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VOLUME XIX No. 1
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Volume XIX, No. 1
C O N T E N T S
Westo Bluff, A Site of the Old Quartz Culture in Georgia
Wilfred T. Neill
Early and Late Components of the Tucker Site
David Sutton Phelps
A Possible Paleo-Indian Site in Pinellas County
Lyman O. Warren
Appeal to the Membership
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly by '
Florida Anthropological Society during March, June, SeptE
ber, and December. Subscription is by membership in the c
city for individuals interested in the aims of the Societ
Annual dues are $4.00 (Students $2.00). ENTERED AS SECC
CLASS MATTER AT GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA.
1st V. Pres.
2nd V. Pres.
Officers of the Society 1966
Roger T. Grange, University of South Flori
.: J. Floyd Monk, 1960 SW 61st Court, Miz
,: James W. Covington, University of Tan
Charles Arnade, University of South Florj
Mrs. Evelyn Kessler, University of South Flori
Charles H. Fairbanks, University of Florj
Executive Committeemen 1966
William J. Goza, Box 246, Clearwal
James A. Ford, Florida State Museum, Gainesvi:
Cliff E. Mattox, P. 0. Box 521, Cocoa Bee
William H. Sears, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Rat
Charleton W. Tebeau, University of Miami, Coral Gab]
Resident Agent: Ripley Bullen, Florida State Museum, Gaine
WESTO BLUFF, A SITE OF THE OLD QUARTZ CULTURE IN GEORGIA
Wilfred T. Neill
Westo Bluff, a field site overlooking the
Savannah River in Columbia County, Georgia,yielded
much material typical of the Old Quartz Culture;
but a majority of- the projectile points were
straight-stemmed or corner-removed, and the site
also yielded a quartz bannerstone and numerous
steatite net-sinkers. The site is regarded as
transitional between Old Quartz and preceramic
Stallings Island. In the general region, there
are no really tranchant differences between these
two cultures, and no third culture stratigraphi-
cally interposed between them. It is suggested
that Stallings Island culture developed out of Old
Sites of the Old Quartz Culture are fairly common in Rich-
mond and Columbia counties, Georgia, as\well as across the
Savannah River in Aiken and Edgefield counts, South Caro-
lina. The following comments pertain only to bis area; I
have not investigated the situation elsewhere.
In this region, Old Quartz sites are restricted to the
Piedmont physiographic province, occurring southward to, but
not beyond, the Fall Line city of Augusta, Richmond County,
Georgia. The distribution of the sites conforms to the dis-
tribution of the material from which most Old Quartz arti-
facts were made. Above the Fall Line, ovoid or flattened
quartz pebbles litter the ground almost everywhere; but be-
low the Fall Line, quartz rocks are rarely to be found on
Old Quartz sites are small, roughly an acre in extent,
located on bluffs or hills overlooking the Savannah River,
or on hills overlooking a tributary stream. One stratified
site, with deeply buried Old Quartz material, has been inves-
tigated by me, and a second stratified Old Quarti site is
known (Caldwell, 1954; Miller 1949); but otherwise, Old
Quartz artifacts are found on the surface in an easily
eroded clay. This clay is widely exposed in the general re-
gion, and its exposure has resulted mainly from severe ero-
sion in modern times. All Old Quartz sites, noted by me,
are on land that has been cleared and plowed. Probably much
overburden has recently vanished from what are now field
sites of the Old Quartz Culture. In most cases the artifact
Florida Anthropologist, Vol XIX, No. 1, April, 1966 1
assemblage is limited to Old Quartz types,and it is inferred
that such sites are "pure."
The Westo Bluff Site
The Westo Bluff site is on a high bluff overlooking the
Savannah River in Columbia County, Georgia, about three
miles above the Stallings Island site and about nine miles
below the Lake Springs site. The bluff has been under culti-
vation for many years, and Old Quartz material lies at the
surface, scattered over an area about 150 yards long and 40
This was the largest and most productive Old Quartz lo-
cality noted by me. The site inventory included 44 straight-
stemmed projectile points (Fig. 1,A); 21 corner-removed pro-
jectile points, some of them almost lozenge-shaped (Fig. 1,
B); 6 side-notched projectile points (Fig. 2,A); 4 straight-
stemmed, single-shouldered points or knives (Fig. 2,B); 26
trianguloid knives (Fig. 2,C); 2 cruciform drills (Fig. 3,A);
9 side-scrapers, round or oval in outline, made from split
pebbles (Fig. 3,B); 2 well-made chisels (Fig. 3,E); 2 end-
scrapers possibly made from broken projectile points (Fig.
3,F); and numerous small scrapers or utilized flakes, not
easily distinguished from mere spalls (Fig. 3,G). There was
some overlapping of projectile point types, and even of cer-
tain artifact classes; thus a few specimens had to be cate-
gorized arbitrarily. The accompanying illustrations do not
portray all the material found, but only some representative
Although a few flint spalls were noted, no flint arti-
fact was found. All the above-listed items are of quartz.
Most of them are of a coarsely granular, relatively opaque
quartz, which occurs locally in the form of large pebbles.
This quartz may be pure white, or white with reddish veining.
One side-scraper was made of a fine-grained quartzite; a tri-
anguloid knife and a corner-removed point were made from
clear quartz. With a few exceptions the workmanship is no
better than fair, partly as a result of the choice of mater-
ial. Almost all the quartz artifacts are small for their
respective categories, a circumstance probably reflecting
manufacture from the local pebbles. The inhabitants of this
site were able neatly to split a flattened quartz pebble, as
was attested by the presence of numerous half-pebbles and
quarter-pebbles (Fig. 3,C) showing the original, worn sur-
face. A few side-scrapers retain some of the original peb-
The site yielded two classes of artifacts not previous-
1 I ~~141 I
S P IG
ly reported in an Old Quartz context. A single bannerstone
was found. It was unfinished (unperforated, but with a
drill seat in each end), and of prismatic shape. It was
made of pink quartz, a material otherwise not represented at
the site. Also present were perforated slabs of steatite,
the artifacts that are generally called net-sinkers. (Else-
where I am presenting evidence that they are indeed sinkers).
A few of the sinkers were entire (Fig. 3,D), but most were
broken, probably by the plow. They were scattered through-
out the site; 18 perforated pieces were found, along with
The Westo Bluff bannerstone is of a shape met with at
Stalling Island localities (Claflin 1931; Fairbanks 1942).
The sinkers are of a variety especially common in the pre-
ceramic Stallings Island horizon and fairly common in the
ceramic (fiber-tempered pottery) phase of Stallings Island;
they also occur infrequently in later periods (Caldwell 1952,
o. cit.; Claflin, op. cit.; Fairbanks, op. cit.,Miller, op.
It is not out of the question that the bannerstone was
left on the site by some Stallings Island group; but it is
improbable that such a group littered the exact confines of
an Old Quartz site with net-sinkers, yet left no aplite pro-
jectile points, diorite hammerstones, grooved axes, or other
characteristic Stallings Island artifacts. Westo Bluff is
believed to be a "pure" site, especially since its total as-
semblage of projectile points and quartz tools is duplicated
at other sites in the vicinity. But since the bannerstone
was the only item to show a knowledge of the peck-and-grind
technique, and since it was of exotic material, it may have
been a trade piece from some area where this class of arti-
fact made its appearance at a relatively early date. The
steatite net-sinkers could have been manufactured locally;
steatite crops out in Columbia County, Georgia (Hopkins 1914)
At the Lake Springs site, Old Quartz material occurred
stratigraphically below the lowest preceramic Stallings is-
land level, and separated therefrom by three to four feet of
river sand (Caldwell 1954). At the Rae's Creek site (on
which I intend to report), in Augusta, Richmond County, Geor-
gia, an Old Quartz horizon occurred below the lowest precer-
amic Stallings Island level, being separated therefrom by
about four feet of clay. Old Quartz is therefore older than
preceramic Stallings Island, but how much older remains to
The Old Quartz period may have lasted long enough to
have seen considerable internal change, as is suggested by
intersite differences. At some localities, mostly in the
northern part of the Old Quartz area, there is a predomi-
nance of side-notched projectile points, many of them oppo-
sitely beveled; these may be accompanied by a few stemmed,
indented-base points, as well as corner-removed points and
trianguloid knives. Such sites may be early in the Old
Quartz period. According to Caldwell (1954), stemmed points
are rare of Lake Springs and many other Old Quartz sites,
but this is not the case everywhere. Westo Bluff, four
well-separated sites along Rae's Creek, and two river bluff
sites near the Aiken-Edgefield County line in South Carolina,
all yielded the ovate or trianguloid blades which Caldwell
characteristic of the Old Quartz industry; but at each site
these artifacts (which may be cutting tools) were consider-
ably outnumbered by straight-stemmed and corner-removed
Old Quartz sites, near the southern limit of the Old
Quartz area, generally exhibit certain traits reminiscent of
Stallings Island sites in the same general region. These
1. Sites in the immediate vicinity of streams (on ri-
ver bluffs and bordering hills in the case of Old Quartz; on
river banks, river islands, river bluffs, and bordering
hills in the case of Stallings Island).
2. Manufacture of artifacts from pebbles immediately
at hand (quartz in the case of Old Quartz; aplite in the
case of Stallings Island).
3. Little use of flint although the material occurs
locally. (One Stallings Island site, on a river bluff,
yielded an abundance of flint projectile points.)
4. Knapping technique mostly poor to fair.
5. Predominance of straight-stemmed and corner-removed
6. Single-shouldered points or knives.
7. Numerous ovate or trianguloid knives.
Two sites, Rae's Creek and Westo Bluff, add the follow-
ing Archaic-like traits:
8. Cruciform drills.
9. Well-made quartz chisels. (Two Stallings Island
sites have yielded specimens identical with those from Westo
Finally, Westo Bluff adds the following traits, very
suggestive of Stallings Island:
11. Numerous net-sinkers of steatite.
Certain differences between the Old Quartz and Stal-
lings Island cultures may be more apparent than real. The
latter is supposedly characterized by a variety of bone and
antler artifacts. Actually, Stallings Island bone work is
known only where it has been preserved by midden shell. At
two sites along Rae's Creek, a site on the Savannah River at
Augusta, and a site on a river backwater just southeast of
Augusta, Stallings Island artifacts occur without midden
shell; and at these localities there is no trace of bone
work or of vertebrate remains. If the Old Quartz people had
a bone industry, no trace of it would persist in the acid
clay of the river bluffs. It may be inferred that the Old
Quartz people did have such an industry; for at any site of
this culture, a majority of the artifacts appear to be tools
suitable for cutting, scraping, perforating, and graving.
It is also probable that the Stallings Island and Old
Quartz people were not as different in their subsistence ac-
tivities as might at first be inferred. In the area under
consideration, Old Quartz sites do not overlook wide river-
swamps which could have offered an unusual abundance of game
and edible plants; the river banks are usually high and
steep. The restriction of these sites to the immediate vi-
cinity of large streams thus does not imply dependence upon
river-swamp game. Nor were these Indians simply locating
near a convenient source of water, for in this case the
sites should not be so restricted to the larger watercourses.
It therefore seems likely that the Old Quartz Indians were
deriving an important part of their sustenance from the
stream itself. At Westo Bluff, the presence of net-sinkers
bolsters this contention. Also at this site, about 60 per-
cent of the projectile points were snapped or shattered at
the tip, the amount of breakage suggesting that the Indians
were spearing fish in rocky shallows of the river. As noted,
fish bones would not persist in Old Quartz sites, nor for
that matter would clam and snail shell unless accumulated in
In connection with Stallings Island-Old Quartz similar-
ities, it should also be noted that the association of Stal-
lings Island material with midden shell is largely a pecula-
rity of sites directly on the Savannah River, and may re-
flect an unusual abundance of mollusks in that stream.
Sites well up tributary streams lack shell; and throughout
the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Stallings Island sites gener-
ally occur along streams but quite without molluscan remains
Thus, when viewed from the southern edge of the Old
Quartz area, the differences between that culture and pre-
ceramic Stallings Island are mostly average rather than tren-
chant; and Westo Bluff, while yet an Old Quartz site, is
somewhat transitional between Old Quartz and Stallings Is-
The observed facts may be fitted into a theoretical
framework. Obviously this framework must be tested by fur-
Westo Bluff, and other Old Quartz sites in the general
area, support the following contentions: A fully developed
Archaic culture did not arrive abruptly in the Savannah Ri-
ver drainage at the beginning of the Stallings Island Peri-
od. Some of the "Archaic" traits make their appearance in
Old Quartz times if not earlier. An economy based on aqua-
tic organisms is implied for Old Quartz sites generally, and
especially for Westo Bluff which is apt to date from near
the end of the Old Quartz period. By Old Quartz times, at
least in the area under consideration, straight-stemmed and
corner-removed projectile points had already come to predom-
inate over the side-notched, indented-base, and lozenge-
shaped types, which were of earlier origin. Cruciform
drills had also come into use. An Old Quartz bone industry
probably foreran the Stallings Island one. Shortly before
the close of the Old Quartz period,steatite net-sinkers were
in use, and an implement of ground stone made its first ap-
pearance in the region.
Two advances seem to have been initiated locally during
the early Stallings Island Period. First, there was a ten-
dency toward a more sedentary life; a few Stallings Island
sites were occupied for a long while, and so much cannot be
said of any Old Quartz locality. Second, by Stallings Is-
land times the peck-and-grind technique was understood in
the area, for sites of that period include quite a few un-
finished, broken bannerstones, implying local manufacture of
these polished stone-artifacts. True, the Westo Bluff peo-
pie had obtained a bannerstone made elsewhere, but they left
no evidence that they themselves knew how to make such an
article. If Archaic times are considered to have begun with
the advent of the peck-and-grind technique, one may continue
to cite early Stallings Island as the first Archaic period
in the region.
Caldwell, Joseph R.
1952 The Archeology of Eastern Georgia and South Car-
olina. pp. 312-321, figs. 167-176 in James B.
Griffin (ed.), Archeology of Eastern United
States. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
1954 The Old Quartz Industry of Piedmont Georgia and
South Carolina. Southern Indian Studies, Vol. 6,
pp. 37-39. Chapel Hill, N. C.
Claflin, William H., Jr.
1931 The Stalling's Island Mound Columbia County,
Georgia. [sic] Papers of the Peabody Museum of
American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard
Univ., Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. i-vii, 1-47, 72 pls.
Coe, Joffre L.
1952 The Cultural Sequence of the Carolina Piedmont.
pp. 301-311, figs. 162-166 in James B. Griffin
(ed.), Archeology of Eastern United States. Chi-
cago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1942 The Taxonomic Position of Stalling's Island,
Georgia. American Antiquity, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.
223-231, figs. 22-23. Menasha, Wis.
Hopkins, Oliver B.
1914 A Report on the Asbestos, Talc and Soapstone De-
posits of Georgia. Geological Survey of Georgia,
Bulletin No. 29, pp i-xv, 1-319, 21 pls., 1 map.
Miller, Carl F.
1949 The Lake Springs Site, Columbia County, Georgia.
American Antiquity, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp 38-51,
table 27, figs. 22-23. Menasha, Wis.
EARLY AND LATE COMPONENTS
OF THE TUCKER SITE
David Sutton Phelps
ABSTRACT: Recent changes by man on the shore-side
of the Tucker Site (8Fr4) resulted in exposure of
the earliest and latest prehistoric components,
neither of which had been reported in three previ-
ous investigations of the site. These were the
Norwood component, with fiber tempered pottery ra-
diocarbon dated to 1012 120 BC, and a small Fort
Walton component, both located along the eroding
Total occupation of the site is discussed by
components--Norwood through Fort Walton-- in an at-
tempt to assign spatial boundaries to each, as
well as indicate what the occupational space means
in terms of cultural changes.
The Norwood Phase is proposed for the region
of north central Florida, preceding the Deptford
Phase, and encompassing the introduction and dura-
tion of the typical fiber tempered ceramics in
this region. The Norwood Phase is temporally
equivalent to the Orange, Stallings, and Wheeler
No prehistoric site should be considered exhausted
until the last meaningful particle of information is gleaned
from its investigation. Even under optimum conditions the
contextual reclamation of those products of prehistoric be-
havior such as artifacts, features, and structures is ex-
tremely difficult, which renders even less facile their in-
terpretation and the eventual reconstruction of behavioral
patterns and cultural relationships. It is even more tenu-
ous to base reconstructions of local and regional cultural
expressions on a few partially tested sites, or on generally
inadequate site distribution data. Although often admitted-
ly based on inadequate data, such reconstructions and con-
clusions tend to become accepted dogma with the passage of
The Tucker site (8Fr4), in Franklin County, Florida
(Figure 1), pointedly illustrates the above statements. It
was partially surveyed and twice excavated between the years
1902 and 1959, yet at least two of its cultural components
Florida Anthropologist, Vol XIX, No. 1, April, 1966 11
were neglected. This fact notwithstanding, the material pro-
vided by the site was utilized for partial reconstruction of
the local cultural sequence for that section of the Florida
northwest coast, as well as a measure of inter-regional re-
lationships (Sears 1963). Only at the earlier end of the
time span noted above could 8Fr4 have provided fully ade-
quate data for those purposes, but even now it has the capa-
city to yield limited amounts of information which, when
added to comparable data from similar sites, can increase
our knowledge of the region.
One of the major problems in the northwestern area of
Florida, and elsewhere, is the desecration of sites. Most
of the coastal sites had their ceremonial structures demol-
ished before the day of the automobile, and since the advent
of that machine, have been relieved of their shell content
in order to provide the necessary roadway foundations. Added
to these conditions is the ever-increasing group of "leisure-
ly Americans" who have taken to pot-hunting as a hobby. Al-
though these factors prevail, enough material must be re-
claimed from the sites so destroyed to at least fit them
into temporal context and settlement patterns based on pro-
fessional excavation of intact, stratified sites.
The Tucker site was first reported by C. B. Moore, that
extremely busy, far-ranging, and inquisitive excavator of
mounds, who relieved its ceremonial structures of their con-
tent. Most of the habitation area fell prey to shell-hungry
contractors and has long since been included into the Flori-
da highway system.
After these activities, the small portions of the site
remaining intact were rearranged by earth-moving machinery
to accommodate a beach-resort housing development. The ori-
ginal extent of the site can still be fairly well determined
by the surface debris, and one area escaped total destruc-
tion by a combination of natural and cultural factors. It
is this small, remaining bit of evidence which necessitates
a further report on th6 site.
In its original condition, the Tucker site consisted of
an extensive midden composed of organic remains and shell ly-
ing parallel to the north shore of Alligator Harbor (Figure
1). There were two burial mounds, one each on the eastern
and northwestern margins of the midden. The first recorded
investigation of the site was by Moore (1902:257-274), who
noted that both mounds were "totally demolished" by his ex-
cavators, while the midden was left untouched. Willey vi-
sited the site and made a surface collection during his sur-
vey of the Florida Gulf Coast (Willey 1949:269-272). He
assigned the site number Fr4 to the Tucker mound including
the midden area, and Fr5 to the Yent mound a short distance
beyond the eastern side of the midden, because the latter
mound could not be located during that survey. Prior to
Willey's visit, the right-of-way for State Road 370 had been
cut (Willey 1949:Plate 10), and a large percentage of the
midden was subsequently borrowed for road "metal" in the
construction of this highway. Today, one may collect sherds
along the shoulder of the road from the site proper to near
Alligator Point, a distance of approximately five miles.
After completion of the road, a number of beach cot-
tages were constructed along the midden between the highway
and the water's edge. By 1959, a real estate concern had
purchased most of the site and was grading roads for another
housing development. This activity inspired excavations by
the Florida State Museum (Sears 1963). Subsequent to this
work, Sears (1963:1) reported, "This excavation report will
be the last one possible on the Tucker site." Concerning ex-
cavation of stratified materials, he was correct; but a ser-
ies of events brought on by the very same agencies bent on
obliterating the site, aided by nature and the unpredicta-
bility of American consumers, led directly to evidence not
reported by any of the previous investigators. During a
visit to the site in the early fall of 1964, it was evident
that the earlier and latest components of the Tucker midden
were being exposed in an area near the edge of Alligator
Harbor, and that these materials would substantially change
the previously expressed opinions on the earlier occupations
of the site. In the following pages this new information is
considered in relation to the site itself and to northwest
INVESTIGATIONS OF 1964-1965
At the time of the investigations of Willey, in 1940,
and Sears, in 1959, the shore side of the Tucker site was a
tidal marsh. This condition probably prevailed also at the
time of Moore's excavations in 1901. Such a factor probably
accounts for the lack of collections or excavations on or
near the shore by the two former investigators, while the
latter was interested only in the burial mounds. Absence of
materials from the shore resulted in an erroneous interpre-
tation of site size and total cultural content. The site is
described generally by Moore (1902:257), Willey (1949:269-
271), and Sears (1963:2-4), thus the description here con-
cerns itself only with the unreported portion.
In 1960, the real estate company developing the site
had sand pumped in to cover the marsh bordering Alligator
Harbor. Since no occupancy of the area developed, this ar-
tificial beach was not maintained and has become badly
eroded, sections of it reverting to marsh (Figure 3). Pro-
venience of the sand was the immediate off-shore area, re-
sulting in the channel traced by the signs in Figure 5. The
cultural material recovered from the beach represents the
components of the original site previously covered by salt
marsh as well as the submerged section subsequently depo-
sited on the beach by dredging. In 1901, the Tucker burial
mound was located 200 yards from the water's edge (Moore
1902:257). If this figure is correct, some 400 feet of
shore have been lost since then, the position of the Tucker
mound being approximately 200 feet from the mean high tide
line at present. This figure is not surprising after con-
sideration of the correlate factors; the shallow depth of
Alligator Harbor, and continual land subsidence along the
Gulf coast with a related rise in sea level. Tidal gauge
records show sea level rises up to 1.0 foot in some locali-
ties along the Gulf coast during the past 40 years (Kurz and
Normal tidal action has continually eroded and shifted
the artificial beach. Following every high tide, new mater-
ial appears in the areas where erosion is most intense.
Large areas of shell and organic midden debris are alternate-
ly exposed and covered by tidal action. The erosion-deposi-
tion cycle is intensified during storms; hurricanes during
the autumns of 1964 and 1965 caused sand deposition which
covered some of the midden areas, and erosion which exposed
others. The appearance of the former midden is shown in
Figures 3-6. The line of oaks prominent in Figures 3 and 6
marks the highest part of the site, the dune ridge parallel-
ing the shoreline.
One further modification by man is the recent canal cut-
ting through the southeastern end of the site (Figures 1 and
2), which yielded information on a possible preceramic occu-
pation. The total effect of human and natural agencies has
been to expose previously unknown portions of the site, thus
permitting an extension of our unknown portions of the site,
thus permitting an extension of our knowledge concerning the
Table 1 presents the ceramic material from the beach
component (Aree A) compared with the data from Sears' (1963:
Figure 3) test pits (Area B) and Willey's surface collection
along the right-of-way of State Road 370 (Area C). The main
value of such a comparison is that it serves to show a con-
tinual expansion in the overall area occupied by successive
cultural units, with one exception, from an undertermined
original shore line under the present waters of the harbor
to the eastern limits of the site. This is perhaps indica-
tive of population growth through combined cultural and eco-
logical factors, registered in terms of preferred environ-
ment. These factors will be further discussed below, fol-
lowing a commentary on the ceramic and non-ceramic artifacts.
Although certainly not planned, Willey's collection
limited to the road cut suits the present purpose admirably,
in that it provides'a sample from the more recently occupied
section of the site. Sears' test pits generally follow a
hypothetical centerline down the site, with encroachments
toward both the earlier and later occupation areas. In this
report, the specimens excavated by Sears are used as if they
were a surface collection, primarily because his published
seriation charts (Sears 1963:Figures 4 and 5) indicate mixed
cultural stratigraphy and serve only to affirm the phase se-
quence previously established by Willey (1949) for the north-
west coast region. One probable area of imbalance in the
data is the relative size of samples. The specimens collec-
ted by Willey seem to be qualitatively representative, but
may not be quantitatively so. Part of Sears' published data
correct that discrepancy through areal overlap, although
Sears did not include his surface material. The quantities
given in Table 1 for Sears' material are the result of
counts from each of his test pit sherd lists and may contain
minor discrepancies. Approximately 75 percent of the mater-
ials from the beach were collected between October 1, 1964,
and October 1, 1965. The remaining 25 percent consists of
known beach materials from the collections of Florida State
University and of various private individuals.
In Table 1, the ceramic series and types generally fol-
low standard nomenclature. Steatite sherds have no type or
series designation here or elsewhere. The Norwood Series of
fiber tempered ceramics has been recently defined (Phelps
1965), and includes previously reported specimens from this
region such as St. Simons Plain (Willey 1949:359-360), and
the "unclassified fiber tempered" of Sears (1963:27). Dept-
ford Cross Stamped has been differentiated from the standard
Deptford Cross Stamped has been differentiated from the
standard Deptford Simple Stamped, although both have been
previously included in the definition of the latter (Griffin
and Sears 1950). Deptford Cross Stamped appears to play an
important role in the development of ceramic decoration in
this region, and may be considered a separate provisional
type of the Deptford Series for the present. Bold check
stamped sherds have been lumped in the table; Deptford, Gulf,
Wakulla, Cartersville, and variations of the above are all
included. Until there is some more accurate means of sepa-
ration, this seems the most logical solution, as noted by
Sears (1963:20-25). Rim treatment of the bold check stamped
types generally delineates phase differences, but body
sherds are in the majority. There is little doubt that the
extremely large checks are probably Deptford while the very
small checks fit Wakulla, but those between do not readily
lend themselves to adequate classification. Bold check
stamped sherds and plain sherds from Area A are approximate-
ly equal in quantity, and this appears to be true of Area B
as well (Sears 1963:Figure 4). The data from this site, and
others currently being investigated by Florida State Univer-
sity, suggest no break in the check stamping tradition from
its inception in the Deptford Phase to the end of the Weeden
Island Phase. According to Willey (1949:458), Wakulla Check
Stamped continues into the Fort Walton Phase, serving as the
immediate predecessor of Leon Check Stamped in the succeed-
ing Leon-Jefferson Phase. In all probability, there is no
discontinuity in the check stamping tradition in this region
but this will require further evidence from the poorly known
later phases. Bold check stamping appears to share with the
undecorated wares a popularity indicative of "everyday" cer-
amics. It is numerically preponderant during all phases and
in all components on the site from Deptford onward.
Plain sherds in general appear to be similarly non-
diagnostic as phase markers. They have been discluded in
Table 1 and this discussion, with the exception of Norwood
Plain and St. Johns Plain. Fiber tempering is a distinctive
attribute, as is the chalky paste of the St. Johns Series,
and the shell tempering of the Pensacola Series of the Fort
Walton Phase. The plain types of the remaining series in
this region display a variable range of sand tempering and
surface finish rendering them unreliable as phase markers.
Norwood Plain is germane to the establishment of the ear-
liest ceramic phase at the Tucker site, and the St. Johns
sherds, while numerically unimportant, are included because
they suggest relationships with eastern Florida.
THE TUCKER SITE SEQUENCE
Figure 2 shows the approximate extent of each component
based on the ceramic distributional data in Table 1. It
should be remembered that this reconstruction is valid only
to the degree that the data are reliable after so much dis-
turbance. Subjectively, it is perhaps a fairly reasonable
estimate of occupational components.
There is scant and controversial evidence for a precer-
TABLE 1. Spatial Distribution of Ceramics
Swift Creek I
Swift Creek II
Cross Stamped *
Linear Check Stamped
New River Comp. St.
St. Andrews Comp. St.
Crooked River Comp. St.
Napier Complicated St.
West Florida Cord Marked
(all decorated types)
(all decorated types)
All bold check stamped types
Total sherds per Area
* Provisional type.
* Plus 2 vessels (1 Fort Walton Incised, 1 Fort Walton Plain).
Area C Totals
amic occupation, most of the material having been reclaimed
from the spoil banks adjacent to the canal with only isola-
ted finds along the rest of the beach. Of prime concern are
the projectile points whose exact temporal position and
classification are doubtful for this region since stratigra-
phic context is totally absent. Most numerous from Area A
are the basally notched specimens (Figure 7 c-g), whose main
providence is the spoil bank mentioned above. This type has
recently been reported in a Late Archaic situation by Laza-
rus (1965:98) who classified them as Marshall points at the
Alligator Lake site. This type is popular in northwest Flo-
rida but has been found only in stream bed or surface situ-
ations with the above exception. If the type is more rela-
ted to Eva I and II (Lewis and Kneberg 1961) then its begin-
ning is probably preceramic although it may overlap the in-
troduction of pottery in this region. Savannah River points
generally occur both prior to and coincident with fiber tem-
pered ceramics in most of the southeast. The specimen il-
lustrated here from Area A is an asymmetric variation (Fig-
ure 7a). Also present are the round based points (Figure 7h,
i) (Sears 1963:Plate III p), which seem to occur frequently
in the southeast with the Savannah River type. It seems
best not to assign these to a type until more contextual
data has accumulated.
Steatite and Elliot's Point Objectives
Two steatite vessel sherds were reclaimed from Area A,
as were two fired clay objects. Both of these classes of
artifacts are assumed to overlap the introduction of ceram-
ics in the late phases of the Archaic Stage.
Steatite vessels are known to occur with fiber tempered
ceramics in northwest Florida (Bullen 1958; Lazarus 1965),
but as yet they have insufficient provenience data to authen-
ticate their total temporal range.
Two fired clay objects, one spherical and one sphero-
conical (Figure 8 e,f) came from the Area A collection. Both
are similar to Elliot's Point materials discussed by Lazarus
(1958) and Fairbanks (1959), and have affinities with Pover-
ty Point objects (Ford and Webb 1956).
The preceramic components at Tucker have not been indi-
cated on the site map since most of the specimens assigned
to that cultural level may also be characteristic of the
succeeding ceramic phase. As noted above, the best guess
for a preceramic occupation lies on shakily classified pro-
The earliest ceramics at 8Fr4, as elsewhere in most of
the southeastern United States, are fiber tempered. At the
Tucker site, and this region of the Florida Gulf coast, this
pottery is of the Norwood Series, including the types Nor-
wood Plain and Norwood Simple Stamped (Phelps 1965). Nor-
wood sherds were collected from all sections of Area A, to-
talling 238 specimens. Area B yielded 20 Norwood Plain
sherds from Test Pits 2, 3, 4,7, and 8 (Sears 1963:Figure 4),
while none occurred in Area C. The extent of the Norwood
component (Figure 2) indicates that at least part of the ori-
ginal occupation is now under water. The location of Sears'
test pits was probably close to the eastern edge of the Nor-
wood occupation area.
Norwood sherds from Area A are shown in Figures 8-10.
Vessel bases of the round (Figure 8b) and flat (Figure 8c,d)
varieties are typical of the series. A unique example of a
flat, simple stamped rim from a plain vessel is shown in
Figure 8a. Predominantly fiber tempered plain sherds (Fig-
ure 9a-f) are in the majority, but predominantly sand tem-
pered sherds with moderate amounts of fiber (Figure 9g-i)
occur. The latter are typical of materials formerly called
"semi-fiber-tempered." Parallel simple dowel impressions
are the majority technique of Norwood Simple Stamped decora-
tion (Figure 10a-i). Figure 10k is a minority type of nar-
tow tool stamping perpendicular to the vessel rim. A few
examples of tooled vessel interiors (Figure 10j) were found.
Norwood Series Radiocarbon Date
In order to obtain some idea of an absolute date for
these nonstratified ceramics, it was decided to utilize the
carbonized material found abundantly in the sherd interiors.
A sample of randomly selected Norwood Plain and Norwood sim-
ple Stamped sherds was ground and the carbon content extrac-
ted by the Florida State University Radiocarbon Laboratory.
This material yielded a date of 1012 BC (2962 120 BP;
Knauer 1965). While this date is not the most satisfactory
type, representing an average manufacturing date of random
surface materials, it does align itself within the range of
known dates for fiber tempered pottery in other regions of
the southeast (Bullen 1961). Whether it indicates a late
occupation of the Tucker site by groups producing this pot-
tery, a later development of fiber tempering in this region
than others, or lack of collected materials from the ear-
liest part of the Norwood components is unknown at present.
The latter explanation seems more feasible, but a final
judgment must await dated specimens from accurately deter-
mined stratigraphic context on other sites.
The quantity of Deptford sherds decreases sharply mov-
ing eastward from the beach. Area A produced an overwhelm-
ing majority, 1259, while totals of 358 and 15 came from
Areas B and C, respectively. These totals include the diag-
nostic types; Deptford Simple Stamped (Figures llf, 12b-g),
Deptford Cross Stamped (Figure lla-e), and Deptford Linear
Check Stamped (Figure 13a-e,j). The first two mentioned
types were not differentiated in Areas B and C, since they
have been historically included in a single type definition.
The 15 Deptford sherds from Area C indicate that the pres-
ent highway is probably close to the boundary of Deptford
Phase occupation (Figure 2). Assuming only minor shoreline
changes during the Norwood and Deptford phases, the latter
occupation expands to approximately twice the size of the
Bearing out the subsistence data provided by Sears
(1963:5), the exposed shell midden portions of Area A are
predominantly composed of clams with a generous representa-
tion of conch.
SWIFT CREEK COMPONENT
On the basis of the ceramic distribution, occupation of
the Tucker site reached its probable maximum spatial extent
during the Swift Creek Phase (Figure 2). The quantity of
sherds of the Swift Creek Series from Area A seems to imply
a more intensive occupation nearer the beach during that
phase, but the amount of intermediate check-stamped sherds
represented in the total from Area B indicate equal inten-
sity of occupation there. Again qualitatively, there is a
strong showing of the Swift Creek Series in Area C.
Carbon deposits from the surfaces of sherds in the
intermediate check-size range (709 checks per square inch),
presumed to be Gulf Check Stamped (Figure 15 a,b), were
dated to 345 AD (1605 325 BP;Knauer 1965). This places
them within the expected chronological range of the Swift
Creek Phase. Sherds providing the dating sample were all
Area A surface finds, thus the date should be used only as
Typical specimens of Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
are shown in Figures 14a-1 (k and 1 are tetrapodal bases),
and Figure 15g-j. Not as well represented in Area A are New
River Complicated Stamped (Figure 15f), St. Andrews and
Crooked River Complicated Stamped (Figure 15 d,e), West Flo-
rida Cord Marked (Figure 16k), and Napier Complicated
Stamped (Figure 15a-d).
A number of surface designs occur which have yet to be
placed temporally. They are included here because of the
subjective feeling that they may belong in the beginnings or
regional variations of complicated stamping. They are the
"chevron stamped" (Figure 16j), "triangle stamped" (Figure
16f,h,i), and the odd design which appears to be alternating
raised and impressed checks with a parallel groove border
(Figure 16e), which is assumed to be a regional Swift Creek
motif. It has not yet been found stratified, however. Fig-
ure 16m is a "rocker-dentate" sherd, probably belonging to
the Santa Rosa Series. The paucity of Santa Rosa Series
sherds in the habitation area seems to bear out the conclu-
sion that these ceramics are solely for ceremonial use. A
total of 7 (Table 1), including Santa Rosa Stamped, were
found on the site, exclusive of the burial mounds.
WEEDEN ISLAND COMPONENT
Apparently there is only slight, if any, expansion of
the occupation area during the Weeden Island Phase at Tucker
(Figure 2). The Weeden Island ceramic totals are approxi-
mately the same as those for the Swift Creek Phase, showing
only minor gains over the latter in Areas B and C. None of
the materials collected in Area A were unusual, and they
have been discluded in the illustrations. Sears (1963) has
amply discussed comparable specimens.
FORT WALTON COMPONENT
Materials of this component were dismissed by Sears
(1963:1), probably because they were numerically insignifi-
cant in Area B, as they were in most of Area A. This be-
comes apparent with the realization of the extremely small
space occupied by the Fort Walton component (Figure 2). It
is limited to the immediate area of the recent canal, with
only a few scattered sherds elsewhere. In the component,
however, were found the 2 vessels shown in Figure 17a. The
vessel on the left, Fort Walton Plain with an impressed rim,
was dredged from the canal during its construction. The
other, Fort Walton Incised, with punctations filling triangu-
lar and pentagonal spaces, was reclaimed piece by piece over
a number of years from one small area just north of the ca-
nal mouth. Variations of Fort Walton rims from the site are
shown in Figure 17b. Other than the two vessels, the sherd
total (63) from this component is not impressive, but has
possible ramifications which will be discussed below.
SUMMARY OF COMPONENTS
Of primary importance in this paper is the presentation
of information concerning the earliest and latest ceramic
components at Tucker--Norwood and Fort Walton, respectively.
Secondarily, the material from the intervening components--
Deptford through Weeden Island--offers some evidence con-
cerning population size and environmental adaptation which
should be given at least a passing note. Again, the reader
should be warned that reconstruction of component size by
surface distribution of sherds is tenuous at best, and such
reconstructions only approximate actuality.
In terms of quartiity of specimens recovered, the total
of Norwood sherds (258) found at 8Fr4 is surpassed only by
the 396 plain, fiber tempered sherds found at the Alligator
Lake site, 8W129 (Lazarus 1965:102). The distribution of
this series at Tucker dictated the probable delineation of
concentration, plain and simple stamped sherds being equally
distributed throughout Area A. Whether or not the clam was
of primary importance to subsistence during the Norwood com-
ponent is unknown; Norwood sherds were found with Deptford
materials in one concentrated clam shell midden deposit but
temporal separation is impossible after erosion.
THE NORWOOD PHASE IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
On the basis of the strength of the Norwood components
at 8Fr4, added to the collections from other sites in this
region (Figure 18), it becomes necessary to formalize the
designation of this first ceramic phase. The nomenclature
suggested here is the Norwood Phase, applied presently to
that area of north central Florida lying between the Suwan-
nee and Apalachicola Rivers, and the contiguous portion of
Georgia to the north. Temporally the Norwood Phase encom-
passes the introduction of pottery-making in this region and
its continuation up to the shift to the Deptford Series. For
the moment, the only other surely associated materials are
the Elliott's Point clay objects.
The prime reason for the western boundary of the region
at the Apalachicola River is the complete lack of decorated
fiber tempered ceramics west of that stream. The 17 sites
listed by Lazarus (1965:Table 5) from that region yielded
not a single fiber tempered sherd with surface decoration;
nor have any been reported from southern Alabama, Mississip-
pi, or Louisiana. To the east and south along the Florida
Gulf coast there is apparently a dribble of simple stamped
decoration, and this is presently included in the Norwood
Series definition. Just where the area of contact lies with
the Orange Series to the east, and the Stallings Series to
the north, is presently unknown. The main reason for set-
ting up the Norwood Series, however, was to distinguish
these regional socio-cultural differences one from the other
on the basis of preferred decorative techniques (Phelps
1965:65). Although 8W129 is not here included in the Nor-
wood Phase because of the lack of decorated sherds, it does
serve to indicate the need for a phase nomenclature to the
west of the region to which Norwood applies. Too long has
the northwest Florida sequence begun with Deptford and the
usual preliminary statement that "fiber tempered pottery and
Archaic materials are also found."
Some of the author's colleagues will no doubt disagree,
but the dates for the Norwood Phase should be approximately
equal to range of other phases (Orange, Stallings, and
Wheeler) characterized by Fiber tempered ceramics, 1000-2000
BC. The 1012 120BC date from Tucker is only an indicator,
and that only from one site. It does not necessarily mean
that Norwood pottery is later than other fiber tempered
Only the usual general statements can presently be giv-
en for culture during the Norwood phase. It is a continua-
tion of the hunting-gathering complex of the Archaic with
the addition of ceramics. There is a suggestion from in-
crease in the habitation area of some sites that either the
population was beginning to expand, or that occupation peri-
ods on each site were longer. Whatever may eventually be
discerned about this phase, it is obvious that certain cul-
tural changes in this region begin in the Norwood Phase, not
in Deptford, as has long been suggested.
Returning now to the other components at Tucker, there
are apparent continuities in the Deptford Phase from the
proceeding Norwood. Most obvious among these is the ceramic
continuity of the simple stamped surface decorative tech-
nique. In the north central Florida region, this surface
treatment appears to be very popular in the Deptford Phase,
even though the other types (Linear Check Stamped, Bold
Check Stamped) are present. In Area A at Tucker, the number
of sherds decorated by simple stamping and cross stamping
(598) almost equalled the linear check stamped type (661).
It alone has precedent in the Norwood Series, both in simple
stamping, and cross stamping, with a dowel-like tool. (A
preliminary statement on the provisional type, Deptford
Cross Stamped, is in preparation). There is no intent here
to suggest another "birthplace" for Deptford ceramics; only
the fact of the single continuity should be emphasized.
Perhaps most spectacular in the Deptford component at
8Fr4 is the expansion of habitation space. Deptford materi-
als are found over an area more than twice the size of the
Norwood component. This expansion implies quite a popula-
tion increase which must have some correlation with improved
subsistence techniques, but these have not yet been re-
claimed. Also indicative of this is the appearance of the
first ceremonial structure at Tucker, the Yent burial mound
(8Fr5), which Sears assigns to the late Deptford Phase
(Sears 1963:38). The expansion of site size during the
Deptford Phase is not limited to Tucker, but is generally
true of most Deptford components throughout the southeast.
The area occupied by the Swift Creek and Weeden Island
components at Tucker is perhaps one-third larger than that
of the Deptford component. The Tucker burial mound is dated
to the latter of these components. In terms of overall in-
crease, there is not much significance, particularly since
the deposits on the northern third of the site were apparent-
ly shallow. Carrying this a step further, these were pre-
sumably not many more occupants during the Weeden Island
Phase than were living there in the Deptford Phase. Subse-
quent to Deptford, the most popular shellfish was the oyster,
well represented in the later midden deposits (Sears 1963:5)
but Sears feels that this was supplementary to fully devel-
oped agriculture in the Weeden Island Phase (Sears 1963:41,
In contrast to this, the Fort Walton component, repre-
senting not more than one extended family of a group known
to be fully agricultural, occupies only a small section of
the total Weeden Island area. In proportion of apparently
arable land in the immediate vicinity, the Fort Walton com-
ponent size is more adequately adjusted to subsistence re-
quirements. That agriculture is possible in the area is
borne out by Moore's (1902:265) comment that the Yent Mound
(8Fr5) was located in an old field. The possibility also
exists, however, that this probable family unit was utiliz-
ing the area for marine food collection only on a seasonal
A valid hypothesis on Weeden Island subsistence has
been recently offered by Fairbanks (1965), who envisions a
redistributive system between coastal and inland sites, with
agricultural produce originating inland. The Tucker site
seems to fit nicely into the position of a coastal collect-
ing station during Weeden Island times. If this is accep-
table, then the next logical assumption is that such a pat-
tern began not during the Weeden Island Phase, but had its
inception probably as far back as the early Deptford Phase.
Sears has also suggested that agriculture was known during
the Deptford Phase (Sears 1963:40). The typical settlement
pattern did not change--large, ceremonial sites are inland;
smaller sites along the coast are collection stations--from
Deptford through Weeden Island. The major settlement pat-
tern change apparently occurs in the Fort Walton phase, when
coastal sites decrease even more in size while the inland
centers become increasingly larger. Perhaps the smaller
Fort Walton component marks the refined adjustment of de-
vebped agriculture which allots more land per family unit.
In terms of this single site, a component analysis can
go only so far. Mainly it directs toward problems of en-
vironmental adjustment and settlement patterns, to mention
only two, for future investigation in this region. It is
sufficient for this fourth investigation of 8Fr4 to have
added the Norwood Phase to the North central Florida region-
al cultural sequence.
The author wishes to express his gratitude to Mary Lou
Norwood and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. W. U. Norwood, of Tal-
lahassee, Florida, who own a cottage on the Tucker site.
Their interest and hospitality led directly to the observa-
tion that further useful material could be reclaimed from
the site. In recognition of this, as well as many other
kindnesses, the Norwood Series of fiber tempered ceramics
was named in their honor.
Appreciation is also expressed to Mrs. Yvonne Scalera,
of Tallahassee, who made available a large ceramic collec-
tion from the Tucker beach.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the
Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. River
Basin Surveys Papers No. 14, Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 169, pp. 315-358. Washington.
1961 Radiocarbon Dates for Southeastern Fiber-Tempered
Pottery. American Antiquity, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.
104-106. Salt Lake City.
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1959 Additional Elliott's Point Complex Sites. The
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 95-
1965 Gulf Complex Subsistence Economy. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Bulletin 3, pp. 57-62.
Ford, James A. and C. H. Webb
1956 Poverty Point: A Late Archaic Site in Louisiana.
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History, Vol. 46, Part 1. New York.
Griffin, James B. and W. H. Sears
1950 Certain Sand-Tempered Pottery Types of the South-
east. In Prehistoric Pottery of Eastern United
States. Ann Arbor.
Knauer, George A.
1965 Letter of July 9, to Phelps from Knauer, Tech-
nical Director, reporting dates determined by
the Florida State University Radiocarbon Dating
Kurz, Herman and K. Wagner
1957 Tidal Mashes of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts of
Northern Florida and Charleston, South Carolina.
Florida State University Studies, No. 24. Talla-
Lazarus, William C.
1958 A Poverty Point Complex in Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 23-32. Talla-
1965 Alligator Lake, A Ceramic Horizon Site on the
Northwest Florida Coast. The Florida Anthropol-
ogist, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 83-124. Gainesville.
Lewis, T. M. N. and M. Kneberg
1961 Eva: An Archaic Site. University of Tennessee
Moore, Clarence B.
1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Flo-
rida Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 12, pp. 257-274.
Phelps, David S.
1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber Tempered Ceramics.
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Bulletin
2, pp. 65-69. Cambridge.
Sears, William H.
1963 The Tucker Site on Alligator Harbor, Franklin
County, Florida. Contributions of the Florida
State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 9. Gaines-
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithson-
ian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Wash-
0 2000 4000
contour Interval 10ft.
Figure 1: Location of the Tucker Site (8Fr4) and Yent Mound (8Fr5)
in Franklin County, Florida.
e*# E TUCKER MD. |
lb 08r4 \\ YENT MOUND
NORWOOD COMPONENT ,.
***** DEPTFORD COMPONENT
SWIFT CREEK-WEEDEN ISLAND COMPONENT
FORT WALTON COMPONENT
SEARS' TEST PITS
0 200 400
Figure 2: Spatial extent of components at 8Fr4. (Modified after
-.A .r ?
-. .c -
Figure 3: Area A looking northwest. Concentrated clam shell midden
is visible between stake and end of pier. Midden is just
opposite Sears' Test Pit 1.
Figure 4: Shell midden and remnants of marsh growth following erosion
of artificial beach.
Figure 5: View northwest along Area A. Midden debris is emerging
in miormnvn- ann mni-~ mark the recently dredged channel.
Figure 6: Erosion of beach exposing intact lenses of midden among
the marsh grass roots. Oaks in background grow along
dune ridge paralleling shore.
Projectile Points (a-j)
(k) from Area A, 8Fr4.
a. Norwood Plain sherd with simple stamped rim.
b. Norwood Plain, rounded vessel base.
c,d. Norwood Plain, flat vessel bases.
e,f. Elliott's Point clay objects.
c d e f f i
g h i j k
Figure 9: Norwood Plain sherds. Figure 10: Norwood Simple Stamped sherds.
Figure 11: Deptford Cross Stamped (a-e), Deptford
Simple Stamped (f), Deptford tetrapodal
base fragments (g).
Deptford Cross Stamped (a), Deptford
Simple Stamped (b-g).
I m Figure 14: Swift Creek I Complicated Stamped rims
(a-j), Swift Creek tetrapodal base
Deptford Linear Check Stamped (a-e, j), fragments (k-l).
Deptford Bold Check Stamped (f-i, k-m).
Swift Creek I Series sherds.
Napier Complicated Stamped (a-d), "Cross-in-circle
stamp" (e), "triangle stamped" (f, h-i), unique check
stamp (g), "chevron stamped" (j), West Florida Cord
Marked (k), "rocker dentate" (1), bold check variation (m).
Figure 17: b
a. Fort Walton Vessels; Fort Walton Plain with impressed rim
(right), and Fort Walton Incised with punctate-filled areas
(left); ht. of vessel, 25 cms.
b. Fort Walton Phase rims.
Figure 18: Sites containing components of the Norwood Phase
in North Central Florida.
A POSSIBLE PALEO-INDIAN SITE IN PINELLAS COUNTY
Lyman O. Warren
In 1963, Mr. Charles Hite, then residing on State Road
593, kindly showed me a number of Archaic sites in that area.
About one year later, the State Road Department pushed an ex-
tension of State Road 593 in a northerly direction to meet
and cross S.R. 584 at the Boot Ranch. The topography in the
area was generally low, and in places swampy, and it was
necessary to cut drainage ditches on either side of the road.
The western ditch, except for a few brownish spalls, was
sterile. The easterly ditch had two slopes, an essentially
sterile western scarp, adjacent to the highway, and an east-
erly slope cut through the natural or original terrain. It
was the eastern face of the eastern ditch from which came
the artifacts to be described below.
The site is approximately 1/4 mile south of State Road
584 and the Boot Ranch. Artifacts were found along the
slope for about 100 yards north and south of a culvert pas-
sing under 593. The culvert drained a cross ditch, which
flowed from a peaty swamp on the east and emptied into a
tangle of underbrush to the west of the highway, where a
three or four foot elevation of whitish sand to the north
was planted to citrus.
The generally watery nature of the location was accen-
ted by an event which took place nearby a few months later.
A steel pylon for a high tension line was put in. In prepar-
ing the substructure several free flowing springs were en-
countered at a depth of about eight or ten feet in the clay-
ey marl or "limestone". This mishap was enlightening from
an' archeologic viewpoint in suggesting that the ancient
Paleo-Indian site had been on or close to a water hole.
As mentioned before, the.easterly slope of the east
ditch had been newly sliced out of the natural terrian, and
presented a neat face or profile, bare of vegetation at the
winter season, but several months later to be obscured by
weedy overgrowth. The face was made up of three strata.
The top layer, of whitish sand, sterile except for a few
spalls, was not more than five or six inches in depth. It
lay upon a brown sand stratum, perhaps a foot in depth, from
which the artifacts seemed to be eroding and in some cases
were actually imbedded. This brownish sand merged with an
underlying sterile brownish sand hardpan.
Two Suwannee points were found. One, (Fig. l"a") is
the basal half of a point measuring 1 1/2 inches in length
Florida Anthropologist, Vol XIX, No. 1, April, 1966 39
by 1 1/4 inches wide by 9/16 inches thick distally with
thinning to less than 7/16 inches near the base. Prominent
ears and basal grinding are present. Its original length
was probably about 2 1/2 inches.
The second point (Fig. l"b") has a "wasp waist", or
"Mae West" shape, and is artistically much superior to the
first. Pressure flaking along the edges is more refined.
There is no appreciable basal thinning or grinding and each
ear comes to a sharp point. The length is just under 2 1/2
inches, the widths 3/4 inches at the shoulders and 3/8 at
the waist to 5/16 inches thick.
A third object, (Fig. l"c") resembles closely the "Ler-
ma Point" or Paleo drill depicted on page 46 of the "Stan-
field-Worley Bluff Shelter" (1).
Figure l"d" shows a snub nose end-scraper, or small
plane, with an unfinished and pointed butt end. Figure l"e"
is a well made ovate knife or chopper, measuring 4 by 2 1/4
inches by 1 inch in thickness.
In addition to the tools, about 35 chips or spalls were
present at the site. No fire pits and no bone remnants were
to be seen. The site is being reported to indicate what
sort of terrain could prove fruitful in searching for other
Paleo-Indian sites. It would seem one might look for (1)
new ditches recently cut through (2) low lying flat lands
(3) near fresh water (4) in brown sand with (5) scanty over-
burden of white sand. All the artifacts presumably belong
to a Paleo-Indian tool assemblage.
I wish to thank Mr. Charles Hite for informing me of
the several Archaic sites in the region of State Road 593
and Mr. Ripley P. Bullen for helpful suggestions and correc-
tions in this paper.
DeJarnette, David L., Edward B. Kurjack, & James W. Cambron
1962 Stanfield Worley Bluff Shelter Excavations.
Journal of Alabama Archeology, Vol. VIII, Nos. 1
& 2, University, Alabama.
St. Petersburg, Florida
January 1, 1966
0 1 2
a, base of Suwannee point;b, pressure
flaked Suwannee-like point; drill
d, end-and-side scrapper;., ovate
APPEAL TO THE MEMBERSHIP
In order to further the aims and interests of the Flo-
rida Anthropological Society, it is important that members
be kept informed of the current work and interests of the
local organizations, as well as personal news of our members
Such a channel of communication is available to us, in the
form of a newsletter. Your newly elected secretary has
agreed to be responsible for the publication of this news-
letter, and invites the cooperation of local groups and in-
Please send items of interest, which you wish to com-
municate to: Mrs. Evelyn Kessler
2401 Bayshore Boulevard
Florida Anthropological Society
R A 119 University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, 33620
All issues of the Florida Anthropologist are again avail-
able. Vol.,l, 1948 through Vol. 14, 1961 are available
through: Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 111 Fifth Avenue, New
York, N.Y., 10003. The price of these reprints is $8.00 per
volume, $2.00 for single numbers, and $4.00 for double num-
Volumes 15, 1962 through 18, 1965 are available through the
Society. Please order from the Treasurer, Dr. Charles Arnade
RA 119, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, 33620.