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NU 12 964 C
Volume XVII, No. 4
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Volume XVII, No. 4 December, 1964
CON TEN T S
Trilisa Pond, An Early Site in Marion County, Florida
Wilfred T. Neill 187
Collections From Disturbed Sites on IR-75 in Alachua
and Ma n Ccties Marion C. Bartlett 201
Stro udLt ~l11 Tools of the Tequesta Sub-Area
I D. D. Laxson 215
The Apalachee Indians Move West
James W. Covington 221
Book Review: The Red War Pole
Charles H. Fairbanks 226
Possibly Submerged Oyster Shell Middens of Upper Tampa Bay
Lyman 0. Warren 227
An Unusual Incised Vessel
James F. Small 231
Book Review: Return to Laughter
Sarah Anne Robinson 233
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly by The
Florida Anthropological Society during March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription is by membership in the So-
ciety for individuals interested in the aims of the Society.
Annual dues are $4.00 (Students $2.00). ENTERED AS SECOND
CLASS MATTER AT GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA.
Officers of the Society 1964
President: W. C. Lazarus 103 S. Bay Dr., Ft. Walton Beach
1st V. Pres.: Charles W. Arnade Univ. of S. Florida, Tampa
2nd V. Pres.: James W. Covington University of Tampa, Tampa
Treasurer: J. Floyd Monk 1960 SW 61st Court Miami 55
Sec.: Mrs. W. C. Lazarus 103 S. Bay Dr., Ft. Walton Beach
Editor: C. H. Fairbanks, University of Florida, Gainesville
Executive Comnitteemen 1964
Carl A. Benson, 2310 Resthaven Drive, Orlando
Dorothy Libby, Florida State University, Tallahassee
George H. Magruder, 221 Country Club Road, Melbourne
Cliff E. Mattox, P. 0. Box 521, Cocoa Beach
William H. Sears, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton
TRILISA POND, AN EARLY SITE IN MARION COUNTY, FLORIDA
Wilfred T. Neill
Trilisa Pond,a site in the flatwoods of Marion
County, Florida, yielded an Arredondo lithic com-
plex. This was in situ atop the hardpan and be-
neath 32 to 38 inches of sand.
Comparison is made with material from an Arre-
dondo point site at Blue Springs, near Marianna,
Jackson County, Florida; with material excavated
by Bullen at Bolen Bluff in Alachua County, Flori-
da; and with material from Suwannee point sites in
Marion and Lake counties, Florida. The Arredondo
lithic complex is considered to antedate the pre-
ceramic Archaic levels of the St. Johns River
shell middens, but to postdate Suwannee points.
The stratigraphic situation at Trilisa Pond resembles
that at eight Suwannee point sites, in that the lowest occu-
pation level was at the bottom of a stratum of deep sand,
and atop a recognizably different formation or soil horizon.
It is shown that wind-blown sand, now covering an early oc-
cupation level, was brought by prevailing winds (the North-
east Trades) from nearby sand deposits to the east and north-
east of the site. At localities with little sand to the east
and northeast, early occupation levels were covered neither
so rapidly nor so deeply as at localities with nearby depos-
its of deep sand.
Fourteen sites, believed to be of very early age, have
been located in Marion County, Florida. Seven of these are
in a limited area from Silver Springs to Lynne (Fig. 1). Of
these seven, one has been described previously (Neill, 1958);
this is the Silver Springs Site, which Bullen (1958: 28) has
called the Paradise Park Site. Two other sites of this re-
gion have been mentioned by Bullen (op.cit.: 28-29). In the
present paper I wish to discuss yet another early site of
the same area, Trilisa Pond. As an evaluation of the Trili-
sa Pond Site necessitates comparison with material from
other localities, I include remarks on certain other early
sites of Florida.
Trilisa Pond is a locality in flatwoods about 4.5 miles
east of Silver Springs (Fig. 1). In order to interpret the
archeological situation here, it is necessary briefly to de-
scribe flatwoods, and the possible significance of sites
Florida Anthropologist Vol. XVII, No. 4 187
r -. i
-" -" 1 I 4:.
'' *.. ,- ..V .^ $, -:, / -" ..
FIG. 1. Area of Marion Co., Fla., from Silver Springs east-
ward. Stippled areas: sand hillocks or high dunes. Unstip-
pled areas: mostly flatwoods (some hammocks bordering
streams and lakes). Black bar: 1 mile. Arrows: early
sites. The easternmost is Trilisa Pond.
In Marion County, as in many other areas, there is apt
to be some evident correlation between the time period of a
site and its location. For examples, sites of the Mt. Tay-
lor and Orange periods are usually located on stream banks,
a circumstance reflecting an Archaic economy based primarily
upon aquatic organism; while sites on the sand hills, with
no water nearby except a small stream or pond, usually date
from the St. Johns II Period, a circumstance presumably re-
flecting an economy based upon agricultural products.
Considerable interest attaches to sites located well
out in flatwoods. Flatwoods develop where there is some im-
permeable stratus, the so-called hardpan, not far beneath
the surface of the ground. In consequence of this stratus,
rainwater does not soak far into the ground, but may stand
for months, becoming very acid. On the other hand, during a
period of scant rainfall, ground water is not available to
the surface, which therefore becomes dry and susceptible to
fires. As a result of the highly acid soil,and the constant
fluctuation between the extremes of very wet and very dry,
only a limited group of animals and plants find a tolerable
habitat in flatwoods. Most of these organism are inedible,
or, if edible, they are not sufficiently common to provide
any basis of subsistence for a primitive people. And of
course, agriculture of a primitive nature is not possible
under the typical flatwoods conditions of soil and moisture.
The early White settlers of the southeastern United States,
impressed with the worthlessness of flatwoods from any prac-
tical standpoint, dubbed them "the pine barrens." Writing
specifically of the flatwoods in Marion County, Mooney et al.
(1915: 206) commented, "This class of land is considered al-
There are several kinds of flatwoods, depending upon
the nature of the hardpan. In the present paper I am con-
cerned only with a belt of flatwoods, about 10 miles wide,
extending from Orange Springs in northern Marion County,
southward through Bay Lake, Ft. McCoy, Burbank, and Lacota,
passing just east of Silver Springs, narrowing at the lati-
tude of Lynne, and tapering to a point between Moss Bluff
and Starke's Ferry. This belt does not extend south of the
county; but to the north, it passes through eastern Alachua
county, and is thence continuous with the extensive flat-
woods areas of Bradford, Baker, Nassau, eastern Columbia,
and eastern Hamilton counties, Florida, and of southeastern
Georgia. This flatwoods area has been mapped as "flat pine
land" by Newman and Griffin (1950: fig. 4).
In Marion County this faltwoods belt is broken by the
Ocklawaha River with its bordering hardwoods; and,especially
east of the river, there are numerous aand hills set in flat-
woods matrix (Fig. 1). To the east and northeast of the
belt, the hills become higher and continuous, covered with
sand-pine scrub or else with turkey-oak and longleaf pine,
two plant associations that develop on deep, loose sand. In
the county this belt is also bordered to the west by sand
hills, with limestone and phosphate, support a calcareous
In the Marion County flatwoods belt, the hardpan is a
sharply defined stratum of tough, brown material, usually
beneath about two feet of sand, occasionally more in areas
where low, sandy hills are superimposed on a flatwoods topog-
raphy. The plant cover is very characteristic, with slash
pine or black pine, wiregrass, saw-palmetto, gallberry, wax-
myrtle, and tar-flower, to name some of the more conspicuous
It has been my experience, both in north-central Florida
and in southern Georgia,that sites in this kind of flatwoods
are apt to yield typologically early material. It is pre-
sumed that, in very early archeological times, the present
flatwoods areas were not as inhospitable to man as they lat-
The Trilisa Pond Site
Trilisa Pond is not a natural body of water but merely
a shallow basin resulting from the removal of sand for com-
mercial purposes. As with any local flatwoods basin, at
times it is full of water but at other times it is quite dry.
Its name is a coined one, alluding to the local abundance of
a plant belonging to the genus Trilisa.
FIG. 2. Artifacts from the
correspond to text descriptions.
Trilisa Pond Site. Numbers
The flatwoods around Trilisa Pond are characterized by
numerous low, sandy hillocks, mostly rising no more than two
feet above the general ground level. The rise is insuffi-
cient to alter the flatwoods vegetation to any noteworthy de-
gree. However, about three miles to the northwest, and also
about three miles to the northeast, some of the hillocks
rise high enough to support what is called scrubby flatwoods.
While sand was being removed from the Trilisa Pond ba-
sin, I noticed spalls of a whitish flint,all of them stained
brown on one side. Apparently they had been resting on the
top of the brownish hardpan. Previous experience had re-
vealed that, in this kind of flatwoods, hardpan-staining on
spalls betokens an early site nearby. Consequently I excava-
ted a rectangular area, 10 feet wide and 20 feet long, down
to the hardpan.
Excavation was not difficult, for the vegetation was
mostly herbaceous, with roots confined to the upper few in-
ches of sand. The hardpan lay beneath 32 to 38 inches of
sand. This variation was due to irregularities of the sur-
face; the hardpan was level as usual. The sand was homogen-
eous, except for a grayish tinge which was more pronounced
in the upper levels and especailly at the surface. The lo-
cal soil formation is, I believe, the "Leon Sand" as de-
scribed by Mooney et al. (op. cit.: 241-243).
Cultural material was found only at the bottom of the
sand, resting on the hardpan or separated therefrom by no
more than a half-inch of sand. Eleven items were recovered.
These are discussed below, by number. The first eight num-
bers correspond to the numbers on an accompanying illustra-
tion (Fig. 2).
The Trilisa Pond Artifacts
1. A chopper, the flint of which includes some lime-
stone matrix. A very similar specimen was recovered from
the deepest level of the Silver Springs Site, which yielded
Suwannee points (Neill, op. cit.: 45). There is also a sim-
ilarity to a specimen from the Bolen Bluff Site in Alachua
County, Florida, found in an Early Preceramic level which
also yielded one Arredondo and several Bolen points (Bullen,
Ep. cit.: pl. VI, M).
2. A projectile point or hafted knife, thick and per-
haps unfinished, rudely made by direct percussion. There is
basal thinning but no basal or lateral grinding. The speci-
men resembles an Arredondo point figured by Bullen (op. cit.
pl. IV, U), and conforms to his description of this projec-
FIG. 3. Arredondo artifacts. Nos. 1 and 2, points from Sil-
ver Springs Site; others from Blue Springs Site. Nos. 3 and
4, points almost single-shouldered. Nos. 5-10, projectile
points to show range of variation. No. 11, side-scraper.
Nos. 12-14, knives or composite tools.
tile point type.
The Trilisa Pond point is single-shouldered, an unusual
condition; but I have examined other single-shouldered Arre-
dondo points. One of these (Fig. 3, no. 1) is from the Sil-
ver Springs Site. My excavations there did not discover Ar-
redondo points, but did reveal spalls and a large utilized
flake at levels (77 to 80 inches) above the Suwannee points
and below a Late Preceramic horizon (Neill, op. cit.: 42,
52). This is the expected stratigraphic position of Arredon
do points, to judge from the excavations of Bullen (op. cit.
at Bolen Bluff. Subsequently, workers removing the Silver
Springs Site for fill-dirt found the aforesaid single-shoul-
dered point, and a variant of the Arredondo point suggestive
of the Pedernales Indented Base point (Fig. 3, no. 2). Two
points, nearly single-shouldered (Fig. 3, nos. 3-4) are from
a site at Blue Springs near Marianna, Jackson County, Flori-
da, where they were accompanied by 18 Arredondo artifacts of
more usual shape (some of these latter shown in Fig. 3, nos.
5-10). Thus I feel the single-shouldered form is but an
occasional variant of the Arredondo type.
3. A small, plano-convex, snub-nosed end-scraper. I
have examined two similar, although somewhat larger, speci-
mens from the Suwannee point level of a stratified site (the
Snyder Site, to be described in another paper) near Paisley,
Lake County, Florida. These latter specimens are illustra-
ted for comparison (Fig. 4, nos. 1-2). Of course this type
of scraper continues into later periods.
4. An elongate, plano-convex side-scraper, very simi-
lar to one recovered from the Suwannee point level of the
Silver Springs Site (Neill, op. cit.: pl. 3, E). For compar-
ison I refigure the latter specimen (Fig. 4, no. 3); another,
not previously illustrated, from the Suwannee point level at
the Silver Springs Site (Fig. 4, no. 4); and a third from
the Blue Springs Site (Fig. 3, no. 11).
5. A small, plano-convex spall, resembling a channel
flake; one surface worked before the spall was struck.
6. A large plano-convex spall, the edges worked or
else flaked by use as a scraper. Utilized flakes were es-
pecially numerous in the Suwannee point level of the Silver
Springs Site (Neill, op. cit.: 44), which locality also
yielded a large utilized flake from a level above Suwannee
points and below Late Preceramic material ibidd.: 42).
7. A trianguloid knife or composite took, bifacial.
The specimen is mostly of a yellowish color, but one entire
FIG. 4. Nos. 1 and 2, end-scrapers from Suwannee point lev-
el of the Snyder Site. Nos. 3 and 4, side-scrapers from
Suwannee point level of Silver Springs Site. No. 5, tool
from Trilisa Pond Site (reverse side of Fig. 2, no. 7).
lateral edge is white, and there are minute white areas on
other edges. Evidently the artifact was reworked from an
older blade. It may have been reworked from a Suwannee
point. See Fig. 4, no. 5 (the reverse side of Fig. 2, no. 7)
note the Suwannee-like flaking and the suggestion of fluting
which is often found on Suwannee points and knives from the
Silver Springs area. (For the present I use the term "Suwan-
nee" in a broad sense to designate all the early lanceolate
points of the Florida peninsula, some much more Clovis-like
The Trilisa Pond artifact, in its reworked shape, is
similar to specimens from the Late Preceramic level of the
Silver Springs Site (Neill, OR. cit.: pl. 2, D-E). Also see
No. 8, below.
8. A trianguloid composite tool; bifacial. Both lat-
eral edges are sharp, but the basal edge is blunt, about 3mm.
thick. The basal end of the artifact is polished from use.
The specimen is similar to No. 7, but was not reworked from
an older artifact. Again there is a resemblance to the
specimens from the Late Preceramic horizon of the Silver
Springs Site. There is also a resemblance to three speci-
mens from the aforesaid site with Arredondo points, at Blue
Springs (Fig. 3, nos. 12-14).
9. An edged fragment, apparently broken from a chopper
like No. 1. The specimen is illustrated (Fig. 5, no. 1) to
show the appearance of hardpan-staining.
10. Another edged fragment broken from a chopper; not
figured. The edge is battered.
The two edged fragments from Trilisa Pond, one of them
with battered edge, help to confirm the idea that implements
such as No. 1 were indeed choppers, the edges of which re-
ceived heavy blows. Additional use as scrapers is not ruled
11. A small spall, the surface worked before spelling;
Of the lot, No. 1 is of a coarse but somewhat translu-
cent brown flint. No. 2 is of a smooth, opaque, yellowish-
white flint. All the others are of an opaque white flint,
although No. 7 has developed a yellow patina on the older
surfaces. (I use the term "flint" in the broad archeologi-
cal sense, to denote any of the cryptocrystalline varieties
of silicon dioxide.) The materials, except that of No. 2,
have been found to crop out locally.
FIG. 5. No. 1, Edge fragment of chopper from Trilisa Pond
Site; dark area on face is hardpan-staining. Nos. 2-8, Arre-
dondo points reworked into cutting and scraping tools; from
Blue Springs Site. Nos. 9-12, typological seriation of Flo-
rida points, Suwannee to Arredondo. No. 13, Clovis-like
point or knife from Scrub Jay Site; probable outline re-
stored. No. 14, Suwannee base from site a mile below Silver
Springs. No. 15, Suwannee point or knife from Shipping Ca-
All but No. 2 are discolored by the hardpan. Staining
may be light or heavy, tending to concentrate on the edges
and one face of the artifact. Staining is irregularly dis-
tributed even on one face of a single artifact (Fig. 5, no.
1); and the differences among the specimens, as regards in-
tensity of staining, probably reflect slight differences in
All the implements from Trilisa Pond are unusually
small. Perhaps flint was in short supply. In keeping with
this idea are the reworking of an older artifact, the con-
tinued use of a tool until one end was polished, and the
scarcity of unused spalls. At the Blue Springs Site, al-
though the implements were not unusually small, the makers
of Arredondo points were very parsimonious of their flint.
Of 18 Arredondo points found at that locality, 7 were unbro-
ken; 2 were broken at the tip; 3 had been reworked after
such breakage into very short points which probably were not
used to tip projectiles; and 6 had been reworked into
stemmed scrapers. Some of the reworked points are shown in
Fig. 5, nos. 2-8.
In Marion, Lake, and Volusia counties, Florida, Arre-
dondo points have not been found by me in any ceramic con-
text, or in the preceramic levels of the Archaic middens of
the St. Johns River drainage, or in the numerous roads that
were paved with midden shell. Thus it is inferred that these
points are older than the middens. The inference is borne
out, of course, by Bullen's excavations at Bolen Bluff. It
is also borne out by the Blue Springs Site, where the only
projectile point not Arredondo was a lanceolate point, of an
unnamed variety widespread in the Florida Panhandle and
southern Georgia, and with probably Dalton affinities. (This
lanceolate point will be discussed in another paper.)
The inference regarding the age of Arredondo points is
also borne out, albeit less rigorously, by the ease with
which projectile points from Florida may be arranged in a
series from Suwannee to Arredondo (Fig. 5, nos. 9-12).
The other artifacts, found with the Trilisa Pond point,
are duplicated locally in a Suwannee context, except for the
trianguloid knives or composite tools which so far have been
matched locally only by specimens from the Late Preceramic
level of the Silver Springs Site. However, as noted, simi-
lar implements also occurred with one lanceolate and numer-
ous Arredondo points at the Blue Springs Site. The Trilisa
Pond material does not represent the earliest lithic complex
of the Marion County area, since one specimen was reworked
from an older point, probably Suwannee. The Trilisa Pond
material is therefore presumed to represent an Arredondo
lithic complex, of Early Preceramic age; i.e., earlier than
the preceramic Archaic levels of the St. Johns River shell
middens, but later than Suwannee points.
Soil Stratigraphy at Trilisa Pond
Soil stratigraphy at Trilisa Pond is in keeping with
the idea that the excavated lithic complex is early. It is
now possible to enumerate eight Florida sites, in addition
to Trilisa Pond, at which early artifacts were found beneath
an upper stratum of deep sand and atop some other formation
or soil horizon. These include (1) a site in Hillsborough
County (Simpson, 1948); (2) the Silver Springs Site (Neill,
op. cit.); (3) Bolen Bluff (Bullen, 9R. cit.); (4) a site
"half mile below Paradise Park" near Silver Springs (Bullen,
op. cit.: 28); (5) the Helen Blazes Site in Brevard County
(Edwards, 1954; Bullen, op. cit.: 29-30); (6) the Scrub Jay
Site, in scrubby flatwoods about 2 miles northeast of Silver
Springs, yielding one very Clovis-like point or knife (Fig.
5, no. 13); (7) a site about a mile below Silver Springs,
yielding a Suwannee base (Fig. 5, No. 14); and (8) the Ship-
ping Canal Site, about 14 miles southwest of Ocala, yielding
a heavily patinated Suwannee point or knife (Fig. 5, no. 15).
Laessle (1958: 366-368) has shown that, from at least
mid-Pleistocene to the present, the prevailing winds of the
Florida peninsula have been from the east and northeast (the
Northeast Trade Winds). In eastern Marion County, there is
evidence that sand has blown from the hills to localities
farther west ibidd.: 378). Thus, wind-blown sand, accumula-
ted over an occupation level,presumably derives from sources
to the east and northeast of a site. I infer that the pri-
mary source is a nearby one; for in the Silver Springs area,
the depth of sand is least at Trilisa Pond in flat country
with only low sand hillocks, greater at Scrub Jay in some-
what more rolling country with higher sand hillocks, and
greatest at sites in an area of high sand hills bordering
Silver Springs run.
A period favorable to the deposition of wind-blown sand
apparently began in peninsular Florida during or shortly af-
ter Suwannee times; and, at Marion County localities with
nearby large deposits of sand to the east or northeast, the
culture at the bottom of the sand, atop some other formation
or soil horizon, is Suwannee. But at Trilisa Pond, with
much less available sand in the vicinity, the underlying for-
mation apparently remained exposed at least into Arredondo
times. As almost all of Marion County is better provided
with sand than is the Trilisa Pond area, I would not expect
material much younger than Arredondo points to be found in a
"contact plane" situation at local sites. But such material
could be expected from sites without nearby sand deposits to
the east or northeast; e.g., some localities in low-lying
parts of the Indian River Area.
It should also be noted that, even within the limits of
Marion County, a very early occupation level is not always
at the bottom of a sand stratum and atop a recognizably dif-
ferent formation. Hills of very deep sand in eastern Marion
County, capped mostly with sand-pine scrub, are dunes asso-
ciated with the Pamlico stand of sea level (Laessle, op.cit.)
and are far older than any known Indian occupation of the
state. Thus it is not surprising that, in some parts of
this area, early projectile points have been found in situ
with dune sand above and below them. A discussion of these
artifacts will, however, be reserved for another paper,
since they do not throw any special light on findings at
The Trilisa Pond and Scrub Jay sites are unusual in
that a very early occupation level rests on a hardpan. The
circumstance poses obvious questions relative to hardpan
formation; but these questions, being purely pedological,
need not be considered here. Suffice it to say that several
feet of wind-blown sand have accumulated over early occupa-
tion levels in flatwoods, just as in other situations of the
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 The Bolen Bluff Site on Payne's Prairie, Florida.
Contr. Fla. State Mus., Soc. Sci., No. 4. Gaines-
Edwards, William E.
1954 The Helen Blazes Site of Central Eastern Florida.
Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia Univer-
Laessle, Albert M.
1958 The Origin and Successional Relationship of Sand-
hill Vegetation and Sand-Pine Scrub. Ecological
Monographs, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 361-387.
Mooney, C., W. Latimer, H. Gunter, and E. Gunter
1915 Soil Survey of the Ocala Area, Florida. Seventh
Ann. Rept. Fla. Geol. Surv., pp. 189-251.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1958 A Stratified Early Site at Silver Springs, Flo-
rida. Fla. Anthr., Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 33-52.
and E. Griffin
Deer and Turkey Habitats and Populations of Flo-
rida. Fla. Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm.,
Pittman-Robertson Proj., Tech. Bull. No. 1. Tal-
Simpson, J. Clarence
1948 Folsom-like Points from Florida. Fla. Anthr.,
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-15.
COLLECTIONS FROM DISTURBED SITES ON IR-75
IN ALACHUA AND MARION COUNTIES
Marion C. Bartlett
A series of Archaic and later sites were
found along Interstate 75 in Alachua and Marion
Counties. Many of the sites appear to have been
in the vicinity of flint outcrops. Stemmed and
notched points and considerable flint scrap are
characteristic. St. Johns, Weeden Island, Alachua,
and Seminole ceramic traditions are represented.
In May, 1963, I became aware that the construction of
IR-75 was unearthing evidence of Indian occupation sites.
From that time I have attempted to collect as much of the
disturbed material as possible with the intention of salvag-
ing some information about the portions of the sites being
destroyed. The following paper summarizes the results of
The report on these investigations is presented by
sites, starting with the northernmost and proceeding south.
For convenience in referring to the sites, IR-75 will be as-
sumed to run from north to south and the directions perpen-
dicular to it assumed to be east and west although this only
approximates the true orientations. The sites are labeled
alphabetically in an arbitrary system used for convenience
until the sites not previously recorded are assigned offi-
cial site numbers. Each site report contains information
concerning the site description and location and a summary
of the material collected, followed by an attempt to indi-
cate approximately the periods of occupation represented by
All periods referred to are part of the culture sequen-
ces recognized in the central Florida region and are listed
in CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM, NO. 4 titled
"The Bolen Bluff Site on Paines Prairie", by Ripley P. Bul-
len. It is recognized that collections from a disturbed
site might not indicate all the occupation periods. This is
especially true for sites with a small amount of pottery
which can easily be obscured when mixed with a large amount
of sterile soil due to road construction. Therefore, the
tentative conclusions as to the periods of occupation should
not be construed as implying that other less obvious periods
might not be found if a formal investigation of the sites
Use of the term "blade" in the stone material listing
is meant to designate large bifacial items which are usually
crudely chipped. These items are generally considered to be
unfinished and really differ very little from those listed
as "blanks". The term "point" is used to designate speci-
mens which were either complete or the basal end of broken
points. The term "broken point" is used to designate speci-
mens for which only the tip was present and which therefore
provided no information as to the base style. The pottery
from sites M, G and O was analyzed by Ripley P. Bullen, Cu-
rator of Social Sciences, Florida State Museum, who also was
helpful on other aspects of this report.
Site M is located around an almost dry lake approximate-
ly 1.1 miles south of S-26 (Newberry Road). The area around
the lake is largely wooded and is undisturbed except for the
IR-75 right-of-way, which intersects the east end of the
lake. Chipping extends east along the lake edge approximate-
ly .5 miles. No chipping was observed on the eastern extreme
of the lake where the banks are not well defined. The follow-
ing material was collected from Site M.
Site M Pottery
Type of Pottery Number of Pieces
Wakulla Check Stamped 1
Weeden Island Plain (incised line below lip)l
St. Johns Check Stamped 1
St. Johns Plain 1
Sand-Tempered Plain 4
Conclusion: Weeden Island II Period
Site M Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description & Comments
9 Points 6 Stemmed (2 complete, 1 large,
1 with expanding stem, 1 with
1 Basally-notched (broken)
2 Corner-notched (2 complete)
1 Scraper Corner-notched, hafted
2 Broken points
1 Knife-Blank Broken
4 Miscellaneous 1 Utilized flake;l stemmed drill
1 small knife; 1 corner-notched
Material from Site M indicates two distinguishable peri-
ods of occupation, the earliest a Late Preceramic occupation
characterized by stemmed artifacts and the latest a Weeden
Island II period occupation characterized by corner-notched
artifacts and Weeden Island II pottery types. The fact that
the artifacts separate quite distinctly suggests that the
site was occupied early, abandoned, and then reoccupied in
the Weeden Island II period. The Knife-Blank listed occurs
in other sites which show evidence of occupation in the Late
Preceramic period and will be discussed further in the sum-
Site J is located along a creek approximately 1.2 miles
north of S-24 (Archer Road). To the west of IR-75 the area
is wooded except for a large barrow pit where most of the
material was collected. To the east of IR-75 there are some
woods interspersed with old fields. The extent of this site
was not investigated but it is understood to extend along
the creek for a mile or more. Also it is reported that the
area in and around the fields contained pottery. This site
has been investigated by the University of Florida. The
following material was collected from Site J.
Site J Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
24 Point 3 Side-notched (1 complete, 1
with beveled edges)
20 Stemmed (5 complete, 2 large
1 wide-stemmed, 1 with ser-
rated edges, 2 unfinished)
5 Scrapers 2 End and side; 1 hafted
stemmed; 1 thumbnail; 1 end
8 Broken points
2 Miscellaneous 1 Crudely-chipped knife; 1 u-
Since almost all the material was collected from the
barrow pit, it is unlikely that the collection represents a
good sample from this site,particularly for the upper levels
where pottery and other evidence of late occupation would oc-
cur. The barrow pit had evidently been a quarry as chips of
all sizes and shapes were very dense especially in one loca-
tion. Also unfinished items were quite common. Side-notched
or Bolen points are evidence of occupation in the Early Pre-
ceramic period, apparently the earliest period represented
by this site. A variety of stemmed points and scrapers in-
dicate the site was also occupied during the Late Preceramic
period. The corner-notched point along with the known pre-
sence of pottery in the area indicate the site was also oc-
cupied in the later ceramic periods. Excavations by the Un-
iversity of Florida should provide a detailed history for
Site E is located on a ridge overlooking an almost dry
lake approximately .3 miles south of S-24 (Archer Road). The
ridge and a paralleling barrow pit on its north side extend
east approximately .4 miles. Chipping is evident both in
the edge of the barrow pit nearest the ridge and at the in-
tersection of IR-75 with the ridge. It seems likely that
chipping follows the ridge and north banks of the lake more
or less continuously. The area along the ridge is primarily
Another chipping concentration occurs in a barrow pit
on the west side of IR-75 approximately .4 miles north of S-
121 (Williston Road). Almost all the topsoil and cultural
material had been removed before this concentration was dis-
covered, but a large number of chips are evident on the
banks of the pit. The area around this pit is wooded. The
following material was collected from Site E.
Site E Pottery
Type of Pottery Number of Pieces
Sand-tempered Plain 4
Site E Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
8 Points 8 Stemmed (4 complete, 1 unfin-
ished, 1 wide stemmed)
2 Scrapers 2 Hafted stemmed (1 wide
stemmed, 1 from reworked pro-
2 Broken Points
2 Knife-Blanks Both broken
2 Miscellaneous 1 Drill (broken); Icrudely-
Site E is apparently a two-component site, the first
represented by stemmed artifacts and the second by sand-
tempered pottery. Observation of the banks along IR-75 in-
dicates that chipping starts about 4 inches above the Haw-
thorne formation and extends to the surface with the deepest
deposits being about 2k feet. Since no stone artifacts typi-
cal of later ceramic periods were found and pottery was very
scarce, it is suspected that the site occupation started dur-
ing the Late Preceramic period and extended into the early
ceramic periods. Whether the occupation was continuous or
consisted of two periods separated by a substantial interval
cannot be determined from the present evidence.
Site D includes two separate concentrations of chipping,
the first located on the south bank of Paine's Prairie and
the second located approximately .5 miles south of the Prai-
rie. This area has been investigated formally by both John
M. Goggin and Ripley P. Bullen. The results of these inves-
tigations are summarized by Ripley P. Bullen in CONTRIBU-
TIONS OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM, NO. 4 titled "The Bolen
Bluff Site on Paine's Prairie, Florida." Most of the sur-
face material had been removed before collections were star-
ted on this site. The following material was collected from
Site D Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
6 Points 4 Stemmed (3 unfinished)
1 Leaf-shaped (complete)
1 Concave-based, unstemmed (bro-
1 Scraper Side and end
4 Broken Points
A lack of pottery and other evidence of late occupation
at this site can perhaps be explained by the fact that very
little of the topsoil remained when collections were started.
The unstemmed, concave base specimen is similar to points
considered to be Paleo-Indian artifacts. The remaining ma-
terial is typical of the Early Preceramic or Late Preceramic
periods. Only a few artifacts were collected and all were
types known to occur at this site and described by Ripley P.
Bullen in the publication cited previously.
Site G is located approximately 1.7 miles south of
Paine's Prairie. Chipping extends approximately .6 miles
along IR-75 with the primary concentration of material oc-
curring in an old field on the peak of a hill. The lower
slopes of the hill are wooded. The following material was
collected from Site G. on,
Site G Pottery
Type of Pottery
Chattahoochee Brushed (from 1 pot)
Alachua Cob Marked
Prairie Cord Marked
Wakulla Check Stamped
Weeden Island Plain (line incised
Weeden Island Incised
Carabelle Incised (?)
Thomas Simple Stamped
St. Johns Check Stamped
St. Johns Plain
St. Johns Plain with limestone inc
Conclusion: Hickory Pond Per
Number of Pieces
Site G Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description,
3 Broken Points
4 Stemmed (2 complete, 1 wide-
stemmed, 1 large)
3 Corner-notched (1 complete)
1 Basally-notched (complete)
8 Small triangular (6 complete)
4 Small knives
Except for the four stemmed points the material from
Site G is characteristic of late ceramic periods. In this
case the pottery analysis by Ripley P. Bullen places the
site in the Hickory Pond period. It was noted that the small
triangular or Pinellas points were collected in the area
where the heaviest pottery concentration occurred. The oc-
currence of Seminole pottery (Chattahoochee Brushed) was of
considerable interest, but since the specimens collected re-
present only 2 pots and no other Seminole artifacts were
collected, substantial Seminole occupation is unlikely.
Site I is concentrated in two locations, the first on a
gently-sloping hill immediately south of Wacahoota Road and
the second approximately .7 miles south of Wacahoota Road.
Most the area is wooded. The second concentration occurs on
a slight rise surrounded on all sides by low marshy ground.
The topsoil in this area is primarily white unstained sand
with occasional chips visible. The following material was
collected from Site I.
Site I Pottery Analysis
Type of Pottery Number of Pieces
Sand-tempered plain 3
Site I Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
21 Points 16 Stemmed (8 complete, 1 large,
1 Suwannee-like base fragment
1 Basally-notched (complete)
3 Small triangular (all com-
3 Scrapers 1 End and side; 1 side; 1 end
10 Broken Points
1 Knife-Blank Complete
The material from the hill nearest Wacahoota Road sug-
gests occupation in two periods. Occurrence of stemmed
points and a side scraper indicate the hill was probably
first occupied in the Late Preceramic period. Occurrence of
sand-tempered pottery, a basally-notched point, and small
triangular (Pinellas) points indicate a late ceramic period
occupation, probably in the Alachua period.
The southernmost concentration apparently was not occu-
pied during ceramic periods since no pottery or artifacts ty-
pical of these periods were collected in this area. A vari-
ety of stemmed points and two scrapers suggest this area was
also occupied in the late Preceramic period. One basal frag-
ment, similar to the Suwannee point, hinted the site might
have a Paleo-Indian component but collections from the site
over a considerable time failed to produce more specimens of
this type. The fact that both this area and the area near-
est Wacahoota Road yielded material typical of the Late Pre-
ceramic period along with their close proximity suggests
that the early occupations might have been contemporary and
the two areas parts of one site.
Site C starts approximately .5 miles south of S-329
near Micanopy and extends down a gently-sloping hill which
ends near a small lake a short distance from the Marion
County line. Chipping is concentrated around two small
ponds and the lake at the bottom of the hill. The area near-
by is wooded except for one small filed. The following ma-
terial was collected from Site C.
Site C Pottery
Type of Pottery Number of Pieces
Sand-tempered Plain 15
St. Johns Check Stamped 1
Site C Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
7 Points 7 Stemmed (3 complete, 1 with
2 Broken Points
2 Miscellaneous 1 Chipped stone tool showing
wear, function unknown; 1
Material from Site C indicates occupation in two peri-
ods, the first a Late Preceramic occupation characterized by,
stemmed points and the latter a late ceramic period occupa-
tion, probably in the Hickory Pond period, characterized by
pottery. Extensive wear was observed on the chipped stone
tool listed, but its function is not known. Wear was ob-
served on only one end suggesting the tool may have been
hafted on the opposite end.
Site K is concentrated around two springs and a small
pond north of a paved road the east end of which intersects
US 441 approximately 1 mile north of McIntosh'and the west
end of which intersects S-320 approximately 2 miles north-
west of McIntosh. The entire area is wooded with a portion
of the chipping occurring in a palmetto thicket. Heavy chip-
ping also occurs in a wet and marshy area near the head of
the springs. The following material was collected from Site
Site K Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
41 Points 36 Stemmed (16 complete, 5 un-
finished, 1 large, 1 with
6 Side-notched (5 complete, 2
with bevelled edges)
1 Corner or basally-notched
15 Scrapers 3 End and side; 1 hafted
stemmed (?); 4 side; 2 thumb-
nail; 5 end (4 were made
12 Broken Points
3 Knife-Blanks 1 Complete
4 Miscellaneous 1 Hammer-stone; 1 spoke-shave
(?); 1 large blank (?); 1
large stemmed knife
Site K provided a rich assemblage of material charac-
teristic of the preceramic periods. Side-notched or Bolen
points along with scrapers place the first occupation in the
Early Preceramic period. The number and variety of stemmed
points indicate the site was also occupied in the Late Pre-
ceramic period. The wide variety of artifact types collect-
ed from Site K suggests that excavation of undisturbed por-
tions of the site might aid in establishing the time rela-
tionships of various artifact types.
Since a corner-notched point was found at Site K, a
later occupation period was suspected. A small amount of
pottery was later collected by the University of Florida
which indicates some occupation in the ceramic periods. The
existence of a later period site and an accompanying burial
mound at the intersection of S-320 and IR-75, only a short
distance south of Site K, suggests that the small ceramic
component at Site K might have been contemporary with the la-
ter site or perhaps part of one village complex.
Site 0 is a very large site located immediately north
of S-329 near Lowell. A dirt road paralleling IR-75 leads
north through the site. Chipping was observed on both the
east side of the dirt road in a large barrow pit and in a
wooded area between IR-75 and the dirt road. Chipping was
especially concentrated around a small lake at the north end
of the barrow pit. Chipping was also observed along an ac-
cess road linking the barrow pit and IR-75. A few rough
measurements were made from which the site was observed to
extend at least .4 miles along IR-75 and to extend at least
.7 miles east from IR-75. The following material was collec-
ted from Site 0. 209
Site 0 Pottery
Type of Pottery Number of Pieces
Chattahoochee Brushed 1
Alachua Cob Marked 11
Prairie Cord Marked 7
Lockloosa Punctated 6
Punctated Over Cord Marked 1
Wakulla Check Stamped 1
St. Johns Check Stamped 3
Carrabelle Punctated 2
Surface Marked, type not certain 3
St. Johns Plain 10
Sand-tempered Plain 20
Conclusion: Hickory Pond/Alachua Period
Site 0 Stone Material
Number Type of Artifact Design, Description, & Comments
24 Points 15 Stemmed (6 complete, 2 large
1 wide stemmed, 1 exception-
ally small stemmed)
1 Unstemmed (complete)
8 Small triangular (5 complete)
10 Scrapers 4 End and side; 3 thumbnail; 3
8 Broken Points
1 Knife-Blank Broken
6 Miscellaneous 3 Small knives; 1 utilized
flake; 1 chipped stone tool,
function unknown, 1 crudely-
Material from Site O suggests occupation in three peri-
ods. A side-notched or Bolen point collected by the Univer-
sity of Florida along with the scrapers listed indicate the
first period of occupation to be in the early Preceramic per-
iod. A Late Preceramic period occupation is indicated by
the variety of stemmed points and the knife-blanks collected.
The latest occupation, characterized by pottery and small
triangular (Pinellas) points, has been placed in the Hickory
Pond/Alachua period by a pottery analysis by Ripley P. Bul-
len. Many of the chips and the large scrapers from Site 0
were heavily patinated. The unstemmed point collected is
unique and might be an import. The single piece of Seminole
pottery (Chattahoochee Brushed) was noted with interest but
its implications are not understood.
Summary and Discussion
Collections were made from nine sites, all indicating
occupation in two or more periods. It was observed that all
sites were located near water supplies and, conversely, all
good water supplies showed evidence of occupation nearby.
All the artifacts collected are types known to occur in the
central Florida area and have been described previously in
publications such as the one previously cited. Specimens
typical of each site are illustrated.
There is some doubt as to the classification of the ar-
tifacts listed as Knife-Blanks. When the stone material
listings were compiled, only a limited number of these speci-
mens had been collected. One of these was complete (Plate
III-)). It appeared at the time that the broken specimens
were the basal ends of what was originally a completed arti-
fact, probably used as a knife. In the intervening period,
8 broken specimens in addition to those in the material list-
ings have been collected. Examination of all specimens col-
lected to date reveal two pertinent points: first, the per-
centage of broken specimens is disproportionately high when
compared to established artifact types; second, most of the
specimens were rather crudely chipped, indicating the speci-
men was broken before completion. Also, the degree of pati-
nation on the breaks was observed to be about the same as on
the body of the specimens in most cases. It appears that
these items were an intermediate product in the manufacture
of some other artifact, most likely points, and should there-
fore be classified as blanks.
The number of sites found over a relatively short dis-
tance documents the rich archeological history of the Gaines-
ville area. Unfortunately, most of the archeological record
is being destroyed as the area develops, often before formal
investigations can be undertaken.
The author wishes to gratefully acknowledge the contri-
bution of Mr. Garvin B. Combs, Jr. who photographed the arti-
facts illustrated in this paper.
. .. ... U .
PLATE I. STONE MATERIAL FROM IR-75
A-F Site M (A-D--points; E--hafted scraper; F--stemned
drill). G-N Site J (G-M--points; N--scraper). O-T Site
E (O-q--points; R--hafted scraper; S--knife; T--blank or
knife). U-W Site D (U--scraper; V--points; W--knife).
a-i Site G (a-e--points; f-h--knives).
c d e
g h i J k I
PLATE II. STONE MATERIAL FROM IR-75
A Site G (A--knife or blank). B-N Site I (B-L--points;
M-N--scrapers). O-R Site C (O-Q--points; R--tool, func-
tion unknown). a-1 Site K (a-l--points).
S f g
1 dl "
PLATE III. STONE MATERIAL FROM IR-75
A-T Site K (A-M--points; N--stemmed knife; 0--knife; P--
worked flake; q-T--scrapers). a-i Site 0 (a-b--scrapers;
STROMBUS LIP SHELL TOOLS OF THE TEQUESTA SUB-AREA
Over six hundred Strombus tools were examined
from the Tequesta sub-area to obtain the percent-
age of four basic types, and to show the Indian's
adaptability in constructing them from material
available in their coastal and swamp habitat.
To supplement his physical endowment and add versatil-
ity to his arm, man has always constructed from whatever ma-
terial his environment furnished, tools to scrape, cut,
pierce or just to save his knuckles. The Tequesta sub-area
produces shell pounders, picks and columnella tools, but the
most common are those made from the lip of the conch Strom-
Deprived of local volcanic rock deposits by the sedi-
mentary limestone geology of the region,the Tequesta learned
early to turn to the sea for a dense yet workable material
from which to make their simple tools. Living in the warm,
shallow coastal waters of southeastern Florida, West Indies,
and the Keys was the carrion-eating conch, Strombus gigas,
which served as not only as a source of easily obtained food,
but by breaking off the graceful, flaring lip of the shell,
a "blank" of material up to several inches wide and a foot
long could be obtained to be worked into axes, adzes and
scrapers. These Strombus tools had the same shape and pur-
poses as their stone counterparts made by ancient man all
over the world from a variety of materials.
In defining these tools, there is a tendency to lump
them all together under the term "celt", a sometimes confus-
ing and ambiguous category. Since four basic types can eas-
ily be defined in the Tequesta area, they will be called
here Strombus blanks, axes, adzes, and scrapers.
The shape of Strombus blanks vary from spatulate to
that of an elongated oval. Many have a resemblance in shape
to the "shoe last" celts of the Danubian culture of Neolith-
ic Europe. The blanks bear the typical Strombus ribbing and
appear to have been broken off the shell and then crudely
smoothed around their perimeters. Their lengths vary from
80mm to 250mm and widths from 30mm to 80mm. Examples are
shown in Fig. 1, top row, fourth from the left and A,K and L
in Fig. 2.
Scrapers made from the Strombus shell are oval or lu-
nate in shape. They are sharpened or chipped on one side and
resemble some types of a modern ceramist's tool,the pallette.
Their uses could also be identical. Widths vary from 25mm
to 40mm and their lengths from 60mm to 120mm. Samples are
shown in Fig. 1, bottom row, first from the left and in I
and J in Fig. 2.
The shell adze found in the Tequesta sub-area is oval
or wedge shaped and the blade viewed from the side is shaped
like a right triangle. Widths vary from 30mm to 60mm and
lengths from 60mm to 140mm. Types are shown in Fig. 1, top
row, first and second from the left and F, G, H in Fig. 2.
The shell axe made by the Tequesta is also oval or
wedge shaped and its blade viewed from the side resembles an
isoceles triangle. Widths vary from 55mm to 70mm and lengths
from 90mm to 135mm. Types are shown in Fig. 1, third from
left, top row, third from left, bottom row and E in Fig. 2.
Figure 3 shows the possible uses of shell tools in the
everyday life of the Tequesta. It also shows the total arti-
facts found and a breakdown of types.
The shell tools of the Tequesta show no tendency to be-
come elaborate or any part of ceremonialism. They were util-
itarian artifacts necessary in the building of canoes, the
preparation of food and skins, and the construction of shel-
Tools styles do not change with time (750BC-1565AD),but
do appear to be more prevelant in the thousand year period
from A.D. 100 to A.D. 1100 if stratigraphy can be trusted.So
far, no iron substitutes appear to have been accepted after
European contact was established in the mid-sixteenth cen-
Shell tools found on small, sawgrass middens, where
considerable butchering was accomplished, may be broken but
tend to have been a finished axe or adze. The edges of
Strombus tools are sufficiently sharp to scrape skins and
hides without damaging them.
The concave adze, made from the conch Busycon perversum,
appears to have been a Calusa artifact and is seldom found
in the Tequesta area.
Few of the shell tools show signs of grooving to allow
a better grasp. While the hating of axes and adzes is prob-
able, only one of the examples found (Fig. 2, E) showed posi-
tive vertical markings that could have been made by a handle.
Shell tools defined as "petaloid" in shape (Fig. 2,B)
seem to be more the result of accidental angular fracture of
an axe or adze rather than any deliberate shaping. However,
several small "petaloid" greenstone objects have been found.
One was carved to resemble a face. They were classified as
Shell blanks are more prevalent in coastal middens and
large village sites rather than small campsites.
The "screwdriver" shell tool shown (Fig. 2,D) is a re-
worked, broken axe and could have been used as a wedge to
The unique shell object (Fig. 2,C) resembles an arrow-
head or spear point and is the only one of its type found.
Its use is not known.
It is debatable as to whether shell axes were used by
the Tequesta to fell large trees. The axes would of course
cut charred wood easily. Fire was probably used on large
trees and to hollow out canoes and then shell tools, hafted
and hand-held, used to finish the job.
Appreciation is expressed to the following for allowing
the author to view and tabulate their personal collections
of shell tools; Ted and Earl Riggs, Richard Kotil, Herbert
Hill, and Cholly Delask.
Thanks is also due the Broward County Archeological So-
ciety for making their artifacts available.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1959 "The Transitional Period in Florida." South-
eastern Archeological Conference Newsletter.
vol. VI, November, 1959.
Childe, V. Gordon
1948 "What Happened in History." Penguin Books,
New York, 1948.
Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 "Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida."
Yale University Publications in Anthropology,
No. 41, New Haven, Conn.
Laxson, Dan D.
1957 "The Arch Creek Site." Florida Anthropologist.
vol. X, nos. 3-4, November.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Publications, Vol. No.113,
Washington, D. C.
TOTAL TOOLS SAMPLED
No. of tools examined
Concave adze or scraper
Grooved adze or axe
POSSIBLE USE FOR SHELL TOOLS
Canoe & shelter construction
Preparation of skins
Preparation of food
Felling trees, with fire
Axe, adze, scraper, blank
Axe, adze, and scraper
Axe, adze, scraper, or blank
Axe, adze, or scraper
Scraper and blank
Axe, adze, scraper, blank
Axe and adze
Axe and blank
Axe, adze, scraper, blank
Fig. 3 Total artifacts tabulated and possible uses of
Fig. 1 Top row, left to right; adze, adze, axe, blank.
Bottom row, left to right; Scraper, adze, axe.
Fig. 2 -- A, blank; B, petaloid; C, unique; D, "screwdriver'
E, axe; F,G.H adze; I,J, scraper; K,L, blank.
THE APAIACHEE INDIANS MOVE WEST
James W. Covington
The Apalachee Indians, who lived in Florida
until the early part of the Eighteenth Century, mi-
grated to Louisiana. The last available records
concerning them place the tribe near Alexandria,
Louisiana in 1834.
Very little is known concerning the fate of the origi-
nal Florida tribes. The Timucuan Indians may have suffered
one or more of the following fates: they could have migra-
ted to Northern Florida; been killed off by an epidemic; or
carried away by slave raiders from Carolina. When the Span-
ish returned to Cuba in 1763 the Indians they carried along
with them were probably members of the Yamasee tribe a re-
cent arrival to the peninsula from Carolina. It is said
that the Calusa Indians went to Cuba in 1763 with the Span-
ish and they returned from Havana to settle on Key Vaca.
(Forbes, 1821, p. 109) Anyway, we have no more recent rec-
ords concerning this tribe.
A limited amount of evidence exists concerning the mi-
gration of the Apalachee tribe from Northern Florida to Lou-
isiana. From reports made by Cabeze de Vaca and the several
observer writers that accompanied Hernando De Soto, the
Apalachees were conceded to be a powerful and warlike people.
Despits such martial attributes on the part of the Apala-
chees, the Spanish Franciscans were very successful in their
missionary work with the tribe and, by 1655, had missions in
eight of the Indian towns. In 1675 it was estimated that the
Apalachee country contained fourteen villages and a total
population of eight thousand persons but not all of the in-
habitants were Apalachees. (Boyd, Smith and Griffin, 1951,
In 1704, Colonel James Moore of Charleston, South Caro-
lina, invaded Spanish Florida with a force of fifty white
men and one thousand Indian allies. Moore was a most deter-
mined man for this was his second invasion of Florida. In
1702, he had attempted to capture Saint Augustine, failed,
and now a successful raid was deemed most necessary. The
invading army moved toward the section of Florida known as
Apalachee and began the destruction of the fourteen missions
located there. The village of Ayubale, led by Father Miran-
da, put up a spirited defense and it was not until all ammu-
nition was exhausted and the church was burning that the
population of Ayubale surrendered. (Boyd, Smith and Griffin,
1941, p. 15)
A small force from San Luis was defeated several days
later and Moore had Apalachee at his mercy. Most of the mis-
sion towns were destroyed and three hundred men and one thou-
sand women and children were captured and taken back to
South Carolina. The prisoners were allowed to establish
themselves on the Oconee River and served as a buffer be-
tween the Creeks and the English. (Smith, 1955, p.15) In
1715, they either returned to Saint Marks or made their way
to Mobile or Pensacola.
From available evidence it seems certain that some per-
sons were able to escape and return to their homes after the
raiders had departed. The Englishmen were not able to cap-
ture or to kill all of the Apalachee people. Due to loca-
tion in remote regions, several villages were not harmed by
the Carolina force. Upon hearing of the bloodshed, some
other Indians abandoned their villages and fled to Pensacola
and Mobile and the survivors from Iritachuco village fled to
Saint Augustine. It was said that when the Spanish surren-
dered Pensacola in 1763, some Apalachee departed with them
to Vera Cruz.
Late in 1705, one group of refugees came to Mobile and
their leaders asked the French for a place where they could
settle. The Apalachees stated that their village was ninety
leagues east of Mobile near the River de Tolacatchina which
may have been either the Saint Marks or Ochlockonee. They
gave as the reason for leaving their old homes the fact that
the Spanish Government was unable to protect them from the
periodic raids of the Alibamon Indians; members of the Creek
Confederacy, and were forced to flee to Mobile for safety.
It was curious that they named the Alibamon Indians as their
oppressors and did not mention Moore and his Indians. (Mc-
Williams, 1953, p.102)
The French chronicle states that since these Indians
were good Catholics, they were received with hospitality by
Bienville, the French leader. He ordered a supply of food
be given the migrants and assigned to them land situated
close to the Mobile and Tomez Indians. A supply of seed
corn was given to the Indians so that they might supply
their own food. Father Alexander Huet, a priest who had a
special skill in learning Indian languages, was assigned to
visit the group and administer the sacraments.
When Fort Mobile was moved to a new location in 1709,
the Apalachees moved along with the French to the new site
and were assigned land situated on the banks of the Saint
Martin River. This site was located about one league from
Fort Mobile. Another tribe from northern Florida, the Tawa-
sia, a Timucuan band and non-Christian, was also given land
along the Saint Martin River. (McWilliams, 1953, p.102)
One of the most important days of the Apalachee calen-
der was the Feast of Saint Louis. Much merrymaking was held
during the evening of the feast day and numerous white per-
sons from Fort Mobile and nearby Indians from other tribes
were invited to the festivities. On this occasion everyone
wore masks, danced and ate the meat which had been prepared
for the festivities.
The church services demonstrate to what a high degree
acculturation had taken place among these Indians. On Sun-
days and feast days, mass was said by a French priest and
during the service the Indians answered the psalms in Latin.
The Apalachees dressed in their finest clothes when attend-
ing church: "The men wear a kind of cloth overcoat; and the
women wear clothes of silk in the French style but haven't
the least headdress and are bareheaded." (McWilliams, 1953,
p.132) The long black hair of the women was plaited in one
or two plaits similar to the Spanish style. The Apalachee
children were baptized by the priest and the dead were bur-
ied in the church cemetery. According to a witness, their
language at this time was a mixture of Spanish and Apalachee.
In 1764, when England gained control of the land east
of the Mississippi River, the Apalachees and several other
tribes migrated into Louisiana which was owned by Spain and
settled on the Red River. By 1804, there were fourteen Apa-
lachee families living on the banks of the river.
In 1805, these Indians were reported to understand Apa-
lachee, French and Mobilian. Mobilian was a dialect spoken
by the Indians east of the Mississippi River and was used in
the same fashion as the sign language which the western
tribes employed. The French settlers liked the Apalachees
better than any other Louisiand tribe but there were only
fourteen adult male Apalachees at this time and the tribe
was well on the way to complete extermination.
Sometime during the Apalachee's stay in Louisiana, they
invited the Tensa band, a group of Indians from Alabama, to
settle near them. On October 16, 1803, Louis, chief of the
Tensa band and one Valentine Laysard, who was reputed to be
the agent of Chief Etienne of the Apalachees, sold most of
the tribal land to Major William Miller and Mr. Alexander
Fulton, merchants in Rapides for $2,600 worth of merchandise.
It was said that this transaction had the approval of Span-
ish Governor Salcado. (John Jaminson to Valentine Laysard,
May 12, 1819, Apalachee File)
After the United States acquired control of Louisiana,
the Apalachee were still living along the banks of the Red
River but Isaac Baldwin, who had acquired the land from Mil-
ler, was doing his best to evict the Indians from the land,
Baldwin sent his protests to the Indian agent and the Feder-
al official promised to remove the Indians.
The Apalachee told the Indian agent their side concern-
ing the situation. The Tensa leader had sold the two thou-
sand acre tract of land without consulting them and they re-
fused to leave. The agent agreed with them and a survey
showed that Baldwin was entitled to only part of the land -
one hundred acres at the most.
Isaac Baldwin, a well-to-do planter, did not like the
impasse with the Apalachee and ordered his slaves to move
into their settlement. Many of the wooden huts were wrecked
and the improvements destroyed. (John Jaminson to Secretary
of War, September 14, 1826, Apalachee File). In the fear
that Baldwin would control the entire area, some of the In-
dians migrated to Texas in 1827. When the land was surveyed
by the Federal authorities, the Apalachees were allowed to
keep their village and farm land and were placed within the
jurisdiction of the Caddo Agency.
In June 3, 1834, the Apalachee leaders sent a petition
to the Secretary of State requesting an agent and money due
them from the United States. (L. Bailey to Secretary of War,
Cass, June 3, 1834, Apalachee File) There is an Apalachee
file in the records of the Office of Indian Affairs at the
National Archives and the 1834 letter is the final one in
that file. At this point available evidence concerning the
wandering Apalachees comes to an end. Perhaps some other
researcher may discover more material concerning the tribe.
It is a long way from Tallahassee, Florida to Alexan-
dria, Louisiana and Vera Cruz, Mexico. Probably the only re-
minder of this once proud tribe outside the museum and his-
tory book is the designation of Apalachee Bay on the Gulf of
Ms. Various letters (1803-1834) that relate to the
affairs of the Apalachee tribe. Records of the Bu-
reau of Indian Affairs, National Archives, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Boyd, Mark F., Hale Smith and John W. Griffin
1951 Here They Once Stood. University of Florida Press,
Forbes, James Grant
1821 Sketches, Historical and Topographical of the Flori-
das C. S. Van Winkle, New York.
Gold, Robert L.
1964 "The Settlement of the East Florida Spaniards in
Cuba, 1763-1766." The Florida Historical Quarterly,
Vol. XLII, No. 3, pp. 216-231.
McWilliams, Richebourg ed.
1963 Fleur de Llys and Calumet, the Penicaut Narrative,
Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, La.
Smith, Hale G.
1955 Tallahassee, Historic Scenic Capital of Florida,
Talla Inc., Tallahassee, Florida.
Capron, Louis The Red War Pole. Illustrated by David
Stone. Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1963, 186 pp. $3.75
This is a delightful juvenile book by one of our lead-
ing experts on the Florida Seminole. Louis Capron not only
knows the Seminole and their history but can write an absorb-
ing tale for the young that their elders will also like.
The story is laid between the St. Johns and Tampa just
as the Second Seminole War was beginning. The central fig-
ures are a pair of young boys caught in the conflict of loy-
alties that the war produced. Allan McNair is the son of a
trader on the St. Johns. His friend, Little Tiger, is a Sem-
inole who shares his personal "medicine" or magical power
with his white friend. Allan witnesses the Dade Massacre
and the opening phases of the Second Seminole War. At the
end there is some hope that liberal opinion will come to the
aid of the Indians and the two boys meet again.
This is an excellent example of historical fiction that
will be enjoyed by all.
Charles H. Fairbanks
University of Florida
Possibly Submerged Oyster Shell Middens of Upper Tampa Bay
Lyman 0. Warren
Sporadic crude flint artifacts recovered from
shell dredged from submerged banks in Upper Tampa
Bay suggest that they may be of midden origin.
For 20 years or more commercial shell companies have
been dredging oyster shell from large submarien deposits in
upper Tampa Bay. These shell banks, for the most part, lie
off Gadsden Point and off the mouths of the Little Manatee
and Alafia Rivers. The banks are extensive in area and siz-
able in depth. At one location off Gadsden Point it is said
the oyster shell deposit was 30 feet thick with its top sur-
face about 10 feet below the surface of the water. That the
banks have been commercially profitable for so many years
gives support to the concept of their great size. It has
generally been supposed they were naturally occurring oyster
beds or geologic deposits. It is the purpose of this paper
to present evidence they may well be submerged oyster shell
middens from the "Paleo-Indian" or Archaic Periods, or both,
of Tampa Bay's prehistory.
The initial impetus to study the shell mound yards came
from Billy Bradley of Dunedin, who told me a few years ago
that a stemless point had been found in a friend's driveway
a year or so earlier. A load of oyster shell had been
dumped there and raked out. When a rain washed down the
oyster shell the point was discovered. The story, unfortu-
nately, could not be confirmed.
In 1961 and 1962 several pieces of silicified lime rock,
a few fragments of mammoth teeth, and fragments of long bone,
(presumably mammoth from their size) and a black highly min-
eralized astragalus of a Pleistocene horse (Equus) were
found at the Benton shell yard on U.S. 19 at Allen's Creek
and at the "lower shell yard" on Third Street South, St.
Petersburg. More of interest from the point of this paper
were three artifacts. One, a fist-size "Horse's hoof scra-
per", and the other, a small replica in miniature, have been
described and portrayed in a previous paper; the 3rd arti-
fact was a probably chert knife. The two shell yards (and
the three other commerical yards later visited) dredge from
the same submerged oyster banks.
In September of 1963 the U.S. 19 yard yielded a much
larger collection of artifacts, spalls, and cores. These
included 2 projectile points, one was stemmed and crudely
percussion flaked; the other nicely pressure flaked with
beveled edges, side notches and notch "grinding." There
were five hammer stones, one atypical "horse's hoof plane",
one "chopper" fragment, four crude "choppers", two plano-
convex end-scrapers, five cores, two spalls, and finally a
large elliptical stone measuring about 10 by 9 inches in its
two diameters by about 3 inches thick and of flinty material
like the other objects, probably representing a large core.
Several rather non-descript masses of chert and sandstone
were found. The "flinty" or silicified artifacts were of a
blue black or gray color, and contained shell inclusions and
geodes in the typical way of silicified limestone from the
Tampa Bay area. Of especial interest was the paucity of
silicifed coral. Also, it was remarkable how crudely the
artifacts had been made, their technical aspects in no way
measuring up to what we have been accustomed to in this area.
The emphasis on percussion rather than pressure flaking is
reminiscent of Willey's and Alex Krieger's lower lithic
stage for a glacial or post-glacial era, to which the Pleis-
tocene fossils and absence of small animal remains adds fur-
ther appeal for speculation.
Encouraged by the unexpected windfall at U.S. 19, the
shell yard at Third Street South was again studied; here the
management had kindly preserved a petrified fragment of mam-
moth tooth, black in color, and a similarly black heavily
mineralized and badly worn vertebra. A search of the yard
disclosed a fist-sized core, crudely edged, which may have
been a rough chopper.
The next weekend at U.S. 19, the left midshaft of a hu-
man femur was found projecting from an oyster shell pile
bank. It appeared well mineralized, was light brown in col-
or with none of the blackness of most of the artifacts and
fossils. On this day a light brown Equus astragalus was
found and a review of the artifacts and limestone and sili-
caceous rocks demonstrated that a minority had a brown col-
or, as if from staining by iron oxides or carbonates. The
black color of so much of the fossil and Indian materials
from the large bays of'this area is said to be due to iron
sulfide; the brown color, to iron oxides and carbonate.
The next weekend, three additional shell yards were vi-
sited, one in St. Petersburg and two in Tampa. All five
yards dredge their oyster shell from the same submerged
banks. At the yard operated by the Tampa Sand Corporation
on South 19th Street, Tampa, two choppers were found, one an
attractive percussion-flaked biface; two spalls and a readi-
ly identifiable hammerstone were present; and finally a huge,
most attractive, blue silicified half coral head, well per-
cussion flaked, and apparently representing a huge core. The
two other yards were sterile on the day I examined them.
At all yards a number of natural limerock and sand
stone objects were found or described as having been present
in the past. These are hand picked out of the shell and
piled to one side. Some have been taken home by the workmen
for rock gardens or otherwise disposed of. At Tampa Sand
Company I was informed a collector had been gathering them
for a time to "make costume jewelry". A great number were
said to have been spread on a county road bed just north of
the shell yard near Pinellas Airport. For the most part,
however, the shell is pure, and stone objects, whether natu-
ral or artifacts, seemed rare, and, in relation to the enor-
mous volumes of oyster shell, as hard to find as the prover-
bial needle in a haystack. I was told that the stone objects
come in on the dredges sporadically and that some barge
loads have many, while most have few or none.
Potsherds, shell and bone artifacts, steatite, and
small or medium sized animals skeletal remains, as are seen
on the vast shell middens of the St. John's River area, were
not found in the oyster shell deposits from Tampa Bay. The
bone relics were either human or of Pleistocene animals.
This does not, of course, imply contemporaneity.
Although the significance of the finds reported in this
paper are conjectural, I would like to advance the thesis
that the oyster shell beds in Tampa Bay, as documented by
the 20 or 24 artifacts we have found in the shell yards,
are more probably submerged kitchen middens than natural
oyster beds, or to put it another way that the oysters had
been eaten rather than dying of natural causes. One's imme-
diate reaction to this novel idea is to think it absurd, for
the total of shell dredged from the bay in the past 20 years
runs into the millions of tons. However, as any of us know
who are oyster enthusiasts, it takes a lot of oysters to
fill a hungry person and most of the oyster is shell anyway.
Moreover, there is excellent evidence all along the Central
Gulf Coast, from the Chassahowitzka River to Venice that sub-
mergence of the coast line has been steadily going along
since post-Pleistocene times, since the northward retreat of
the last or Wisconsin glaciation some ten thousand years ago.
Figures are quoted for the rise of the Gulf of 0.7 feet in
the last 50 years, or again, one foot per hundred years.
That submergence of coast could easily occur is not hard to
believe in an area where upland is frequently a foot or so
above high tide, and where greater elevations are often pro-
duced by the shell middens of the Indians. In such a region
a small elevation of Gulf or bays would innundate a rather
extensive area. Of special interest is that so much of the
archeologic and paleontologic material of the past decade
has come from dredged up bay bottoms in Boca Ciega, Terra
Ceia, and Tampa Bays. Pleistocene fossils, Suwannee and
Suwannee-like points, Bolen points and fiber-tempered sherds
have consistently come from bay bottom, often at too great a
distance from the present shore line to be explained as wash
down material from the adjacent upland. Furthermore, the
uplands are frequently too low themselves to provide much of
a gradient for wash down. Since we have a pretty good radio-
carbon date for fiber tempered pottery at about 4000 B.P.,
we have an index that the submergence of the former upland
in these fiber tempered areas occurred no longer than 3000
or 4000 years ago. We would like to timidly venture that
the oyster middens described in this paper were submerged a
millennium or two earlier, since they are, so far as we can
tell, non-ceramic and therefore presumably pre-ceramic. The
vastness of the deposits may indicate a prolonged occupancy
by a small population as would be expected in Tampa Bay in
such early times.
One of the interesting and provoking features of the
dredging activities in the Tampa Bay area has been the close
spatial association of the Pleistocene fossils and Indian
artifacts. This was so at Sheraton Shores, the Kellogg Fill,
Corey Causeway, Terra Ceia Bay,Apollo Beach, and as reported
in this paper, in the oyster shell deposits from upper Tampa
Bay. Unfortunately, the undeniable spatial association does
not imply a temporal one; those conditions which made a loca-
tion attractive for a Pleistocene fauna, fresh water for ex-
ample, may have been present, and no less attractive several
thousand years later for an Indian population. This prob-
ably holds for the oyster shell deposits as for the other
sites. That artifacts and fossils have the same dark gray
or black or brown color has no temporal significance either,
for both may have picked up their color from the same matrix
thousands of years apart. We have not yet found any associ-
ation of Pleistocene fossils and early man in the Tampa Bay
Acknowledgement and Addendum: After this paper had been
written, Mr. Francis Bushnell of St. Petersburg called my at-
tention to the basal half of a typical Suwannee point with
basal "grinding" which one of his students had found in an
oyster shell driveway; the shell was traced to the U.S. 19
yard. Mr. Ripley P. Bullen identified the artifacts des-
cribed here as Archaic; he also gave helpful advice with the
St. Petersburg, Florida
AN UNUSUAL INCISED VESSEL
James F. Small
A description of a small incised gourd-shaped
vessel from Tick Island, Volusia County, Florida.
The recent finding of an unusual pottery vessel seems
worthy of report. A word of explanation is necessary.
For several years the extensive shell middens on Tick
Island have been leased and developed commercially by Mr.
Wester Branton of DeLeon Springs, Volusia County, Florida.
Mr. Branton removes the shell from the island with a drag
line and carries it by barge to his commercial yard in DeLe-
on Springs. There it is washed and sold for use in road
building, parking lots and laterals etc. This shell is cur-
rently coming from the midden site designated as Vo-24. Mr.
Branton has kindly allowed the writer, on numerous occasions,
to examine the shell as it comes from the washer and a num-
ber of interesting artifacts have been found in this manner.
Early in July of 1964 a very interesting incised pot-
tery vessel was found (Figure 1A). This vessel is two and
three fourths inches long and one and five eights inches
high. It is somewhat gourd shaped as the illustration shows.
The incised decoration, which is one inch in height,
completely circumscribes the pot, including the proturber-
ance. An extended line drawing of the decoration is shown
in Figure IB.
This vessel is classified as transitional Orange In-
cised to St. Johns Incised and would fall into a temporal
period of late Orange or St. Johns I-A. The decoration is
closely related to Orange Incised while the chalky paste is
typical of the St. Johns 1 period.
I would like to express my thanks to Col. William C.
Lazarus who took the accompanying photograph and to Mr. Els-
ton Fagan who so ably assisted.
Bushnell, Francis F.
1960 The Harris Creek Site, Tick Island, Volusia
County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist,
vol. XIII, no. 1.
Goggin, John M.
1947 A preliminary definition of archeological a-
reas and periods in Florida. American Antiqui-
ty, vol. XIII, no. 2.
1952 Space and time perspective
Johns archeology, Florida.
Publications in Anthropology,
Press. New Haven.
Moore, Clarence B.
in northern St.
sand mounds of the St. Johns River,
Journal of the Academy of Natural
1894 Certain sand mounds of the St. Johns River,
part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia.
Figure 1 A
Figure 1 B
Return to Laughter. Elenore Smith Bowen (Laura Bohannan).
Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company,
Inc., 1964. 287 pp. $1.45.
Reviewed by Sarah Anne Robinson
Return to Laughter was originally published by Harper
and Brothers in 1954. It has long been out of print, but in
recent years the demand for the book has increased in train-
ing personnel for projects in ethnological research and ap-
plied anthropology. Now the novel has been reprinted in
paperback as one of the Natural History Library series of
Anchor Books by Doubleday and Company.
Everyone interested in anthropology or in the problems
of the contemporary world should read Laura Bohannan's fic-
tionalized account of her field work among the West African
Tiv. It is a fascinating tale focusing on the actions and
reactions of the anthropologist in relation to the Tiv soci-
ety in which she lived as well as worked.
Laura Bohannan gives, through a running account of
field work experiences, a clear picture of the Tiv as a soci-
ety; but it is she and the individuals she dealt with who
dominate the book. Presumably this is why she chose to
write under a pen name--because she felt that such a presen-
tation is not "scientific." However, the emphasis on indi-
vidual people is what makes the book both enlightening and
impressive. She shows the nuances in reasoning and emotion
that a monography, perforce, must blot out by generalization.
Return to Laughter should be particularly recommended
to two categories of readers--those without a background in
theory or an extensive vocabulary of jargon or an interest
in acquiring either of these, and those who are preparing
for their first experience in the field.
A first rate ethnologist must become involved with the
people in the society he is studying or he will not be able
to learn enough even to question the interplay of reason and
emotion that produce certain behavioral results. But get-
ting involved presents certain personal risks. It is these
which Laura Bohannan shows--without the usual pretense of
unimpassioned "objectivity." David Riesman says in his in-
troduction to the new paperback edition of Return To Laugh-
ter: "Professional men and perhaps especially professional
women in our society have a dream of omnicompetence in which
they are never ruffled, angry, irrational, stupid, and tact-
less, let alone cowardly. Mrs. Bohannan discovers in her-
self all these failings--with the additional failing, quite
alien to the tribe she studied, of wanting to be a superior
person and without feelings."
It is comforting for the novice field worker to be
shown that to err is human; it is also imperative that he
understand that to be human is not necessarily disastrous.
True objectivity comes only from understanding what happens
around oneself in relation to oneself. This understanding
does not come when one is being crowded by new experiences
and conflicting values. Getting "bushed" is a real hazard
to the field worker and one which should be guarded against
by scheduling regular periods of being oneself--one's old
self. Laura Bohannan shows that not even the strongest of
us are immune to getting bushed.
For those who are interested in checking the validity
of some of Mrs. Bohannan's composite characters in her
novel, it is interesting to read her article in Joseph B.
Casagrande's, book In the Company of Man. This article
brings out some additional hazards that she faced which are
not mentioned in the novel.
University of Florida
INDIAN AND SPANISH SELECTED WRITINGS
John M. Goggin
Selections from anthropological works of the late Dr.
ohn M. Goggin have been published in a new book, "Indian
nd Spanish Selected Writings," issued this month by the Uni-
ersity of Miami (Fla.) Press.
Dr. Goggin, who died last year, was chairman of the Uni-
ersity of Florida Department of Anthropology.
Divided into three sections, the book covers "United
States Ethnology and History," "Florida Archeology" and "La-
tin American Anthropology."
It was edited by Charles H. Fairbanks, chairman of the
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida; Irving
Rouse, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, and Wil-
liam C. Sturtevant, Smithsonian Institution, Department of
Born in Chicago in 1916, Dr. Coggin moved to Miami with
his family at an early age. Much of his boyhood was spent
in the Everglades where his interests in natural history
and anthropology developed.
Author of many publications in the anthropological
field, Dr. Goggin received his bachelor of arts degree from
the University of New Mexico in 1938. He received his mas-
ter's and doctor's degrees from Yale and in 1948 accepted a
position on the faculty of the University of Florida, where
he remained until his death.
Copies of the book may be ordered from the University
of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Fla. The price of $5.50 in-
Price of Back Issues
The price of back issues of The Florida Anthropologist
is $1.00 for each single issue, $2.00 for each double issue.
Double numbers are Volumes, I through V; IX, Nos. 3-4; X;
XIII, 2-3, XIV.
Out of Print Numbers
Volumes I, Nos. 1-2, 6:4, 8:2, 8:4, 10:1-2, 11:4, 13:1,
and Publication No. 4.