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Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00160
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00160
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's Page
        Page 129
    The Making of Aboriginal Shell Tools: Clues from South Florida
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Aboriginal Pipes of the Northern Gulf Coast
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    A Content Listing of the Publication of the FAS, 1948-1979
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    FAS Publications and Back Issues
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Back Cover
        Page 157
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Editor's Page ....................................
The Making of Aboriginal Shell Tools: Clues
from South Florida,
by John F. Reiger .........................
Aboriginal Pipes of the Northern Gulf Coast,
by Anne L. Dilworth .......................

A Content Listing of the Publications of The
Florida Anthropological Society, 1948-
1979 [The Florida Anthropologist (vols.
1-32) and Publications (nos. 1-10)],
compiled by Stephen C. Atkins ............. 147








Editor's Page

This issue of The Florida Anthropologist, the lucky
thirteenth which I have edited, marks the end of my term as
editor. I am stepping down in order to devote more time to
research and writing. Robert Carr will take over as editor
with volume 33.

Bob completed his graduate studies in anthropology at
Florida State University and is presently working as an archeo-
logist for Dade County. I am certain he will be a fine editor
for our journal which is one of the oldest continually published
state archeology periodicals in the country.

Many people have contributed to the editing and production
of the Anthropologist while I served as editor. Ann Cordell,
Becky Laman, Marian Saffer, and Jim Knight, all graduate students
at the University of Florida, offered valuable assistance as
did Annette Fanus and Sharon Parr of the Florida State Museum.
E.O. Painter Printing Company of DeLeon Springs provided advice
and expertise for printing the journal. And many people around
the state and within the state served as reviewers of articles,
providing constructive suggestions for making good articles even
better. To all of the above people I offer my thanks.

A recent publication of the University of Georgia Press may
be of interest to the membership. Southeastern Indians since the
Removal Era, edited by Walter L. Williams, examines the social
and cultural background of most of the so-called remnant groups
remaining in the Southeast today, examining their development
from the 1830s to the present (1975). The book contains chapters
on the Indians of Virginia, the Lumbees, the Tunica, the Houma,
the Catawba, the Creeks of Alabama, the Mississippi Choctaw, the
Eastern Cherokee, and the Seminoles of Florida, as well as a
comprehensive overview and a bibliographic essay. J. Anthony
Paredes and Harry A. Kersey are among the contributors. This
234 page book may be obtained from the press in Athens, GA 30602,
in paperback for $6.00 or hardback for $18.50.



John F. Reiger

An uncompleted implement may be more interesting than
a finished one if it reveals something about the techniques
used in making the item. This is the case with the two types
of unfinished shell tools to be discussed in this article.

The first type is represented by a single specimen
(Fig. 1); it is from a surface collection I made in March, 1979,
on Chokoloskee Island (Cr-l) in the Ten Thousand Islands of
Collier County. While Busycon contrarium picks and hammers
are abundant artifacts in south Florida, uncompleted specimens
like this one are extremely rare. Three students of archeology
I talked to had not seen one before (Robert Carr, Irving Eyster,
and John Beriault, personal communication), and that idefati-
gable hunter of Indian sites, Clarence B. Moore, apparently
found only one such artifact (Moore 1921:Pl. 1) among the
countless Busycon tools he collected in his travels. What was
interesting to Moore, and to me, is the question of how the
aborigines made such a round hole (or holes) for the haft.

In creating these tools, the Indians went through a
number of procedures, the exact order of which is impossible
to determine now. One step was to grind down the beak into
either a cutting edge or flattened end (Goggin 1949:79). Other
procedures included breaking off the edge of the lip and putting
a notch in it, making a hole in the body whorl opposite the
notch, and wedging a handle through the notch, against the
columella, and out the hole (Gilliland 1975:Pl. 120). Another
hafting technique--though less common in my experience than the
first method--was to push the handle through two holes (Gilliland:
Pls. 121 and 123), rather than through a hole and a notch.

Regardless of what hafting technique was used, the question
of how the aperture was made still remains unanswered. Because
the hole is sometimes so perfectly round as to look as if it
could only have been done with an electric drill, a logical
conclusion is that the Indian made the aperture by using a
columella drill, rubbed between his two hands.

Yet--logical conclusions to the contrary--the aperture
was apparently made by "pecking" it out (probably with a
columella pick), and not by drilling. Once the hole was com-
pletely broken through, its ragged edges were rounded and smoothed
with an abrader (pumice, coral, etc.) or a drill, or both.

Moore's specimen (Moore 1921:Pl. 1), found sixty years
ago, and mine both clearly show that the aperture was made by
pecking rather than drilling. Moore's artifact came from Dismal

The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 32, no. 4, December 1979



Fig. 1. B. contrarium with uncompleted hole. With top
of spire broken away, its present length is 15 cm;
the unfinished hole is about 2.5 cm in diameter.


Key, which is about 13 statute miles west of Chokoloskee.

To the southeast of Chokoloskee and the Ten Thousand
Islands are the upper Florida Keys. Here, on the southwestern
end of Upper Matecumbe Key (Goggin and Sommer 1949:Fig. 3),
in Monroe County, I found the second type of uncompleted shell
tool to be discussed in this article. In a surface collection
made in May, 1979, I discovered three perforated Strombus
gigas, all within a meter of each other, on the edge of the
mangrove swamp in the southwestern section of the midden.

Heavily damaged on the eastern edge by a boat basin and
through the middle by a dirt road, this site (Mo-17) is now
used as a trash dump. It became well-known in archeological
circles in the 1950's through the excavations of John Goggin
and Frank Sommer.

My hypothesis regarding the second type of unfinished
shell tool is that the three perforated conchs represent
various stages in a technique for the controlled removal of
all, or part, of the whorls of a large marine mollusk. Besides
the usual aperture above the shoulder (presumably for breaking
the muscle to take out the animal), all the shells have an
additional hole, or holes, below the shoulder. The punctures
in all cases are crudely made; the holes were simply "pecked
out" and never rounded off.

The apertures, presumably, were a "preparation" for
controlled cracking of the shell surface. After pecking out
the holes, the Indians "connected" them by breaking out the
spaces between them. The punctures, in other words, made it
easier for the Indian to crack the hard, dense shell and also
provided some control over how the shell would fracture.

One Strombus, in Fig. 2, has a single aperture in the
inner whorl and a cut-away "lip" opposite the hole. Figs. 3a
and 3b show another conch with three holes in the inner whorl,
plus the same broken-off lip opposite the apertures. The last
Strombus, in Figs. 4a and 4b, is a smaller shell with eight
holes in both the body and inner whorls; the punctures com-
pletely encircle it.

By examining the photographs of the three shells, one
can see that much of the body (exterior) whorl has already
been removed, exposing the inner whorl. (Inside the inner whorl
is the shell's last whorl, the columella.) The smaller shell
differs from the two larger ones in that the holes have been
pecked out in both the inner whorl and what is left of the body

While Strombus gigas shells, and the tools made from them,
are common on the east coast--unlike the west coast where they



Fig. 2. S. gigas, 14.3 cm long, with single hole below shoulder.

Fig. 3. Two views of S. gigas, 18.2 cm long, with 3 holes below shoulder,



are relatively rare (Goggin 1949:79)--they were not to be
wasted by the thrifty Indians. Their efforts to "save" an
already well-worn tool have been abundantly documented in the
literature, and this tendency seems to be once again supported
by two out of three of the perforated conchs found at Upper
Matecumbe. These two show much wear on both the beak and the
apex (Figs. 2 and 4) and apparently were unhafted "hand hammers"
(Goggin and Sommer 1949:P1. 6, i and Pl. 7, a) before the
perforations were added.

The method for working all three Strombus, which I am
suggesting here, is analogous to creasing (or perforating) a
sheet of paper to control how it separates when the paper is
torn into two sections. It must have been a particularly use-
ful technique when the Indian wanted control in working a
curved whorl surface, in order to break out a neatly shaped
section of the whorl. Presumably, the procedure would have
been applicable to Busycon contrarium and Pleuroploca (formerly
Fasciolaria) gigantea, as well as to Strombus gigas.

Although it would have made his work easier, the use
of this method would have been unnecessary in a variety of tasks.
A heavy celt, for example, was all that was needed to break off
the flat, flaring lip of a Strombus gigas in order to make
another celt.

The latter was also all that was required if the Indian
wished to obtain the columella. By taking the flat side of
a heavy celt, one can strike the edge of the conch's lip,
"start" a break, and then follow the newly created "lip"
completely around the shell, breaking as he goes. Of course,
once the columella is exposed, it still has to be disconnected
at both the bottom and the top.

While the columella of the Strombus gigas was unsuitable
for most tool-making, those of the Busycon contrarium and
Pleuroploca gigantea were often turned into picks, hammers,
drills, etc. If an unskilled Indian tried to disconnect the
columella from one of these shells, particularly the smaller
Busycon, his clumsy blows could reduce, or even eliminate, the
columella's usefulness by breaking more of it than he desired.
In fact, it is my suspicion that the encircling holes found
above the shoulder of some Busycon shells (Moore 1900:Fig. 42)
are a "preparation" for neatly removing the spire in order to
expose the upper part of the columella. Once the top of the
shell was off, the columella could be worked on much more

Even if my hypothesis concerning the holes in the three
illustrated Strombus is correct, we are still left with the
problem of what kind of tool were the Indians trying to make.
In order to ascertain the end product envisioned for the conchs,



Fig. 4. Two views of S. gigas, 13 cm long, with 8 holes encircling it.

Fig. 5. Nine S. gigas gouge-like tools, 7.1-11 cm long. Note the
similarity to the two made by the author (on far right in each row).


the writer purchased six Strombus gigas of a similar size and
tried duplicating the Indians' work.

To begin the experiment, I had to remove much of the
body whorl. I accomplished this task by employing the technique
previously described of beginning at the lip and going around
the shell, "breaking as I went." The tool used was a heavy
aboriginal celt, with a flattened end 1.4 cm wide; in actual
practice, however, I found that the side of the celt gave me
better results than the "blade".

After removing about as much of the body whorl as the
Indians had taken from each of the three conchs, I punched holes
in the inner whorl (using a screwdriver and hammer), "connected"
the holes in the manner already described, and broke out the
columella. The first conclusion I came to was that the hori-
zontal line of holes pecked in the inner whorl must have been
intended as the upper edge ("working end") of the tool envi-
sioned by the aborigines. Only by making the holes in a fairly
straight line around the shell could the Indians have been
assured that the break would also occur in a straight line,
leaving a jagged edge useful for cutting and scraping.

But by far the most important clue I received came as
a result of how the columella finally broke away from the rest
of the shell. Despite my unpracticed hand, two of the six
conchs ended up looking exactly like the so-called "Strombus
[gigas] columella tools" discussed in a recent article by
Douglas Armstrong. In "'Scrap' or Tools: A Closer Look at
Strombus Gigas Columella Artifacts," the author argues that
what archeologists of the Caribbean area had previously thought
was refuse from making Strombus tools were actually tools

Not only did two of my purchased shells end up looking
just like those shown in the article (Armstrong 1979:Figs. 2-5),
but these same two conch segments bare a striking resemblance
to the Strombus gigas "fragments" I picked up on the Upper
Matecumbe site in the same place and at the same time that I
found the three perforated conchs (Fig. 5).

In the past, interestingly enough, I had seen many of
these Strombus artifacts along the water's edge of other coastal
sites, like Oleta River (Da-24), Arch Creek (Da-23), and Snapper
Creek (Da-9), all in Dade County. Yet, like those before me
(Goggin and Sommer 1949:Pl. 5, d), I had assumed that they
were merely scrap.

It would seem that the Strombus gigas columella artifact
should be added to the "tool kit" of the Indians who originally
inhabited the lower east coast of Florida. On the larger sites
in that region a great deal of canoe-building must have taken
place, and these crude "gouges" would have proven most useful.



In summary, this article has discussed two types of
uncompleted shell tools from south Florida. The first type,
represented by a single specimen, is an uncompleted Busycon
contrarium pick or hammer. The unfinished hole in this shell
shows us that the aperture was to be made, initially at least,
by pecking rather than drilling. It is hypothesized that this
was a common--perhaps the most common--technique for making a
hole in a large marine mollusk, even when the aperture is in a
thick part of the shell and when it appears (in its final form)
to be perfectly round.

While Busycon contrarium tools are found in fairly large
numbers on both.coasts, Strombus gigas implements are relatively
rare on the Gulf side. Thus, the second type of uncompleted
shell tool is confined, for the most part, to the lower east
coast and the Keys. Apparently, it is also found on sites in
the Caribbean.

This second kind of shell implement--a crude "gouge" made
from the Strombus gigas columella and interior whorl--is a new
type for Florida, representing an addition to the inventory of
tools used by the original inhabitants of the southeastern
coastal region. However, it has also been suggested that the
method of pecking out a series of holes for the controlled re-
moval of all, or part, of a curved shell surface is a technique
that had wide applicability, far beyond the making of crude
Strombus gouges. Yet, like the uncompleted Busycon tools,
unfinished Strombus or Pleuroploca implements are apparently
very rare and are to be appreciated when found for the clues
they give us regarding the Indians' material culture.


I very much appreciate the contributions of several
individuals. Charles Harry, Robert Carr, Irving Eyster, and
John Beriault shared their ideas. Professor Donald Moore of
the University of Miami identified the shells. Hugh Turner did
the excellent photographic work, and Pamela Lohof typed the

References Cited

Armstrong, Douglas V.
1979 "Scrap" or Tools: A Closer Look at Strombus
Gigas Columella Artifacts. Journal of the Virgin
Islands Archaeological Society 7:27-34.

Gilliland, Marion S.
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.



Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist 2:65-91.

Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology,

Moore, Clarence B.
1900 Certain Antiquities of the Florida West-Coast.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences

1921 Notes on Shell Implements from Florida.
American Anthropologist 23:12-18.

Department of History and
Geochronological Research Center,
Department of Geology,
University of Miami
August, 1979

G.R.C. Contribution No. 1.



Anne L. Dilworth

The following report describes 12 aboriginal pipes found
along the northern Gulf Coast. Included within the group of
pipes are examples of tubular, monitor, elbow, and effigy pipe
types. For those readers interested in materials smoked in the
pipes, see the article by Vernon J. Knight, Jr., in the 1975
Journal of Alabama Archaeology.

Tubular pipes are generally considered to be the earliest
form of pipe. There is ample evidence in the Southeast for the
provenience of the simple tubular pipes in the Late Archaic time
period, continuing with usually more elaborate forms into Early
Woodland times (Willey 1949:394, 1966:255-256; Waring in Williams

There is much discussion among anthropologists as to the
purpose of this type of pipe. Some feel that the tubes do not
have enough characteristics of smoking pipes to be classified
as such. There is also evidence that these forms were used as
medicine tubes for sucking or blowing. However, most anthro-
pologists seem to agree that this form was indeed used for smoking
(Knight 1975:123; West 1934:155).

Pipe 1 Pipe 1 is a short stone tubular pipe in a private
collection. It was found at the head of Gobbler Creek (8-Ok-87)
on Eglin Air Force Base along with Weeden Island sherds which
suggest association with the Woodland tradition. The pipe is of
a non-Florida schistose or steatite-like stone and although there
are no exact measurements for the pipe, it is about the size of a
man's hand. After examination in 1968 Ripley Bullen wrote that
"it is undoubtedly a short, tubular, stone pipe, smoked by pressing
the lips against the thickened end. The misalighment of the
drilling helps to prevent the tobacco coming through This is
the first one exactly like this which I have seen in Florida"
(Ripley P. Bullen, personal communication, 1968).

Pipe 2 The hourglass shape tubular pipe in the Temple Mound
Museum collection was found near Fort Redoubt (Fort San Bernardo)
on the Pensacola Naval Air Station (8-Es-66). It is 45.5 cm long
and 6.5 cm wide and is made of a blackish greenstone similar to
pipes found in the literature (Fundaburke and Foreman 1957:131;
Bierer 1978:246). The stem opening is oval in shape, 3.5 cm x
4.2 cm.

The pipe was not found in context with any other datable
materials and it is safe to say that it had been transplanted to
this area at some period in time. It is, however, similar to
pipes of the Archaic-Early Woodland period and the oval mouthpiece
places it in Late Archaic times (Knight 1975:123; Willey 1966:271).

The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 32, no. 4, December 1979



Pipe 2.



Willey (1966:277) called the curved, flatbased monitor pipe
"the most characteristic of Hopewell traits", although the practice
of making this type continued into the Mississippian period.
These pipes were usually finely worked and were smoked without the
addition of reed stems.

Pipe 3 This pipe in the museum collection is the only known
monitor pipe from this area although a considerable number of these
pipes have been found in the Florida peninsula (Bullen 1978:100).
The length of the sandstone pipe is 7.0 cm and it is 5.0 cm wide.
The bowl opening measures 2.0 cm and the stem opening is 1.0 cm.
The other end of the stem is closed. It was found by a surface
collector along the shore of Choctawhatchee Bay at a point where
there has been considerable erosion of the banks. This particular
area is an extensive multi-component site (8-0k-19) extending along
the shore for 700 m and inland for 200 m. Although provenience is
unknown, the pipe might tentatively be placed in the Weeden Island

Elbow-shaped pipes appeared during the Woodland time period,
possibly as a derivative of the tubular form (Knight 1968:125).
With variations, this form continued to be made during the
Mississippian period and extended on into historic times. Most of
these were smoked by using reeds which were usually made from soft
weeds with easily scraped out pith (Maxwell 1978:187). There are
seven known elbow pipes from this area. Five are made from stone,
while two are ceramic. Two of these have enough associated data
so that a single cultural period can be assigned. The others are
from multi-component sites.

Pipe 4 This pipe in the museum collection was a surface find
in 1938 at Kohler Bayor (8-0k-5) in Okaloosa County on a site
containing artifacts of Deptford, Santa Rosa-Swift Creek, and
Weeden Island cultures. The elbow pipe is 6.6 cm long with a stem
diameter of 2.2 cm and is made of steatite with no decoration.

Pipe 5 This elbow pipe, also in the museum collection, is
similar in appearance to the pipe from Kohler Bayou although it
is twice as large. Made of reddish-brown schist, it is 14.0 cm
high with a bowl diameter of 7.75 cm and stem length of 9.0 cm.
The stem opening is 2.0 cm; the bowl opening, 4.0 cm. The basal
side is flat and badly eroded. Because the drilling of the bowl
was off center, one side is quite thin compared to the other side.

The pipe was picked up at a village site in Walton County
on a Choctawhatchee River ridge (8-W1-80) which was being cleared
for construction. The pipe was found in association with Weeden
Island village midden and after examination of the materials and
date, Ripley Bullen (personal communication, 1975) wrote that
there seemed to be "good documentation of Weeden Island II."

Pipe 6 The third elbow pipe is also of steatite and similar
to the first two pipes. It is 6.1 cm long at the base, 6.6 cm in
height, 3.4 cm across the bowl, and 2.2 cm across the stem end.


* I A.

Pipe 4.

Pipe 3.

Pipe 5.

Pipe 7.




It was found by a collector in the same large multi-component
area (8-0k-19) as the monitor pipe along the south shore of
Choctawhatchee Bay near Destin, Florida.

Pipe 7 A museum photo of a private collection in Bay
County contains several pipe fragments, one of which appears
to be a steatite elbow pipe found near Florala, Alabama. No
other information in regard to this collection is available.

Pipe 8 Another elbow pipe in the museum collection has
a somewhat cone-like shaped bowl with the stem completely missing.
This sandstone pipe has been ground so that the front side is
fairly flat. The grinding left a rim on three sides which extends
to form a triangular relief on the front of the bowl. The pipe
is 6.9 cm high, 2.0 cm x 1.0 cm at the flat base, and the bowl
opening is 3.0 cm. A collector found the pipe near Destin in
the vicinity of Joe's Bayou (8-Ok-32) at a site composed of Early
Archaic material and Fort Walton sherds.

Pipe 9 The bird effigy pipe was found in Alabama just north
of the Walton County, Florida, line and is in a private collection
in that area. It was ground from greenstone heavy with mica which
gives it a sheen. The pipe is approximately 23.3 cm long and 6.5 cm
high at the bowl, with the diameter of the bowl approximately 6.0 cm
and the diameter of the stem near the opening 3.7 cm. The Copena
style of the pipe (Willey 1966:286) and the Weeden Island sherds in
association with this particular pipe could place it in the Wood-
land tradition (Willey 1966:250).

Pipe 10 This pipe, which has been reported in a previous
publication (Lazarus and Hawkins 1976:44), was found at a Fort
Walton period site in Walton County, (8-W1-30) and is in a private
collection. The pipe is ceramic with an incised decoration. The
only dimension available is the rim diameter which is approximately
3.0 cm. It is sand-tempered.

Pipe 11 The second small pottery pipe is shell tempered and
of a buff color with smoke finish. The bowl has an opening of
approximately 3.3 cm, but the stem is not hollowed--possibly the
pipe was never finished. The length of the pipe is approximately
5.5 cm and the height is 3.4 cm. Both the bowl and stem of the
pipe are partially broken. It was found at the large multi-
component site (8-Ok-19), but the shell temper would suggest
Fort Walton time period.

As agriculture began to provide a more settled existence
with food supplies more constant, more objects were made for cere-
monial use. During the Mississippian period the elbow pipe form
continued to be made and used but effigy pipes became more common.
These Mississippian effigy pipes often showed a strange and
menacing aspect, perhaps reflecting the peak of ritualistic be-
havior. One clearly Mississippian period effigy pipe has been
found in this area. It is ceramic and is in a private collection.



Pipe 9.

Pipe 8.

Pipe 10.

Pipe 11.

Pipe 12.



Pipe 12 The human effigy pipe is of clay with a red slip
finish. The pipe is 10.0 cm high and 10.0 cm long on a side at
the base. It weighs close to four pounds. In addition to the
bowl and the stem opening there is a tiny hole leading from the
bowl to the effigy mouth.

The pipe was found along the east bank of the Pascagoula
River in the city of Pascagoula, Mississippi (22-Ja-l), in
association with two human burials and both shell tempered and
Weeden Island sherds (Lazarus 1959). The pipe's red paint and
the sherds suggest a Weeden Island period. However, the costume
and posture of the figure are clearly Mississippian in form.

There may be other pipes in collections in the Panhandle
area of Florida and as these are made available, a more complete
study of the smoking tradition of this area will be made.

References Cited

Bierer, Bert W.
1978 Indians and Artifacts in the Southeast. Bert
Warman Bierer, Columbia.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1978 Pre-Columbian Trade in Eastern United States as
Viewed from Florida. Florida Anthropologist 31:92-108.

Fundaburk, Emma Lila, and Mary Douglass Foreman, ed.
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands. Emma Lila Fundaburk,

Knight, Vernon J., Jr.
1975 Some Observations Concerning Plant Materials and
Aboriginal Smoking in Eastern North America.
Journal of Alabama Archaeology 21(2):120-144.

Lazarus, William C.
1959 A.W. Pinola Site, Pascagoula, Mississippi.
Unpublished report, on file Temple Mound Museum,
Fort Walton Beach.

Lazarus, Yulee W. and Carolyn B. Hawkins
1976 Pottery of the Fort Walton Period. Temple Mound
Museum, Fort Walton Beach.

Maxwell, James A., ed.
1978 America's Fascinating Indian Heritage. The Reader's
Digest Association, Inc., Pleasantville.

1934 Tobacco Pipes and Smoking Customs of the American
Indians. Milwaukee Public Museum Bulletin 17(1-2).



Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Institution, Washington.

1966 An Introduction to American Archaeology, Vol 1:
North and Middle America. Prentice Hall, Englewood

Williams, Stephen, ed.
1968 The Waring Papers, The Collected Works of Antonio
J. Waring, Jr. Papers of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 58.
Peabody Museum, Cambridge.

Temple Mound Museum
Fort Walton Beach, Florida
October, 1979






Compiled by Stephen C. Atkins

This list of articles published in The Florida Anthropologist

does not include book notes, brief notes, or editor's pages or

comments. It is followed by a list of the numbers in the Publications

series. Finally, information is given on how back issues may be

obtained and their cost.

The Florida Anthropologist

1(1-2) Results of an Archaeological Investigation of a Spanish
Mission Site in Jefferson County, Florida Hale G. Smith

Folsom-Like Points from Florida J. Clarence Simpson

The Big Circle Mounds Ross Allen

Man Enters America Frederick W. Sleight

1(3-4) The Agriculture of the Early North Florida Indians -
Charles W. Spellman

Toward Chronology in Coastal Volusia County -
John W. Griffin

A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archaeology -
John M. Goggin

The Racial Type of the Seminole Indians of Florida and
Oklahoma Wilton Marion Krogman

2(1-2) Indian Sites at Florida Caverns State Park Ripley P. Bullen

An Historic Indian Burial, Alachua County, Florida -
John M. Goggin

Notes Concerning an Historic Site of Central Florida -
Frederick W. Sleight

An Indian Mound at Hypoluxo, Palm Beach County -
Gilbert L. Voss

Recent Discoveries of Early Man Frederick W. Sleight

A Southern Cult Specimen from Florida John M. Goggin

2(3-4) Crystal River, Florida: A 1949 Visit Gordon R. Willey
An Indian Stone Saw W.J. Armistead

The Woodward Site Ripley P. Bullen

Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida -
John M. Goggin

Notes on the Archeology of Useppa Island John W. Griffin

3(1-2) Two Creek Pottery Vessels from Oklahoma Karl Schmitt

Florida Archeology: 1950 John M. Goggin

Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

3(3-4) Two Field Trips Fletcher Martin

Perico Island: 1950 Ripley P. Bullen

A New Interpretation of the Carrabelle Site -
Robert MacDonald

The Snapper Creek Site John M. Goggin

4(1-2) Beaded Shoulder Pouches of the Florida Seminole -
John M. Goggin

Experiments with Raw Materials Utilized by the Florida
Indians in Ceramic Construction Hale G. Smith and
William Watson

The Gard Site, Homosassa Springs, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

4(3-4) Origins of the St. John's River Seminole: Were they
Mikasuki? Kenneth W. Porter

S.T. Walker, An Early Florida Archeologist,
Ripley P. Bullen

Archeological Notes on Lower Fisheating Creek -
John M. Goggin

4(3-4) An Analysis of Belle Glade Plain Rim Sherds from
cont. Two Fisheating Creek Sites Rita K. Porter

5(1-2) An Archaeological Manifestation of a Natchez-Type
Burial Ceremony William H. Sears

J. Clarence Simpson: 1910-1952 John W. Griffin

The Manufacture of Fluted Points Wilfred T. Neill

Some Problems in the Practical Application of
Somatotyping A.K. Bullen

The Harbor Key Site, Manatee County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen, Graham R. Reeder, Bonnie Bell,
and Blake Whisenant

5(3-4) Aspects of Social Organization and Material Culture
Seminole of Big Cypress Swamp Robert F. Greenlee

Unusual Rattles from Silver Springs, Florida -
Wilfred T. Neill

A Stone Spud from Florida John W. Griffin

An Archaeological Survey of Amelia Island, Fla. -
Ripley P. Bullen and John W. Griffin

6(1) Stratigraphy at a Hialeah Midden D.D. Laxson

The Famous Crystal River Site Ripley P. Bullen

6(2) Kunti, A Food Staple of Florida Indians -
Frederick W. Sleight

Excavations at Manatee Springs, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

6(3) Dugouts of the Mikasuki Seminole Wilfred T. Neill

The Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County,
Florida Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen

Bone Artifacts, Resembling Projectile Points, from
Preceramic Sites in Volusia County, Florida -
H. James Gut and Wilfred T. Neill

Further Excavations at Hialeah, Florida D.D. Laxson

6(4) Introduction Adelaide K. Bullen, Guest Editor

Hot Heather and High Achievement Frederick R. Fulsin

Development of Cultures in Nuclear America -
Hale G. Smith

A Geographic Interpretation of Civilizations in
Tropical America Donald R. Dyer

Some Relations of Geography and Cultural Anthropology -
Robert Anderson

Building in Florida Edward M. Fearney

Seminole Indian Clues for Contemporary House Form
in Florida William T. Arnett

7(1) A Cultural Explanation of Geophagy Nancie L. Solien

Artifacts from the Bluffton Miaden, Volusia County,
Florida Wilfred T. Neill

Excavations at La Finca de dos Marias, Camaguey, Cuba -
Hale G. Smith

Some Incised Pottery from Cuba and Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen and D.D. Laxson

Historic Metal Plummet Pendants -
John M. Goggin


7: jqs4

7(2) The Medicine Bundles and Busks of the Florida
Seminole William C. Sturtevant

A Unique St. Johns Punctated Vessel Ripley P. Bullen

Graters of the Mikasuki Seminole Wilfred T. Neill

7(3) Burial Patterns in the Burns and Fuller Mounds, Cape
Canaveral, Florida Gordon R. Willey

A Small Hialeah Midden D.D. Laxson

The Davis Mound, Hardee County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

Further Notes on the Battery Point Site, Bayport,
Hernando County, Florida Adelaide K. and Ripley P.

7(4) An Historic Seminole Burial in a Hialeah Midden -
D.D. Laxson

Coracles or Skin Boats of the Southeastern Indians -
Wilfred T. Neill

8(1) Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County, Florida
Ripley P. Bullen

Archaeology on Rocky Point, Florida William W. Plowden,

The Horseshoe Island site, Lake County, Florida -
Paul and Grace Cabeen

Recent Tests at the Battery Point Site, Bayport,
Hernando County, Florida Gordon C. Coates

8(2) Program in Spain, William L. Bryant Archaeological
Foundation William J. Bryant

The Identity of Florida's "Spanish Indians" -
Wilfred T. Neill

8(3) Carved Owl Totem, DeLand, Florida Ripley P. Bullen

Unusual Figurine from the Georgia Coast Lewis H. Larson,

The Calumet Ceremony of the Seminole Indians -
Wilfred T. Neill

8(4) Late Ming and Early Ch'Ing Porcelain Fragments
from Archaeological Sites in Florida -
Kamer Aga-Oglu

Archaeological Significance of Oriental Porcelain
in Florida Sites Hale G. Smith

9(1) R.H. Pratt's Report on the Seminole in 1879,
Presented and Annotated by William C. Sturtevant

Introduction William C. Sturtevant

Richard Henry Pratt William C. Sturtevant

Pratt's Instructions for his Florida Trip -
E.J. Brooks

Pratt's Original Report R.H. Pratt

Enclosure, Seminole Starch Making T.J. Sparkman

Enclosure, First Seminole Schoolboy F.A. Hendry

Preparation of Rubber by the Florida Seminole -
Wilfred T. Neill

9(2) Some Florida Radiocarbon Dates and Their Significance -
Ripley P. Bullen

Excavations at Grossman Hammock, Dade County, Florida -
Marvin J. Brooks, Jr.

The Turner River Site, Collier County, Florida -
William H. Sears

Test Results at the Paw Paw Mound, Brevard County,
Florida Carl A. Benson

9(3-4) Notes on the Hunting Dance of the Cow Creek Seminole -
Louis Capron

Sailing Vessels of the Florida Seminole -
Wilfred T. Neill

Melton Mound Number 3- William H. Sears

The Surface Collector Robert Nero

10(1-2) The Madden Site D.D. Laxson

Three Small Dade County Sites D.D. Laxson

The Barnhill Mound, Palm Beach County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

The Norman Mound, McIntosh County, Georgia -
Lewis H. Larson, Jr.

10(3-4) The Arch Creek Site D.D. Laxson

A Note on the Seminole Burial from Hialeah, Florida -
Wilfred T. Neill

Celt and Pendant from Jupiter Inlet Mound -
Bessie Wilson Du Bois

Zamia Starch in Santo Domingo -- Emile De Boyrie Moly
Marguerita K. Krestensen, and John M. Goggin

Some Comments on the Seminole in 1818 John W. Griffin

Investigation of a Northwest Florida Gulf Coast Site
Richard B. Adams

11(1) The Maximo Point Site William H. Sears

Cultural Relationships between the Northern St. John
Area and the Georgia Coast Lewis H. Larson, Jr.

A Poverty Point Complex in Florida-William C. Lazars

11(2) A Stratified Early Site at Silver Springs, Florida -
Wilfred T. Neill

Some Problems of the Origin of Creek Pottery -
Charles H. Fairbanks

11(3) Horatio S. Dexter and Events Leading to the Treaty c
Moultrie Creek with the Seminole Indians Mark F. B

Obituary, John R. Swanton Charles H. Fairbanks

11(4) More Florida Radiocarbon Dates and their Significance
Ripley P. Bullen

Dates of Busycon Gouges at the Bluffton Site, Florida
Ripley P. Bullen and William M. Sackett

The Grant Site--Br-56 William H. Sears

A Unique Vessel from Murphy Island, Putnam County,
Florida Ripley P.*Bullen

Index, Vol. XI, 1958

12(1) Excavations in Dade County: 1957 D.D. Laxson

Choctaw Subsistance: Ethnographic Notes from the
Lincecum Manuscript T.N. Cambell

A-296: A Seminole Site in Alachua County William
H. Sears

12(2) Excavations in Dade and Broward County, 1958 -
D.D. Laxson

An Aboriginal Shell Mound at Drum Point, Alligator
Harbor, Franklin County, Florida Robert Schley

Some Chickasaw Fetishes James H. Howard

12(3) Three Salvaged Tequesta Sites in Dade County, Floricd
D.D. Laxson

Some Pottery Contributions to Early Fabric Techniques
Carl A. Benson

Dating English Pipe Stems Carol Irwin

Bird Remains from South Indian Field, Florida -
Robert D. Weigel

What was It? Ripley P. Bullen

12(4) The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen and Edward M. Dolan

Additional Elliot's Point Complex Site -
Charles H. Fairbanks

Two Unrecorded Pottery Vessels from the Purcell Landing
Site, Henry County, Alabama Robert W. Newman

An Unusual Shell Gorget from Terra Ceia Island -
W.S. Armstead



\I I q41o


13(1) The Money's Bend Site, CeV3 Bennie C. Keel

Shell Mound, Levy County, Florida Ripley P. Bullen
and Edward M. Dolan

The Harris Creek Site, Tick Island, Volusia County -
Francis F. Bushnell

13(2-3) The Stetson Collection William B. Griffen

Animal Remains from the Etowah Site Mound C, Bartow
County, Georgia Henry Vander Schalie and Paul
W. Parmalee

The Bluffton Burial Mound William H. Sears

Human Figurines from the Coast of N.W. Florida -
William Lazarus

The Johns Pass Mound .- Ossie Ostrander

13(4) A Preliminary Report on 9-Go-507: The Williams Site -
Dan and Phyllis Morse

Oakland Mound (Je-53) Fla.: A Preliminary Report -
L. Ross Morrell

Two Skulls from a Fort Walton Period Cemetery Site -
(OK-35) Okaloosa County, FlorTda Grey L. Adams
and William C. Lazarus

Thlonoto-Sassat A Note on an Obscure Seminole
Village of the Early 1820's Kenneth W. Porter

14(1-2) The Summer Haven Site, St. Johns County, Florida -
Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen

The Morrison Spring Site (Wl-43) Florida -
William C. Lazarus

Clay Pipes at the hildersburg Site in Alabama -
Edward B. Kurjack

An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth -
Ethel C. Freeman

Excavation and Salvage at Starks Hammock,
Volusia County, Florida Lawrence E. Aten

A Radiocarbon Date for the Money's Bend Site,
Cherokee County, Alabama Bennie C. Keel

14(3-4) Ten Middens on the Wavy Live Oak Reservation -
William C. Lazarus

Two Worked Shell Objects from a Uleta River Site -
D.D. Laxson

-' Wash Island in Crystal River Adelaide K. and
Ripley P. Bullen

Domesticated Corn from a Fort Walton Mound Site
in Houston County, Alabama Robert W. Newman

The Marshall Bluff Site Charlie Carlson, Jr.

15(1) Excavation in Dade and Broward Counties: 1959-61
D.D. Laxson

A Human Head Adorno from the Vance Site -
Ripley P. Bullen

The Contribution of the Amateur -
Charles H. Fairbanks

Artillery Projectiles from the Civil War Engagement -
Stanley J. Olsen

15(2) Some Highlights in the History of Fort St. Marks -
Dorris L. Olds

Excavations at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama -
Charles H. Fairbanks

Pipe Stem Dating and the Date for Silver Bluff-
S.C. John Eaton

15(3) Temple Mound Museum at Ft. Walton Beach, Florida -
William C. Lazarus

Early Pottery in the Tampa Bay Area Lyman 0. Warren

A Newly Discovered 1838 Drawing of a Seminole Dance -
William C. Sturtevant

Suwannee Points in the Simpson Collection Ripley
P. Bullen

15(4) The Maximo Point Site Frank Bushnell

A Colono-Indian Ware Milk Pitcher Charles H.

Pasco Series Sherds from the Bayport Mound -
William C. Lazarus and Gerald S. Spence

Perforated Deer Phalanges in the Simpson
Collection Ripley P. Bullen

The Kimball Midden, Lake County Carl A. Benson
and Howard B. Green II

The Preservation of Wood by the Alum Process -
John W. Eaton

16(1) A Duck Effigy from Lundgren Island, Astor, Florida -
Frank Bushnell

A Potter's Tool of the Safety Harbor Period -
William C. Lazarus

St. Augustine Colonial Archeology Hale G. Smith

Mulberry Midden Test Site Glen Gustafson

16(2) The Fort Dade Site Frank J. Laumer

A Discussion of Florida Anthropology from a
Historian's point of view Charles W. Arnade

A Bone Hand Pendant from Boca Ciega Bay -
Lyman 0. Warren and Francis Bushnell

The Lemon Bay School Mound Ripley P. and Adelaide
K. Bullen

Apalachicola Seminole Leadership: 1820-1833 -
James W. Covington

Shell Pendants in the Simpson Collection -
Ripley P. Bullen

16(3) Eighteenth Century Culture Change among Lower
Creeks Carol I. Mason

SThe Wash Island Site, Crystal River, Florida -
Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen

Vertebrate Remains from the Wash Island Site -
Elizabeth S. Wing

16(4) Three New Florida Projectile Point Types, Early -
Wilfred T. Neill

A Survey of Preceramic Occupations in Portions of
South Louisiana and South Mississippi -
Sherwood M. Gagliano

Core-Planes from Pinellas and Pasco Counties,
Florida, and the Oaxaca Valley Lyman O. Warren

17(1) The Postl's Lake II Site, Eglin Air Force Base,
Florida (OK-71) William C. Lazarus

The Association of Suwannee Points and Extinct
Animals in Florida Wilfred T. Neill

17(2) The conservation of Excavated Metals in the Small
Laboratory John V.N. Dunton

Underwater Historic Sites on St. Marks River -
Charles H. Fairbanks

Historic Archaeology in Virginia, 1961-1962 -
Ivor Noel Hume

Interpreting the Brunswick Town Ruins Stanley A.

The Natchex Grand Village Robert S. Neitzel

Some Notes on Bricks Stanley A. South

Two Historic Island Sites in the Coosa River -
L. Ross Morrell

Excavation of the Mormon Temple Remains at Mauvoo,
Illinois: First Season Dee F. Green and Larry

Industrial Archaeology in Great Britain Edward

Seventeenth Century Glass Excavated at Jamestown -
J. Paul Hudson

1 7= I 64

cont. Excavations at Panama Vieja George Long

The Trial Ethnohistory Project at the University of
Florida Charles Fairbanks

Analysis of the Buttons from Brunswick Town and Fort
Fisher Stanley South

A Sixteenth Century Spanish Coin from a Fort Walton
Burial William Lazarus

17(3) The Least Known of the Five Civilized Tribes: The Seminole
of Oklahoma Ethel C. Freeman

Dixie Lime Caves No. 1 and 2, A Preliminary Report -
Ripley P. Bullen and Carl Benson

The Brake Site Dan F. and Phyllis A. Morse

Excavation in Southeast Florida 1962-1963 -
D.D. Laxson

The Little Community in Applied Anthropology -
Simon D. Messing

17(4) Trilisa Pond, An Early Site in Marion County, Florida -
Wilfred T. Neill

Collections from Disturbed Sites on 1-75 in Alachua and
Marion Counties Marion C. Bartlett

Strombus Lip Shell Tools of the Tequesta Sub-Area -
D.D. Laxson

The Apalachee Indians Move West James W. Covington

Possibly Submerged Oyster Shell Midden of Upper Tampa
Bay Lyman O. Warren

An Unsual Incised Vessel James F. Small

18(1) The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida -
John C. and Linda M. Van Beck

Animal Bones from Marco Island Elizabeth Wing

A Dalton Complex from Florida Lyman 0. Warren and
Ripley P. Bullen

A 17th Century Wreck off Cape Canaveral C.B. Harnett

Land Subsidence on the Gulf Coast William C. Lazarus

Atypical Man in South Florida John and Eunice Williams

Proposed Antiquities Law C.H. Fairbanks

18(2) A-272: The Fox Pond Site M.I. Symes and M.E. Stephens

Early Woodland Plant Remains Richard A. Yarnell

Alligator Lake William Lazarus

Tabby Ruin Test Excavation Lloyd M. Pierson

18(3, pt. 1) White Control of Seminole Leadership -
James W. Covington

Lord Raglan's Hero: A Cross Cultural Critique -
victor Cook

Florida's New Antiquities Law Charles H. Fairbanks

The Burial Complex of the Moundville Phase, Alabama -
Douglas H. McKenzie

Folk Medicine in Florida: Remedies Using Plants -
Alice H. Murphree

Significance of Dimensions of Big Sandy I
Like Projectile Points in Northwest Florida -
William C. Lazarus

18(3, pt. 2) Introduction

Excavations at the Amelung Glass Factory in Maryland -
Ivor Noel Hume

An Interim Report on Excavations at Denbigh Plantation
in Virginia Ivor Noel Hume

French and Spanish Contact Materials from Natchitoches
and Los Adaes, Louisiana; a Preliminary Report -
Clarence H. Webb and Hiram Gregory

Excavating the 18th Century Moravian Town of Bethabara,
North Carolina Stanley South

18(3, pt. 2)Anthropomorphic Pipes from the Kiln Waster Dump of
cont. Gottfried Aust--1755 to 1771 Stanley South

Bethelem, Pennyslvania--A Unique Historic Site -
Vincent P. Foley

Another Method for the Treatment of Ferrous
Artifacts Vincent P. Foley

A Study of Dated Bricks in the Vicinity of Pensacola,
Florida William C. Lazarus
The Tale of a Nail: On the Ethnological InterpretatJoi
of Historic Artifacts Bernard L. Fontana

Archeology at Chalmette National Historic Park -
Rex L. Wilson

18(4) Tests at the Askew Site, Citrus County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen and Walter Askew

Coin, Dating in the Fort Walton Period -
William C. Lazarus

An Analysis of Crow Enculturation William L.

Six Contributions to the Hand Motif -
L. Warren, F. Bushnell, and G. Spence

Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound, 1960 -
Charles H. Fairbanks

19(1) Westo Bluff, A Site of the Old Quartz Culture in
Georgia Wilfred T. Neill

Early and Late Components of the Tucker Site -
David S. Phelps

A Possible Paleo-Indian Site in Pinellas County -
Lyman 0. Warren

19(2-3) The Waddell's Mill Poad Site William M. Gardner

Poverty Point Baked Clay Objects James F. Small

The Proton Magnetometer Carl J. Clausen

Ybor City: A Cuban Enclave in Tampa James H.

A Stratified Archaic Site in Lowndes County, Alabama-
David W. Chase

A Preliminary Excavation of the Narvaez Midden -
Frank Bushnell

19(4) The Turner River Jungle Gardens Site Dan D. Laxson

An Aden-Like Projectile Point from South Carolina -
Wilfred T. Neill

Solo Trans-Gulf Crossing in the "Monoalca" -
William E. Verity

Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone,
Narvaez Midden, Safety Harbor Period, St. Petersburg
Roger Gamble and Lyman Warren

20(1-2) Kirk Serrated: An Early Archaic Index Point in
Louisiana Sherwood M. Gagliano

Some Observations Concerning the Florida-Carolina
Indian Slave Trade James W. Covington

A Remarkable Cure for Rabies Among the Plains Indians
Robert C. Dailey

The Tierra Verde Burial Mound William H. Sears

The Deer Tongue Industry in Florida Clyde E.

Some Observations on the Manufacture and Utilization
of Fishhooks Among Indians of North America -
Alan K. Craig

20(3-4) Archaeological Survey in the Cape Coral area at
the Mouth of the Caloosahatchee River -
William H. Sears

The Navy Live Oak Reservation Cemetary Site
8-Sa-36 Y.W. and W.C. Lazarus and D.W. Sharon

The Phillip Mound: A Historic Site Carl A. Benson

The Zabski Site, Merritt Island, Florida -
Steve Atkins and J. MacMahan



?o0r \yo


20(3-4) The Culbreath Bayou Site, Hillsborough
cont County, Florida L.O. Warren, W. Thompson -
and R. P. Bullen

European Trade Beads in Florida Karlis Karklins

Two Dredged Sites on Bear Creek Lyman O. Warren

Cut Wolf Jaws from Tick Island, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen and C.A. Benson

A Unique Wood Carving from Tick Island Carl A. Bensol

21(1) Dating Prehistoric Rock Art of Southeastern Colorado -
Robert G. Campbell

Stuart's Town, The Yamasee Indians, and Spanish
Florida James W. Covington

The Cato Site near Sebastian Inlet, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen, Adelaide K. Bullen, and Carl J.

Thom's Creek Ceramics in the Central Savannah River
Locality David S. Phelps

James Alfred Ford, 1911-1968 William G. Haag

21(2-3) The Galphin Trading Post at Silver Bluff, S.C. -
Wilfred T. Neill

The DuPont Plaza Site D.D. Laxson

Bird Hammock, Mound B, Revisited R.B. Holliman

The Palm River Midden, Hillsborough County, Florida -

Pinellas Point: A Possible Site of Continuous
Habitation Albert C. Goodyear

The Apollo Beach Site, Hillsborough County -
Lyman O. Warren

21(4) Post-Conquest Aztec Ceramics: Implications for
Archaeological Interpretation Thomas H.

Florida Coin Beads Charles H. Fairbanks

An Indian and Spanish Site on Tampa Bay, Florida -
Wilfred T. Neill

Examples of Colonial Spanish Hoes Stanley J.

A Seminole Census: 1847 James W. Covington

A Supposed "Florida Folsom" Point; a Reflutation -
Wilfred T. Neill and J. C. McKay

A Composite Bone Fishhook Ripley P. Bullen

Two Indian Crania from Peru Robert C. Dailey

22(1-4) An Example of the Association of Archeological
Complexes with Tribal and Linguistic Groupings:
Fort Walton Complex William M. Gardner

Preliminary Excavation of the Henriquez I Site,
Tanki Flip, Aruba Netherlands Antilles -
Lorraine Heidecker and Michael I. Siegel

The Alachua Tradition: Extension of Wilmington -
Savannah Peoples into Central Florida -
Jerald T. Milanich

A Study of Bilateral Variation: Handedness,
Hand Clasping and Arm Folding among the
Maslims of Pradesh Deepak Tyagi

A Note on the Tigua Indians of Ysleta, El Paso,
Texas George L. Trager and M.E. Smith

23(1) A New Concept of the Busycon Shell Receptacle W.J.

Stratigraphic Tests at Stallings Island, Georgia -
Ripley P. Bullen and H. Bruce Greene

Salvage Archeology at Fort Walton Beach, Florida -
Yulee W. Lazarus

23(2) The Colby Site, Marion County, Florida Stephen L.
Cumbaa and Thomas H. Gouchnour

Regionalism in Florida during the Christian Era -
Ripley P. Bullen

The Fish Creek Site, Hillsborough County, Florida -
Karlis Karklins

23(3) The Safford Burial Mound, Tarpon Springs, Florida -
R.P. Bullen, W. Partridge, and D. Harris

23(4) Some Occurrences of Paleo-Indian Projectile Points in
Florida Waters Ben I. Waller

The Coral Springs Site, Southeast Florida -
Wilma B. Williams

Seven Sawgrass Middens in Dade and Broward Counties,
Florida D.D. Laxson

Dating Clay Pipes from Galphin Trading Post at Silver
Bluff, S.C. lain C. Walker
The Kellogg Fill from Boca Ciega Bay, Pinellas County,
Fla. Lyman C. Warren

24(1) The Sarasota County Mound, Elglewood, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

A Study of Aboriginal Trade: A Petrographic Analysis
of Certain Ceramic Types from Florida and Georgia -
Donald L. Crusoe

An Extremely Long Celt Dale A. Black

24(2) Stranahan: Last Seminole Trader Alan Craig and
David McJunkin

The Weeden Island Site, St. Petersburg William H. Sears

A Florida Paleo-Indian Implement Wilfred T. Neill

Bird Effigy Dredged from Tampa Bay Lyman O. Warren

A Leister Point from Itchetucknee River Gary Allen

Carved Bone Artifacts from Dade County Wesley F. Coleman

The Two Egg Quarry Site D.W. Sharon and T.C. Watson

The Fletcher Davis Site, Florida Lyman O. Warren

24(3) Loyola Beach: An Example of Aboriginal Adaptation -
Thomas R. Hester

Excavations at the Hope Mound Samuel D. Smith

24(4) The Primitive Solar Observatory at Crystal River and
its Implications Clark Hardman, Jr.

Excavation of a Deptford Midden Burial, Destin, Fla. -
Jennings W. Bunn, Jr.

Hafted Flake Knives Ben I. Waller

25(1) The Peace Camp Site, Broward County Bert Mowers and
Wilma B. Williams

Excavations at the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound -
Jerald T. Milanich

A Prehistoric Dugout Canoe from Southeastern N.C. -
Robert H. Pittman and William D. Lipe

A Jacksonian Period Sword Handle from S. Walton County -
William H. Wesley

A Here-to-fore Unclassified Stone Tool Raymond Wedd

25(2) Commercial Oyster Shell of Tampa Bay L.O. Warren

The Suwannee-Shawnee Debate B.A. Johnson

A Supplemental Note on the Busycon Receptacle -
D.L. von Burger

Site Da-140 in Dade County, Florida W.F. Coleman

Zoomorphic Effigy from Queen Mound, Jacksonville -
A.A. LaFond

Thermoluminescent Method of Pottery Dating -
W.J. Hranicky
Webster Birdhead Plummet from Kississimmee, Florida -
Rip.ey P. Bullen

25(3) Clear Fork Gouge and Greenbrier Point L.O. Warren

Coleman Site, Dade County, Florida D.L. von Burger

Duda Ranch Shell Mound, Brevard County, Florida -
C.F. Knoderer

Artifacts from the Trail Site, Dade County, Florida -
W.F. Coleman

Panamanian Duhos Deborah Brandt

Early Historical Period Canoe D.L. von Burger

The Yamassee Indians in Florida: 1715-1763 J. W. Covington

K5 _



25(3) Burials from Green Lake, Texas R.J. Wingate
cont. and T.R. Hester

Meadowbrook Farms No. 2 Site B.J. Waller

Concretions Associated with Glades Prehistoric Sites -
B. Mowers

An Engraving Tool R.P. Bullen and M.T. Wallace

25(4) Paleoepidemiology and Distribution of Prehistoric
Treponemiasis (Syphilis) in Florida -
Adelaide K. Bullen

Treponematosis Lyman O. Warren

26(1) The Nalcrest Site, Lake Weohyakapka, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen and Laurence E. Beilman

Dalton Culture in Northeastern Arkansas -
Dan F. Morse

Archaic Hafted Spokeshaves with Graver Spurs
from the Southeast Albert C. Goodyear

26(2) Native American Populations in the Southeastern States:
1960-70 J.A. Paredes and Kaye Lenihan

Effects of a Wage-earning Subsistence Pattern on
Backland Choco, Panama Donald L. Crusoe

An Analysis of Muskogee Kinship Bennie C. Keel

The Settlement Pattern and Toponymy of the Koasati:
Indians of Bayou Blue Donald G. Hunter

26(3) The Parker Mound Site, Fort Walton Beach -
John R. Mogan

The Seminole Indians in 1908 -
James W. Covington

A Deptford Phase House Structure Jerald T.

Unique Knife or Chisel, St. Petersburg Lyman O.

Petrography: Tracing Tools from Florida Barbara A.
Purdy and Frank N. Blanchard

Site Da-141, Dade County, Florida Wesley F. Coleman

26(4) Eighteenth Century Work Canpat St. Johns Bluff -
William M. Jones

Distribution of Bone Points in Florida -
Barbara A. Purdy

Swift Creek Midden at J'lnnhaven Beach, Florida -
Donald W. Sharon and Jennings V'. Bunn

A "Marked" Historic Site W.H. N'esley

Amateur and Professional Archeologists D.D. Laxson

Clovis from Northwest Florida David C. Reichelt

27(1) Additional Notes on the Philip Mound, Polk County,
Fla. Karlis Karklins

A Connecuh River Site Cv. 30, Alabama, R.J. Fornaro

A Mid-Eighteenth Century Indian Village on the Chattahoo
River C.G. Holland

Oven Hill Di-15, A Refuge Site in the Suwannee River -
Stephen J. Gluckman and Christopher S. Peebles

Clay Balls: Ceremonial or Utilitarian Jennings 17.
Bunn, Jr.

27(2) The Seminole "Uprising" of 1907 Harry A. Kersey, Jr.

A Biconcave Pottery Discoidal from N.W. Florida -
Dan F., G. Daniel and Daniel A. Morse

Some Tests at the Zellwood Site, Lake Apopka, Fla. -
Ripley 0. Bullen, Otto Jahn and Mark J. Brooks

Archeological Investigation of 8-OR-17; An Early
Aboriginal Campsite, Lake Apopka, Fla. Rick Dreves

The Origins of the Gulf Tradition as Seen from Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen

'.) i1


27(3) A Microlithic Tool Assemblage from N.W. Florida -
Dan F. Morse and Louis D. Tesar

The Microlithic West Bay Site, Florida Thomas C. Watson

Further Notes on the West Bay Site R.P. and A.K. Bullen

Microliths of South Walton County David C. Reichelt

Two Crooked Creek Nonceramic Sites James M. Haisten

27(4) A Valiente Guaymi Cayuho Hauling Junta L.D. Tesar

La Alvina de Parita: A Paleo Camp in Panama -
D.L. Crusoe and J.H. Felton

Were There Pre-Columbian Culture Contacts between Florida
and the West Indies: Archeological Evidence R. P. Bullen

Pieces Esquillees in the Southeast William H. Wesley

A Poverty Point Owl Amulet found in Florida P.M. Lien,
R.P. Bullen and C.H. Webb

Stone Mortars in Florida Ripley P. Bullen and Adelaide K.

Cagles Hammock by the Broward County Archeological Society -
Bert Mowers and Wilma B. Williams

28(1) The Arch Creek Site, Dade County Mowers, Williams, Freene,
and Coleman

An Orange Plain Vessel from Enterprise, Florida -
E.T. Hemmings and Don L. von Burger

The Wheeler Series and Southeastern Pre-history Ned J.

Coushatta Basketry in the Rand Collection Donald G. Hunter

Carved Fossil Bone from Volusia County, Florida -
D.L. von Burger

28(2) An Archeological Survey of the South Prong of the Alafia
River, Florida E. Thomas Hemmings

Suwannee-Like Points from Southwestern Georgia Ripley P.

Functional Analyses of Poverty Point Clay Objects D. G.

Problematical Stone Find Ron Hunt

Implications from Some Florida Deposits and their
Archeological Contents Ripley P. Bullen

28(3) Final Notes on the Goodman Mound Peter Recourt

The Bay Pines Site, Pinellas County, Florida John C.
Gallagher and Lyman 0. warrenn

Christian Science: A Religion and a Way of Life -
Arlene Fradkin

Another Ceramic Chungke from the Florida Panhandle -
Yulee W. Lazarus

Ceramic Figurines, Porter Hopewell and Middle Hopewell -
John A. Walthall

28(4) The Silver Springs Site, Pre-history in Silver Springs
chee Valley E. Thomas Hemmings
Fort Walton Temole Mound, Further Test Excavations -
Yulee W. Lazarus and Robert J. Fornaro

The Senator Edwards Stone Workshop, Marion County -
Barbara A. Purdy

Paint Rocks of Northwest Florida David C. Reichelt

29(1) A New Look at the Georgia Coastal Shell Midden Archic -
Donald L. Crusoe and Chester B. DePratter

Use of a Mechanical Auger at the Torreya Site, Liberty
County, Florida George Percy

Some Thoughts on Florida Projectile Points Ripley P.

Hinderland Exploitation in the Central Gulf Coast -
Manatee Region during Safety Harbor Period Thomas Padgett

29(2) A Reconsideration of Fresh Water Shellfish Exploration
in the Florida Archic Stephen L. Cumba

A Comparative Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics on Pasi and
Chamar Nisha Pandey and V.K. Tandon


29(2) Where Has all the Deer Tongue Gone Alice H. Murphee 31(1)
oat cont.
The Weekiwachee Site, Hernando County, Florida count.
George R. Ferguson

Manufacturing Techniques of Maximo Point Microliths 31(2)
James D. Knight

29(3) Florida Seminole Silver Work Byron A. Johnson

An Archeological Survey of Upland Locales in Gadsden
and Liberty Counties George W. Percy and
M. Katherine Jones

Spanish Trade Pipes from Marion County, Florida 31(3)
Wilfred T. Neill and George R. Ferguson

The Seminole Pumpkin Wilfred T. Neill

29(4) Introduced Monkey Population at Silver Springs, Florida -
W.R. Maples, A.B. Brown and P.M. Hutchens

Dania Reservation: 1911-1927 James W. Covington

Preliminary Report on a Midden Mound and Burial
Mound of the Boynton Mound Complex Howard Jaffee

Ecological Data Bearing on the Age of Kirk Serrated
Points in Florida Wilfred T. Neill

30(1) The York Site (8-A1-480), Alachua County, Florida: 31(4)
Observations on Aboriginal Use of Chert -
Barbara A. Purdy

The Use of Ceramics in the Construction of the
Castillo de San Marcos John A. Bostwick

Knapping in Florida during the Historic Period -
Wilfred T. Neill 32(1)

The Age of the Santa Fe Projectile Point Type -
George R. Ferguson and Wilfred T. Neill

A Spider Gorget from Levy County, Florida -
Richard R. Remington

The Formation of Goethite and Calcareous Lenses in Shell
Middens in Florida Jay Palmer and J. Raymond Williams 32(2)

An Early Seminole Cane Basket Kathleen A. Deagan

30(2) Excavation at the Oak Site, Sarasota, Florida: A
Late Weeden Island Safety Harbor Period Site -
George M. Luer

Markham Park Mound 2, Broward County, Fla. -
Wilma B. Williams and Bert Mowers

Distribution of Paleo-Indian Projectiles in Florida -
Ben I. Waller and James Dunbar

Subsistence Systems in the Southeast E.S. Wing 32(3)

30(3) An Analysis of Shark Tooth Tools from the Boca Weir Site
in South Florida John F. Furey

An Anglo Sucking Cure from Rural North Florida -
Joseph N. Henderson

A Second Spanish Period Log Water Pump, Duval County,
Florida William M. Jones

The Roberts Bay Site, Sarasota, Florida George M. Luer

A Chronology for the Aboriginal Cultures of Northern
St. Simon's Island, Georgia Jerald T. Milanich 32(4)

30(4) Seminoles, Creeks, Delawares and Shawnees: Indian
Auxiliaries in the Second Seminole War Melburn D.

Salvage Excavations at the Law School Mound, Alachua
County, Florida Arlene Fradkin and Jerald T. Milanich

A Model for Barrier Island Settlement Pattern Alan

Hoodoo: The Indigenous Medicine and Psychiatry of the
Black American Ralph R. Kuna

31(1) Subsistence at the McLarty Site Elizabeth S. Wing

The Agreement of 1842 and its Effect upon Seminole
History James W. Covington

Tisher Pond Mound, Ocala National Forest, Fla. -
Elizabeth J. Reitz

Spatial Associations and Districution of Aggregate Village
Sites in a Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Area Morgan R.
Cook, Jr.

Archeological Evidence of Snake Consumption among the
Aborigines of Florida Arlene Fradkin

Hurricanes and Anthropologists in Florida Anthony Paredes

"Sociosomatic" Illness Charles Hudson

The Use of Soil Science at a South Carolina Thom's Creek
Culture Shell Ring Michael Trinkley and H.T. Ward

The Archeological Potential of Soil Survey Reports -
Marion Almy

Pre-Columbian Trade in Eastern U.S. as Viewed from Fla. -
Ripley P. Bullen

Indian Plant Foods of the Florida Panhandle Mabel K.
Stockdale and Sally Bryenton

Salvage Excavation at the Brothers Site, Sarasota County,
Florida Goodwin, Pearson and Fioroni

A Progress Report on the Florida Wooden Object Project -
Barbara A. Purdy

Indians of North-Central Florida Jerald T. Milanich

Cades Pond Subsistence, Settlement and Ceremonialism -
E. Thomas Hemmings

Two Cades Pond Sites in North-Central Florida: The Occupational
Nexus as a Model of Settlement Jerald T. Milanich

Corn, Indians, and Spaniards in North-Central Florida:
A Technique for Measuring Evolutionary Changes in Corn -
Tim A. Kohler

Social Name and Mixed-Blood Places: The Freejacks of the
Fifth Ward Settlement, Louisiana Darrell A. Posey

Bishops Hammock, Broward County, Florida Wilma B.
Williams and Bert Mowers

Three Aboriginal Shell Middens on Longboat Key, Florida:
Manasota Period Sites of Barrier Island Exploitation -
George M. Luer and Marion H. Almy

The Seminoles and Selective Service in World War II -
James W. Covington

Subsistence in the St. Johns Region: The Alderman Site -
Marilyn C. Stewart

Faunal Remains from the Alderman Site, Volusia County,
Florida Arlene Fradkin

Preliminary Archeological and Geological Evidence for
Holocene Sea Level Fluctuations in the Lower Cooper River
Valley, S.C. Mark J. Brooks, D.J. Colquhoun, Richard
R. Pardi, Walter Newman, and W.H. Abbott

An Evaluation of Wet Site Resources of Florida -
Barbara A. Purdy

An Aboriginal Canoe from Lake Apopka, Florida -
Arthur F. Dreves

Determination of Site Functions through the Apalysis of
Modified Bone Ronald L. Wallace and Susan Jacquith

The Making of Aboriginal Shell Tools: Clues from South
Florida John F. Reiger

Aboriginal Pipes of the Northern Gulf Coast Anne L. Dilworth

A Content Listing of the Publications of the Florida
Anthropological Society, 1948-1979 [The Florida Anthropologist
(vol. 1-32) and Publications (nos. 1-10]- Compiled by
Stephen C. Atkins


Florida Anthropological Society Publications
1. Two Archeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida -
Hale G. Smith, 1949

2. The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida -
John W. Griffin and Ripley P. Bullen, 1950

3. The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida -
Ripley P. Bullen, 1951

4. The European and the Indian -
Hale G. Smith, 1956

5. Florida Anthropology -
Charles H. Fairbanks, 1958

6. Fiber-Tempered Pottery in Southeastern United States and
Northern Columbia: Its Origins, Context, and Significance -
By Ripley P. Bullen and James B. Stoltman, 1972

7. Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old Early Man Site -
Carl J. Clausen, H.K. Brooks, and A.B. Weslowsky, 1975

8. The Palmer Site Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen, 1976

9. The Canton Street Site, St. Petersburg, Florida Ripley P.
Bullen, Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and Richard L.
McDonnell, 1978

10. The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida -
Otto L. Jahn and Ripley P. Bullen, 1978

Obtaining Back Issues

Back issues of Florida Anthropological Society publications,
both the Publications series and The Florida Anthropologist, can
be obtained from two sources. The first is the society itself,
c/o Irving Eyster, 190 SE 12th Terrace, Miami, FL 33131. Prices
are as follows: for volumes 1-30, $6.00 per volume ($3.00 for
double numbers and $1.50 for single numbers); volume 31 and
subsequent volumes are $8.00 per volume ($4.00 for double numbers
and $2.00 for single numbers). The following volumes or numbers
of The Florida Anthropologist are out of print and cannot be
obtained from the society (but see the information below on
obtaining some from Johnson Reprint Corp.): vols. 1; 2(3-4);
5(1-2); 6(1, 4); 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12(1-3); 13(1); 16(3); 17(1);
18(1); 20(1-2); 24(1); 25(3., 4); 26(1); and 30(1).

Of the Publications, numbers 6-10 can be purchased from the
society; numbers 1-5 are out of print (but see information on
Johnson Reprint Corp., below). Prices are: numbers 6, 7, and 9,
$2.00 each; numbers 8 and 10, $3.00 each.



The second source for back issues is Johnson Reprint Corp.,
111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Vols. 1-13 are available
for $20.00 per volume ($10.00 per double numbers, $4.50 per single
numbers). Numbers 1-5 of the Publications have also been reprinted
and are available from Johnson Reprint for $5.50 per number.

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