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VOLUME XVI, NO. 2
F 6~36 ?
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Volume XVI, No. 2
C 0 N T E N T S
The Fort Dade Site
Frank J. Laumer. ................ 33
A Discussion of Florida Anthropology from a Historian's Point of View
Charles W. Arnade ............... 43
A Bone Hand Pendant from Boca Ciega Bay
Tyman O. Warren and Francis Bushnell .48
The Lemon Bay School Mound
Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen. . .. .51
Apalachicola Seminole Leadership: 1820-1833
James W. Covington..... .......... 57
Shell Pendants in the Simpson Collection
Ripley P. Bullen. ................ 63
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d VICE PRESIDENT-James A. Gavin
University of Florida
TREASURER-J. Floyd Monk
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SECRETARY-Mrs. Violet Tebeau
Cliff E. Mattox
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Dr. William H. Sears
Florida State Museum, Gainesville
Mr. Carl A. Benson
2310 Resthaven Dr., Orlando
Charles H. Fairbanks
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida, Gainesville
THE FORT DADE SITE
Frank J. Laumer
Describes the search on the ground and through documents for the precise location of Fort
Dade constructed during the Seminole War. The site of the fort was located and some dis-
tinctive artifacts believed to date from the military occupation were recovered.
The Lollipop nosed into shore. My companion and I stepped out on
the steeply sloping sand dotted with cypress knees. Above us spread
a stark cypress, heavily bearded with moss, standing guard over this,
the Withlacoochee crossing of the Ft. King Road. A faint trail rose
just left of the tree, up the six foot bank and into the heavy palmetto.
At the crest, looking southwest along the trail as it continued down-
the lee of the bank, it almost seemed that we could hear the cursing
of the troopers as they tramped along, three days out of Ft. Brooke
and halfway to the Ft. King terminus. Nothing could have changed
very much from the days of the 2ndSeminole War, when this was the
highway, a twenty foot wide path cleared by troopers of the U. S.
Army. Here, too, just to our left, had stood Ft. Dade, a long-lost
fort of that war. Within its log palisade Yaholoochee (representing
Micanopy), had signed, on the 6th of March, 1837, the Articles of
Capitulation (Sprague, 1848, pp. 177) which were supposed to end
the fighting. The Fort had been an important depot and post of ob-
servation for the better part of twelve years, until its final abandon-
ment on the 29th of November, 1849. That day, as Major Bainbridge
led his two companies of the 7th Infantry out of the compound, the
regimental band, tootling loudly, was unknowingly playing taps, for
the Fort would never again by occupied. Today, the site, is just another
field of lush palmetto and sparse trees, bounded on the west by the
scar of the Fort King Road. We hadfound the site; now the real work
of discovery could begin. ..
Some months earlier, while doing research on the life of General
Zachary Taylor, I had first come across a reference to Fort Dade
on the Withlacoochee River, and inasmuch as my home is along the
river, I began to speculate as to where the fort must have been, in
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2
relation to me. Since this reference contained no details as to exact
location, I became sidetracked from my original research into a
quest for information of Seminole War forts, soon realising that
such information was rare, indeed. Surprised at this historical blank,
I now determined that there must be some way of locating this mili-
tary outpost; that someone, somewhere must have left a record. Let-
ters to authors of various works in which the fort was mentioned
brought no information, as they seemingly had only quoted references
to the fort, and knew nothing further of it, though each expressed
interest and encouragement.
Finally, in a Florida history by Professor Dovell, I found a small
copy of a map of Florida for the year 1845 which clearly indicated
Fort Dade on the south bank of the Withlacoochee River, somewhere,
evidently, north of the present site of Dade City. Quite obvious, here,
was the Ft. King Road running north out of Ft. Brooke to the With-
lacoochee (Fort Dade just on the right as it reached the river), and
continuing on to Fort King and points north. Eager for anything that
bore evidence of authenticity, I spent hours examining this five by
seven inch map of the state. Here was something to go on. The Fort
now seemed beyond a doubt to have been on both the Fort King Road
and the south bank of the river. Now I needed a township map of the
period indicating the exact location of the crossing. According to
both the Dovell map (courtesy University of Florida Press), and an
adaptation of General Taylor's map (found in McReynolds THE
SEMINOLES), the Fort had been on the short west-flowing portion
of the main river, a stretch some three miles long on the present
Hernando-Pasco County line. By great good luck, our local librarian
suggested about this time that I contact Father Jerome of St. Leo
College, who had an extensive knowledge of the area, as well as an
excellent Florida Section in his library. Father Jerome received me
very kindly and expressed great interest in my search..When I had
brought him up to date on my research, he immediately suggested
that somewhere in the files of the courthouse in Dade City, there
were available the earliest land surveys of this area, where I might
well find the exact course of the Fort King Road.
When the courthouse opened the following day, I was there. After
much explanation and inquiry, I was shown a large volume titled
Township Maps for Pasco County, and on page 2, a survey made in
July, 1846. Wandering across the nap was a line which crossed
the Withlacoochee River labeled "Road from Tampa to Fort King".
I felt like Columbus discovering the New World. Instead of three
miles, the search was nownarrowed down to a few hundred feet, for
the intersection of trail and river was in the northeast quarter of
Section 24. By comparison with a current geological survey map I
found that this point would be some eight hundred feet east of the
present railroad bridge. If the Fort had been of any size whatever,
I should be able to travel this distance up the river and be within
a few yards of the crossing and the Fort site.
Prelude to War, 1834-35
From MaReynold's THE SEMINOLES, p. 149.
With aid of a friend, Mr. Rodney Cox of Dade City, I was now
ready to set out. With map tube and outboard motor, we headed for
the site. Passing under the railroad bridge, we tried to pinpoint
some particular twist of shoreline on the old survey, despite the
possible changes of the passing years. The banks were high and,
above the floodwater line, thick with palmetto, but we looked about
hopefully, for some sign that would mean 'this is the place'. Several
thin breaks in the underbrush could be seen, where cattle had evi-
dently made their way to the water, but there seemed to be nothing
clearly indicative of where a once wide trail might have been. Gauging
ourselves about the right distance from the bridge, we beached the
Lollipop at the foot of a cow path, and clambered up the bank. If I
had felt before like Columbus, I now could share the feeling of Balboa
"silent, upon a peak in Darien". Before me lay the Fort King Road.
Without a doubt, this overgrown and narrow path, stretching away
through the underbrush, was the once-vital link between Fort Brooke
and Fort King. Here hadpassedtroopers by the hundred; here General
Taylor had ridden on his tours of inspection while in command of
the Army of the South, and here, too, the ill-fated and flamboyant
Major Dade had set foot on his last night on earth. Coincidence could
hardly account for this path, unused but distinct, within yards of the
spot where we had pre-determined' that the Road would be. This
piece was a perfect fit in the puzzle.
Mr. George MacKay, Deputy Sirveyor in 1846, had indicated that
the Fort King Road, on entering Section 24 from the North, had swung
southwest for several hundred feet, to effect a perpendicular crossing
of the river. On the south side he had drawn the main road turning
abruptly back to the left to continue its southern course, while a
branch road from Fort Cooper intersected the main trail here from
its eastern route along the river swamp. Ducking beneath overhanging
limbs and skirting the heavier clumps of dry palmetto, we sought the
abrupt left turn where the Forts King and Cooper trails diverged.
Within two hundred feet, we stood in the intersection. The lesser
trail continued its southwestern course, while the Fort King Road
had become a two-rut path for the cars of occasional fishermen. We
followed it now through the shoulder-high palmetto that lined its
path, and its southern course was unmistakably that of the survey
we carried. Without irrefutable evidence of military occupation of
the area, our efforts so far would officially mean nothing, but I had
no doubt that I now stood on the military highway, and, if the years
could be turned back, I would see within few yards of where I stood,
the palisade walls of the long-lost Fort Dade.
To prepare for further meaningful fieldwork, I now turned again
to paperwork. To Mr. Ristow in charge of the map division of the
Library of Congress I wrote first for a copy of any maps in the
Library showing the Fort. His reply indicated that there were four
maps available, and "each map clearly indicates Fort Dade." I
ordered them. The next step was to get in touch with Senator Smathers
to ask his aid in reaching the pertinent office of the Army for anything
in the old records touching on the Fort. He promptly contacted Mr.
Bahmer, Acting Archivist of the United States, and sent me his report
that there were several army survey maps on file and a letter from
a Lieutenant Lee, dated May 12th, 1837, reporting on a survey of the
Withlacoochee River and adjacent land. I ordered a copy of each item.
Again at the suggestion of Father Jerome, I now wrote to Mr. Tom
Brown, of Frostproof, Florida, thepossessor of a rich trove of maps,
letters, etc., of the Seminole War period, and asked if he could shed
any light on our search. He could, indeed. His reply contained a list
of references to the Fort culled from records in his collection, and
from this, the history of the Fort began to take shape.
From headquarters at Tampa Bay on December 23rd, 1836 (one
year to the day after Major Dade's fatal departure from this same
post), General Jesup had issued the following order: "A fort will be
erected by Lieutenant Colonel Foster, on the Big Withlacoochee,
at the point where the Fort King Road crosses it, which will bear
the name of the gallant and lamented Dade". ..
We now had the two most critical pieces of the puzzle; the survey
showing the spot where the Fort King Road crossed the river, and
the order to establish Fort Dade at that crossing. Mr. Brown sug-
gested in his letter that perhaps we could find some evidence of mili-
tary occupation of the site through the use of a mine detector owned
by a friend of his. I heartily agreed to this generous offer and we made
a date for the 29th of March.
Meanwhile, the maps had arrived from the government offices and
verified in each instance that we were on the right track. In each,
the trails of the period were plainly visible, and location of the Fort
was consistently shown at the river crossing. Especially interesting
was the survey made by Lieutenant Lee andhis covering letter date-
lined "Camp at Fort Dade." Now the feeling of 'you are there' became
acute. Within sight of where I had so recently stood, this officer in
faded Union blue had sat, probably writing his report with an upended
barrel for a desk, surrounded by soldiers, and with his battalion of
Creek Indian volunteers camped in the vicinity. The summer sun of
Florida had doubtless caused him to sweatover his paperwork as it
did me, and the dark cold water of the rwer must have beckoned us
More information was coming in by bits and pieces from various
sources. In George McCall's LETTERS FROM THE FRONTIER was
found a description of the barracks construction of Fort Brooke,
which could probably apply as well to Fort Dade.
"These buildings are of pine logs, and are raised by notching the
logs down, one upon another.. .The walls of the meh's barracks are
.. .eight or nine feet high; they will be about twelve feet, to give the
free circulation of air so essential in a hot climate." (McCall, 1868.
In the January 1962 issue of the Florida Historical Quarterly an
article by Tom Brown contained a sketch of what was probably a
typical outpost, Fort Clinch, near Frostproof. This indicated that
final victim for the year and the name of Lt. Adams is entered on the
From these bare bones of fact one can draw the pattern of succeed-
ing years. Until 1849, the schedule seems to have been followed with
regularity. From Autumn through Spring, the Fort was a passing
parade of military motion, only to fall silent with the coming of
summer and the fever.
The major government sources of information now seemedto have
run dry and we were anxious to see whether the mine detector would
substantiate our research. With Mr. Brown and Mr. Devane, the
owner of the instrument, we arrived at the site, just a half mile
upriver from my home. If the quest had been for buried treasure,
we could not have followed each flutter of the dial more eagerly.
And Mr. Devane did not disappoint us. Within minutes, the indicator
leaped to 100 and, just as abruptly, our shovels were in motion.
Mr. Brown, with long experience at this work, cautioned us that we
were not digging a basement, and that any artifacts of the Seminole
War period were likely to be found not more than eight inches below
the surface, under average conditions. Somewhat subdued, we sifted
through our mound of dirt by hand and in a moment uncovered our
first find; a heavily rusted pin, 5/8th of an inch thick and 8 inches
long, with a broad head on one end and a 1/2 inch rectangular slot
near the tip. I hadn't the faintest idea what it was, but it certainly
looked old, and, lying as it did beneath the ground in this desolate
spot, it seemed a favorable indication. Mr. Brown suggested that it
was possibly some part of the equipage of a wagon. We wandered on,
trailing behind Mr. Devane with the detector, as he moved slowly
south on the Fort Cooper Road. This was the trail more touched by
time and, we reasoned, less by man. The Fort King Road would
doubtless be richer in finds, but the surface, through occasional use
by garbage-bearing natives, was more littered with decoys for the
detector in the way of tin cans. The next hour we uncovered some
fifty nails, usually in clumps of two or three, but all at about the
same depth, and all seemingly hand-forged. The heads were irregular
rectangles and they varied in length from four inches to eight. We
moved out of the path now, into the area that we figured was between
the two trails just south of their intersection, some four hundred
feet from the river. This was purely a random search, but we were
rewarded quickly with a good meter reading and shortly had in
hand a curry comb. Careful brushing of the rust-caked surface re-
vealed a brass plate inset with the figure of a man standing in front
of a horse and around the edges of the plate the world "James Car-
penter's Patent, Philadelphia." Unfortunately, there was no year
given, but here was surely something that could be traced back to
its source and might perhaps give a clue to our site. On this hopeful
note, we concluded our first dig on the site of Fort Dade.
It was obvious now that without a detector, the on-site work could
hardly be advanced. No longer didwe feel any doubt as to the location
of the Road and the Fort, for the evidence of some seventeen maps
the upright log palisade surrounding that fort was some one hundred
feet or more on a side with the log barracks within the enclosure
for the regular garrison, while transient companies doubtless camped
nearby. (Brown, 1962. pp. 310-313).
Combining all references, we could now compile a fairly compre-
hensive chronology of events at Fort Dade, following General Jesup's
original order of December, 1837, which continued:
"The armament of .. .(the) fort will consist of a six pounder and
a howitzer with at least a hundred rounds of ammunition for each
piece. .Twenty-five thousand ball and buckshot cartridges, with
twenty thousand rounds of rifle powder and bullets will be placed
in deposit in Fort Dade. .(together with) fifth thousand rations of
subsistence and five thousand bushels of corn."
By the 8th of January, Jesup had made the Fort his temporary
headquarters and specified that the Fort would be garrisoned by a
Col. Henderson and over one hundred men of the 2nd Brigade.
Concern about hostile Indians, as well as the January weather, can
perhaps be detected in the following order, issued the next day:
"Lieutenant Colonel Foster will remain at Fort Dade for a day or
two with his battalion. .He will press forward the work under his
direction with his accustomed energy. The block houses, particular-
ly, should, if possible be raised and covered in today. To facilitate
the work the QuarterMaster will place all the disposable teams sub-
ject to his orders ."
By the 17th, he reported to the Adjutant General that the Fort had
been completed, and the regular garrison hadbeen joined by a detach-
ment of the U. S. Marine Corps.
On the 18th of February, one month after completion of the Fort,
the two principal chiefs of the Seminoles, Alligator and the Negro,
Abraham, came to the Fort to visit General Jesup. They agreed to
send representatives for a conference the following month.
The 6th of March, 1837. Five chiefs, either in person or by proxy
attend the General at the Fort, and after much debate, all parties
agree to the "Articles of Capitulation." The 2nd Seminole War is
theoretically at an end.
Micanopy comes to the Fort inperson on the 18th and assures Jesup
that he is ready to move west.
Through April and May detachments of troops were frequently
arriving or departing, but by June, temporary evacuation due to
increasing illness was under consideration, and in July, the Fort
was abandoned for the summer. Since the 1st of February, six men
had died, casualties of what was termed remittent fever.
For three months the Fort stood silent and deserted, while else-
where hostilities had resumed.
November 3rd, 1837. Once more the compound of Fort Dade echoed
the drumroll as two companies of the 2nd Artillery marched up the
military highway and turned in through the gates. 1st Lieutenant
Thomas B. Adams of Boston was in command.
On the 14th of December the invisible enemy, fever, claimed its
"A fort will be erected ... on the Big Withilaon-
chee... .where the Ft. .InEi road crosses it..."
and surveys now received could hardly be disputed, but though the
Fort was at the intersection of trail and river, we had no evidence
as to whether this meant literally on the bank, or whether the Fort
might have been set back as much as a quarter of a mile from the
river, or the Road, or both. For general purposes this was pin-
point enough, but to attempt to lay back the surface of approximately
forty acres of ground heavily overgrown in palmetto in search of
artifacts was more than the good nature of my friends would allow.
I must get a mine detector.
This was soon acquired and in the hands of James Stubbs of Dade
City, an electronics expert, for adjustment to our purposes. In the
meantime, I wrote to the Pennsylvania Historical Society in the
hope that they might have some record of a James Carpenter in the
hardware business for the period of 1835 to 40. They regretfully
advised me that they did not, but suggested that I might have more
luck with the Smithsonian Institute. They, in turn, replied that after
comparing the sketches of our comb with their samples from 1810 to
the present they could find no obvious evolution in curry combs by
which to date ours. The Patnet Office informed us that they could
be of no help without a date of patent. So, at present, the curry comb
is still in that category of things indicative, but not definitive.
Constant inquiry had now resulted in the welcome receipt of other
material. Chief among these was a microfilm from the National Ar-
chives, containing all available post returns of Fort Dade, spanning
the period from March, 1837 to October, 1849, together with a file
of personal letters emanating from the Fort. Mr. William Goza of
Clearwater very kindly offered to have these enlarged and printed
for me as there were no facilities available locally. Upon thorough
examination, these returns yielded a great deal of general informa-
tion about the activities at the Fort, though very little, unhappily,
concerning its exact location. Several times the statement occurs,
"At Fort Dade on the Withlacoochee River," but did this necessarily
mean overlooking the water? The bluff here was quite high and the
fear of flooding would not have caused Colonel Foster, in charge of
construction, to build further inland, but what other circumstances
may have weighed with him, I could not guess. Our probable site, a
quarter mile square, bounded on the north by the river and on the
west by the Fort King Road, had not shrunk.
Another fact that emerged from the returns with regard to the
strength of the Fort, was that nearly 1000 men were carried on the
muster roll in April, 1837, though the regular garrison averaged
closer to one hundred.
I noticed also that Colonels Foster and Thompson, who were later
to die in the Battle of Lake Okeechobee, had served as commandants
of the Fort.
Through the succeeding months, during which many friends have
generously assisted in checking out sections of the Fort Dade site
with our detector, we have ferreted out a good many pounds of ancient
iron, none of it conclusive, but all of it interesting. Our average
findings run like this:
1 Minie ball
2 heavy gate supports
assorted cartridge cases
sections of chain
a complete scale
an iron spoon
and about twenty pounds of hand made nails.
We've found, in addition, many items that, while fascinating to us,
are as yet unidentified. A unique pair of scissors, for instance, that
have a small metal box attached to them. Like the curry comb, these
objects, when considered as to age, style and location are indicative
of military occupation, but not conclusive. One thing that lures us on
is the fact that there were atleast seven deaths recorded at the Fort.
Probably buried in pine boxes within the compound, the metal attach-
ments of the soldiers uniforms may be there still, and after five
quarter centuries, these bits of metal might beckon our detector
and lead us to the bones of these forgotten dead. It is interesting to
ponder whether the beltbuckle of Lieutenant Adams may be a lode-
stone that will lead to the raising of a monument on this site, com-
memorating, in part, the efforts to win this land for civilization by
these men who still lie beneath its sand.
Township maps for Pasco County
Brown, Tom O.
1962 Locating Seminole Indian War forts. Florida Historical
Quarterly. 40:2; pp. 310-313.
Dovell, Junius E.
1952 Florida: historic, dramatic, contemporary. Lewis Histori-
cal Pub. Co. New York.
1837 Letter of Lt. Lee, May 12, 1837. National Archives.
McCall, George A.
1868 Letters from the frontiers. Lippincott. Philadelphia.
MacReynolds, Edwin C.
1957 The Seminoles. Univ. of Okla. Press. Norman.
Sprague, John T.
1848 The origin, progress, and conclusion of the Florida War.
Appleton. New York.
Dade City, Florida
A Discussion of Florida Anthropology from a Historian's Point of View
Charles W. Arnade
Discusses the role of anthropology in the liberal arts curriculum in the Florida university
system. Makes a plea for a broad, general, cultural anthropology program in
It is amazing to discover the ignorance of our freshman and sopho-
more students of what Anthropology and Archaeology are. Here are a
few answers given to me by sophomore students at the University of
South Florida who were registered in a social science course in the
"Anthropology is the study of insects." ". .it is the study of
fossils." ". .it is the study of Archaeology (but this same student
did not know what Archaeology was)."
Seven students out of thirty-six did not know what Anthropology
was--they left an empty space. Many more students gave wrong
answers for Archaeology--most of them confused it with Geology.
Very few knew the relationship of Anthropology to Archaeology. Nine
left a blank space in their definition of Archaeology.
Now I think, as a History Professor, that Anthropology (and that
includes Archaeology) is basic to a social science curriculum. I just
want to tell you that I have devised a quick way, not based on a peek
into library and professorial salaries, to determine if this or that
college or university is good. Does it have a Phi Beta Kappa chapter,
courses in Anthropology including Archaeology, and does the majority
of its faculty go out during the summer to other research or teacher
assignments without having to rely on campus jobs? Of these three
the Anthropology teaching is probably the most reliable indication
of the quality of the college. At the same time, 'look where the best
Anthropology departments with the best known authorities and the most
expanded and specialized courses are located and it will coincide
with the best universities in this country. Here in Florida only Florida
State University and the University of Florida have worthwhile An-
thropology programs. Unfortunately the authorities of the University
of South Florida, with what I believe is a misplaced emphasis on
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2
general education courses, have shown little awareness of the im-
portance of a good Anthropology program. Yet no school in Florida
could have developed better facilities for such a program, and as
we all know there is a crying need for anthropological studies of
the Tampa Bay area, central Florida, and the whole central or lower
Florida West Coast.
There is in the minds of Deans and indeed many social science
Professors a certain disregard for Anthropology for two basic rea-
sons. It is shameful to say but many of them have little idea of what
Anthropology really is as few of them have ever taken a course during
their university training. They can broadly define Anthropology and
might know the basic difference between cultural and physical An-
thropology and they might have a layman's conception of what Arch-
aeology is. But many of them--and that applies usually to key ad-
ministrators--fail to understand the true value of Anthropology
because of this lack of experience. The second reason for disregarding
Anthropology as a valid subject ties in with the first one and is
simply a belief that to teach more than one, or even one Anthropology
course, is a luxury that their college cannot afford. At the same time
courses that are obvious frills load the catalogue.
When college authorities talk about the luxury of offering or not
offering Anthropology courses they tend to think of this subject as
standing isolated and therefore unimportant to the broad education
of the student. This is just not so, and I as a Historian and a Political
Scientist think of Anthropology as a most important discipline for
my work and teaching. Let me quote the words of the great Latin
American History Professor, Dr. Arthur P. Whitaker, in a recent
study of nationalism. He writes, "Recognizing the need for greater
precision in the study of nationalism, historians have begun to look
to the other social sciences for help, and some has been forthcoming.
Perhaps the most direct and greatest aid has been given by the an-
thropologists, in two ways: first, in exposing the fallacy of racial
ideas that once clouded the whole question; and second, in renewing
with fresh methods the attack on the ancient and highly controverted
problem of national character." I think this lucid statement by Whit-
aker is most sufficient to prove my point. Only recently the American
University Field Staff issued in their West Coast South America
series (Vol VIII, no. 7, 1961) an interesting essay called "An An-
thropologist' s Approach to Economic Aid (Bolivia)" written by Richard
Patch. I would like to say something else about this matter of An-
thropology's relation and value to contemporary problems.
As you know, at the University of South Florida a state senatorial
investigation committee led by ex-Governor Charley Johns investi-
gated the faculty and teaching materials and went so far as to criti-
cize the reading of the works of Nobel Prize winner, John Steinbeck.
Mr. Johns' investigators came to Tampa at the request of a few local
citizens who were incensed with the instructional philosophy of the
University which was accused of radicalism, atheism andbeatnikism.
There was bewilderment among the faculty and student body and
some administrators. Having taught at the other two state universi-
ties and in some better known Midwestern universities I was always
struck by the more conservative nature of the University at Tampa.
It was never permittedtobecome an element of change and new ideas,
and its faculty was careful in not going contrary to prevalent com-
munity attitudes. The University of South Florida moved into Tampa
with ambitions of becoming a true university but the University was
green and innocent (ignorant if you wish) of a cultural lag in Tampa.
Suddenly the University of South Florida found itself ahead of the
restricted social attitudes, folkways and behavior of most of the
small ruling element of the Tampa society. Only a few Professors,
old hands in Florida, understood the Tampa milieu. The accusations
hurled against the new University were rather ridiculous for people
of tolerance and those devoted to progress and for those who under-
stood what a true university is.
Why was the University of South Florida singled out? I was not
surprised and my quick explanation to my perplexed colleagues and
my students was based on an anthropological thesis. Basically it
was indeed a result of a true cultural lag. Tampa had fallen so be-
hind in cultural and social development that the coming of a beautiful
new University with modern equipment and a most dynamic and well
qualified faculty produced a head-on clash and there were few ele-
ments which could bridge the gap. Only a slow process of accul-
turation and cultural diffusion between the most advanced and the
too behind elements will improve the situation. Naturally the whole
situation can be explained in many other terms but an awareness of
Anthropology can serve to develop tolerance of extreme problems
since human difficulties are never new. The emergence of com-
munism and the recent rise of the John Birch Society can both have
a partial explanation by the application of anthropological theories.
Therefore, to consider Anthropology as an isolated discipline or as
a luxury is wrong. It can be of much help and it should be valuable
in any study or studies of Florida beyond Indian research.
I think it is necessary to point out that many people--also here in
Florida--believe that Anthropology in America has something to do
with Indians. You take out the Indian and you have no Anthropology.
Indeed some Anthropologists are responsible for this misconception.
They do too much Indian research and little else and often each of
these enthusiasts fall in love with their Indians and guard them with
great jealousy, although they might have disappeared from this earth
a long time ago. Any other Anthropologist's entrance into this par-
ticular Indian realm is considered an intolerable infringement on
his investigatory sovereignty over these Indians--indeed only an
illusion. And beware of any other social scientist such as a Historian
who would describe these Indians other than this particular Anthro-
pologist: Then hell's bells break loose. Now all this might be exag-
gerated but is there not a grain of truth in it?
The study of the Indian or native cultures is valuable and necessary
and should be a main part of Anthropology. It should be in Florida. But
it should not be at the exclusion of other topics. Here in Florida
Anthropology and Archaeology can serve an important research func-
tion as useful as that of the other social science disciplines. There
are the community studies. For example, contrast Miami with Im-
mokalee, and the two communities are less than two hours drive
apart. In Immokalee in Collier County, where EdwardR. Murrow took
much of his now famous "Harvest of Shame," you have a clash of
various cultures unmatched anywhere in Florida. The booming if
not fantastic Miami cries for good historical research and socio-
logical studies in which Anthropology can be of great help. There
are other communities which are beautiful material prima for such
studies, as for example Fellsmere in Indian River County near the
Cape with all its space fantasies come true. Yet Fellsmere still
represents the old Florida of bygone days. Then there is the quaint
little town of San Antonio in Pasco County where I live. It started
out as an all Catholic community and although there are many Pro-
testants in the twon today the Catholics still dominate the community.
Another interesting community is Century in the extreme northwest
corner of Florida in Escambia County where a powerful lumber
company was and still is the total boss of the town.
There are many other topics which Anthropology with Sociology
can study in Florida. There is the clash of the newcomers with the
old crackers. There is the problem of migrant labor and the various
adjustments and difficulties of these migrators. There is a vast
field of study in the orange pickers, a vital element in the huge orange
industry. The Negro represents a vast field of study with multiple
facets. Even Archaeology can be of help in locating some of the old
all-Negro communities and it can also discover the hidden mass
graves of Negroes, victims of the first Ku Klux Klan during Recon-
struction. The sudden arrival of about two hundred thousand Cubans
in Florida presents another whole open chapter of investigation.
Anthropology and Archaeology can be helpful in researching the
Florida boom of the 1929's, a most neglected era.
Anthropology has been and can be of much more help in studying
the Spanish periods of Florida than any other discipline except His-
tory. William Griffin in the Florida Historial Quarterly has given
some examples of anthropological research that can be done from
Spanish documents, excellent copies of which are available in Flo-
rida. The Griffin suggestions are praiseworthy although at some
moments too glib. A few additional examples will suffice. My work
in restoration in St. Augustine led me to a study of population clusters
within the town limits. This opened a wide and virgin field of study
of social structure and family patterns. Here a combined cooperation
of Geography (cartography of old St. Augustine), Genealogy and His-
tory can produce important results from an anthropological point
of view. One more item ought to be mentioned. Often the Spaniards
in their legal documents had inventories of goods belonging to dis-
puted estates. This is a wonderful sociological or anthropological
In sum, we have a tremendous ignorance among the American
people and even college students as to what Anthropology is and
how Archaeology is related to Anthropology. Florida, in which An-
thropology can be vital to past and future knowledge, cannot claim
any better--rather, a worse--record. Academic ignorance of a higher
caliber is also present--college Presidents, Deans and Professors
know little about Anthropology and its importance and usefulness
in the university curriculum. On the other hand, many Anthropolo-
gists are highly prejudiced by their own interests and specialties
and become enamored with their "natives" and guardthem jealously
from other interested parties. This also leads to a preconception
that Anthropology deals only with Indians or natives. Anthropology
is much more and has many facets. It can help interpret most all
modern social, economic and political problems and this is most
true in Florida. The possible topics of study for an Anthropologist
are many and rich in all the strata of history from current problems
to pre-history (the accepted domain of Anthropology). In Florida
alone the topical selection is great and can cover from pre-Colum-
bian periods through the two Spanish eras to the English occupation
and to the territorial United States period, then statehood and even
modern Florida. Finally, other specialists of such disciplines as
History, Geography, Political Science, Sociology and even Psycho-
logy, Music, and the History of Architecture and others should
cooperate or use the cooperation of Anthropologists.
In Florida we have too few Anthropologists and all the new uni-
versities emerging in central and south Florida can render a good
service to the study of Florida by encouraging a sound program of
Anthropology. I would like to end this essay by saying with all honest
intentions that the Florida Anthropological Society with its modest
means is doing a most commendable job. Such a FAS success as the
federal law making the site of the old fort at Saint Marks in Wakulla
County a national monument is of tremendous credit to the FAS. It
also shows the worthwhile cooperation of amateurs and professionals,
something which has not been achieved in the field of Florida His,
tory. Finally it indicates the many opportunities for Florida
University of South Florida
Palmar aspect of bone
Booa Ciega Bay.
hand pendant from Sheraton Shores,
Dorsal surface of bone pendant from Kitchen Midden,
dredged from B", Ccigm ay.
A Bone Hand Pendant from Boca Ciega Bay
Lyman O. Warren and Francis Bushnell
A small carved bone pendant in the shape of a human hand came from dredged material
along Boca Ciega Bay, Pinellas County. Sherds in the same dredge tailings contained fiber-
tempered, sand tempered, St. Johns, Pasco, Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor types.
Dredge and fill operations in Boca Ciega Bay along the east or
mainland shore have uncovered hitherto unknown Indian sites. One
of these, dredged up from the bay bottom, has been designated
"Sheraton Shores" from a nearby real estate development of that
name. It was, in 1962, a spit of dirty brown sandy soil, obviously
midden material, projecting into the bay in a westerly direction from
the upland. Immediately to the south was a small fresh water creek
on property formerly owned by Mr. Lex Brumby. A patch of bog iron
has been exposed at the creek's mouth. The site is located in Semi-
nole about one mile north of the Welch Causeway connecting Seminole
with Madeira Beach.
The midden soil has provided a rich source of artifacts for sur-
face collectors. Stone tools, projectile points, and especially spalls
were numerous, as were shell tools, shells, bone points, and sherds.
Human remains were represented by pieces of long bones and skulls
in very scant amounts. A few deer bones and turtle shells of Indian
provenience were found. Pleistocene fossils included fragments of
mastodon and mammoth teeth, entire horse and bison teeth, and un-
identified mineralized bone fragments.
Sherds were most numerous including those of the Transitional,
Deptford, and Weeden Islandperiods. A classification of those collect-
ed by Mr. John Greve of St. Petersburg is appended. Of special in-
terest were two transitional or lightly fiber-tempered sherds and one
typical Orange Plain or heavily fiber-tempered specimen.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2
The present paper is intended to portray and describe a small
bone pendant in the shape of a human hand which was found on this
midden in the spring of 1962. The tiny object was a surface find.
The right hand is represented. It measures 37 mm. (1 1 2 inches)
in length and 15 mm. (5/8 inch) in width. The color is brown and
there is an oily sheen on the thenar and hypothenar eminences as
from contact with bare skin. The fingers and thumb are somewhat
poorly proportioned, but the palm is appropriately concave and the
dorsum convex. The central palmar surface shows faint traces of
medullary or cancellous bone. Around the wrist is a circular groove
suggesting a pendant function as ornament or amulet. The wrist end
has a straight groove lying in the plane of the palm. Suspension by
cord might have beento the circular groove by tying or to the straight
groove by a little bitumen as adhesive. The latter arrangement might
have made the pendant hang more true. The boney material is pro-
bably deer. Its age, problematical.
The hand motif in the ceramic art work of the aboriginal popula-
tions of the Gulf Coast of Florida has been noted by Clarence B. Moore
in the burial mounds at Crystal River and Hickory Bluff. We have
also found it on potsherds from the Cabbage Key burial mound. The
present bone pendant is, however, the only boney representation of
the human hand that we are aware of from the area.
We wish to express our gratitude to Ripley P. Bullen of the Florida
State Museum for his help in this paper, and to Mr. John Greve for
allowing us to inspect his collection and to Kai Warren for finding
SHERD COUNT, SURFACE COLLECTION, MR. JOHN GREVE,
Orange Plain (heavily fiber tempered) 1
Sand-tempered plain 85
Sand-tempered, linear check-stamped (Deptford?) 2
Sand-tempered, finger-nail impressed 2
Sand-tempered, cord-marked 2
St. Johns Incised 9
St. Johns finger-nail impressed 1
St. Johns Plain 16
St. Johns Check Stamped 2
Pasco Plain 17
Pasco Incised (from a single bowl) 5
Weeden Island Plain 12
Safety Harbor Plain 1
St. Petersburg, Fla.
February 11, 1962
THE LEMON BAY SCHOOL MOUND
Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen
Discusses the salvage excavation of a small burial mound in Charlotte County, Florida. The
mound was composed of layers of greymidden soil mixed with scattered shells. A few very
badly decayed burials were found. Only three sherds of indeterminate plain pottery and a
Busycon pounder were found. They do not permit the exact dating of the mound.
The site of the Lemon Bay School mound is located in Charlotte
County on the east side of Route 775 about a mile south of its junc-
tion with Route 766. This mound was first examined by us in 1949
at which time apparently superficial holes were noted in the top.
Beside these holes were shell fragments but no sherds or pieces
of human bone. The large borrow pit on the west side, towards the
road, was at that time filled with water. While no ramp was dis-
cernible, the large size and long oval shape suggested that the edifice
might have been a temple mound or similar ceremonial structure
and not a burial mound. Subsequently, in 1960 the site was visited
again, this time with Francis F. Bushnell of St. Petersburg. The
appearance of the moundhad changedbut little in the intervening time.
In January 1962 Mr. James B. Lawless of Punta Gorda informed
the Florida State Museum that the mound was situated on land re-
cently purchased by the Board of Public Instruction for the County
of Charlotte and that construction of a school was planned at the
site. At first it was thought that this construction would not effect
the mound but after plans were completed it was found that it would
be too close to the school building and hence would have to be leveled.
The Board of Public Instruction very kindly arranged for us to be
present at the time of leveling and directed the contractor to give us
all possible cooperation.
We are indebted to Mr. Lawless for bringing this matter to our
attention; to Mr. W. S. Hancock, Superintendent of Public Instruction
and Secretary of the Board, for making all the arrangements; to Mr.
W. J. Newman of Englewood, the contractor, for his splendid co-
operation; to Mr. Floyd E. Matter, Jr., the bull-dozer operator, for
his cheerful willingness to shift his scene of operations at our request;
and to Mr. Eber B. Harrison of Osprey for his help in digging in-
numerable test holes. The picture accompanying this article was
taken by Mr. Tex Glazier of the Port Charlotte News and the print
supplied by the Midway Studios of Port Charlotte. All of this
cooperation is deeply appreciated.
The picture (Fig. 1) shows the mound after partial clearing. The
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2 ,,
large borrow pit is in the left foreground and the mound proper under
the brush behind the nearest pine tree. The mound was about 200
feet long, 75 feet wide, and 10 feethigh with its major axis extending
northwest-southeast (Fig. 2). While in general ovate in shape, the
westerly side, adjacent to the borrow pit, was fairly straight while
the easterly side was more curved. No village debris is to be found
near the mound but along the shore, a half mile to the west, are shell
Excavation by means of a bulldozer presents some problems but
is saving of time and manpower. The bulldozer operator made a
series of cuts across the southern and central parts of the mound.
In the northeastern part a dragline was in operation. By these means
we were able to examine the interior of the mound. When signs of
structure were encountered the machine operators diverted their
attention elsewhere while we worked with shovels and trowels.
Our numerous tests and observations indicated the mound was built
of clean sand, similar in grain size but whiter than that forming the
surrounding ground, with occasional admixtures of relatively small
deposits of shells. These shells were always surrounded and under-
lain by a rusty-brown colored deposit and consisted of a variable
mixture of conch, whelk, oyster, clam, and scallop shells. Of these
the fighting conch was the most common. Rarely did these shells
show evidence of use or was other midden material noted. In one
case fragments of a turtle carapace were found. However, these shells
were undoubtedly brought to the site from a shell midden.
At the base of the mound was found a gray zone which we took to
be the old pre-mound ground surface. By means of a transit the
elevation of the top of this basal gray zone was found to be 9 inches
below the top of the surrounding ground.
The northwestern end of the mound was archaeologically sterile
except for a small amount of shell spread by the bulldozer before
our arrival. Apparently, it came from just above the basal gray zone.
Otherwise the first evidence of structure was found near the south-
east end of the mound. Here (Fig. 2, B) was encountered a deposit of
shells which had clearly been placed on the side of a sloping surface.
Below was tan to brown sand which stood out in marked contrast
with the surrounding white sand. This deposit extended from a depth
of 10 inches downward to a depth of 42 inches. Both the top and the
bottom of the deposit sloped downward at an angle of approximately
45 degrees from the vertical. At the end of the deposit, below a depth
of 42 inches, brown stain continued downward until the basal gray
zone was met at a depth of 58 inches. This deposit recorded a stage
in the construction of the mound and, quite possibly, the presence of
an earlier internal or primary mound.
Testing to the west and northwest failed to uncover any similar
deposits but to the east we were more successful. There (Fig. 2,
A-C) we found a continuous line of shell deposits, at the same ele-
vation as the top of that at "B", which seemed to mark the edge of a
buried or primary mound. This deposit was about 18 inches wide
ZOO FT. 1
Fig. 2. Sketch plan of Lemon Bay School Mound
at "A" but narrowed towards "C" beyond which only a trace could
be discovered. These shells did not extend downward any substantial
distance but the brown stain from them did. This stain sloped out-
ward with depth in a manner dimilar to the situation at "B". Three
to four feet below this shell deposit was uncovered the top of the
basal gray zone, here containing some flecks of charcoal. The loca-
tion of these shells and their stain in the ground seems to support
the evidence from "B" in suggesting an early primary mound.
Near the center of the mound at "D" was found a 6- to 12-inch
thick deposit of shells which covered an area 5 feet across and rested
on the top of the basal gray zone.
At "E" the top of the basal gray zone was found at a depth of 7
feet. Here there was a dome-shaped deposit of shells, about a foot
in diameter, which seemed to represent one basketful of shells. Again,
the bottom of the shell deposit sloped downward towards the east
at an angle of about 45 degrees.
At "F" was found a decayed fragment of human bone, a sherd, and
some shells at a superficial depth of about a foot. These were not
in situ but in a loose deposit which presumably came from hole "H",
to be mentioned next.
Two large "treasure seeker's" holes were found near the center
of the mound (Fig. 2, H and K). Both were over 10 feet across and
penetrated the basal gray zone. Associated with them were a few
fragments of human bones, shells, and, sometimes, decayed leaves
and twigs. At "L", to the north of "K", was the area of shells noted
previously and left there, no doubt, by the diggers of these holes.
At "G", in the edge of one of these holes were several patches of
shells some of which were cemented together, apparently by calcium
carbonate as no evidence of heat was noted. They had been brought
to the surface by the treasure seekers.
At "I" was found a horizontal thin layer of shells extending with
interruptions for a distance of 12 feet. Vertically this shell deposit
was 3 1/2 feet above the top of the basal gray zone. In part it had
been cut by hole "H". At "J" were small lenses of shells, some at
3 1/2, some at 4 feet above the top of the basal gray zone. No con-
nection between these lenses and the deposit at "I" could be traced
in the ground, but as they were at the same elevation they both support
an hypothesis that there was a platform or top of a primary mound
at an elevation of about 31/2 feet above the top of the basal gray zone.
No in situ shell deposits were found higher than 4 feet above the
top of the basal gray zone. At "B", "A" to "C", "I", and "J" were
found shell deposits whose elevations were between 3 1/2 and 4 feet
above the top of the basal gray zone. At "B", under "A" to "C",
and at "E" were found evidences of old outwardly sloping surfaces.
It seems evident that there was in the Lemon Bay School mound an
inner primary mound about 3 1/2 to 4 feet high.
Skeletal material was not found other than in association with the
treasure seeker's holes. The only artifacts found in our work were
a Busycon pounder and three sherds. The latter, abundantly tempered
with medium sized grains of quartz sand, are not chronologically
very definitive. They only permit us to state that the mound was built
sometime after the time of Christ and before the coming of the
The Lemon Bay School mound consisted of a primary sand burial
mound, about 4 feet high, and its thick secondary sand mantle which
raised the total height to nearly 10 feet above the surrounding land.
On the top and sides of the primary mound, midden shell was deposit-
ed in an irregular manner. In this mound, or on the surface under
it, one or more interments were made. After burial ceremonies were
finished, the primary mound was covered with a thick mantle of sand
secured from the adjacent borrow pit. Over centuries, the fill of
mound and mantle was leached, becoming white in color except
where perculating rain water was slowed down by shells and forced
to deposit minerals extrained higher up in the edifice.
People buried in the Lemon Bay School mound must have been
of great importance considering the large amount of work expended
for only a very few interments.
Skeletal Material-A. K. Bullen
Forty-six fragments of human bones were collected from the
treasure seeker's spoil at the Lemon Bay School mound. The dark
color of many of them suggest they came from a burial or burials
made in the top of the basal gray zone.
One segment of the shaft of a fairly large-sized femur shows
relatively little femoral torsion. Other fragments of long bones--
including one short section of the shaft of a fairly large fibula--are
all small pieces, approximately 2 to 4 inches in length, and all but
two or three are broken longitudinally as well as transversely. Frag-
ments vary in discoloration and suggest at least two burials, possibly
Skull fragments include fairly large mastoid processes of at least
two individuals. These are similar to some of the long bones in
relative size and degree of discoloration. Skull bones are decidedly
thick. Mandible fragments (left side) and two well-worn, non-carious
molars are definitely those of a mature adult. Teeth appear to have
been lost postmortem. The jaw fragments show discoloration similar
to some of the long bones. The mental foramen is unusually large.
The general impression of these skeletal fragments from the Lemon
Bay School mound coincides with the prevalent type of Florida burial
found in the Tampa Bay region. From Hrdlicka on, massive size and
thick skulls have been noted. The archaeological location of these
bones, in conjunction with the features noted above, support the
thesis that these bones are definitely those of prehistoric Indians;
and, using size as a criterion (including size of mastoids and femur
shaft), these are probably male burials.
Florida State Museum
APALACHICOLA SEMINOLE LEADERSHIP:
James W. Covington
Acting Governor Wescott wrote a letter to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Herring in which
he related how the white authorities manipulated Apalachicola Seminole leadership during
the period from 1818 to 1833. Both Yellow Hair and John Blount held great friendship for
the Whites but received some harsh treatment in return.
From the first days of White-Indian contact in Virginia, New
England, and in Florida, the White man discovered that he could
select Indian leadership to some degree by the use of bribes, awards
and use of force. The English andAmericans learned from the French
the importance of presenting large or small medalsto friendly chiefs
and ignoring unfriendly ones. The Indians generally accepted the
nomination of leaders, for such men being acceptable to the Whites
were able to negotiate for and obtain such needed items as muskets,
flints, pots, knives, and other essentials. 1
An excellent illustration of howthe Federal authorities manipulated
Indian leadership could be seen in their relations with the Seminoles.
In 1821 Neamathia was one of some twenty or thirty leaders of various
bands in Florida. 2 By the time the treaty of Moultrie Creek was
signed in 1823, he was acknowledgedby the whites as principal leader
and most Seminoles seemingly recognized such authority. In July,
1824 Governor DuVal found that he could not deal with Neamathia
and discharged him as principal leader and put John Hicks in his
post. None of the Seminoles protested against such action. It was
clearly recognized that such leaders had been needed to negotiate
with the Whites and in time of warfare they could be 'by-passed and
military leaders such as Osceola, Alligator, Wildcat, and others would
rise and fill the need for such leadership.
The bands of Seminoles living along the Apalachicola River and
known as the Apalachicolas were subjected to the manipulations in
leaders by the Whites. The following letter written by the acting
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2 C,
Governor of the Territory of Florida, James D. Wescott, to Com-
missioner of Indian Affairs, Elbert Herring, shows in detail what
pressures were exerted: 4
November 13, 1833
Enclosed is a latter from Nucose Ahola or John Yellow Hair, head
chief of Choconicola who wishes to emigrate with a portion of his
town at the same time Blount and Davey and to the same place. It
is proper that I should state to the Department the following cir-
cumstances in explanation of his views and motives and which show
the feelings which influence him. Yellow Hair is the son of old Yellow
Hair a chief who has been dead some years. Originally the five towns
comprising the Appalachicola Band (although each town remained
under a separate chief) were all under the control of a Head Chief
or King. Cockrane, when living, ruled the lowest town called Span-
inalha. Blount ruled Iola. Emathlachania since dead ruledAttapulgas,
Old Yellow Hair, Choconicola, and Econchattimicco commanded
Tocktoethla. Yellow Hair was the Head Chief or King of all towns.
Blount, Cockrane and himself were friendly to the Americans and
their friendly conduct and valuable services, which the other chiefs
more inimical to as if I doubt not, remembered by the President.
Yellow Hair was an intrepid and talented Indian and was greatly con-
fided in by the American officers during the British and Seminole
Wars. 5 He had received orders from the officer commanding on
the Georgia and Florida frontiers. (Colonel Arbuckle) to overhaul
all boats passing his town on the Appalachicola. This order he exe-
cuted gratiously and was of unusual service. A canoe of Indians having
refused his order to come to his landing place, after being hailed,
he fired into it, and it appearing that they were not Indians as sup-
posed but friendly he was ignominiously torn by force by the afore-
said officer from his rank as Head Chief and also as chief
There are many gentlemen now living in Florida well acquainted
with the circumstances and all join in condemning the course pursued
toward him as unjust and an ill requital for his valuable and friendly
services to us. He became despirited in consequence and soon after
died. Blount succeeded to the station of Head Chief of the towns and
Mulatto King or Vaca Valpcapalacy the Cow Driver was made Head
Chief of Choconicola by Colonel Arbuckle. Mulatto is a half Negro
and Indian was always a bitter enemy of the Americans, is bad tem-
pered, insubordinate, mischievous, and would be more so but that
he is totally without courage. This was the state of affairs at the
Treaty of Camp Moultrie in 1825 (See 7 Vol. U.S.L. p. indistinguish-
able). 6 In the conclusion of that Treaty, the influence of Blount
and Cockran in favor of our Government I have learned from all the
commissioners was of great advantage and it was in a great measure
in consideration of this and in making the Treaty and also theirs
and Yellow Hair's past services that the five towns on the Apalachi-
cola River and also Neamathla's town were permitted to remain as
stipulated in the additional article to said Treaty. Since the making
of the Treaty, Mulatto King has been continually endeavoring to
break down Blount's authority as head chief and has succeeded in
rendering it merely nominal. This is one reason why Blount has been
so ready to migrate. Young Yellow Hair has always lived on what is
called Mulatto King's Reserve. Upon the same settlement where his
father formerly resided. This settlement is particularly specified
in the reports and additional article of the Treaty and although on
the same reserve is somewhat separate and distinct from Mulatto
King's settlement. Yellow Hair has always been surrounded by his
relatives who are hostile to Mulatto King. Some two years ago Mulatto
King, upon a quarrel with Blount, was broken by him and Hiatoca
then second chief of the town was made chief in his place and young
Yellow Hair, second chief, the Governor confirmed Blount had the
authority to do so and as Mulatto King had been guilty of devious
acts of misconduct, had disobeyed orders, was impudent and trouble-
some and behaved altogether quite badly. He did not disapprove
Blount's course. Hiatoca was an intelligent and honest Indian and
exceeding well disposed. Consulting the true interests of the town,
he was in favor of going with Blount to Texas. 7 Blount invited him
and young Yellow Hair to go with his exploration party to Texas
and paid their expenses out of his own funds. Last Spring Hiatoca,
while on a visit to General David M. Twiggs, died. Yellow Hair as
second chief succeeded right to his station as head chief. In May
last I visited the towns to pay the annuity. I found that no head chief
had been formally recognized; Blount delaying from matters of policy.
He had been endeavoring for sometime to consiliate Mulatto King
and had taken one of his daughters as a wife with that object in view.
He thought perhaps by reinstating him he might be induced to become
more friendly. He consulted me about it and I agreed with his opinion.
Yellow Hair magnanimously said he would relinquish all his claim
if by such course old Mulatto could be induced to consult the interests
of the town. Such propositions were accordingly made to Mulatto King
and he apparently agreedto them but the same night he was discovered
by Blount and his friends using his powers mischievously and he
would not consent as he had agreed to do to abide by the wishes of
a majority of that town being considerably in favor of going with
Blount. Blount and his friends and the said majority in consequence
the next morning before the payment of the annuity designated Yellow
Hair as chief and I recognized as such--paid him as such--and he
and his friends addressed a letter to Colonel Gadsden requesting
him to come over and conclude a treaty accordingly. Mulatto King
has a good farm, on the best land in the reserve, in cultivation. It
is rented chiefly to white men who till it for him for a portion I
understand of the crop. The other Indians have but little and are ob-
ligated to work for him and his white tillers and they are kept miser-
ably poor and half starved. Mulatto King and the other Indians have
entirely different interests and different feelings andviews in regard
to emigration. Mulatto King, assisted by his white friends--interested
to keep him here--commenced on Yellow Hair; promotedtheir united
efforts to destroy his influence. He was enabled by the assistance of
some whites to get considerable quantity of goods shortly afterwards
which he distributed among the Indians to gain them over to his side
and by such aid and means and by the publication of false reports
prejudicial to the country to which Blount prepared to go he created
In regret being compelled to state that the temporary sub-agent
Mr. Pope did not, in my opinion use proper exertations to prevent
such matters and on the contrary I fear rather sided with Mulatto
King. Mulatto King to effect his object pretended now to be willing
to emigrate but pointed to Arkansas as the best country etc. He
declared the other day to me that he never had the least idea of going
away even if all his Indians left him either to Arkansas or elsewhere.
At his instance however Colonel Gadsden has requested again to
attend at his town and did so to ascertain who was the chief. I under-
stand he contacted the Indians then present a majority of whom de-
signated Mulatto King who was so he stated to be the chief by the
sub-agent. I had regarded Yellow Hair as the Head Chief of the town
and think he should have been so considered.
Colonel Gadsden succeeded in concluding the last treaties not yet
ratified and one of which is signedby Mulatto King, Tustamugga Hazo
who has succeeded Emathlachee and also by Yellow Hair. 8
Yellow Hair's letter enclosed show what was his belief of its pro-
visions with regard to himself and also those of the other chiefs
and the interpreters. Joe Miller and Black Jim say they thought it
reserved Yellow Hair some land. If it had done so, Yellow Hair
intended to have sold it forth with to the Government and have gone
away with Blount and he made this proposition to me have he under-
stood the treaty correctly. The sub-agent informs me, and I have no
doubt, that the treaty was endeavored to be fully explained to the
Indians by Colonel Gadsden; but the misunderstanding has, I presume,
arisen in consequence of the employment of the interpreters above
mentioned instead of Stephen Richards the government interpreter
to whom however I understand Mulatto King objected. If the govern-
ment will aceed to Yellow Hair's propositions contained in his letter
and will make him a present (if it must be considered so such sum
as will enable him to get off with" his party and sustain them a few
months and what should be paid him, he is willing to leave to the
Department) he will go away withBlount. He refers all to the Depart-
ment and will be satisfied with such allowances as may be made to
him. If he could be allowed in case he takes 26 souls (he proposes
at least to do) $1000 and equipment--expenses (indistinguishable)
of annuity etc. I think it wouldbe about right. His removal would have
a beneficial effect in regard to the rest.
Blount considers the government should aid Yellow Hair in justice
to him. He says and correctly too that when he made his treaty al-
though he requested from motives of policy (renders a belief that
the object could by such course be more easily effected) that the
towns should be treated with separately yet that it was promised
him that every effort should be used to induce the other towns to go
with him. He is fearful that his small party may meet with much dif-
ficulty which would not occur was he re-inforced by Yellow Hair and
his warriors in whom he places great confidence.
Yellow Hair's situation will be a most unfortunate one if the govern-
ment does not agree to his proposition. He promises if Mulatto King
cannot ever agree and as the latter is the recent treaty has reserved
only his own plantation Yellow Hair must remain on it or become
homeless and landless. 9 Under these circumstances when the friend-
ship of services and ill usage of his father is considered, and the
President indistinguishablee) acquainted with and cannot have forgotten
them when his own correct deportment is taken into view, it does
appear to me a case is presented which should not be overloaded
by the government.
I regretted the disagreement in opinion which occurred (as the
'department has been advised) between Colonel Gadsden and myself
in regard to the recognition of Yellow Hair and the more as I be-
lieved and still believe that had he been looked to as the chief there
would have been but very little difficulty in getting 3/4 ths of all
the towns to have gone off with Blount before this and at the conclu-
sion of the last treaty according to the views of Mulatto King and
the misunderstanding to regard to it has created serious obstacles
to the execution of that with Blount and Davey as the Department
has been therefore informed. When I solicited the designation of
Colonel Gadsden to execute the treaty it was because I believed there
would difficulties arise which the person who made the treaty could
obviate, and that if he had undertaken that duty, having both objects
in view, the whole course of policy observed towards all the towns
would have been harmonious. Colonel Gadsden I am confident con-
sidered he was pursuing the best course in regard to Mulatto King
but I am still convince it was calculated not only to destroy the proper
authority of the Executive over the Indians to create embarrassments
with Blount and Davey but was not either so consonant with justice
and right that I had adopted. I am happy however that the Govern-
ment is afforded an opportunity by acceeding to Yellow Hair's pro-
position to prevent all further disputes or difficulties among the
chiefs and or between themselves and as on the subject.
James D. Wescott, Jr.
to E. Herring
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
1. See Jacobs, Diplomacy and Indian Gifts, pages 29-45.
2. Letter of Andrew Jackson to Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun,
September 20, 1821, printed in the Territorial Papers of the
United States XXII Florida Territory, pages 412-413.
3. William Duval to Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, July 29,
1824, printed in Territorial Papers of the United States XXHI
Florida Territory, pages 22-24.
4. James D. Wescott to Elbert Herring, November 13, 1833, Apal-
achicola Emigration, Office of Indian Affairs, National Archives.
5. This is a reference to the War of 1812 and the First Seminole War.
6. The Treaty of Moultrie Creek was signed and ratified in 1823.
Mahon, the Treaty of Moultrie Creek, 1823, page 371.
7. Blount, Yellow Hair, and Davey and their bands left Florida for
Texas in the Spring of 1834.
8. Colonel James Gadsden arranged treaties with the Apalachicolas
by which Apalachicola Reserve areas were changed.
9. Mulatto King and his band did not move to Oklahoma until 1838.
Carter, Clarence Edwin, ed.
1956 "The Territory of Florida 1821-1824," The Territorial
Papers of the United States, Vol. XXII., Washington.
1958 "The Territory of Florida, 1824-1828," The Territorial
Papers of the United States, Vol. XXIII., Washington.
Covington, James W., ed.
1960 "English Gifts to the Indians: 1765-1766," Florida Anthro-
pologist, Vol. XIII., No. 3, pages 71-75., Gainesville.
Jacobs, Wilbur R.
1950 Diplomacy and Indian Gifts., Stanford.
Mahon, John K.
1962 "The Treaty of Moultrie Creek, 1823," The Florida His-
torical Quarterly, Vol. XXXX, No. 4, pages 350-372., Gainesville.
University of Tampa
SHELL PENDANTS IN THE SIMPSON COLLECTION
Ripley P. Bullen
Describes and illustrates four shell pendants in the Simpson Collection in High Springs.
Two are roughly triangular, one is circular, and one incised fragmentary specimen was
Some years ago, while examining the Simpson Collection in High
Springs with J. Gilbert Wright, then Curator of Exhibits at the Flo-
rida State Museum, my attention was called to the four shell orna-
ments illustrated in the accompanying picture. Mrs. Henry Simpson
kindly permitted photographing and gave me the data to make this
article possible. The picture was made by Mr. Wright.
The circular disc, 7189, is two inches in diameter and the di-
mensions of the other specimens may be scaled from it. This disc
came from Bluffton on the St. Johns River in Volusia County and
the other three pendants from Good's Shell Pit, sometimes called
'Goodacres, also on the St. Johns but located much further south.
Both of these sites were occupied during the preceramic Archaic,
the Orange Period, and, also, later ceramic periods. As these spec-
imens were not excavated but were collected while these shell heaps
were being removed for commercial poses, we cannot with any degree
of accuracy date when they were made.
These pendants are all made of ocean shells and hence, like shell
tools also found at these St. Johns River sites, represent material
brought there from the coast either as raw material or as finished
These ornaments were probably worn in front of the chest where
they were suspended by a cord hung around the neck. The delicate
engraving on the broken pendant at the bottom of the illustration is
remarkable. One is tempted to read "birds" or "spiders" into the
design but without more of it this would be unjustified.
It is most unfortunate that such a small amount of prehistoric art
has been preserved in Florida. The glimpse we get from this pendant,
from the Key Marco objects, and from other scattered finds, indi-
cate a rich and varied art well worth studying.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XVI, No. 2