Table of Contents
 The Turner River Jungle Gardens...
 An Eden-Like Projectile Point from...
 Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised...
 Book Review
 Annual Index
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00148
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00148
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    The Turner River Jungle Gardens Site
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    An Eden-Like Projectile Point from South Carolina
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in BOne, Narvaez Midden, Safety Harbor Period, Saint Petersburg
        Page 154
    Book Review
        Page 155
    Annual Index
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Back Cover
        Page 159
        Page 160
Full Text


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a publication of the florida anthropological society

Volume XIX, No. 4

December, 1966


The Turner River Jungle Gardens Site 125
Dan D. Laxson

Culture in American Education. By Ruth Landes 141
Reviewed by William E. Carter

An Eden-Like Projectile Point from South Carolina 143
Wilfred T. Neil

Solo Trans-Gulf Crossing in the "Nonoalca." 145
William E. Verity

Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone, Narvaez 154
Midden, Safety Harbor Period, Saint Petersburg.
Roger Gamble and Lyman Warren

An Introduction to American Archaeology. By Gordon 155
R. Willey.
Reviewed by Charles H. Fairbanks

Annual Index

THE FLORIDA AIJTHPOPODLOGIST is published quarterly by The
Florida Anthropological Society during March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription is by membership in the So-
ciety for individuals interested in the aims of the Society.
Annual dues are $4.00 (Students $2.00). ELTLFED AS SECOND

Officers of the Society 1966
President: Roger T. Grange, University of South Florida-
1st V. Pres.: J. Floyd Monk, 1960 SW 61st Court, Miami
2nd V. Pres.: James W. Covington, University of Tampa
Treasurer: Charles Arnade, University of South Florida
Sec.: Mrs. Evelyn Kessler, University of South Florida
Editor: Charles H. Fairbanks, University of Florida

Executive Committeemen 1966
William M. Goza, Box 246, Clearwater
James A. Ford, Florida State Museum, Gainesville
Cliff E. Mattox, P. 0. Box 521, Cocoa Beach
Charleston W. Tebeau, University of Miami, Coral Gables
Carl A. Benson 2310 Resthaven Drive, Orlando

Resident Agent: Ripley Bullen, Florida State Museum, Gaines-


Dan Laxson

The picturesque Turner River is a small, meandering
stream flowing, sometimes between ill-defined banks, in a
southwesterly direction for a distance of about 8 miles from
its intersection with the Tamiami Trail in Collier County,
Florida (Fig. 1) to empty into the shallow waters of Choko-
loskee Bay. The river rises in a 14-acre lake 1000 feet
north of the Trail. The lake, in turn, is connected by a
slough to another smaller lake 3 miles further north.

The stream is tidal for some distance from its mouth
and is seasonal as to width and depth. It is part of the
sluggish drainage system of the Big Cypress Swamp. Chokolo-
skee Island, less than 200 acres in size but in places more
than 20 feet above sea level, lies directly opposite the
mouth of the river.

In both historic and prehistoric times, the Turner Ri-
ver was part of an extensive north-south Indian waterway
that took advantage of the natural drainage pattern of Lake
Okeechobee. In early times this route skirted the western
edge of the Tequesta sub-area and joined the large Calusa
complexes along the shore of Lake Okeechobee (Lakeport to
Pahokee) with those to the south from Naples to Flamingo.
Evidence of this can be seen in the numerous potsherds found
in the surface collections from small knolls, many of which
are the sites of hunting camps, that dot the Big Cypress
north of the Tamiami Trail.

In historic times the Turner River area was both home
and hiding place of the elusive Seminole and was the scene
of at least one skirmish between Indians and soldiers.

Between the latter part of the nineteenth century-and
the opening of the Tamiami Trail in 1928, the Turner River
had along its banks homesteaders engaged in both farming and
fishing, the latter being the more successful. One of the
early settlers in 1874 who occupied the large shell mounds
at the mouth of the river was Captain Richard Turner for
whom the river was named. Later another settler, Captain J.
F. Jaudon, one of the developers of the Tamiami Trail and
later postmaster at Ochopee, occupied the tract of land
north of the trail where the Turner River Jungle Gardens
site is located.

The site (CR 95) is located in the SW 1/4 of the SE 1/4
of the SW 1/2 of Section 36, Range 30 E, Township 52S, Colli-
er County 70 miles west of Miami. It is on property known as
the Turner River Jungle Gardens. Here there are available
for sight-seers swamp buggy rides, boat rides, an orchid
walk, a zoo, and a Seminole village.

The midden is located about 250 yards north of the
Trail on the east bank of the river (Fig. 1). It is roughly

oval in shape, heavily covered with undergrowth and several
hundred feet in diameter. Surface rock can be seen at many
places surrounding the site to the south and east. There
are signs of past cultivation and timber cutting. Two wood-
en structures border the site to the south, one a farm house
occupied at one time by the House family and the other a
shed now being used for storage.

It appears the area could have easily supported an abo-
riginal population. Fish and game (Table 2) was plentiful
and examination of the shell content (Table 1) showed the
Indians supplemented their mammal and reptile diet with
shellfish of various sorts. A partial list of the present-
day flora on the site is shown in Table 3. Potable water
could probably have been found in the small streams, rocky
depressions and the larger limestone sinks.

Three stratigraphic tests, each five feet square were
excavated in 6 inch levels at the site; the first in April
1964, the second in December 1964 and third March-May 1965.
The first two were dug by the author and his associates, the
third by members of the Broward County Archeological Socie-
ty. Specimens from these tests are listed in Tables 4 and

Tools found (Table 4) were mostly broken Busycon picks
at all levels except 18-24 inches. A single clam shell
fragment appeared to have been used as an adze or scraper,
the user taking advantage of the shell's naturally beveled
edge. There were a few fragments of bone points, parts of
either hairpins, awls, or projectiles. Ornaments were re-
presented by a single "plumb-bob" type of columnella plum-
met found near the surface.

Pottery (Table 5), with the exception of over-fired
Goodland Plain and a few Belle Glade sherds, was for the
first six inches typically Tequesta (extreme southeast Flo-
rida). From 6 to 24 inches both Tequesta and Calusa (south-
west Florida) types were present.

A unique cross-hatched punctate (Fig. No. 2, 7) was in
the 12-18 inch level. The earliest incised pottery was Ft.
Drum incised and Cane Patch Incised (Fig. No. 2, 6). Only
plain sherds were at the bottom of the pit in mud.

In the 18-24 inch level the oyster shells became smal-
ler in size and more closely packed, a feature also noted by
Sears (1956) for the mounds near the mouth of the river.

The second test pit was located a few yards SW of No. 1
and nearer the river (Fig. 1). It was placed on a sharp
rise from the swampy edge of the river to the top of the
mound a distance of about three feet. At the bottom of the
slope Busycon shells were found in the muck aligned parallel

to the river bank and far too symmetrical to have been acci-

Tools from Test 2 included the ever-present Busycon
picks in the first three levels, a Macrocallista knife or
scraper and a Busycon hammer in levels five and six (Table
4). Several broken bone points were found in the 30 inch
level and, as in Test 1, two perforated sharks teeth were
near the surface. Perforated shark vertebrae and a concen-
tration of alligator feces were present at the 12-18 inch

In the first six inches, the pottery distribution was
the same as that of Test No. 1 with the exception of unclas-
sified shell stamped (Fig. 2, 13) sherds. An admixture of
pottery types began at the 6-12 inch level that included
Dunns Creek Red, a red-painted, chalky ware also found in
the southern mounds by Sears (1956), in levels 2-4 and chal-
ky ware sherds with in-sloping rims in levels six and seven.
Gordon's Pass Incised (Fig. 2,4) and Goodland Plain, some
with crushed limestone inclusions, were also at the bottom
of the pit.

Test No. 3 was located approximately half way between
Nos. 1 and 2. Below a depth .of two feet, rock outcroppings
made the work very difficult and the 36-54 inch levels were
dug from pockets of earth in rock crevices. This solution
hole ended in water about the five foot level. There was
some evidence that the pit area encompassed a fire pit.

Tools except for three Busycon hammers and a Macrocal-
lista knife were scarce (Table 4). A partially fossilized
manatee rib and several bone points were in the deepest le-
vels. A fossilized sand dollar was found near the surface.

Stratigraphy of pottery types was good. Glades pottery
types occurred at all levels. Englewood Incised (Fig. 2, 16)
was with Glades Tooled and Surfside Incised in the first two
levels. Near the surface was a unique finger-nail incised
sherd (Fig. 2, 18) identical to those found at the 0-6 inch
level. A Sanibel-like punctate (Fig. 2, 15) was at the 18
inch level along with Cane Patch Incised. Only Glades Plain
and over-fired Goodland Plain occupied the bottom levels.

Thirty five sherds were dredged from the river opposite
the site. These were all thick, black and more heavily sand
tempered than any other found in the excavations.


Like the shell mounds near the mouth of the river and
another three miles north of CR 95, the midden at the Turner
River Jungle Gardens is composed of shells typical of the
nearby Gulf of Mexico such as Busycon, Ostrea, and Mercenar-
ia mixed with organic black soil. Unlike the mounds to the

south, cultural deposits are mixed with the shells in the
series of small hillocks away from the river and in the
larger ridge bordering the river rather than confined to low
areas between mounds. The small size of oyster shells in
the deeper portion of the pits may mean there were changes
in factors governing the growth of oysters such as a change
in the salinity of the water, its temperature, or a change
in the food supply of the oyster beds.

The occupational period, using pottery types and their
chronology, appears to have been from the Glades III period
of the 16th century back to as early as Glades IIA near the
year zero. There is a presumptive case for Glades I occupa-
tion at the lowest level. Since no semi-fiber tempered pot-
tery was found and the occupation appears to have been in
the sand-tempered tradition, the earliest date falls after
the Transitional period as defined by Bullen (1959). The
earliest date is probably close to 200 BC.

The site was surely a meeting place of both Tequesta
and Calusa as suggested earlier in the geographic sketch of
the area. Evidence seems to support the Tequesta being as
early as the Calusa. The ceramics show a closer relation-
ship with the Gulf Coast peoples than would be expected from
only occasional trade. Unfortunately little evidence was a-
vailable to enlighten the kinship between the Calusa and Te-

Identification as to the type of various plain sherds
on the site was very difficult. Tempering was much finer on
the average than is usual for the Glades series and with
Goodland Plain and Belle Glade Plain mixed in the samples
from most levels, separation was very difficult.

There was in the site, concentrated mostly in Tests No.
1 and 2, an abundance of over-fired Goodland Plain. These
sherds had evidently been exposed to heat. in the form of an
oxidizing flame, for a long period of time. Since few rim
sherds of this type were found, there is the possibility of
these sherds being remnants of griddles or pot supports of
some kind. However, there was no discoloration of sherds
such as would have taken place if any grease had been used.
Several sets of adhering sherds of this type may be indica-
tions of molds or "stacked" vessels.

The pottery collection from the site is similar to that
from Marco (Van Beck 1965), Goodland (Goggin 1949), Turner
River (Sears 1956), Belle Glade (Willey 1949) and Everglades
National Park (Goggin 1949) sites. Neither the Surfside
(Willey 1949) nor Matecumbe (Goggin and Sommer 1949) sites
have the profilic mixture of east and west coast ceramics.

Two types, Opa Locka Incised and St. Johns Check Stamp-
ed, were not found in the tests. Moving westward from
Grossman's Hammock (Brooks 1956) presence of these types be-
comes less in the middens. But considering the sampling

technique and size of the site it may be wiser to say this
type is rare rather than non-existent.

The vertical distribution of Goodland Plain at the site
was fairly close to that found at the Turner River site to
the south. Sears (1956) showed this type to be most heavy
at the 6-12 and 24-36 inch level. The distribution of Dunns
Creek Red, a chalky, red-painted ware, was also similar to
that found at the more southern mounds.

Worked rims, of which there are many variations in the
Glades area (Laxson 1957) appear to be Ft. Drum variants
(Goggin 1950) at the lower levels and Glades Tooled nearer
the surface. Their appearance may be due to influence from
similar types to the north such as Pinellas Plain, Santa
Rosa-Swift Creek, Ft. Walton and Safety Harbor.

Carrabelle Punctated, one of the earlier northern types,
is found with Ft. Drum variants of the corresponding time
period. Although Carrabelle was not mentioned for the Turn-
er River, Goodland or Marco sites, there were unclassified
punctated sherds at corresponding levels at those sites.
Punctated sherds found nearer the surface appear to be from
Englewood Incised vessels.

Certain fluted rims resembling Plantation Pinched, con-
temporary with Surfside Incised at Arch Creek (Laxson 1957)
and found with Key Largo Incised at this site and with Ft.
Drum Incised at the Everglades National Park (Goggin 1949)
are closely linked to similar rims found at the Marco midden
(Van Beck 1965) with Gordon's Pass and Sanibel Incised.

The few Cane Patch Incised sherds excavated were coeval
with those found at the 36-42 inch level with Ft. Drum In-
cised at the Everglades National Park.

In the representative material gathered there were no
signs of the concave Busycon adze or gouge or of Strombus
tools. The large, hard shell clam seemed to have been used
instead. Busycon picks were plentiful and many of the
whelks on the site appear to have been perforated with a
tool of this sort.

While they had been disturbed to some extent, the array
of Busycon shells near Test No. 2 gives rise to the possibi-
lity of a shored-up portion of a short canal or canoe run
from the river to the midden. The numerous coDralites, alli-
gator feces in this instance, near these shells might denote
a pen of some sort.

The broken bone points could not only have been projec-
tiles but also parts of gorges or hooks for fishing and
needles or awls for net construction. No engraved bone of
any kind was found.

At the conclusion of work on a midden such as this,
there, is a deep sense of frustration that only a quick
glance into a culture has been afforded rather than real in-
sight that might come if there had been sufficient sampling,
a series of radio carbon dates, and sufficient time and la-
bor to do the site justice.

Only a few investigations, most surface collections,
have been made in the myriad of hammocks in the Big Cypress
Area. Very little is known of the liason between the Calssa
and Tequesta, their monility (probably under-estimated) and
of their nebulous kinships with throes and sub-tribes around
their perimeter. One gets the idea of an unknown element
and must fall back on the old cliche, "time will tell."


Special thanks goes to Mr. Wm. C. Rogers, owner of the
site, for permission to excavate and to Mr. David Alexander,
Director of the Historical Museum of Southern Florida and
the Caribbean, for his cooperation. Gratitude is expressed
to those who helped with the gigging and screening; Jim Lee,
Noel Herrmann, Jack Thomson and Paul Kerstetter of the Miami
Chapter and Wilma Williams, Arthur Marler, Viola Schaeffer,
Jo Williams, Nelson Briefer, Elearno Mollenkoph, Milt Wolfe,
Ralph Nelson, Harold and Charles Wirebaugh of the Broward
County Archaeological Society who excavated Test No. 3.

Amelia and John Spepanick, Barbara Kerstetter, Fred
Williams and Leon Lefler deserve thanks for their collections
on the site. Herbert Hill and Tom Miliano surveyed the area
and helped with the first tests.

Thanks are also due to Mr. Ripley P. Bullen, chairman
the Department of Social Sciences of the Florida State Muse-
um for his helpful suggestions; Dr. Elizabeth Wing for iden-
tifiction of skeletal material; Jim Knowles and Pat Hein-
lein for identification of flora and Mrs. J. F. Jaudon for
interesting information.


Brooks, Marvin J., Jr.
1956 Excavations in Grossman's Hammock, Dade County
Florida Anthropologist, IX, No. 2.

Bullen, Adelaide K. and R.P. Bullen
1956 Excavations on Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum So-
cial Sciences, No. 1.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. Archaeol-
ogical Conference Newsletter VI.

Goggin, John M. and Frank Sommer II
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key. Yale Uni-
versity Publications in Anthropology, No. 41.

1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, II, Nos. 3-14.

1950 Stratigraphic Tests in the Everglades National
Park. American Antiquity, XV, No.3.

1950 The Snapper Creek Site. Florida Anthropologist
III, Nos. 3-4.

Laxson, Dan D.
1957 The Arch Creek Site. Florida Anthropologist,
X, Nos. 3-4.
1957 The Madden Site. Florida Anthropologist, X,
Nos. 1-2.
1964 Excavations in Southeast Florida, 1962-1963.
Florida Anthropologist,IX, No.2.

Sears, William H.
1956 The Turr'~- River Site, Collier County, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, IX, No.2.

Tebeau, Charlton W.
1957 Florida's Last Frontier. Copeland Studies
in Florida History.

Van Beck,

John C. and Linda M.
The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida.
rida Anthropologist, XVII, No.l.


Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections,113.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale Univ-
ersity Publications in Anthropology, No.42.



Ostrea virginica

Ostrea frons

Oliva sayana

Oliva reticularis

Busycon perversum

Melongena corona

Strombus alatus

Pleuroploca gigantea

Macrocallista nimbosa

Dinocardium robustum

Mercenaria campechienois

Cardita floridana

Crepidula plana

Polinices duplicate

Anomia simplex

Cassis flammea

Virginia Oyster

Coon Oyster

Lettered Olive

Netted Olive

Lightning Conch

Crowned Conch

Florida Conch

Horse Conch

Sun Ray Shell

Great Heart Cockle

Hard Shell Clam

Bird Shell

Flat Slipper

Lobed Moon Shell

Jingle Shell

Flame Helmet Shell



Alligator mississipiensis

Didelphis marsupialis

Procyon lotor

Lutra canadensis

Odocoileus virginianus

Siren larertina


Terrapene carolina

Deirochelys reticularia

Chelydra osceola

Trionyx ferox



Pristis sp.

Lepisosteus sp.

Amia calva


Lepomis microlophus

Pogonias cromis

Caranx sp.








White-tailed Deer



Box Turtle

Chicken Turtle

Snapping Turtle

Soft-shelled Turtle

Sea Turtle

Eagle Rays





Redear Sunfish






Hamelia patens

Psychotria nervosa

Psychotria sulzneri

Sambucus simpsoni

Baccharis halimifolia

Elaphrium simaruba

Psidium guajava

Toxicodendron radicans

Sabal palmetto

Smilax sp.

Bidens bipinnata

Rapanea guayanensis

Salix sp.
Ampelopsis arborea

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Quercus virginiana

Taxodium distichum

Persea persea

Saccharum officinarum

Sida sp.
Vitex (2 species)



Liparis elata (probably)

Urena lobata

Acer sp.



Wild Coffee

Wild Coffee

Southern Elder


Gumbo Limbo


Poison Ivy

Cabbage Palm

Spanish Needle


Pepper Vine

Virginia Creeper


Bald Cypress


Sugar Cane

Unknown Genus

Unknown Genus

Terrestial Orchid




Levels all six inches
except 8-9, 1 foot.

Pit 1

Pit 2

Pit 3

- p y w p I I - I Y I I 9 I I I

Bus con ick 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 1
Busycon hammer
Ouahoq scraper
Macrocallista knife 1 1 1
Worked columnella 1
1ne4 1 fragment
Bone points (broken) 2 2 1
Per. sharks teeth~~---------_3-------- ------------------_ _
PArs harks teeth
Per. shark vertabrae 3 3 1
Columnella plummet 1
Limestone abrader 1
Stin ra spline 1 1
BAusycon ladle
Per, shell disc 1
Petrified sand dollar 1
ilized manatee rib 1
Coprolites alligator) 4 4 10 1 3
Columnella tips1 2 2 1



Pottery Type Pit 1
1 2 3 4 5

Glades Plain body 221 252 258 60 40
Glades Plain rim 21 14 24 5 2
Belle Glade Plain body 2 2 1
Belle Glade Plain rim 1 1
Over-fired Goodland Plain body 52 53 60 12 13
Over-fired Goodland Plain rim 2 4 8 5 4
Goodland Plain body 9 2 5 8
Goodland Plain rim 1 1 2
Goodland Plain, limestone temper
Goodland Red
St. John's Plain body 6
St. John's Plain rim 1
Chalky-ware, insloping rims
Glades Tooled 2 1
Surfside Incised 4 1
Matecumbe Incised 1 2
Key Largo Incised 1 1
Key Largo-Gordons Pass 2 1
Miami Incised 1
Dade Incised
Ft. Drum Incised 1
Plantation Pinched
Gordons Pass Incised 2 1
Sanibel Incised 2
Cane Patch Incised 1
Dunns Creek Red
Carabelle Punctate 1
Carabelle Incised
Englewood Incised 1 2
Unclassified punctate 5 1
Unclassified incised 1 1
Finger nail incised
Unclassified tooled rim 1
Unclassified notched rim



Pottery Type

] 2 3 4

Glades Plain body
Glades Plain rim
Belle Glade Plain body
Belle Glade Plain rim
Over-fired Goodland Plain body
Over-fired Goodland Plain rim
Goodland Plain body
Goodland Plain rim
Goodland Plain,limestone temper
Goodland Red
St. John's Plain body
St. John's Plain rim
Chalky-ware,insloping rims
Glades Tooled
Surfside Incised
Matecumbe Incised
Key Largo Incised
Key Largo-Gordons Pass
Miami Incised
Dade Incised
Ft. Drum Incised
Plantation Pinched
Gordons Pass Incised
Sanibel Incised
Cane Patch Incised
Dunns Creek Red
Carabelle Punctate
Carabelle Incised
Englewood Incised
Unclassified punctate
Unclassified incised
Finger nail incised
Unclassified tooled rim
Unclassified notched rim


3 138 234 186
3 17 24 48
7 2 1
1 1 1
1 2 1
8 5 9

2 1

6 7

1L 69
5 6

11 18
7 2
.0 3


2 6

2 2
1 3 1

2 1 1



Pottery Type


Pit 3
1 2 3 4 5 6

Glades Plain body
Glades Plain rim
Belle Glade Plain body
Belle Glade Plain rim
Over-fired Goodland Plain body
Over-fired Goodland Plain rim
Goodland Plain body
Goodland Plain rim
Goodland Plain,limestone temper
Goodland Red
St. John's Plain body
St. John's Plain rim
Chalky-ware,insloping rims
Glades Tooled
Surfside Incised
Matecumbe Incised
Key Largo Incised
Key Largo-Gordons Pass
Miami Incised
Dade Incised
Ft. Drum Incised
Plantation Pinched
Gordons Pass Incised
Sanibel Incised
Cane Patch Incised
Dunns Creek Red
Carabelle Punctate
Carabelle Incised
Englewood Incised
Unclassified punctate
Unclassified incised
Finger nail incised
Unclassified tooled rim
Unclassified notched rim

20 145 52
7 6 5
1 6 3
1 3 1
33 17 51
2 3 5

4 8

2 3
2 2
1 1

3 1

1 1

33 121
13 12

31 24
9 4


5 3 1

3 1
2 1

7 8 9

7 8 9

Fig. 1 Sketch showing approximate location of Turner
River Jungle Gardens Site. Not to scale.


I D-
ty 1

12 13


14 15

Fig. 2 Pottery.
1. Plantation Pinched; 2. Carabelle Punctate; 3. Dade Inc-
ised; 4. Gordon's Pass Incised; 5. Miami Incised; 6. Cane
Patch Incised with worked rim; 7. Unclassified punctate; 8.
Sanibel Incised; 9. Unclassified tooled rim; 10. Matecumbe
Incised variant; 11. Unclassified notched rim; 12. Key Lar-
go Incised variant; 13. Unclassified shell stamped; 14. Un-
classified Incised; 15. Sanibel Incised variant; 16. Engle-
wood Incised; 17. Gordon's Pass variant; 18. Unclassified
finger-nail incised.


10 ii


Culture in American Education. By Ruth Landes, New York:
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 289 pp. Appendices, Bibliography;
Index. Reviewed by William E. Carter.

From 1959-1961, Ruth Landes, after a lifetime of person-
al involvement in bi-cultural situations, was called upon by
the Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California, to con-
duct an Anthropology and Education program for teachers and
social workers. In carrying out her task, she devised seven
basic exercises. The book is dedicated principally to a pre-
sentation of the results of these exercises.

None of the exercises were spectacularly new, but Miss
Landes insists that they had rather unique results. For the
first, trainees were assigned to observe strangers in some
public place, to record the details of appearance, action
and speech, and to describe what they conveyed. This intro-
duced them to the treasures accruing from simple observation.
For the second, each trainee was sent to collect meanings of
seven commonly used words from men and women of at least
three different professions. The words chosen were: delin-
quent, crisis, diagnosis, interaction, prevention, role, and
deviation. According to Miss Landes, students found that in-
formants' responses were so involved with and qualified by
social factors that they had the "puzzling quality of for-
eign languages." (p. 69) For the third exercise, trainees
were sent to interview several persons at length about inter-
marriage. For the fourth, each was to reconstruct the cul-
tural ways of his family in the immediate three generations.
For the fifth, trainees were asked to observe and interview
pupils, pupils' families, and school doctors and nurses, in
an attempt to reach an understanding that, though people in
all cultures suffer, "tradition directs the prevailing modes
of prevention and cure." (p. 81) For the sixth exercise,
trainees were instructed to ask pupils how they would rear
youngsters if they were parents, and for the seventh, they
were asked to present questions based on previous work, con-
cerning cultural problems in education. Some of the more
usual of these turned out to be: "how can a minority assimi-
late to and advance in American life and yet retain its tra-
dition?" "Must all cultural groups in America assimilate?"
"Should we impose middle-class school standards on children
of all backgrounds?" (pp. 86-87)

These are questions basic to any multi-cultural educa-
tion situation in the United States today. The pity is that
Miss Landes does not go further in answering them; She pre-
sents masses of data collected in her assigned exercises,
but she does so in a rather undigested manner. Much of the
book, in fact, is nothing more than raw field notes. A

prime example of this weakness is her treatment of family
histories. Many of these are given in toto, with no rele-
vant comment or analysis either before or after. Miss
Landes, time and again, states that the collection of these
histories enabled the trainees to more realistically assess
the role of culture in behavior, yet she draws no specific
picture as to how this came about.

Such a weak use of essentially good material makes for
considerable redundancy and even disjointedness in the re-
port. It is far from being the strong comment on an ethno-
centric educational system that it could have been.

Of the three basic minority groups treated by Miss
Landes, the Mexican is given the most adequate discussion.
For example, she points out that "throughout the Hispanic
World, 'number one' struggles to maintain supremacy against
rivals a system that, to our teachers, appears based on
jealousy" (p. 99). She also cites a case where the "bilin-
gual problem" solved itself when Spanish was looked upon as
a resource, and Spanish speakers made teaching assistants.
And she shows how this simple act lowered inter-group ten-
sions and aggressive behavior (p. 56).

Her treatment of Negroes and American Indians is far
less successful. Her lack of success in this regard is fur-
ther compounded by the addition of extremely superficial and
woefully inadequate appendices, one on the Mexican family,
one on cmmparative Negro race relations, and one on the Amer-
ican Indian in transition.

The book, however, should be read. It is one of the in-
credibly few attempts at honestly assessing cultural prob-
lems in American mass education. In spite of its defects,
it is one of the better of those attempts. While as a
whole, it may leave much to be desired, it nevertheless pre-
sents many practical suggestions for sensitizing our educa-
tors to the role of culture in the formalized classroom.


Wilfred T. Neill


A collaterally flaked projectile point found
on a bluff of the Savannah River in the Peidmont
of South Carolina, closely resembles Eden and
Scottsbluff types. It is also similar to a form
of point found occasionally in the Guilford com-
plex of North Carolina.

The projectile point herein illustrated (Fic. 1) was
found by me on a high bluff overlooking the Savannah River,
near the common boundary of Aiken and Edgefield County, in
the lower Piedmont of South Carolina. It was weathering out
of a clay hill, and there was no other sign of Indian occupa-
tion in the immediate vicinity.

The artifact is unlike any other that I have seen from
this area. The length is 87, the maximum width 25, the maxi-
mum thickness (near junction of stem and blade) 8 mm. The
workmanship is good. The method of flaking is collateral.
There is a fine retouch along the edges, but this is some-
what obscured by patination, and is not well shown in the
photograph. Probably there is basal grinding, but this is
difficult to determine since all the edges have been some-
what dulled by decomposition of the artifact's surface. The
material is a good grade of yellowish-white flint, a stone
of common occurrence in the general region.

Typologically, this artifact is close to the collater-
ally flaked Eden point, although this latter usually does
not have such a distinctly indented base. There is also a
resemblance to the Scottsbluff type, which merges into Eden.

There is likewise a similarity to a form of projectile
point found occasionally in the Guilford Complex of the
North Carolina Piedmont (Coe, 1952: fig. 162, G, J, N).
These Guilford points are, however, more rudely made, and
usually lack retouching. The shoulders of the Guilford
blade tend to be sloping; most specimens would be described
as "corner-removed." In these respects the Guilford points
are less Eden-like than the South Carolina one. Neverthe-
less, Coe ibidd.: 304) noted a resemblance of some Guilford
points to "Yuma" (i. e., Eden and Scottsbluff) artifacts.

The provenience of the South Carolina point might sug-
gest a relationship with Guilford material. According to
Wormington (1958: 147), the Guilford Complex is more than
6,000 years old, antedating the preceramic levels of the ar-
chaic shell middens.

At present it would be useless to speculate at any
length on a connection between western Eden points and the
"Eden-like" points that have been found in several eastern
states. Suffice it to say that nothing militates against
the possibility that there is an actual relationship and not
just an accidental similarity.


Coe, Joffre L.
1952 The Cultural Secuence of the Carolina Peidmont.
Pp. 301-311, figs. 162-166 in James B. Griffin
(ed.), Archeology of Eastern United States.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wormington, H. M.
1958 Ancient Man in North America. Fourth Edition.
Denver Museum of Natural History, Popular ser-
ies No. 4, pp. I-xviii, Foldout map, 1-322, 72
figs. Denver, Colorado: Peerless Printing Co.

Figure 1


William E. Verity


I would like to preface this paper with a paragraph
from a letter from Colonel Williaan Lazarus, who encouraged
me to write it. He said:
I think your adventure in crossing the
Gulf of Mexico in a small boat would
prove most interesting. For years, it
has been argued pro and con that a small
boat could or could not survive the pas-
sage. You seem to have proven the point
and I believe your experience would
prove of considerable interest.
I have tried to simulate the migration of ancient man
across the -Gulf of Mexico. My years if experience in boat
building and boat handling have taught me that small craft
cannot be sailed successfully against heavy seas, strong
currents and high winds. Small craft lack the momentum to
drive them through the seas. Early man's voyages were pre-
formed by following the path of least resistance.


The "Nonoalca" is twelve feet in overall length, with a
five foot beam. She draws three feet with a displacement of
1700 pounds with 650 pounds of lead. as outside ballast. The
hull construction is "strip-planked'," edge-nailed and glued.
Three layers of one-eighth inch plywood make up the deck,
and the cabin is constructed of two layers of one-fourth
inch plywood. Epoxy resin over glass cloth covers the en-
tire boat.
A submarine type hatch at the top of the cabin allows
access to all sheets and halyards. A Hassler wind vane
steering gear, which may be operated manually or adjusted
from the hatch, is mounted astern. In bad weather, when the
hatch is dogged down, ventilation comes from a plastic,
spray-proof vent atop the cabin.
The rig is sloop. An aluminum mast is supported by
stainless steel stays. Roller reefing main and a jib furler
are used to reduce the hundred square feet of sail.
No anti-fouling paint was used on the bottom. Drinking
water was carried in one gallon plastic bottles and used as
inside ballast. As I depleted my fresh water supply, I re-
filled the bottles with salt water.
The navigation equipment consisted of a crude sextant,
a compass, and a taff rail log. No watch or radio was car-
ried aboard. I obtained latitude by taking sights of Polar-
is. Longitude was estimated by the motion and color of the

water, flotsam, land odors, and by observing birds. Local
noontime observations by sextant were the axis of each 24-
hour period. The taff rail log was read and a position was
plotted at this time. The log was used for the first 1500
miles until a creature, unknown, devoured the spinner.


April 3, 1965: Departed rrom Dry Tortugas for Vera Cruz.
The general course was 2500, wind NE chang-
ing to E.
April 10, 1965: Smelled a very strong odor of wood smoke and
observed a red land haze to the south. I
placed my position at this time adjacent to
the Alacran Reef. The sea was running a
cross chop due to the converging of three
currents. Geese flying north.
April 14, lo65: I sailed upon a large muddy area which in-
cluded bottom grass, the general color of
the water was light-greenish which indicated
shallow water 20 to 30'. I took a latitude
sight that night which indicated that I was
upon the Sacramento Shoal. (I later learned
that I had sailed over and witnessed an un-
derwater landslide.) I changed course to
SW. Many types of birds out fishing.
April 17, 1965: A very dense land haze to the SW. Becalmed
around or about midnight to sunrise. I ob-
served several pieces of land flotsam. I
plotted my course as being 50 miles NE of
Vera Cruz.
April 19, 1965: I have logged 758 nautical miles at noon.
The haze burnt off and Vera Cruz lay 15
miles to the SW. I anchored that night off
of Sacrifice Reef and at one o'clock in the
afternoon I was tied up th the Club de Yate
at Vera Cruz.
May 6, 1965: I sailed from Vera Cruz on a NE course. The
winds continued easterly and southeasterly
for five days, making headway difficult.
The average log reading, 35 miles per day.
May 15, 1965: Strong odor of land from the Progresso and
Merida area. Winds SE at 20-25 mph., seas
steep and breaking, headway slight.
May 16, 1965: Course NE, too rough to crawl aft to read
the log. Sailing in the trough and every
breaking sea is driving me to the north.
May have to lay at sea anchor due to the
cross chop.
May 17, 1965: Ducks flying north, still squally with
squall winds better than 50 mph. Seaa mass
of white caps--winds SE 20-25 mph.

May 19, 1965:

May 21, 1965:

May 23, 1965:

May 24, 1965:

May 25, 1965:

May 27, 1965:

May 29, 1965:

May 31, 1965:

June 1, 1965:

For the nex
rupted by squal
locities as higt
June 3, 1965:

June 5, 1965:

June 7, 1965:

June 8, 1965:

June 10, 1965

Worst night so far, managed some sleep--
winds still strong from the E and SE.
Fighting to keep NE heading.
Squally--winds over 40 mph., heavy rains.
Geese and ducks flying north.
The sea has changed color--100 fathom line
usually indicates dark greenish water. Best
longitude fix so far. Position estimate
8500 W, 26040' N.
Wind east, 10-15 mph. Tried to sail SE, but
could not hold course against current.
Something ran away with the taff rail log
Wind went SE at 5 mph., was able to sail
east, headway slight. Land haze strong from
the east, smell of wood smoke also very
Wind SE, 5 mph., headway slight. I have es-
timated a north drift at about 20 miles per
Flat calm Made an excellent landfall.
Eclipse of the moon. Egmont Key light due
east of my present position.
Light NE wind. Changed courses SE, little
headway. Made several good sights of Polar-
is. Latitude 280 N. Wind is now 0 mph.
Oily calm, boat bottom foul.
A Polaris sight placed my latitude as 280
N., farther north than my dead reckoning had
indicated. Estimated my drift 20-25 miles
per day to the NW.

it seven days the sea was a flat calm, inter-
ls having winds around the compass and ve-
as seventy-five miles per hour.
A sight of Polaris placed me at 290 N. lati-
tude and drifting west. Came upon two
large, black fish swimming NW. Improvised a
fish spear--four days' rations left.
Encountered two large pilot whales. They
were interested in their own activities and
paid little attention to me. Trying to sail
a course of 300 when a puff of wind allows
me to do so, sometimes drifting astern.
Faint loom to NE. Jet noises, cannot
believe I have drifted to a position south
of Pensacola. Violent storms came after
dark. Eastern sector alive with lightning.
A Norwegian freighter gave me a supply of
sardines, a weather report and an exact
position report. 87*39' W; 29013' N.
I was able to run before a 75 mph. gale.
Made a lightfall at Pensacola--wind swung NE

and had to run for Mobile. Spent 3 hours
sailing through the mouth of Mobile Bay. I
was given political asylum at the Alabama
Marine Lab. on Dauphine Island.
June 15, 1965: Departed Mobile Bay. Set a course of 1600.
Wind SW, 10-20 mph.
June 17, 1965: Wind NE, course 1500. Squally.
June 19, 1965: Wind changed to the SE and is steady at 15-
20 mph. Jib furler parted, the fourth time.
Course 50, heading for Pensacola.
June 21, 1965: A 40' pilot whale sounded and blew 32 times
under and about the boat. I recall saying
every time the whale blew: "Jasconis, be a
good boy and go home." Arrived Pensacola
about 5 o'clock in the afternoon.
July 7, 1965: Sailed on a course of 1100 from Pensacola
Harbor. Wind SW at 10-15 mph. New sails
doing well, bottom in good shape.
The passage from Pensacola to Tarpon Springs was the
squalliest eight days of the entire trip.
July 9, 1965: Cape San Blas light. Sky overcast with
squalls about the horizon.
July 10--15: Squalls came mostly from the Western sector
but as I neared land a few blew out of the
southeast and east forcing me to steer a
course of 900. Anchored in the lee of An-
clote Key.
July 19, 1965: Left Tarpon Springs. Course south following
the 10 fathom line.
July 23, 1965: Becalmed two days at Stump Pass and anchored
to retard drift to the north.
July 28, 1965: Departed Englewood, course SW heading for
Dry Tortugas. Bad looking horizon to the
July 29--30: Squalls and wind from the SW 40 to 50 mph.
Course varying from W to NW. Winds due
west, unable to sail SW. Worked my way back
and anchored about 3 miles west of Stump
Pass. Unable to hold bottom, came ashore on
Englewood BEach about 3 A.M.
August 3, 1965: Departed Englewood again. Winds SW, course
August 4, 1965: Winds NW. Course south.
August 8, 1965: Lightfall at Rebecca Shoal.
August 10,1965: Anchor road parted while riding out east-
erly squalls. Tacked back and forth
across the banks until I found lee behind
the Marquesas, made my way to Key West.
August 15, 1965:Departed Key West.
August 20, 1965: Arrived in Ft. Lauderdale.
Brief Log Summary

I. .

-L4?-- s --

9~F -


Xnrar+ ~? C9I -

Fish were my constant companions throughout the entire
voyage. Dolphin, Yellowtail, Jack, and Triggerfish were at
all times under and about the boat. Other fish and mammals
I came upon were porpoises (I saw one not more than 36"
long), black fish, three pilot whales, logger-head turtles,
flying fish, squid,Sargasso fish, ling cobiaa), sharks, and
several varieties of small crabs in the Sargasso weed.
No fishing equipment was carried aboard, so I impro-
vised fish hooks and constructed two fish spears. A stain-
less steel table fork and aluminum tubing for the shaft were
the components of the second and most useful spear. Dolphin
and Jack fell prey to the spears. I was able to hook and
boat small Yellowtail, but not without much persistent
I found that the best method of catching fish was a
fish trap, constructed of fish net and two wire hoops of
different sizes that opened and closed or folded accordian-
style. In order to chum the fish, I placed a perforated can
of sardines at the bottom of my trap. When the small fish
would swim in to feed and investigate, I would lift the trap
from the water, usually trapping two or three hand-size Yel-
lowtails. I feel that this simple apparatus should be car-
ried in all survival kits.


The curved plane of the sea is not "boundless," as tra-
dition holds. On the contrary, it is sharply divided by
lines of temperature, wind belts, zones of varying rainfall
and evaporation respectively inhabited by different types of
surface life on which birds live.
Bird life in the Gulf of Mexico was abundant. At Dry
Tortugas the sooty tern were nesting by the thousands on
Bush Key. At the northeastern tip of Yucatan, Progresso
area, I observed geese and ducks migrating north on a course
of about 200. This course would be a heading for Cape San
Blas, Florida. The black-capped petrel were common along
the Yucatan and Mexican coast. Hummingbirds were contacted
in the north Gulf about thirty miles south of Cape San Blas,
Florida. The hummers were running before a large squall,
and on a northeasterly heading.
At the Florida Middle Grounds a painted bunting landed
aboard the boat, but not before circling several times
making loud chirping sounds. After resting in the folds of
a life jacket, the bunting apparently found his bearings and
flew off in a northwesterly direction.
Pelicans and Man-o-War birds do not usually venture out
of sight of land. They are excellent "landfall birds."
The migrations of birds were probably among the first
natural phenomena to attract the attention of men. Recorded
observations date back nearly three thousand years, from the
time of Homer and Aristotle. In the Bible are several ref-

ferences to the periodic movements of birds.


In the Gulf of Mexico, the tidal ranges are generally
small, but may be influenced greatly by atmospheric condi-
tions. The influence of winds or atmospheric pressure devi-
ating from the normal will cause a variation in the pre-
dicted tidal ranges.
The progression of tide is counter-clockwise around an
area of no perceptible tide located about 29030' North and
89045' West, just north of the axis of the Gulf.
The mixture of the North and South Equatorial Atlantic
currents sweeps through the Yucatan Channel. One part of
the current rounds the western end of Cuba and sets eastward
into the Straits of Florida. The other part diffuses into
the Gulf of Mexico, and after rounding the shores of the
Gulf, returns to the Straits of Florida as the Florida Cur-
rent, better known as the Gulf Stream.
In the Gulf of Mexico the set and drift of the currents
are irregular, for they undergo various changes in course.
The main current forms a complete circle clockwise around
the Gulf. Passing across Banco de Campeche, the current
sets southwesterly toward Vera Cruz and then turns northward
as far as the vicinity of the Rio Grande with a velocity of
one-half to two knots. The current then travels eastward,
meeting with the outflow from the Mississippi River. A
strong secondary current paralleling the Florida coast
(counter-clockwise current one-half to one and a half knots)
joins the main current, and both are diverted southeastward
into the Florida Straits. The meeting of these two currents
produces strong eddies and rips from south of Mobile, Ala-
bama to south of Santa Rosa Island, Florida.


The winds of the Gulf of Mexico tend to be easterly and
southeasterly, but are interrupted by squalls and, during
the cooler half of the year, by northers.


The axis of the earth is undergoing a precessional mo-
tion. In about 25,800 years the axis completes a cycle and
returns to the position from which it started.
Due to precession, the celestial poles are describing
circles in the sky. The north celestial pole is moving
closer to Polaris, which it will pass at a distance of ap-
proximately 28' about the year 2102. The polar distance
will increase, and eventually other stars in their turn will
become the pole star.
The early Egyptians oriented their pyramids to Alpha

Draconis. The Mayans also favored Alpha Draconis as their
pole star.
I believe the changing of the Pole Stars holds great
significance in the migrations of the ancients. A course
difference of 23 1/20 would occur between Polaris and Alpha


Ancient man's natural instincts were not dulled by mo-
dern man's progress. He was far better equipped for surviv-
al. His wants and needs were simple. Hardship and short
rations were his way of life.
I am certain the early Gulf sailors weuld have had lit-
tle trouble in obtaining rain water for drinking and catch-
ing fish for survival. The Gulf sailing routes were clearly
marked by winds, currents, and the flight of birds.
The Mayans were a great seafaring race. Large cedar
trees were made into canoes. Some were eighty feet in
length and could support forty people. The canoes carried
lateen sails and were paddled by slaves, much like the gal-
leys. It is known that the Mayans made and used maps, and
marked certain channels with different colored feathers tied
to poles and trees.
Temple type mounds are found along the Florida Gulf
coast at Pine Island, Crystal River, Fort Walton Beach, and
Moundville, Alabama. To support the many Indian legends of
bearded, fair people who came to North and South America
hundreds of years before Columbus, bearded human effigies
have been found. Peru, Central America, and Mexico have
rendered the most interesting artifacts.
The northwest coast of Florida is also represented. A
bearded human effigy rim sherd, which dates at least 1200
A.D. and possibly much earlier, came out of the Weeden Is-
land culture. This artifact may be seen on display at the
Temple Mound Museum in Fort Walton Beach. Another astound-
ing artifact from Fort Walton Beach will soon be presented
by Mrs. William Lazarus.
The Mexican State of Vera Cruz has this legend:
From the land of the sunrise came light-
skinned, fair-haired, bearded men in
boats of skin. These men were dressed
in ankle length, sack-like garments de-
corated with white crosses. They taught
us new techniques, religion, and know-
ledge such as agriculture, stone sculp-
ture, new gods, and the stars. These
men were called the Nonoalcas.
Nonoalca means "the mute ones," or more commonly refers to
"People who do not speak our language." It is noteworthy
that almost every new land reached by the great European ex-
plorers of the sixteenth and seventeen centuries was in-

I believe that at least five culture heroes came to the
Americas. One was very early, possibly 500 B.C., and others
followed through the centuries until Cortes arrived and put
an end to the Aztec civilization. A bearded white man did
indeed walk among the natives of the Americas as teacher and


Boland, Charles M., They All Discovered America
Bowditch, American Practical Navigation, H.O. Pub.#9
SSailing Directions, East coasts of Central Ameri-
ca and Mexico, H.O. Pub. # 13
Davis, Emily C., Ancient Americans
Irwin, Constance, Fair Gods and Stone FAces
Lincoln, Fredrick C., Our Greatest Travelers
National Geographic SoE ity, The.Book of Birds
Olvera, Jorge, Five Maya Cities
Verity, William, Log of the Nonoalca, unpub.
Von Hagen, Victor W., World of the Mayan
Wille, Wilfred, "Legends of a Mexican Plymouth Rock," Ameri-
cas, Vol. 16, No. 11, Nove,ber, 1964

Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone, Narvaez
Midden, Safety Harbor Period, Saint Petersburc

Roger Gamble and Lyman Warren

The Narvaez midden site, located in the north west sec-
tion of St. Petersburg, between Park Street North and Boca
Ciega Bay, is thought by some to have been the landing place
of the Spanish explorer, Pamfilo de Narvaez. The midden is
undoubtedly late Safety Harbor and Spanish Contact, but be-
yond this its associations with de Narvaez are problematical.
The midden is the subject of a paper by Mr. Francis
Bushnell, who conducted controlled excavations on the proper-
ty of Mr. Harold Anderson.

Just north of the Anderson property the midden still
has considerable depth, losing height gradually as it slopes
to Elbow Lane to the north. From this section some five or
six years ago, one of us (R.G.) excavated an interesting
bone artifact at a depth of about two feet of black midden
soil and shell.

This item (figure 1) is a rectangular strip of bone,
probably deer, broken at one end, measuring 35 mms in length
by 12 mms in width by about two mms in thickness. On it was
incised what might be interpreted as a stylized hand and arm,
minus the thumb, but with four fingers and thenar and hypo-
thenar eminences clearly visible in palmar aspect. Although
other interpretations of this design are conceivable, the
hand, if, indeed, it is one, calls to mind similar stylized
hand designs depicted on page 73 of Sun Circles and Human
Hands (1), several of which consist of three or four fingers,
The diagonal triplets on the "forearm" and "arm" are reminis-
cent of the treatment of foot motifs on Fort Walton Period
Ceramic ware. The black color of the etchings is due to im-
pacted black midden soil.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIX, No. 2, June, 1966


Fundaburk, E. L., and M. D. Foreman
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands. Luverne, Alabama.

St. Petersburg, Fla.

Figure 1. Problematic Stylized Hand, Incised on Rectangular
Bone Fragment; Safety Harbor Period, St. Petersburg

An Introduction to American Archaeology. Gordon R. Willey,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; Prentice-Hall, 1966. xiv, 526
pages, glossary, bibliography, index, numerous maps, illus-
trations, and plates. $16.95.

Reviewed by Charles H. Fairbanks, University of

This book is a major summary and synthesis of
North American archeology. It is to be followed soon by a
companion volume for South America. The basic approach is
regional with treatment of the various traditions within
each area.

The book opens with an introductory chapter which
explains the basic historical approach,describes the natural
settings, the racial make-up of Indians, language diversity
and something on cultural origins. While short, this section
will be of general interest to most readers. The next chap-
ter deals with the "Early Americans". This treatment is per-
haps the best display of Willey's use of the traditional
concept in the entire book. Instead of trying to cover all
varieties of Early Man remains in a single descriptive sec-
tion, he describes four basic traditions to trace the time,
development, and spread of each. Pleistocene glaciation,
Asiatic origins, and some general remarks on large areas com-
plete the chapter. I found this chapter especially sound,
current, and readable. The "Paleo-Indina" material is dis-
cussed under the "Big-Game Hunting Tradition" which makes
much more sense than many earlier terms.

The five following chapters take up large geogra-
phical areas which are at the same time culture areas. They
are: Mesoamerica, North American Southwest, Eastern North
Amerioc, Western North America, and Arctic and Subartic.
In each chapter he discusses the geographical characteris-
tics, the emergence of the characteric tradition, and then
proceeds to a rather detailed summary of the tradition as a
continuing and developing cultural entity. The final
ter is especially valuable as a summary of perspectives and
trends in New World culture history.

The Southeast does not receive special treatment ,
although it is quite adequately summarized in the discussion
of the Archaic, Woodland, and Missississippian Traditions.I
found in using this book as a text material that it cover-
ed Florida nearly as thoroughly as many specific technical
works specifically on our state. The advantage of the org-
anization around traditions is that the continuity of the
prehistory isn't cut up by repeated separation into "periods".

The illustrations, both half-tones,line drawings,
and maps are abundant and superb in quality. The glossary
is short and may not define many terms unfamiliar to the
beginner. The Bibliography, however, is very complete and
offers every opportunity to explore particular subjects in
more detail. The index is fully professional. In spite of
its considerable price, the book isn't over-priced. It
couldn't have been done this well for less, in my opinion.
It will certainly be a major authority and reference for
many years.


Bushnell, Frank
A Preliminary Excavation of the Narvaez Midden.
19; 2-3; 115-124.

Carter, William E.
Review of: Culture in American Education. By Ruth
Landes. 19:4; 141-142.

Chase, David W.
A Stratified Archaic Site in Lowndes County Ala-
bama. 19:2-3; 91-114.

Clausen, Carl J.
The Proton Magnetometer. 19:2-3; 77-84.

Covington, James W.
Ybor City: A Cuban Enclave in Tampa. 19:2-3;

Fairbanks, Charles H.
Review of: An Introduction to American Archaeology.
By Gordon R. Willey. 19:4; 155.

Gamble, Roger and Warren, Lyman
Possible Stylized Motif, Incised in Bone, Narvaez
Midden, Safety Harbor Period, Saint Petersburg.
19:4; 154.

Gardner, William M.
The Waddells Mill Pond Site. 19:2-3; 43-64.

Laxson, Dan D.
Turner River Jungle Gardens Site 19:4; 125-140.

Neil, Wilfred T.
Westo Bluff, A Site of the Old Quartz Culture
Georgia. 19:1, 1-10.
An Eden-Like Projectile Point from South Carolina
19:4; 143-144.

Phelps, David Sutton
Early and Late Components of the Tucker Site. 19:1;

Small, James F.
Poverty Point Baked Clay Objects. 19:2-3; 65-76.

Verity, William E.
Solo Trans-Gulf Crossing in the "Nonoalca." 19:4; X

Warren, Lyman O.
A Possible Paleo-Indian Site in Pinellas County
19:1; 39-41.

Warren, Lyman and Gamble, Roger
Possible Stylized Motif Incised in Bone, Narvaez
Midden, Safety Harbor, Period, Saint Petersburg
19:4; 154.

A Cooperative Archaeological Project of the North Carolina Deportment of Archives and History
And the Southern Province of the Moravion Church



The Gottlieb Reuter Maps

of 1760 8 1766
And the Hdger Mop of 1754
7P32 s0TUILD SIU of the First Settlement of the

PIT OUTLINE or Moravions
oTvro. FRoM i.w unu Y!!eidi?/
CONTO R IM.ti + i in the Wochau or Dobbs Parish In the Province of

"A House of Passoge"

November 17,1753

r Based on Excavations in 1963 8&64

IR1. o6f ,*. Mrer2 l~n. In Hlrhn car. l
Edirld by AdeIaisl L. Frii Raleia: ltet

4 lo 00 00 8 o0 2 0

ameter soU RurnI rero ases

,-- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^* -^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ~ x^ ^ ]___l
^vllff1^IW'lf\^''W' f N

-I0 .:


022262222 36--- 7
" 20 F..l Wli W K

an Ios W lann Sild wle* uEr d

* r

/ 1=-_-;- W-
* 2 i-- 1 >Fr 7T

I >\XNs ./,/ 1-Y -./



.-,- ...... ...,. I. .
/ '.".*= x I -

... .-
.,- A J "1.2 ,'' h ,Ba ..... 10 8 -- "-23 8 .... ,'-- -
9 L_ 0 ,r 1

". A


. :


I ~ V
!ssonauki o1L11L& 4'
V \\ -' //Q 0226.N7TN340873713
*"n -



2 \.37022.... .

a 32632 2 o 1 c as002

n/ .. .. ..... I ..

06r00 R7l2s213, 17e8|' IA

A 11 2

3 T .. ^ A -

T .. .............

1" 2 8 3 o 7I.q 2 h. 11 0 2i o8 2 n 6 1060 l22 7
(Mler Ha ) X I tI Ti l Colll for ued thru a r Irari "sh F ir e I 77f ,\ .
M rr n 0- RltlOCd b m. eult..,- 17so y y
... .. ...a.l .... +vlons ss o., o a X us n

*.. .... A 0 2 n.2 6n11 U33 1 26 0o .. E o 62 23 02O. 3_ 622 262 17.6 7
-6 '6 822 8, A r 6rt.Blt H i Buril r
811120....A .. '6- 2 A4 "B _.

-.. 7. 31 11 ~.T IB |L ...... BII: 08;- ... 6

A11 ipO F 81
62238 06 2626022 U2II2 23 1021 2,i01 62

:~.:62022 .322 33212 .3 262 -~Wn~a0 80 108 A
A 22200, 1762 882
13602 28.66720: 1-1766 2221023 311
063 72113223332,3 72622622282170 232,266222 038, 163 334 62.11122 02102 22111 102 1220'2

x Bethoboro Rood

P~lfr. a. Potit-se Aeeiton






00 a8 0 ot8, 2e1 Li
82 26to 22 a

A PB21-IT666AB2llto

. . ..... ... .....o .. ....''x
S' .........L. R D .... .. ...... .. .. .....
.. .. / 11 6 M p -*- / .. .. .* *-* ".. ---

* 4 4 .00, 0/ / 4j"""" '7-- 0jJ "'

9 / x x t------


SI ix


y x
X i
A.. .. I A


', x 'xA"
21.01113r II17 NIT

3282 632 0 2 1
C /.X'


A a


r""" x ^
x x


o A l

316 A 4

,, 82 -

A N>---

Y, A

i i

Port of the Hoger Mop of 1754 of Wochou

Part of the Router MOD of 1760 of Bethobaro

1 .1

Il I

332,8 0316 T 2wn INN 2311NT 1r70N
823''3 ', :

u~8023T 1737-'r
~~2827223 Ium. Io r LLU '~U
22272233222 t4(:.! 12,328281700 I C

S --" '---" .
\\ .. .. ^ ', -- ..... S,........ ..TA 1 /
,1322N7N 'N 0o .N "2 -0

,: :'-A...'.... .... ... .. .5u .
.B... .. .... ... .. ,
A 0 Mr.k er. C.n.. 107e .1. 1U.0. .: 1 l
sl ly reoo. In r.oo +. u ., e..... Me+rs. eaus r. ..* arse

..* On* 4 i c. eo..l. In. IB0 ., | : --|-

The Location and Excavation of the Ruins 1 I
in this Area is Planned for 1965. i

.............. ................
a a.. .i.re km ,,,y. ni*, F ouse : -

.>.,......... .... ...... ) <., /
GARDEN 11201 2 8
J B Lo ic ea n o tE 3n I G ..d

ITn S 11,s SO a enr 1e65 nor
i I. 31 ,

IA N- ..rt .1n.n /i. -...

. . .. ..
'%,3 T3R .O 03,22 -,e .1. 2 ', Ir2T3T 0 2k- s I
053 ; 2102222222...232T < .o / *. 4

S r o ] 20 A s o- o i

0'--u /
~*IITlrl 00TLII IITTI1~~~ 7%
""'1" nl lo00
4"InnI I~o~I n."rln or I '%, Ir~ nn NroNf/n An )IOn.$""4 '% 10

., *.'r-3


122 11PK6(t'


. 7 ^P l "WI i __ I-- __/ ----421-- V-- N-V- -1-*1 I--r--,- --- ,





Part of the Reuter Mop of 1766 of Bethabora Used for Correlation with the Archoeolglcal Bose Mop

// /

* vp





It...rro rn.


, / 7-4- F1 / 11


*l .

-11' ;


i i

it ,




..v 1' -.


.. LZ,,+'




# JI

lA P


Foundations of a late 18th-Century
Glass House near Park Mills. Md..
Excavated. 1962-3.

xnuu N~.M/.


'J~-~~k),-5~,'L I~ i-q-,? \~' TTFFT~?hiI -
~~-~~' 1Q4
~I B
#10.V j 'V AQ


. Vertical stones.
s Bricks.
SFoundations presumed but not excavated.
Later post holes.
NB. I. Drawing indicates character of construction
but does not show every stone.
2.Filling around firing channels used stones of
comparable size to those in the foundations.

scale:- o Ift
0 5 to Is

_ _

---- -vclul~ CYC

Back Issues 7\

All issues of the Florida Anthropologist are again avail-
able. Vol.,l, 1948 through Vol. 14, 1961 are available
through: Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 111 Fifth Avenue, New
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