Key Largo Incised 19 72 14 3 108
Gordon's Pass Incised 1 1
Opa Locka Incised 14 11 3 1 29
Ft. Drum rim ticked
and Punctated 11 11 1 2 25
Miami Incised 1 11 12
Matecumbe Incised 2 2
Dade Incised 1 1
Belle Glade Plain 42 64 24 8 138
Glades Plain 3395 5330 1815 535 12 11087
St. Johns Plain 105 57 21 76 36 295
St. Johns Incised 2 2
Norwood Plain 3 13 16
Glades Red 4 2 11 17
Unclassified incised 1 1 16 18
6Unclassified wares 96 207 38 170 17 528
Totals 3824 5917 1933 838 80 0 12592
The unclassified wares are mostly sand tempered variations
including sherds similar to St. Johns Pinched except for paste.
strata, so easily noted, are probably independent of cultural distinctions.
Stratigraphic digging in the upper levels, while carefully performed for the
remainder of the dig, was not completely justified statistically, because the
stratification was achieved physically, not culturally.
Table 1 presents ceramic provenience by strata when definitely known.
The totals are greater than the sum of sherds shown for the strata because they
include unallocated Strata 1-3 specimens. It is quite safe to say that the 11
inches above the concreted layer contain the remains of two thousand years of
occupation. Goggins (1952), uses the date of 400 B.C. for the beginning of
Glades I, so the 2000 years estimate may be conservative.
As indicated in Table 1, most pottery types concentrate in Stratum 2.
As expected Glades Tooled, St. Johns Check Stamped, the thinner-harder
PEACE CAMP SITE
variety of St. Johns Plain, typical of the Glades III period are more plentiful
in Strata 1 than Strata 2. Key Largo Incised and the Fort Drum variants, be-
longing to the earlier Glades II period have a deeper average distribution.
The fairly heavy amount of Glades Plain in Stratum 4 and extending into Stratum
5 is suggestive of a Glades 1 period occupation. Not included in Table I are 1
Cane Patch Incised, 1 Dade Incised, 3 Gorden's Pass Incised, 57 Glades Red
and 1 Pasco Plain all from Strata 1-3 but unallocated.
The possibility exists that some of the sand-tempered ware in the Stratum
4 may be of Deptford age, and difficult to distinguish from Glades gritty ware.
A surprising fact is that Glades Plain sherds occurred in Blocks A and B in
Stratum 4 in greater numbers than in the singly excavated squares in "M"
trench for example. Out of the total of 538 Glades Plain sherds in Stratum 4,
401 came from Blocks A and B. This leaves only 137 for all other pits dug,
about 15 in number, which would average less than 11 per pit. Actually, many
pits yielded no Glades Plain sherds in Stratum 4.
Stratum 5 was very different in pottery content from the strata above it.
St. Johns Plain, the thick, pale chalky variety with pinkish blush, predominates
as 36 sherds were found. Here, also were found 13 semi-sand, semi-fibered
tempered Norwood Plain sherds (identified by Ripley P. Bullen). In addition,
12 Glades Plain (or Deptford) sand-tempered and 17 unclassified plain sherds
were present. By definition this stratum should belong to the Florida Transi-
tional period, ca, 1000-500 B.C.
Stratum 6 was a small patch of black midden in the northwest sector of
the mound, appearing in only 18 squares. From about 5 inches it feathered out
to nothing in all directions. The many shell and bone artifacts found show that
this was clearly a substantial amount of true midden, with all the cultural resi-
dues of the inhabitants. All evidence points to a small pre-ceramic horizon,
already inhabited prior to the arrival of the first Indian bringing clay pottery.
Pottery found at Peace Camp ranges from soft, chalky, temperless ware
(St. Johns Plain), through small amounts of fine sand tempered Goodland Plain,
larger amounts of coarser sand tempered Belle Glade and Okeechobee Plain, to
the heavily sand tempered Glades series. In addition, sherds with other tem-
pering materials are occasionally found, such as organic fibers (Norwood
series), ground shell and ground limestone (Pasco-Perico series) and various
gritty materials, such as ground-sherds.
It must be emphasized that all wares have a fairly wide range of temper-
ing. In the course of several thousand years, every conceivable variation must
have occurred: in the sources of clay and temper, in methods of preparation
and mixing of paste, in the forming the pots, and in the firing process itself.
Everything must have been tried once, and every pot that would hold together
used until broken. Particularly in the early days of pot making, experimenta-
tion must have been vigorous, until a body of technical knowledge had accumu-
lated. And after it was learned how to make good, durable pots, the best
methods were adhered to tenaciously, passed down from mother to daughter.
Peace Camp Plain
While sorting the heavy yield of pottery at Peace Camp, a thin, black,
fine textured ware was found for which there were no records in the literature.
This ware was segregated and catalogued as "Peace Camp Plain", simply be-
cause it was not chalky ware, Belle Glade Plain, nor Glades gritty ware. It
became quite clear that this is an unreported variety of pottery and because of
its unique properties deserves a category of its own.
On the average, this is the thinnest pottery found ranging from 3 mm. to
8 mm. The pot diameters run quite small, and the rim sherds indicate a
shallow dish type of vessel. In spite of being relatively temperless, with only
small amounts of fine sand temper, the flat black sherds are surprisingly hard
- ranging from 3 to 4. 5 on the Mohs scale. Lips are usually simply cut-off
with a level or in-sloping top face plus a few rounded ones. Only one decora-
ted rim sherd was found, and it had small depressions in the lip somewhat like
Chronologically, this ware occurs at the top levels along with Glades
Tooled and St. Johns Check-stamped, indicating Glades III age. A few other
sites have produced Peace Camp Plain pottery. One rim sherd, typically
black, thin, hard and with square-cut lip was found at Snake Creek site, about
6 miles south of Peace Camp. Ripley P. Bullen recalls seeing sherds of this
description from other South Florida sites.
Now that the sorting of sherds at Peace Camp is completed, in retro-
spect it seems that what we originally called "typical" Peace Camp Plain, was
really the extreme range of a variant of Glades Plain. This in no way detracts
from the usefulness of a separate category for the ware
The discovery of semi-fiber-tempered pottery at Peace Camp gives this
area a horizon not usually found in southeast Florida. Norwood Plain pottery,
as defined by Phelps (1966) but without the geographical limitations he placed
upon it, was present in both Stratum 4 and Stratum 5. Horizontally sherd
were found in five different squares of the "M" trench (Fig. 4). The same
areal distribution occurs with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Incised and early
Glades Plain sherds.
PEACE CAMP SITE
This would indicate that there is a contemporaneity of the Norwood pottery
with the early temperless St. Johns Plain. According to Bullen (1969: 53) St.
Johns Plain was the first post-fiber tempered type to be manufactured, yet it
overlaps the time period of the fiber-tempered pottery.
Norwood sherds were found in the Askew Site, Citrus County, Florida
(Bullen and Askew 1965), the Fish Creek Site on old Tampa Bay (Karklins 1970),
the Plaza Lot at Amelia Island (Bullen and Griffin 1952) and Summer Haven site
(Bullen 1969: 43) in east Florida, as well as the Tucker Site on Alligator Bay in
northwest Florida (Phelps 1965). Bullen (1969: 49-50) feels the homeland for
Norwood pottery to be eastern Georgia. However, trade with west coast Indians
has been made manifest in many ways by artifacts found in the east coast mid-
dens. The Norwood pottery could have been an item of trade across the water-
ways of the Glades, as it is probable that the temperless St. Johns ware came
by way of the Kissimmee River valley into the Glades culture area. In any case
it arrived at the Peace Camp site around 1000 B.C. as will be shown later.
The most fascinating potsherds at any site may be the unclassified wares
and patterns of decoration, for these tell the story of trade contacts and rela-
tions with other areas. Unclassified wares in Table 1 totaled 954 sherds.
Some were incised, pinched or punctated but most were undecorated. In study-
ing these sherds, there has been an effort to avoid the easy expedient of throw-
ing everything into the "Glades Plain" grab-bag. It is possible that many Good-
land Plain sherds may be among the "unclassified" wares because Dr. Goggin' s
description of this ware has not been published and therefore not available to
The most unusual of the unclassified ware, is a group of sherds found in
Stratum 4, the concreted layer. They are of a dark, dirty gray paste, uneven
and contorted with coarse quartz sand, some drab grit, and some voids that seem
to be vesicles from which fibers have been burned. Three rims from one pot
have a row of pinched marks around the rim one quarter inch from the lip.
These marks are very close together and seem to be finger pinched, some with
nail impressions clearly visible.
Also in Level 4 of Square H-18 were two rim sherds from two pots simi-
lar to the above, but with less visible fiber vesicles, but a lot of grit. These
were decorated by pinching in horizontal bands five-eights inches below the lip.
One sherd has, in addition, two vertical rows of pinching up to the lip. Bullen
suggests that these are variants of St. Johns Pinched similar to those found at
the Zabzki Site (Atkins and MacMahan 1967: Fig. 6). However, the Peace
Camp examples are not made of St. Johns paste.
There is a range of variations in the St. Johns series, the untempered
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
ware that followed the disappearance of fiber-tempered Orange pottery on the
East Coast of Florida. The earliest appearance of St. Johns ware at Peace
Camp is the thick, soft sherds of taupe or light pastel tints with occasional
pink blushes. St. Johns Incised is of this same type paste. At Peace Camp
they are coeval with the Norwood Plain. Occasionally, in higher levels is a
thin, dark brown variant, perhaps a little harder, often with check stamped
surfaces. This change may be due to a different clay, very small amounts of
accidental tempering, or to varied firing procedures.
It is curious that such an ancient ware should co-exist with obviously
better sand-tempered ware in the Glades area. Apparently, there were always
some untempered pots here, from 600 B. C. to European contact, first Plain
and Pinched, later the thinner, harder Plain and the Check Stamped.
Crusoe' s (1971) study of the St. Johns ware, a chalky ware made of dia-
tomaceous earth, indicates that there are no such deposits south and east of
Tampa Bay. His work helps to substantiate the theory long held in this area,
that either the raw material or completed pots of St. Johns paste were brought
into the Glades culture area from the north.
A listing by relative depths of the non-ceramic artifacts from areas dug
by strata will be found in Table 2. Non-ceramic artifacts from areas excavated
by 6-inch levels include: a copper hawks bell (Fig. 5), 28 glass beads, 3 carved
bone objects (Fig. 6), fragments of bone awls or chisels, sharks' teeth, sharks'
vertebrae, a drilled human molar, 3 shell discs, shell beads, Strombus celts,
Busycon tools, Macrocallista knives, other worked shell, 6 chert chips, and
a Broward point (Fig. 5).
Analysis of Table 2 permits a few comments. While most aboriginal
items have a fairly continuous vertical distribution, some concentrations may
be pointed out. Sharks' teeth, sharks' vertebrae, and bone points have a
higher, i.e. a more recent position than have shell tools. The later, which
clearly originate at Peace Camp with the first inhabitants are nearly abandoned
by the time of the highest stratum. This must indicate a shift in ecology, econ-
omy, or technical processes. The presence of dog humeri in strata which must
belong to the Florida Transitional period around 1000 B. C. clearly indicates
the presence of man' s best friend at least that early.
Metal objects, found in the top 3 strata, particularly in disturbed areas,
were cartridge cases, shotgun shell heels, nails, wire, coins, scissors, and
other small objects. A small brass curved plate with a tapered stud in back, is
PEACE CAMP SITE
DISTRIBUTION OF NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS BY STRATA
Artifacts Stratum Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6
Glass beads 5 5 2a 12
Sharks' teeth 15 40 10 4 83 2 74
Sharks' vertebrae 7 17 3 12 8 47
Bone points 32 56 35 17 14 4 158
Other worked bone 3 1 5 5 14
Dog humeri 2 3 4 9
Strombus celts 5 16 2 60 144 31 258
Macrocallista knives 1 1 2 11 12 3 30
Busycon tools 5 8 6 52 46 16 133
Columellas tools 11 27 1 24 12 3 78
Other worked shell 2 4 2 7 2 17
aFrom top of Stratum 4, depth probably result Seminole or Boy Scout activity.
thought to be a gun-barrel decoration, or name-plate. These are all modern,
although several pieces are possibly from Seminole use of the site during his-
The most unusual metal artifact found in Level 2 of Sq. M-24, was a
copper hawks-bell, with a still usable iron clapper (Fig. 5). This was an item
for exchange with the natives, since it is recorded that Columbus carried them
on his second voyage. Several such bells were found at Goodnow Mound
(Griffin and Smith 1948: Pl. V, b).
Objects of bone used by man for tools, weapons and decoration were not
uncommon at Peace Camp. Included were a great many deer and other bones,
split to a sharp point, most of which had been used to destruction. It is hard
to tell if these many hand-tools should be classified ar incising tools, chisels,
daggers, or shell openers. A total of 247 bone projectile points were found,
most of them were bi-pointed, rather than socketed, points (Table 2). A fine-
ly polished bone handle made from deer antler was found in Sq. H-18.
A human molar, with a hole carefully drilled through the root base prob-
ably was someone's cherished pendant. Several bone beads, one broken en-
graved bone hair-pin (Fig. 6, a), and some fragments of polished bone pins
were found in Stratum 5 of Sq. 16 N. One small zoomorphic head carved of
bone and a small thin pendant tapered at both ends and carved in fine lines
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
o I __
Fig. 5. View of part of M-trench showing strata, copper hawks bell,
and Broward projectile point or knife.
around a central eye-like form, completes the list of worked mammal bone
items (Fig. 6, b-c).
A novel feature found was the use of the humeri of dogs with a hole in the
thin web of bone just below the joint, probably for suspending the bone around
the neck. Dr. Wing advises that the hole occurs naturally, and, in life, pro-
vides extra movement for a projection on the articulating bone. Bullen thinks
that the occurrence of 9 such bones indicates some use by the natives. Similar
bones have been used by medicine men in Africa as divining objects.
Shark vertebrae were used by the natives, either as beads or as nose
PEACE CAMP SITE
Fig. 6. Three carved bone art objects from Peace Camp site.
or ear-plugs. A total of 66 were found, some pierced for stringing. Also, a
wide use of sharks teeth was discovered. Of a total of 280 teeth, many were
pierced at the base of the tooth, for lashing to a wood or bone handle. Many
teeth were dulled or broken from use.
Artifacts of shell were from the earliest time to historic times basic
tools and weapons, as well as decorative objects, for Peace Camp inhabitants.
Certainly, a shell-tool tradition came to Peace Camp with the earliest dwellers.
On the marl floor that underlies most of Stratum 5 and all of Stratum 6,
were found dozens of shell celts worn and broken from use. Throughout the
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
mound, a total of 287 such celts were found, most of them from the lower
levels. Two, almost identical in size, shape, and unusual all over grinding,
are obviously from the hands of one craftsman, and truly objects of artistry.
The large Busycon whelk, 166 examples, was used for a variety of picks,
as well as cooking and drinking utensils. It has been suggested that before the
invention of pottery, big Busycon shells with the central columella carefully re-
moved, were used as cooking vessels (Webster 1970). At least one such large
shell with fire-burnt bottom was found in Stratum 6, the pre-ceramic midden
and supports Webster's hypothesis.
The columella of large shells was used variously as hammer, pounder,
chisel, etc., depending on the shape of the tip. Of these--whole or tips--
there were 99 with a variety of tip forms. Smaller shells used as hand-tools--
such as hammer, drills, and scrapers--were found at Peace Camp, but not
nearly in such profusion as at Arch Creek, or in the Gulf Coast shell mounds.
Thirty-four Macrocallista nimbosa shells, the sun-ray venus, had seen use
as knives or scrapers.
In Stratum 5 of Sq. 0-16 a strombus celt was dug from 40 inches below
the surface. This celt is the only one found with patches of crystalline calcite,
altered from the shell material. This particular celt is also unusual in that it
is shaped like a projectile point, appears to be sharpened on all edges, and is
basally ground for hafting, either as a spear or as a knife. Why this one celt
has altered patches, and no others have, is unexplained. Other sites in the
county have produced celts with similar patches of calcite.
Several small flakes of flint were found scattered widely through the
mound (Table 2). One flint projectile point was found in the first level of W-7
just over the edge of the concreted layer. This is a fine Broward point (Fig. 5,
e) as named by Ripley P. Bullen, but it is undoubtedly out of context, strati-
Many stones were found in the dig, but none that were worked artifacts.
Fire-place stones, some split by heat, probably boiling stones, casual ham-
mers, pounders or wedges and possibly some which had been used as net weights
or anchors were found. But no ground celts or axes, recognizable tools or
decorative stone objects were found in the excavations.
Fire pits and post holes in the first three strata were ignored because of
the possibility they might have been made by either Seminoles or Boy Scouts.
PEACE CAMP SITE
This site was a favorite camping place for both. In the lower strata, begin-
ning with Stratum 4-A, these features were carefully recorded. Refuse pits
were measured in reference to post holes, hoping to find some pattern of
A possible line of post holes ran east-west in part of the M trench. Two
smaller post holes were found at right angle to the west end of the first line.
In the 2Z-trench, a line of 5 holes extending approximately north-south was
found. These two lines of holes were not directly connected.
Holes of smaller diameter were found scattered in no particular pattern.
They may have been smaller stakes for some special purposes. In Sq. M-23,
a black area that could have been a rotted log, was uncovered. However,
nothing definite was established.
The most unusual post hole was found in Sq. 0-21. It was 4 inches in
diameter, full of soft black dirt, and had a stoney ring around it about 1.5
inches thick. This was pedestalled until it stood a hollow pier 16 inches high.
This post had become fixed in the concretion whereas others had not.
Two Strombus celts were found in Sq. N-15 at a depth of 51 inches below
datum. They were measured and photographed in the presence of witnesses.
These celts clearly in Stratum 6, were never handled, but placed into a plastic
bag to be used for a radiocarbon date.
RADIOCARBON, LTD. dated them (Sample RL-77) at 3050 B. P. + 140
years, or approximately 1100 years B.C. Since the celts were found in deepest
artifact producing level, it is likely that they indicate, within close limits, the
very earliest occupation of the Peace Camp site.
No continuous seam of black peat has ever been found between any of the
strata at Peace Camp. This is important because such a layer of peat would
indicate a substantial break in occupancy of the site, for years proportional to
the layer thickness, lack of such a layer may well indicate continuous occupa-
tion under Glades conditions.
Aboriginal Indians did, indeed, live near the southeast Florida coast five
to six hundred years earlier than was once believed. The radiocarbon date
(RL-77) for Peace Camp is 3050 B.P. + 140 years, or about 1100 B.C. This
is believed to be the oldest date south of Vero and east of Key Marco.
MOWERS AND WILLIAMS
From the pre-ceramic area of Stratum 6, shell tools and bone points
were recovered. The shell tools in this lower stratum were much thicker,
longer, and wider than those from later strata.
The Peace Camp Indian lived a full, productive life, even an artistic life
as the small beautiful bone carvings testify. His home was a well protected
hammock, his food supply abundant--both from land animals and fish from the
surrounding waters. Contact with other Indians was evidenced by pottery typi-
cal of other areas. In later years, contact with the European, probably Spanish
was indicated by the copper hawks bell that still rings.
The large amount of pottery at Peace Camp included types of the Glades
I, II, and III periods, as well as sherds from Florida Transitional Period.
Over 24, 000 sherds have been catalogued. The Transitional Period is repre-
sented by thick St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Incised, early Glades Plain and
Throughout the site, every type of shell tool and utensil has been found
and catalogued, including 287 Strombus Gigas celts and blanks. Obviously a
fair number of Indians lived at the Peace Camp site and exploited the sur-
rounding environment very successfully for a very long time.
The members of the Broward County Archaeological Society wish to
thank Mr. Hully Stirling for his exclusive permission to excavate the site,
also for his full cooperation throughout the three year period from October,
1967 to October, 1970. Appreciation is extended to Dr. William H. Sears,
Department of Anthropology at Florida Atlantic University, for his continued
interest and help in many matters, including tools and loaning of a mechanical
screen. To Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen of the Florida State Museum for
their ever present help as consultants and their visit to the site. To Dr.
Elizabeth S. Wing, Florida State Museum, for her analysis of the bone content
of the site. For special photographs, our thanks to Joan and Charles Vicinus.
To Dan D. Laxson, who has been an available consultant and guiding hand
since the very inception of this organization. Finally, our thanks to all of the
members of the Broward County Archaeological Society whose diligent work
made this paper possible.
Atkins, Steve, and Jeannie Mac Mahan
1967 The Zabski Site, Merritt Island, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 133-45.
PEACE CAMP SITE
Bullen, Ripley P.
1965 Florida' s Prehistory. In Florida From Indian to Space Age,
Vol. 1, Chap. XXIII, Southern Publishing Co., Delray Beach,
1969 Excavations at Sunday Bluff, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum Social Sciences,
no. 15. University of Florida. Gainesville.
Bullen, Ripley P., and Walter Askew
1965 Tests at the Askew Site, Citrus Co. Florida
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 201-17.
Crusoe, Donald L.
1971 A Study of Aboriginal Trade: A Petrographic Analysis of
Certain Ceramics from Florida and Georgia. Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 31-43.
Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology,
Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 47.
Yale University Press.
Griffin, John W. and Hale G. Smith
1948 The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County, Florida. Contributions
to the Archaeology of Florida, no. 1. Florida Park Service,
1970 The Fish Creek Site, Hillsborough County, Florida,
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 62-80.
Phelps, David S.
1966 Early and Late components of the Tucker Site.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 19- No. 1.
Webster, William J.
1970 A New Concept for the Busycon Shell Receptable,
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1-7.
1970 Personal Communication.
EXCAVATIONS AT THE YELLOW BLUFFS-WHITAKER MOUND,
Jerald T. Milanich
Salvage excavations at the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker mound (So-4) were
undertaken because the mound and surrounding property had been purchased
by Aurora Corporation, who planned to build a condominium on the site. This
sand burial mound, located in the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter
of Section 13, Township 36 South, Range 17 East, occupies one of the highest
points of land along Sarasota Bay, 50 yards east of the bay and 400 yards south
of Whitaker Bayou (Fig. 1). A shell midden, varying in width from 20 feet to
20 yards, runs from the bayou southward along the shore to. a point about 300
yards south of the mound. Two small sand mounds, now destroyed, were
located between the bayou and the mound. About 350 yards north of So-4 is a
fresh-water spring which empties into the bayou and which probably provided
the midden' s occupants with water (Fig. 1).
The merits of the site did not excape the early white settlers of Sarasota
County. In the winter of 1842-43, following the opening up of land for home-
steading after the Second Seminole War, William H. Whitaker settled the area
known as Yellow Bluffs, which encompasses the mound and the midden (Gris-
mer 1946: 31-38). Yellow Bluffs describes the unique, yellow limestone-clay
outcroppings at the shore along side the midden. The bluffs provided a readily
accessible clay source for pottery making.
During the Third Seminole War in 1856 Seminoles raided and burned the
Whitaker home killing a visitor there, the only casualty of the Seminole Wars
in Sarasota. The Whitaker cabin was subsequently rebuilt, and during the Civil
War was the scene of frequent raids by Union soldiers foraging for food.
In 1911 Mr. and Mrs. B. L. Honore, uncle and aunt of Mrs. Potter Honore
Palmer, built an estate, The Acacias, on the Whitaker property. The mansion
still stands. A pergola was constructed on top of the burial mound with stone
steps built down its south side (Figs. 2, 6). How much of the top of the mound
was removed during construction of the pergola is unknown. However, a hole,
three by fifteen feet in size and five feet deep, had been dug into the mound' s
top before construction. This summer house was removed with a crane before
excavation of the mound.
Willey (1949: 344) reports a collection from the mound in the possession
of H. L. Schoff containing a Biscayne St. Johns Check Stamped, a Safety Harbor
Incised, three Pinellas Incised, and eleven Pinellas Plain sherds. The pottery
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 25, no. 2, March 1972
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
scale in yards
I I 0 20
0 100 200 300
Fig. 1. Map of Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Site.
may have come from the central hole under the pergola.
The mound in 1970 was 8 feet high in the center with a diameter of 95
feet. A modern driveway had been built around the north and west peripheries
of the mound. Originally oval-shaped, fill was added on to the west side to
cover additional burials, extending the mound in that direction. Contours sug-
gest that a ramp might at sometime have extended up the southeast side (Fig.
2). Trees, time, and previous excavation prevented investigation of this fea-
ture. A depression northeast of the mound marked the probable location of
the borrow pit.
Investigation of the mound was begun by members of the Sarasota County
Historical Society. A backhoe was used to dig a trench up the southeast side
of the mound over a portion,of the possible rainp area. A second trench was
dug with the backhoe across the north half of the mound (Fig. 3, Cuts 1-2).
Both trenches were about ten feet wide and did not reach sub-mound base.
Examination of the spoil from these cuts revealed food bones, occasional pot-
sherds, and shells as were found throughout all the mound fill. Two trenches,
dug in ten foot squares, were started by the Historical Society up the west and
northwest sides of the mound. The western trench consisted of three inter-
connected squares and the northwest trench of two squares (Fig. 3, 1 and 2).
An extension of time for more extensive investigation was awarded the
Sarasota County Historical Commission by the building contractors, and arrange-
ments were made for the author to direct the excavations covered by this report.
A grid system was laid out with measurements taken in feet north and east of a
point southwest of the mound. Vertical control was maintained with a transit,
the datum plane, established from condominium land plat, being set at 24 feet
above mean sea level. The north-south grid axis was laid out 26 degrees 30
minutes west of north so that the Historical Society' s west trench would fit into
the grid. This trench line was continued to the center of the mound, and another
trench line (Fig. 6) was staked out up the south side of the mound perpendicular
to and intersecting the east-west trench. Both were laid out in 10- by 10- or 10-
by 15-foot areas (Fig. 3). A third trench, 5 feet in width and 30 in length, was
staked out up the southwest side of the mound at a 45 degree angle to grid north
in order to obtain a profile of the mound edge at that point and to test for a
pottery cache (Fig. 3).
The backhoe was used to redig the Historical Society' s back-filled squares
on the west side in order to profile them. A trench was cut with the backhoe
in the midden and revealed that the midden at that point was only six inches
deep. No pottery was recovered, only food bone and shell. Fifty feet east of
the midden another cut was made which showed only sterile soil (Fig. 3, Cuts
Lack of time prevented reaching the original ground surface under the
mound in the central squares, 140N150E and 125N150E. However, it was
felt that an adequate sample of the artifacts in and under the mound was ob-
tained. The depth of the squares in the central portion of the mound made it
necessary to terrace the walls to prevent collapse; thus squares were usually
profiled in three foot vertical sections. (Before the mound was destroyed the
Historical Society was able to excavate the center two squares down to sterile
subsoil. No features or burials were found,)
All screening in the east-west and north-south trenches was done with
hand screens having 1/2 inch square mesh. A mechanical sifter with 3/8 by
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
3/4 inch mesh hardware cloth was used in excavating the two southernmost
squares in the southwest-northwest trench. All excavation within the mound
was by natural strata. Much of the mound fill, however, was homogeneous
from top to bottom. Here arbitrary zones were used to segregate artifacts
Shells, concretions, and fossilized bones (mostly manatee ribs) were
numerous in the fill along with various sedimentary rocks. Unless worked or
found in association with burials or features these were discarded in the field.
These objects occur naturally in the soils around the mound and were uninten-
tionally scooped up with the mound fill and deposited in the mound. Sharks'
teeth were also numerous in the fill as were food bones. Most of the food
bones were unintentionally deposited in the mound with the fill, but some seem
to have been placed with burials as food offerings. The distribution of sharks'
teeth, discussed below, suggests both accidental and purposeful deposition.
Stratigraphy and Mound Construction
Figure 4 shows the profiles of the two main trenches. (Tree and root
disturbances led to the profiling of the south wall of the east-west trench.
The mirror image of this profile is shown in Figure 4.)
The mound proper was constructed on a prepared mound base (Layers
9, 10) which consisted of two distinct layers of shells and food bones separa-
ted by a sterile layer of soil. Except for the extreme central portion, fill
seems to have been taken from an old humic-midden layer. This fill (Layer
6) appears in the mound as a brown, mottled-with-grey, sand with food bones
and shell fragments scattered throughout. Layer 11 is the original pre-mound
ground surface. This humic zone was scraped away over an area bout 60 feet
across and a sterile layer of dark brown sand (Layer 10) 0.5-0.8 feet in thick-
ness was laid down. This zone might originally have been a lighter color sand
which was stained brown by leaching of humus out of the above zone. Layer 9,
averaging 0. 8 feet in thickness, was laid down over the sterile sand. This
zone contained a high number of food bones and shells, both surrounded by
dark humic stains (Fig. 8). It is probable that these uniformly flat layers
represent food offerings intentionally deposited during a pre-construction
Another sterile sand zone and another shell-food bone zones were de-
posited respectively on top of Layers 9 and 10. These zones (also labeled 9
and 10 in Fig. 4) are identical in content and thickness to the first two.
Table 1 shows the wide variety of animal bone in the pre-mound base. The
canis bone is a jawbone probably from a domesticated dog. Canis and bos
(cow or buffalo) were both present with other food bones in the higher mound
fill. The one Homo sapiens pre-molar found in the lower mound base pro-
bably is intrusive through an animal or root hole.
scale h feet
0 1030 40 5060i i
0 102030 40 5060 Z4
Fig. 2. Contour Map of Mound
Fig. 3. Excavation Plan.
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
.I I Planea
Modern humus and duff.
Medium-grey, charcoal-stained sand leaching zone.
Light yellow-mottled-with-brown was zone.
White, mottled-with-grey leached sand.
Sterile, chocolate brown, redepositional layer.
Brown, mottled-with-grey, basket-loaded, mound fill.
Medium grey, mottled, mound fill.
Buff, lensed-with-grey, sand; very distinct,
Fig. 4. Mound profiles.
The mound fill exhibited typical basket-loaded lensing, more distinct in
some areas than in others (Fig. 8, upper part). In the center of the mound
was a very distinct lens of buff, lensed-with-grey, sand (Layer 8). This was
covered with a layer of grey mottled sand (Layer 7). In the profile these two
deposits suggested terracing. Whether this core and its terracing were in-
tentional, representing a small central mound or platform immediately covered
with mound fill, or whether it was an element of mound construction, is un-
known. No special features were found in these deposits and no humus accu-
mulation was evident on the top or sides, suggesting there had been no lapse in
time between this deposition and that of mound fill to each side. The explana-
tion that these central deposits were elements of mound construction is the
The distribution of the pre-mound base and the mound fill indicate that
the original mound was elliptical in shape. Its major axis, running north and
z z z z
o 0 o Z
o o o
24',0.5'+ M.S.L. 0
Fig. 4, continued. ii'
9. Dark brown-black midden soil with shell and food bone; prepared sub-mound base.
10. Even, dark brown sand; colored probably derived from leaching out of Zone 9.
II. Brown, mottled-with-grey, pre-moind humus.
12. Buff, sterile sand grading into Ahite sand.
13. Spoil from driveway grading.
14. Brown, mottled, fill layer, lighter than Zone 6.
15. Grey, heavily mottled-with-brown, sand; contains horizontal lines of black
humic matter about one quarter inch thick which appear to be water deposited.
16. Dark, mottled brown, sand; mound fill.
17. White sand lenses, probably from tree and root disturbances.
(1.25 inches equals 10 feet)
south, was about 105 feet in length, with the minor axis about 90 feet. Addi-
tions to the west side of the mound and erosion since abandonment of the mound
give the mound its present more annular shape.
Artifacts within the mound were scarce. All except Feature I and, per-
haps some of the sharks' teeth, were deposited unintentionally with mound fill.
The pottery and food bones in the mound came from a borrow pit or pits which
cut through earlier middens, thus the pottery in the mound included types from
widely chronologically separated time periods. Except for decorated pottery,
it was impossible to differentiate the artifacts and food bones in the mound as
having either a midden-occupant provenience or a mound-constructor pro-
venience. Likewise the sub-mound base contained pottery and other artifacts
from an earlier midden as well as from the period of mound construction.
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
ANIMAL BONE FROM SUB-MOUND BASE
Canis sp. dog(?)
Didelphis marsupialis, opossum
Homo sapiens, human tooth
Neofiber alleni, round-tailed muskrat
Odocoileus virginianus, deer
Procyon lotor, raccoon
Sciurus niger, fox squirrel
Sylvilagus sp. rabbit
Siren lacertina, greater siren
Alligator mississipiensis, alligator
Crotalus adamanteus, eastern
Cheloniidae, sea turtle
Chelydra serpentina, snapping turtle
Sciaenidae, croaker-like fish
Chrysemys sp. cooter turtle
Deirochelys reticularia, chicken turtle
Gopherus polyphemus, gopher tortoise
Kinosternon sp. mud turtle
Malaclemys terrapin, diamondback
Terrapene carolina, box turtle
Trionyx ferox, softshell turtle
Archosargus sp., sheephead
Caranx sp., jack fish
Dasyatis sp. stingray
Diodontidae, porcupine fish
Epinephelus sp., jewfish
Galeichthys felis, catfish
Lutjanus sp., snapper (fish)
Mugil cephalus, mullet
Mycteroperca sp., grouper
DISTRIBUTION OF POTTERY IN MOUND FILL
Typology Upper Lower Miscel- Totals
Mound Mound laneous
Pinellas Plain 257 283 30 570
Carrabelle Punctated 1 1
cord marked 1 1 2
sherd tempered plain 3 3
grit tempered plain 20 36 56
St. Johns Plain 1 9 1 11
St. Johns linear punctated 3 3 6
St. Johns Simple Stamped 1 1
St. Johns with fiber temper 1 1
Deptford Linear Check Stamped 1 1 2
Deptford Check Stamped 4 4
Deptford Simple Stamped 2 2
Orange Plain 5 4 9
Totals 291 343 34 668
Potsherds from the Orange, Deptford, and Safety Harbor periods
(Willey 1949) were recovered from the mound and mound base. Interestingly,
one Opa Locka Incised sherd, given a late Glades I-Glades IIa date by Goggin
(1950: 51, 58) was found in the mound base. A sand-tempered plain ware with
a soft, laminar paste, which fits well Willey' s (1949: 482) description of Pi-
nellas Plain, accounted for 85. 3 per cent of the pottery in mound fill and 94. 6
and 88. 1 per cent in the upper and lower shell layers of the mound base, re-
spectively. Of the 84 plain rim sherds recovered in the excavation, 8 were
notched, a characteristic of Pinellas Plain vessels.
Paste of the sherds bearing Deptford decoration is the same as that of
the plain and the notched-Rim, Pinellas Plain sherds. It is impossible to dif-
ferentiate between Pinellas Plain sherds and the plain ware that might be asso-
ciated with the Deptford types. Both have a hardness of less than 3 on Mohs
scale and probably were made from local clays. Recognizing this problem,
all sand-tempered plain sherds from the mound and the mound base are re-
ferred to as Pinellas Plain. In this case sherd frequencies are not pertinent
to an understanding of the mound.
The notched Pinellas Plain rims are similar to those illustrated by Willey
(1949: Pls. 49-52). One notched rim has two incised lines on its flattened lip
parallel to the rim. This rim trait, found here on an unthinned rim, is remini-
scent of some Glades Tooled rims (Goggin and Sommer 1949: 35) and appears
very similar to the Glades Tooled specimens from the John Quiet site on Cape
Haze Peninsula (Bullen and Bullen 1956: Pl. II). This site corresponds chrono-
logically to the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker mound and is located only forty miles to
the south. The most prevalent sand-tempered rim form was a simple, rounded
type (84. 5 per cent) with flattened rims (6. 0 per cent) and notched rims (9. 5
per cent) also present.
The paste of the one fiber-tempered, simple-stamped sherd contains sand
and might best be described as Norwood Simple Stamped (Phelps 1965: 68).
Simple stamping was also present on one St. Johns paste sherd (Fig. 11, b) ,
while seven others were decorated with linear check stamping. One St. Johns
sherd contained fiber-tempering, another ground sherds as temper (Fig. 11, a).
This suggests that the St. Johns sherds within the mound were associated with
the Orange or Florida Transitional and Deptford periods rather than with the
much later Safety Harbor cultures.
Table 2 gives pottery frequencies for upper mound fill (top three feet of
mound), lower mound fill (below three feet), and total mound. The miscella-
neous column includes sherds found in the fill of burial pits (eleven sherds)
and sherds found when stepping the sides of the central excavation units.
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
In the analysis of the pottery all sherds less than 1/2 inch square in size were
counted and discarded. Table 3 shows pottery frequencies for the upper and
lower mound base layers and the old pre-mound humus.
Awls Three broken bone awls were found all from the lower food-bone and
shell zone at the mound base (Fig. 9, 1-m). On all three, heavy use-scarring
is apparent from the pointed end back along the shaft a distance of 3/4 inch.
Pins Two specimens, both broken tips, were excavated; one each from the
upper mound base and the upper mound fill. Both are round in cross section,
and the mound base specimen is polished (Fig. 9, g-h).
Simple points Two points came from the lower mound fill, one from the upper
mound base zone, and one from the pre-mound old humus. The four points are
sharpened on both ends, and, except for one eroded sample, all exhibit roughen-
ing for hafting on one end (Fig. 9, d-e, i-j).
Perforated shark' s tooth, shark vertebrate bead Both artifacts (Fig. 9, a-b)
are from lower mound fill in Square 125N150E, which includes a portion of the
central buff-and-grey lensed "core. The shark' s tooth is drilled from both
sides, probably for use as a necklace. There is a hole in the center of the
vertebra also, suggesting use as a bead. However, edges of the vertebra are
smoothed implying possible use as an ear plug.
Bone tube A tube, 3. 2 cm. long and 0.3 cm. in diameter was cut from a long
bone (Fig. 9, c). The unbroken end was scored around its circumference and
then snapped off.
Whetstone The whetstone, made from a rough piece of sandstone, is barrel
shaped and shows a broad groove worn on one surface. One end shows use as
a hammerstone. From the lower mound fill, the stone measures 6.1 cm. in
length and 5.0 cm. in diameter.
Chisel The chisel, which came from the lower mound base zone, is chipped
from a fossilized manatee rib (Fig. 11, d). The tool is lenticular in cross sec-
tion and measures 11.1 cm. in length with a thickness of 2.7 cm. Rough shap-
ing of the tool is apparent on one side, and both ends show use chipping.
Plummet One plummet, 5. 1 cm. long and 2. 1 cm. in diameter was found in
the upper mound fill. Made from soft siltstone, it is grooved around one end
to form a knob for hanging (Fig. 10, 1).
DISTRIBUTION OF POTTERY AT BASE OF MOUND
Typology Old Upper Lower Totals
humus mound mound
Pinellas Plain 8 88 74 170
Opa Locka Incised 1 1
sherd tempered plain 3 3
grit tempered plain 2 6 8
St. Johns Plain 7 2 9
St. Johns Linear Check Stamped 1 1
Norwood Simple Stamped 1 1
Orange Plain 1 1
Orange Incised 2 2
Totals 19 93 84 196
Knives Three fragments of knives were excavated, two from the upper mound
and one from the upper mound base. Originally all were lanceolate in shape
with two working edges. One bifacial specimen has a carefully shaped, thinned
base similar to knives found at Archaic sites in Florida (Fig. 10, d). Of the
others, one is bifacial and one unifacial.
Scrapers Two scrapers, both made from chert, were found within burial pits
(Fig. 10, i-j). One is bifacial and represents the broken tip of a chopper re-
used as a scraper. The other specimen, ovate and bifacial, is 3.6 cm. long
with a thickness of 1. 4 cm.
A third specimen, made from a fossilized manatee rib, came from the
upper mound base. Lenticular in cross section it measures 10.0 cm. in length
and is 3. 8 cm. thick. The basal end has one large flake knocked off to form a
sharp cutting surface which shows use chipping. The opposite end has been
shaped to form an ax- or gouge-like surface, and exhibits heavy use-chipping
(Fig. 11, c). Chipping experiments with fossilized manatee ribs from the site
show that the ribs knapped much like glass but were too brittle to be used as a
Projectile points A total of eight whole or fragmented points were recovered,
seven from the mound and one from the mound base. The basal specimen, only
4. 5 cm. long and made of agatized coral, is Newman-like in form with a thinned
contracting stem (Fig. 10, a). The seven points from the mound are all made of
chert. Six of these are triangular-bladed, stemmed points and exhibit varying
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
degrees of patination (Fig. 10, b, e-g). All probably represent intrusions of
stemmed Archaic points in mound fill. The other specimen is an unfinished,
side-notched point (Fig. 10, c).
Fossilized sharks' teeth Skewed distribution of 87 sharks' teeth in the mound
in relation to burials suggests non-accidental distribution. Sixty-seven were
found in squares which also contained burials, while the remaining twenty were
from non-burial squares in the north-south trench. The four squares contain-
ing burials totaled 45 linear feet of a 10-foot wide trench; the non-burial squares
50 feet. The teeth were probably mixed with the fill used to cover burials; no
caches were found near the burials.
Several circular areas similar to postholes were found on the south side
of the mound, but no groupings or patterns were observed. No postholes were
found on top of the mound. Removal of soil from top of the mound before con-
struction of the pergola might have destroyed any evidence of structures.
The one definite feature was a deposit of 14 large conch shells placed in
an ascending row from east to west (Fig. 7). The top shells were 1.3 feet
higher than the lower ones with the row being 0.8 feet wide and 2. 0 feet long.
Humic stain was not apparent around the shells, indicating that they were
empty when piled. No pit was apparent either, suggesting that the shells were
piled up on a sloping surface of the mound, then covered with fill. Figure 5
shows the position of these shells (Feature 1) relative to burials. Burials 4
and 5, neither of which were placed in pits, are in line with the shells and are
an equal distance below the ground surface. No other association with Fea-
ture I was noted.
Ten burials were uncovered in the excavations, all on the west side
(Fig. 5). Several other burials were cleared and removed by members of the
Historical Society from their squares on the west side, also. This is the side
nearest the midden (Fig. 3). One mass burial thought to have included at least
two adults and one child was cleared by the Historical Society where it was
exposed in a profile, but was taken by vandals. Burial 1 was probably part of
this same cache, but was not found by the vandals.
Of the ten individuals, six were mature adults, two were young adults,
one an adolescent, and one a child. Three burials were identified as males,
three as females, and four were undetermined as to sex. This small burial
sample suggests a normal population age and sex ratio. Five burials were
identified as flexed, two as extended and one as a secondary bundle burial.
The remaining two burials were too scattered to ascertain burial form.
prepared mound base
scale in feet
0 5 10
Fig. 5. Burial locations, section and plan.
- I _1
1 4 I
~ \ \ \ \7\
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
Photographs of two of the Historical Society' s burials show them to have been
bundle burials. Both came from the westernmost edge of the mound.
Bone was fairly hard, but root action and the nearness to the surface
of many of the burials resulted in fragmentation of the burials. Although the
bones could be cleared and examined in place, they could not be removed
from the ground intact. The teeth of the adults and young adults showed ex-
treme dental wear from the gritty shellfish diet. No cranial deformation was
observed, however skulls were usually crushed, making examination difficult.
A summary of the burials follows.
Burial 1 Male mature adult; somewhat scattered flexed burial with no grave
pit evident, probably part of a mass burial of at least four individuals,
fish vertebrate and other food bone in association. A cahe of shell with
humic stain about 1 cubic foot in size was found on the north side of the
burial. A layer of shell at the same level as the burial separated this
mass burial from Burials 5, 6, and 7 (Fig. 5). A sample of 102 of the
shells in the food-shell deposit showed 46per cent quahog Venus mer-
cenaria campechiensis, 37 per cent oyster Ostrea, 8 per cent ribbed
mussel Volsella plicatulus, with the remainder being conchs Strombus
pugilis,Strombis (pugilis) alatus, Melongea corona, Busycon perversum,
and Fasiolaria gigantea.
Burial 2 Tightly flexed child burial,6-7 years old, buried in a sitting position
in a small pit with tibias, fibulae, and femurs found articulated and up-
right. One side of a deer jaw (Fig. 9, n) cupped between two clam
shells was placed beside the burial in the burial pit. Humic stain sug-
gests these shells were a food offering. A small ovate scraper (Fig. 10,
j), two round quartz pebbles, and a calcified deer toe bone were found
with several other shells in the pit.
Burial 3 Male adult burial, loosely flexed on the left side with feet crossed.
The Historical Society removed part of this burial. No pit was evident;
the burial was laid out on the old humus and covered with fill. Arthritic
lipping evident on the metatarsals, and a healed over laceration was
apparent on the left fibula. A circular area about 0. 8 feet in diameter
containing charcoal, probably a shallow fire pit, was located above the
burial. Deer, drumfish, and other fish bone and a deposit of shell with
humic stains also were in association with the burial.
Burial 4 An adult of undetermined sex, probably a male, buried 1.5 feet be-
low the ground surface, 4. 0 feet directly west of Feature I. The bones,
representing only long bones and a skull, were badly scattered and sug-
gested a bundle burial. One deer toe bone in association.
Fig. 6. Mound during excavation.
Burial 5 A mature female, loosely flexed on her left side, buried at a depth
of 0.7 feet below the present mound surface. The burial was placed in
the west end of a pit about 2 by 4 feet. A dark black circular area of what
seemed to be dried muck was present at the east end of the pit.
Burial 6 Extended burial, adolescent 14-18 years old. Burial located about
1. 0 feet below burial 5 skull; no pit evident. The burial was lying prone,
face down, head toward the east, bones fragmented but still articulated,
left arm bent under body. Spinal curvature suggests rigor mortis had
set in before the individual was buried. Overall position indicates the
body was placed stomach down in the mound during construction.
Burial 7 Extended burial of an adult, probably a female, located almost
directly under Burial 6. Both femurs have front side downward. Skull was
crushed and scattered; upper torso and pelvis badly disturbed. Probably
buried at same time as Burial 6 and in same manner, face down during
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
Figs. 7 and 8. Feature 1 and typical profileof lower part of mound.
Burial 8 Scattered burial of adult, probably a female, with pieces of skull,
teeth, and long bone present. Might have been disturbed by the central
disturbance in the top of the mound. Snake vertebrae coachwhipp Masti-
cophis Flagellum) found next to the burial.
Burial 9 Profiled in north wall of east-west trench by backhoe while clearing
out the backfill of the Historical Society's squares, only skull re-
covered; mature adult.
Burial 10 Mature adult flexed burial, circular grave pit 2. 8 feet in diameter4
bone scattered, upper portion of burial might have been disturbed by cen-
tral pit in the mound. Snake vertebrae (Masticophis Flagellum) and five
Pinellas Plain sherds in the pit fill.
The Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker mound is a sand burial mound of the Safety
Harbor period, as evidenced by the Pinellas Plain pottery in the mound. Lack
of any European items in the mound suggests a pre-contact date of A. D. 1300-
1500 for the mound's construction (Bullen 1965: 306), although the presence
of one probable cow bone would place the mound after DeSoto's A. D. 1539
landing or during the first half of the sixteenth century.
Originally elliptical with a north-south major axis, the greatest portion
of the mound was constructed at one time over a prepared mound base. First
the humus was scrapped away. On this cleaned surface a layer of sterile sand
was deposited which was in turn covered with a layer of food deposit, both bone
and shell fish. Another layer of sterile sand and another food deposit layer
were added. The mound was built on this base. Fill was added to the west
side of the mound to accommodate additional burials through time. No pottery
cache was found.
Burials were primarily flexed and lying on their left side, usually with
the head toward the east. Extended and secondary bundle burials were also
present. The central portion of the mound contained two adult burials (Burials
8 and 10), both placed in the mound during construction, one in a grave pit.
These may have been the initiating burials for the mound. Both Burial 8 and
10 had articulated and scattered coachwhip snake vertebrae beside them. No
other snake vertebrae were found in the mound, although one diamondback
rattle-snake bone came from the sub-mound base. This suggests purposeful
distribution of the snakes (or snake vertebrae) with the burials. Perhaps the
snakes represented a symbol of rank.
During the mound's construction bundle burials (Burial 4) and prone, ex-
tended burials (Burials 6 and 7) were also placed in the mound. The former
S I 2 IN.
O I 2 3 4 5 CM.
Fig. 9. Bone specimens.
a, shark's vertebra bead; b, perforated shark's
tooth; c, bone tube or bead; d-e, i-j, simple
bone points; f, specialized artifact (gorge?);
g-h, bone pin fragments; k, grooved rib bone;
1-m, bone awls; n, deer jaw (Burial 2).
Fig. 10. Stone artifacts.
Fig. 10. Stone artifacts.
a-b, e-g, Archaic stemmed points; c, side-
notched point; d, base of knife; h, possible
flake incising tool; i-j, small ovate scrapers,
k, rubbed fossil bone; 1, siltstone plummet.
might represent interrment of trophy or cleaned and stored burials, and the
latter sacrificial offerings of family or retainers. Excavation did not reveal,
however, any supportive evidence for the type of social organization usually
thought to be associated with such burial practices on the Gulf Coastal Plain
(Sears 1954). Later in time other burials, both bundle and flexed, were placed
either in intrusive pits into the mound (Burials 2 and 5) or laid on the mound' s
edge and covered with soil (Burials 1, 3 and 9). Feature I, a cache of conch
shells, was placed in the mound west of the initiating burials during construc-
tion of the mound. Significance is unknown, though lack of a humic stain in-
dicates predeposition cleaning, perhaps for future use as cups for the dead.
Grave offerings consisted of food, mainly shell fish and fish (probably
dietary staples) rather than pottery, tools, ornaments, or weapons. This
theme is also evident in the composition of the mound base which included de-
position of food bones as listed in Table 1. The wide variety of these animal
bones indicates that local Indians were exploiting sea, land, and fresh-water
biotomes. More than 75 per cent of the bones were those of deer, turtle, and
fish and, as elsewhere in Florida, these (plus shellfish) formed the subsis-
tence basis. Dog was probably a source of food also. Fish skull bones were
extremely rare, suggesting that the fish were cleaned at least partially before
being placed in the mound base.
The presence of Deptford decorative motifs and of fiber-tempering in
St. Johns paste sherds suggests that during the period of 1000 B. C. to 500 B. C.
these three cultures (Deptford, St. Johns, and Orange) were coeval and in
close contact on the central Gulf Coast of Florida.
Lack of strong Safety Harbor traits in the mound, e. g. Pinellas In-
cised, Lake Jackson Plain, Safety Harbor Incised, Ft. Walton Incised, and
Wakulla Check Stamped pottery types, suggests little contact with the Safety
Harbor culture in the Tampa-St. Petersburg area. Rather the builders of the
mound seem to have been on the fringe of the center of Safety Harbor culture.
As one moves southward from this center, Safety Harbor traits grow fewer
and Glade and Belle Glade traits increase in frequency, as at the John Quiet
site on Cape Haze Peninsula (Bullen and Bullen 1956).
During the preceding Englewood period in the area south of Tampa Bay
there is an increase in Glade and Belle Glade ceramics over those of the Wee-
den Island period (Willey 1949: 131-132, 471), which suggests increased cul-
ture contact, perhaps through militarism. This contact might have been in-
strumental in the decline of the Weeden Island II culture in the Sarasota re-
gion. By the Safety Harbor period the area seems to have become somewhat
stabilized with the builders of the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound forming a
buffer between two strong culture centers, the Safety Harbor Timucua in the
north and the Glades III Calusa in the south.
There is evidence, however, of sites exhibiting strong Safety Harbor
traits in the Tampa Bay-Charlotte Harbor area, as at the Englewood burial
YELLOW BLUFFS MOUND
o 2 IN.
0 I 2 3 4 5 CM.
Fig. 11. Sherds and fossil bone tools.
a, sherd-tempered St. Johns Incised; b, St. Johns Simple
Stamped; c-d, gouge and chisel of fossil manatee ribs.
mound, Osprey midden and True site (Willey 1949: 126-135; 342-344). These
Safety Harbor occupations may either precede or follow the hypothesized buf-
fer-zone period represented by the construction of the Yellow Bluff-Whitaker
mound, or they may represent temporary expansions of Safety Harbor peoples
into the buffer zone.
Permission to investigate the mound was secured from the Aurora Cor-
poration by the Sarasota County Historical Commission. Special thanks should
go to Mrs. Ralph Davis, Sarasota County Historian, for her efforts in organiz-
ing the excavation and handling the many logistic problems. Labor was pro-
vided by members of the Historical Society and students of New College and
the University of Florida. President and Mrs. John Elmendorf of New College
furnished visiting students with housing at the college and aided the excavation
in other ways. Financing for the project was provided by an anonymous gift to
New College. Thanks are also extended to Kent Anslie and Kurt Peterson of
the Florida State Museum for identification of the food bones.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1965 Florida's Prehistory. Reprinted from Florida from Indian Trails
to Space Age, vol. I, chapter XXXIII, by Tebeau, Carson; Chau-
vin, Bullen, and Bullen. Southern Publishing Company, Delray
Bullen, Ripley P. and Adelaide K.
1956 Excavations on Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida. Contributions of
the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, no. I. Gainesville.
Goggin, John M.
1950 The Snapper Creek Site. The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 3,
Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology, No. 41.
Grimser, Karl H.
1946 The Story of Sarasota. Florida Growers Press. Tampa.
Phelps, David S.
1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber-Tempered Ceramics. Proceedings
of the 20th Southeastern Archaeological Conference, pp. 65-69.
Sears, William H.
1954 The Sociopolitical Organization of Pre-Columbian Cultures in
the Gulf Coastal Plain. American Anthropologist, vol. 56,
no. 3, pp. 339-46.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscella-
neous Collections, Vol. 113. Washington, D.C.
A PREHISTORIC DUGOUT CANOE FROM
SOUTHEASTERN NORTH CAROLINA
Robert H. Pittman and William D. Lipe
The specimen reported here was recovered from the dry bed of Black
Lake, located near Elizabethtown, North Carolina. This lake, which
was drained in 1965 as part of a land development project, was one of the hun-
dreds of shallow "Carolina Bays" that dot the coastal plain of North Carolina
and northeastern South Carolina. The dry lake bed is approximately 2 and
1/8 mile long by 1 and 3/8 mile wide, and has a circumference of approxi-
mately 5. 5 miles. Much of the lake bed is filled with a peat deposit, which
is bordered by a very broad and gently sloping white sand beach. In some
places, a thin deposit of white sand extends out over the peat. Surrounding
the lake is very dense underbrush interspersed with stands of young long-
In 1968, the senior author observed numerous surface scatters of lithic
debris, including stemmed projectile points of probable Archaic types, on the
sandy beach areas. Pottery was absent. Later in 1968, area residents dis-
covered and removed the complete or partial remains of eight or nine dugout
canoes from the peat deposit in the central part of the lake bed. Unfortuna-
tely, the whereabouts of these canoes is presently unknown to the writers.
The geological and temporal relationships of the peat deposit, the canoes, and
the lithic materials mentioned above remain unclear.
In the spring of 1969, another fragmentary dugout was discovered at
Black Lake by Dr. D. W. Pittman, of Whiteville, North Carolina, father of
R.H. Pittman. One end of the craft was nearly complete (Fig. 1) but tapered
to a partially decomposed hull which entirely lacked the other end. The total
length of the fragmentary specimen was approximately 9 feet; the maximum
width and height, measured near the complete end, were 26 inches and 1 foot,
Dr. D. W. Pittman obtained the nearly complete end of the dugout (a
specimen 4 feet 1 inch long) and shipped it to the State University of New York
at Binghamton so the authors could study it and obtain wood samples for iden-
tification and C-14 dating. The specimen, currently stored in the Anthro-
pology Department' s archaeology laboratory at Binghamton, is in generally
good condition, except for a certain amount of longitudinal cracking attendant
upon drying, and the soft, weather-checked condition of several areas of the
hull exterior. The preserved end of the canoe clearly exhibits the blunt-
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 25, no. 1, March 1972
Fig. 1. Preserved end of canoe (length, 4 ft. 1 in.) .
ended "bread-tray" form common among ethnographically described dug-
outs from the Southeast (Pittman 1970: 57-58). At the point about 4 feet
from the end where it had been sectioned, the canoe hull' s thickness is about
2 inches at the bottom, 3 1/2 inches midway up the one undeteriorated side,
and about 1 1/2 inches at the gunwale on that side. As the gunwales ap-
proach the end of the canoe, they thicken markedly, terminating in a flat area
approximately 1 foot 4 inches long at the end of the craft. Inspection of the
hull interior revealed numerous traces of charring, indicating that fire had
been used in hollowing out the hull. No charring is evident on the boat' s
exterior. The rough exterior contours of the complete end are suggestive
of the work of stone tools, but weathering makes it impossible to tell whether
definite tool marks exist in this area.
Part of a wood sample (taken from one of the gunwales, as seen in (Fig.
2) was submitted to Geochron Laboratories, Inc. and a date of 945 45
radiocarbon years: A.D. 1005 (GX-1574) was obtained. The sample sub-
mitted appeared to contain the outermost growth rings present in the canoe
specimen. It was impossible to tell how many exterior rings might have
been removed in the manufacturing process, but analogy with contemporary
Euro-American dugout canoe manufacturing techniques in North Carolina
(Pittman 1970) suggests that probably the dated sample did come from near
the exterior of the tree and that therefore the tree probably died relatively
soon after the outermost ring in the radiocarbon sample was deposited. The
time elapsed between the tree' s death and the manufacture of the canoe is of
course another dating unknown, but both contemporary Euro-American prac-
tice and ethnographic accounts of aboriginal techniques (Swanton 1946: 587-95)
suggest that it is unlikely that a tree long dead would have been used.
The remaining part of the wood sample was sent to the Forest Products
Laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Madison, Wisconsin,
PITTMAN AND LIPE
for wood identification. It was identified as of the genus Pinus of the yellow-
pine group, but the species could not be determined. Swanton (1946: 594-95)
reports that pine was used for dugouts by the Indians of coastal North Carolina,
and R. H. Pittman has argued elsewhere (Pittman 1970: 52-57) that pine is
likely to have been an important wood for dugout construction throughout the
Southeast in prehistoric times because of its suitability for hollowing by fire.
This technique clearly seems to have been the method of dugout production
most widely used by the Southeastern Indians before they obtained metal tools
from European settlers.
The circumstances of the find, the radiocarbon date, the form of the
canoe, the techniques of manufacture used, and perhaps the choice of wood,
all indicate that the specimen described here is of prehistoric aboriginal
manufacture. The Black Lake canoe also rather closely resembles, in form
and dimensions, the Lakeland, Florida canoe (Bullen and Brooks 1968), which
was found buried at a depth of over 4 feet in a peaty deposit and which has
been C-14 dated at 1090 B.C. (sample 1-1661).
Bullen, Ripley P. and Harold K. Brooks
1968 Two Ancient Florida Dugout Canoes. Quarterly Journal of the
Florida Academy of Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 97-107.
McCallum, K.J., and W. Dyck
1960 University of Saskatchewan Radiocarbon Dates II. American
Journal of Science, Radiocarbon Supplement, Vol. 2, pp. 73-81.
Pittman, Robert H.
1970 Dugout Canoe Tradition in the Southeastern Woodlands.
Unpublished M. S. thesis, on file at Department of Anthropology,
State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton,
Swanton, John R.
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Bureau of
American Ethnology Bulletin, No. 137, Washington, D. C.
Dept. of Anthropology Dept. of Anthropology
State University of New York University of North Carolina
at Binghamton at Wilmington
A JACKSONIAN PERIOD SWORD HANDLE
FROM SOUTH WALTON COUNTY
William H. Wesley
For several years preceding his death, William C. Lazarus, founder of
the Temple Mound Museum in Fort Walton Beach, Florida was interested in
information pertaining to a Jacksonian period fort assumed to have existed on
the north side of Choctawhatchee Bay in Walton County, near the mouth of Ala-
In 1961 an object was found in this area, consisting mainly of layers of
iron oxide and at the time thought to vaguely resemble the grip portion of a
flintlock pistol. The find was presented to Mr. Lazarus for comment and sub-
sequently was identified through his communication with Smithsonian Institution
personnel as a Jacksonian period sword handle. Prior to this time no physical
evidence of the existence of this fort had been recorded, and since Mr. Lazarus
was planning to request placement of a highway marker referring to the fort' s
general location, he was quite impressed with this artifact. A short time later
a lead ball, considered to be a musket ball was recovered from the same area
along the bay shoreline just east of the mouth of Alaqua Creek.
The fort was probably built some time after Jackson first visited Pensa-
cola in 1814 and more than likely after 1818 when he was sent to Florida speci-
fically to terminate the Indian hostilities along the border between Alabama and
the Florida Territory (Morris 1952: 14-17).
John L. McKinnon (1968) in History of Walton County (originally published
in 1911) refers to the "blockhouse" near the mouth of Big Alaqua in connection
with action against the Creek Indians in 1836-37. A blockhouse or redoubt was
usually only one of the numerous buildings comprising a fort and served as a
small auxiliary defense position. Many frontier forts had several blockhouses
scattered around the fort grounds, and they also served as dwellings or store-
houses during periods of relative inactivity (Stotz 1970: 45-47).
Whether a single blockhouse comprised the total Alaqua fort compound as
originally constructed, or was the survivor of what was once a group of buildings,
is at this point left to conjecture, but since documentation of this facility is ap-
parently scanty it is quite likely that the Alaqua fort was never tremendously
Jackson' s activities in the area are indicated by a McKinnon reference to
"... the old Jackson military road that ran parallel with the inland waterway...
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 25, no. 1, March 1972
JACKSONIAN PERIOD SWORD
McKinnon also refers to flintlock rifles in connection with the skermishes with
the Indians and in one case to a sword. It is quite likely, therefore, that the
two artifacts found in the presumed vicinity of the blockhouse are from the
period between 1818 and 1837.
McKinnon' s account of action against the Indians includes numerous re-
ferences to horses, so it may be expected that any future evidence of the block-
house location could include hardware associated with their use.
The sword handle which has brought about these brief comments has been
added to the Fort Walton Beach Temple Mound Museum material. It is 15 cm.
(6 inches) long and 2 1/2 cm. (1 inch) wide. A portion of bone remains on each
side which originally formed the outside panels. The cementing action of the
oxidation has held the bone in place, and the method of attachment to the metal
portion of the hilt is no longer evident. The outside surface of the bone is in-
cised with horizontal lines and diagonal crossing lines. The butt of the handle
curves downward and appears to be broken at it' s extremity. A hand guard,
possibly of the basket type, may have extended below and partly around the
handle, attaching to the front portion. A circular protrusion exists on the front
top portion and could be the point at which a straight or backward curving thumb
McKinnon, John L.
1968 History of Walton County.
Kallman Publishing Co. Gainesville, Florida.
1952 The Florida Handbook.
The Peninsular Publishing Co., Tallahassee, Florida.
Stotz, Charles Morse
1970 Point of Empire-Conflict at the Forks of the Ohio.
The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania,
A HERE-TO-FORE UNCLASSIFIED STONE TOOL
The tool illustrated below shows specialized use wear in three places.
The illustration shows both sides and the areas of use wearare at the ends of
lines A, B, and C.
These tools are medium sized, poor to well made, lanceolate to tear
drop in shape (depending on the amount of wear) and most examples are rela-
tively thick. Dimensions are 5 to 7.3 cm. long, 3.1 to 4.5 cm. wide, and .8
to 1.8 cm. thick. They may resemble utilized flakes or chipped knives but
have the following wear characteristics:
End of line A There is a flattened area on one side of the distal end, trian-
guloid in shape, formed by the removal of secondary flakes. Wear marks on
this flattened tip indicate rubbing. The reverse side is worn down or beveled
on one or both edges. This beveling could have been caused by the tool being
used to pressure flake another stone.
End of line B These edges were originally flaked but seem worn down by a
rubbing or sawing motion. Such use flakes are generally off one side, but not
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 25, no. 1, March 1972.
UNCLASSIFIED STONE TOOL
End of line C These wear marks could have been caused by planing, saw-
ing, or cutting. Any of these uses could account for the broken ends or
edges found at C.
These tools can be found in various stages of wear. They all have the
same three worn areas in common. Some may be mistaken for projectile
points, while others may be mistaken for knives or utilized flakes. Two out
of the thirteen specimens studied are unifacial while the remaining eleven
are bifacially worked.
Of the thirteen classified specimens, ten came from the Santa Fe
River of Florida, one from the Waccasassa River of Florida, one from
Kentucky, and one from Georgia. None of them exhibit intentional grinding
such as occurs on Paleo-Indian points, only from use. These tools belong
to the Archaic or Paleo-Indian traditions. All, with the exception of the one
from Kentucky, are from sites that have also produced Paleo-Indian points.
All specimens have a hump one one side. The better made examples
are flat on the opposite side. This hump has a fairly obvious explanation. It
is the result of the original working of the tool. As it was sharpened and re-
worked, the hump would become relatively larger as the blade became smaller.
I took a round-shaped flake and began using it as a tool to try to produce
a point from another flake. The result was a beveling of the distal end and
some crushing. Flaking and grinding on the end was caused when I attempted
to make side notches on the "point" being manufactured.
My conclusion is that this multiple tool was used in at least three differ-
end ways, and that it was seldom hafted. It was apparently used over a very
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