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VOLUME XV, NO. 4
VOLUME XV, NO. 4
C O N T I N T S
The Maximo Point Site
Frank Bushnell .............................. 89
Macgowan "Early Man in the New World ........................ 102
Heizer "Man's Discovery of his Past" ......................... 118
A Colono-Indian Ware Milk Pitcher
Charles H. Fairbanks ....................... 103
Pasco Series Sherds from the Bayport Mound
William C. Lazarus & Gerald S. Spence.......... 107
Perforated Deer Phalanges in the Simpson Collection
Ripley P. Ballen ............................ 111
The Kimball Midden, Lake County
Carl A. Benson & Howard Bruce Green 11 ....... 113
The Preservation of Wood by the Alum Process
John W. Eaton .............................. 115
Review of Evolution and Culture
William DeVane ........................... 119
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OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
PRESIDENT-ClIff E. Matton
DBM Resoeach Cap., Cocoa Beach
1lt VICE PRES.-Chatlton Tbheau
Univursniy of Miami, Coral Gables
2nd VICE PRES..Haol G. Smith
Florida Slate Unlversity, Tallahassee
TREASURER.J. Ployd Monk
1960 SW 61st Ct., Miami 55
SECRETARY-Mr. ClIff E. Maoon
209 Beverly Road, Cocoa
Mr. Noel P. Herrmann
6267 SW 12th St., Miami
Dr. William H. Sears
Florida State Muomum, Gainesvlle
Mr. Carl A. Benson
2310 Roalhavae Or., Orlando
Charles H. Falrbanks
Department of Atthranplogy
Florida State Univeroty, Tellehassee'
THE MAXIMO POINT SITE 1962
Report of continued salvage at the Maximo Point Site discussed by Sears (Fla. Anthrop.,
XI:1: 1-10). Stratigraphic tests further confirm the ceramic and projectile point sequences
determined by Sears.
This site, recently tested by Dr. William H. Sears, (Sears 1958:
1-10) is destined to be destroyed in the near future for real estate
purposes. This was reason enough to be concerned with salvaging
additional data from this site along with the idea of answering, or
helping to answer some basic questions involving the nature of the
area. An additional reason for desiring to test was based on the
discovery of a fan shaped area, centrally located at the midden site,
directly to the south of the temple mound (Area B, Fig. 1). This
area consisted almost entirely of black organic earth, few shells,
numerous sherds, and an appreciable amount of other cultural
The site is located on the southern end of the Pinellas County
Peninsula in the southwest quarter of Section 11, R 16 E, T 32 S,
and is ecologically still in quite a wide state.
The excavations were done by Mr. Bud Spence and myself over a
period of several months, working afternoons, weekends, and any
other spare moment we could afford. We were continually hampered
by others, not bent on scientific pursuits, re-opening our filled-in
trenches or damaging wall faces. Regardless of these deterring fact-
ors it is hoped some useful information was derived.
As stated by Dr.Sears (1958:1-10) this site was visited and mapped
by Clarence B. Moore (1900: 353-354) and is noted by Willey (1949).
All previous maps have been of the sketch nature, not including some
of the interesting features.
It was decided to draw a reasonable accurate one which is illus-
trated in Figure 1. It may be noted that some of the features of
Moore's map are again used with the addition of rise "I" and "J".
Excavation in our test was limited by time to two squares 10' x 10'
(indicated by squares in area "B", figure 1). These were carried
deeply into the original ground soil. All earth was carefully worked
and screened through 1/2" mesh hardware cloth. Arbitrary three
inch levels were used in most areas since only faint lines of demar-
cation were noted in profile (fig. 2) and since cultural debris was
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962 89
Fig. 1: The Maximo Point Site
6CcK EARTH HTGIEY DW6rear 5EL STLES SMD
Fig. 2: West Profile: Test #2 Maximo Point Site
It was observed from the beginning of the excavation the unique
nature of the zone involved, which as was previously stated, almost
pure organic earth for the first 16 inches. It may be seen on the map
that the area of excavation is near the center of the community plan
as far as the topographic structure of the midden is concerned.
Areas other than this central one (with the exception of rise "H" on
the map, which is also of black earth) were constructed of very
compact masses of shell and sand. The line of demarcation between
these shell areas and the central "earth" area is in some spots
abrupt and easily noted both in digging and visibly by the changes in
the types of vegetation growing on each area. In profile, the area
of intersection, at the point where shell midden and black earth join,
appears to be a situation in which the shell slopes gradually into the
earth deposit (fig. 2, lower right margin).
It was noted that most artifact types were nearly the same in both
squares at all depths irrespective of whether shell was present or
not. For this reason the results of only one square are given in chart
form (fig. 3, 4, & 5). The artifacts tended to be more concentrated in
two zones, depths 3"-9" and 15"-30". Small triangular Pinellas form
of projectile points seem to be associated withthe upper levels only
the trend being towards larger points at deeper levels. This situation,
dealing with projectile forms by depth, is somewhat similar to the
situation found at the Safety Harbour Site (Griffin and Bullen 1950).
Moore, who was refused permission to dig in mound "A", indicates
that area B was a flat fan like extension from the front of the mound
to midden C. This seems to be much the same situation today. Moore' s
map does not fully show the appropriate width of the site from north
and south, or the proper southern curve of the east end of area C.
Very little erosion seems to have taken place in the past and few
changes resulted from the construction of a driveway surrounding
the excavated area (see map). All aspects considered, the total area
was relatively undisturbed, many artifacts and several firepits
occurring immediately under the surface. The position of these
firepits would probably show that this "fan" was not the remains of
a ramp to the temple mound.
A speculative feature is that by far the greatest percentage of
material came from the outer edge of the "fam". This outer edge
measured approximately 9" in depth (see fig. 6 for metric classifi-
cation of food mollusks from this shallow area). Very little material
other than occasional sherds and clam and conch shells occurred in
the median portion.
At this site in 1900 a burial mound was located (Mound H) and
dug by Moore. Very little other than a few badly decayed human bones
were discovered. No sign of this mound exist today although the
extension "F" is very obvious.
It is regrettable that Maximo Point will probably be destroyed in
the near future although one small portion of the site (to the west
\ '- Iy
A-D Pinellas Plain Notched Rims, E-F Pinellas Plain Flat-Smooth
Rims, G Pinellas Plain Rounded Rim, H Pinellas Type Paste Random
Punctate, I Sand Temper, J-K Pinellas Incised.
of U. S. 19) is well preserved in the form of the City of St. Peters-
burg's Maximo Prk. Unfortunately, most people visiting this park
little realize the true historic (or pre-historic) value of the area.
Pottery: Nearly 3,000 sherds were recoveredfrombothtest squares.
From the bery beginning it was obvious that sherds other than the
Pinellas Plain form were extremely rare, only seven examples of
Pinellas Incised, one Pinellas Random Punctate, two examples of St.
John's Check Stamped, and six plain, sand tempered sherds were
As to Pinellas Plain rim forms, simple rounded rims were the
most frequent. It is interesting to note that the notched flat rim
seems to be a more recent innovation at this site (fig. 3). No sherds
of this type were found at depths deeper than twelve inches in either
The ceramics from this site are as a whole rather poorly construc-
ted (Sears 1958). The vessel form seems to indicate that large,
shallow bowls predominate.
All but two of the Pinellas Incised sherds seem to come from one
vessel, a miniature form with four strap handles. Reconstruction of
this vessel was unfortunately impossible.
Chipped Stone :Four types of projected points predominate.
These are the small triangular, stemless points knownas Pinellas
Points; Lanceolate blades, Side notched and basally notched points.
Most knives were large and stemless or large square stemmed blades.
Flint chips were numerous but utilized flakes were rare. A few small
drills were recognized, some on bordering on microlith size. A
definite stratographic picture was noted with the small triangular
points appearing in the upper layers, seemingly followed by the
lanceolate blades and finally those basally notched appearing on the
lowest levels. Large flint choppers, so characteristic of many areas
of Pinellas County, were lacking although core tools were common
(hammers for the most part). Some chert tools and projectiles appear
to have ground edges.
Pecked or Ground Stone : The most frequent form of worked stone
other than flint was the grinding slab and hone. Three examples of
broken celts have been noted in other collections. Limestone and
sandstone plumments occur infrequently. Two examples of partially
drilled sandstone beads (barrel shaped) have been seen. One plumment
of slate was also examined.
Worked Shell Worked shell tools and ornaments were met with
frequently. These were usually wither well made or in an unfinished
condition. Represented were Columnella plumments, gorgets, part-
ially drilled columnella beads, Strombus celts (2 examples), Cut
Busycon strips, Cut Busycon spoon like objects, Busycon scrapes or
adzes, Busycon picks and hoes, perforated area shells, etc.
Fig. 3: Stratographie Distribution of Ceramic Types 10'x 10' Test
0-3 3-6 6R 9.12 12. n -1 .8 18-23 -2n 2t-27 27-30 30-33 33-36 3 6 42 'To-A
Pinellas Plaint Body Sherds 8 146 1g9 76 80 117 109 110 86 85 56 23 4 1107
Rim Sherds Round 4 13 8 6 9 6 10 12 5 10 10 2 95
Flat Smeoth 4 21 3 2 3 1 1 2 6 1 19
Flat Notched 5 2 1 8
Pinellas Incised 1 5 6
Strap Handles 1 1
Other Types: Sand Temp.. 1 1
Randem Punctate 1 1
St. John's Check Stamped 1 1
TOTAL 7 18 17i 93 91 127 120 123 91 102 67 25 4 1269
Fig. 5: Strategraphic Distribution 10'x 10' Test Maximo Point Site-Bone Objects
0-3 2-6 6-9 9-12 125 15-18 18-21 21-24 24-27 27-30 30-33 33-36 36-42 TOTA
Deer Phalange: Split 3 3
Deer Phalange: Unwerked 1 1 1 1 1 5
Deer Antler Fragments 1 1
Deer Antlert Worked 1 1
Fish Hemal Bnes 3 14 1 2 4 1 7 3 3 7 3 2 50
Deer Astragalus 1 1
Deer Cannon Fragments 1 9 4 3 3 4 4 1 2 1 32
Fish Vertebra 14 0 U1 11 13 15 35 12 22 23 14 6 6 242
Misc. Fish Bone 4 101 h4 12 13 33 41 69 36 29 18 15 6 421
Sheepshead Jaws 15 3 1 1 1 2 2 25
Snake Vertebra 1 1
Claws: Stone Crab 9 2 3 3 1 3 2 3 5 4 35
Spines Sting Ray 1 2 1 4
Misc. Bird Bone 1 4 3 2 1 11
Misc. Turtle Shell Fragments 3 1 2 1 7
TOTAL 12 197 6733 35 96 124 70 57 14 30 23 839
Fig. 4r Stratographic Distribution 10x 10' Test,Maadmo Point Site-Stone and Shell Objects
0-3 3-6 -9 9-12 12-15 15-18 18-21 2,L2 24-27 27-30 30-33 33-36 36-42 TOTAL
Projectilesa Snall Trianmglar, 3 4 1 8
Lancoelate 3 2 1 6
8ide Notehed 1 1
Basally Ietched 1 1 2
Knaies: Sta-med 1 1
Flat Bams 1 1
Projectile. Bi Painted BDen 1 1
Drills 2 2
Scrapers 1 1 2
Flint Core Harmers 2 1 2 5
Flint Core 3 1 1 1 1 1 8
Pb.ble Hrmer 1 1
Ceral Head Fragmenta 6 1 7
Flint Chip 6 15 33 10 11 13 8 7 3 3 2 5 7 126
Sandsteonae Homaes 2 2 4 3 211
Sandatone: Fragaents 3 1 4 2 1 1 12
Sandstone: Worked 4 1 5 4 5 1 1 3 1 25
Limestone: Worked 6 3 9
Limestoner Fragoente 1 1 3 4 1 10
Flumst: Sandstone 1 1
Plamett Limestone 1 1
Plumett Colummella 1 1 1 1
Colua nlla OCt or Worked 3 2 2 7
Columalla Drift 3 8 6 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 33
Strombna Celt Fragment 1 1
Stroebus Gigaa Fragnt 1 1
Aroat Perforated 6 7 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 32
Coral Cylinder Bead 1 1
Mhark Tooth Fossil 1 1 -
Horse Tooth Fossil 1 1
Bone Pin Fragment 1 1
Fish Vertebra Bead 1 1 2 3 12
Fired a.ay Lunp 1 1
Pottery Disc, Perforated 1 1
TOTAL 23 6. 69 3- 3 35 .b 18 6 11 0 13 336
Bone : Bone artifacts were very infrequent, being limited to one
bi-pointed projectile point, two broken pins (all of deer bone) and
several fish vertebra beads.
Other Artifacts : A simple listing of other types of artifacts, other
collections included, would consist of perforated pottery discs, un-
perforated pottery discs and worked sections or chunks of both
sandstone and limestone.
In general, all artifacts follow the same characteristics as were
found at the Safety Harbour Site. (Griffin and Bullen 1950).
Summary and Conclusions
The cultural material from Maximo Point, considering previous
articles on this site as well as this one, tend to indicate that this area
possibly spans a very late Weeden Island-Early Safety Harbour
Period. This theory would seem particularly applicable to projectile
points, considering the stratographic picture dealing with changes in
shape or form. Pinellas Plain sherds seem to be indicated at all
depths. The appearance of the typical "Pinellas" form of projectile
point near the surface is typical of the Safety HarbourPeriod.
It could easily be that the earthy area excavated represents
somewhat of a workshop area. This would possibly account for the
large number of rejected or broken tools and ornaments. It seems
reasonable that those other areas, represented by shell ridges
would indicate refuse midden, and the dominant central mound (Mound
"A" on the map) represents a temple structure or a platform mound
(Sears 1958: 3).
No artifacts of European or Colonial origin were found. This streng-
thens the theory that the Maximo Point Site was abandoned before
Spanish contact. Many similarities do exist however, between this site
and the Safety Harbour Site.
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Dorsey Whittington, the owner
of the site at the time of excavation, for permission to dig, to Mr.
Ripley P. Bullen, for his constructive criticism and to the students
of Florida Presbyterian College for their help in excavating.
METRIC STRATOGRAPHY OF FOuD MOLLUSKS IN TEST 51x5', 1st 9"
0"-3" 3"-6" 6"-9" TOTAL
Busycon perversum Linne 77 67 14 158
Strombus pugilis Linne 11 9 3 23
Venus campechiensis Gmelin 65 42 11 118
Fasciolaria tulipa Linne 6 1 0 7
Turbonilla hemphilli Bush 1 0 0 1
Ostrea virginica Gmelin 5 7 1 13
Ostrea frons Linne 6 3 0 9
Area pexata Say 11 8 3 22
Macrocallista nimbosa Solander 8 2 0 10
Pectin irradians Lamarck 10 6 3 19
Fasciolaria gigantea Kiener 1 0 0 1
Polinices duplicate Say 1 2 0 3
Conus floridanus Fabb 3 2 0 5
Dinocardium robustum Solander 0 3 2 5
TOTAL BY DEPTH 205 152 37 394
(Chart primarily represents
-- NIT- ....
A Finger Pitted Sandstone Hammer, B Flint Core Hammers, C Sand-
stone Hone, D Typical Pinellas Points, Remainder Are Assorted
Points and Drills.
A Busycon Pick, B Arca Shell Perforated in Relatively Unusual
Manner (Umbo Perforation Usual), C Worked Busycon Columnella,
D Unfinished Shell Plummets, E Limestone Plummet, F Undrilled
Coral Cylinder Bead, G Fired Clay Lump, H. Perforated Pottery
Disk, I Fish Vertebra Beads, J Bi-Pointed Bone Projectile Point,
K Worked Sting-Ray Spine, L Lower Sheepshead Jaw, M Fragmentary
Bone Pins, N Fossil Horse Tooth.
Row A Pinellas Points and Drills, Row B Various Projectile Points
from Deeper Layers, Row C Projectiles and Busycon Plummets
(Second Plummet from Left is Fish Effigy), RowD Various Plummets
and Worked Busycon Sections, Row E Cut Busycon Strip, Ground
Olive Shell, Gorgets, Stone and Pottery Disks, Sandstone Hammer,
Double Perforated Shark Tooth, Perforated Pottery Disk, Two Stone
Barrel Shaped Beads, and an Unusually Large PerforatedArca Shell.
Griffin, John W. and Bullen, Ripley P.
1950. The Safety Harbour Site, Pinnellas County, Florida.
University of Florida Publication No. 2 Gainesville.
Moore, Clarence B.
1900. "Certain Antiquities of the Florida West-Coast." Journal
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
Vol. XI, pp. 353-354. Philadelphia.
Sears, William H.
1958. The Maximo Point Site. The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. XI, No. 1, pp. 1-10. Gainsville.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949. Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol 113. Washington.
St. Petersburg, Fla.
BOOK NOTICE ES
Macgowan, Kenneth, and Joseph A. Hester, Jr.
1962 Early Man in the New World. The Natural History Library,
Anchor Books, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, xxiii, 333 pp., 95 Illus-
trations, maps and tables. $1.45.
This paperback is a revision of Macgowan's earlier book brought
up to date and considerably improved. The senior author is director
of the Department of Theater Arts at the University of California at
Los Angeles but the book is by no means drama at the expense of
science. It is probably the best survey of the subject written by an
expert for the non-specialist. Macgowan is an amateur who has in-
formed himself and can write attractively.
The book discusses the peopling of the NewWorld, the climate and
fauna of the Pleistocene, and the Old World background of the first
migrants to the western hemisphere. A highly adequate chapter dis-
cusses the early artifacts of the New World. Another chapter dis-
cusses the problem of Early Man and the extinction of the Ice Age
animal forms. The problems of the racial type of the first migrants
is discussed at some length. The whole area of diffusion of New World
cultural traits and independent invention is treated at length. In all
this will prove a valuable and stimulating treatment for both the pro-
fessional and the interested layman. There are a series of footnotes
to further readings and a fairly adequate index.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 102
A Colono-Indian Ware Milk Pitcher
Charles H. Fairbanks
An Indian-made handled pitcher was discovered in the Aucilla River in central Jefferson
County, Florida. It was not near any known Indian site and may have been dropped from a
canoe. On the basis of ware it is ascribed to the Seminole of the very early 19th century.
It is a variant of the Colono-Indian Ware described by Hume and South.
During the spring of 1962 Donald Ohmes and his father, Richard
Ohmes, of Chaires found a nearly complete handled pitcher in the
Aucilla River. The pitcher is obviously of Indian manufacture but
belongs to the general class of moderate-sized milk pitchers of
European tradition. It has a number of characteristics of the Colono-
Indian ware recently described by Hume and others (1962:2-14). The
following speculations are offered as to its original manufacture
and probable use. My thanks are due to the Ohmes for their interest
and cooperation in making this information available.
The pitcher is about two-thirds complete, only the basal part
being missing. It is composed of a soft, friable paste with moderate
amounts of fine, rather sharp, sand temper. The core is reddish to
brownish and somewhat contorted. The surfaces range from a dark
chocolate color to nearly black. In places the surfaces are spelling
and there is some of the characteristic red fungus stain found on
articles submerged in Florida fresh waters. The surfaces are rather
lumpy and poorly smoothed but do show rounded burnishing marks.
As the surface has been affected by prolonged submersion it is
difficult to determine whether it originally had a low polished gloss
or its present rather matte finish. I am inclined to believe that it
formerly looked somewhat smoother and more finished than it does
at present. The elongated globular body flares gently into a slightly
outward sloping rim. The lip is flat to tightly rounded. The large
loop handle is plugged into the vessel wall. Near the base of the
handle is a quite pronounced knot or bump on the outer, lower side.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 103
The orafice is oval and pinched out opposite the handle to a poorly
defined pouring lip. The present height is 8.75 inches, maximum dia-
meter about 6.75 inches. The handle is 5.4 inches high. We may
suppose that the original height was about ten to twelve inches, de-
pending on the type of base originally present.
The pitcher was found by Donald Ohmes in a deep hole in the
Aucilla River in central Jefferson County. Along this stretch the
Aucilla runs in a deep trench through a high sandy plain. The river
has cut down into the underlying limestone to varying depths. The
hole where Donald found the pitcher is just downstream from a
slightly resistant ledge that forms a sort of rapids or miniature
falls. No Indian site is to be found in the immediate vicinity and it
is possible that the pitcher may have been dropped from a canoe or
that it may have been washed downstream some distance. I am in-
clined, however, to think that it could not have been transported far
to have remained in such a large fragment.
The pitcher seems to belong to the class recently called Colono-
Indian Ware by Hume and others. Hume-has described it from Rose-
well (Hume, 1962a), Tutter's Neck, andat Clay Bank, Virginia (1962b,
3-4). South has reported it from Brunswick Town, North Carolina,
and more recently from a colonial site on the Citadel campus,
Charleston, South Carolina (Ms., and paper presented at the 19th
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, 1962). In these cases it is
ascribed to local Indians or other Indian remnants who were engaged
in making cheap pottery for the use of slaves on the plantations. Hume
and South may be correct in this explanation for the ware on the
Atlantic seaboard. In the case of this pitcher, however, a more
strictly Indian use is suggested.
The makers seem most likely to have been Seminole. No exact
date can be given to an isolated underwater find. It seems likely,
however, that is was produced late in the 18th century or early in
the 19th century. The Seminole were very largely removed from
this section of Florida during the Second Seminole War, just after
1835. This would seem to put a terminal date on the pitcher of not
later than 1838. The Aucilla heads in southern Georgia and would form
a rather convenient route for Seminole fleeing the destruction of the
Miccosukee Town by Andrew Jackson in March 1818. Seminole fleeing
down the Aucilla by canoe from the Miccosukee Towns might well
have dropped the pitcher. At any rate, the ware and workmanship
appear to be Seminole rather than the earlier Spanish-influenced
Apalachee ceramics. Thus it illustrates an additional instance of the
general class of Colono-Indian Wares. It differs from those examples
described by Hume and South largely because it is based on a slightly
different tradition of Indian ceramics. As the Seminole of this region
never seem to have been drawn into a symbiotic relationship with
the American Territorials, it is somewhat doubtful that it was made
for sale by the Indians. It is, in this case, probably an instance of
Seminole acculturation to European and American ceramic traditions.
Colono-Indian Ware Milk Pitcher
Hume, Ivor Noel
1962a Excavations at Rosewell, Gloucester County, Virginia 1957-
59. Contributions from the Museum of History and Tech-
nology, Paper 18, pp. 153-229. U.S. National Museum, Bull.
1962b An Indian Ware of the Colonial Period. Quarterly Bulletin
Archaeological Society of Virginia. Vol.17, No. 1, pp. 1-14.
Ms. Description of the Ceramic Types from Brunswick
Town. Ms. Historic Sites Division, North Carolina, Dept.
of Archives and History, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1959.
Florida State University
Pasco Series Sherds From the Bayport Mound
William C. Lazarus & Gerald S. Spence
A large sherd collection from the Bayport Mound revealed a total of 372 limestone tem-
pered sherds of the Pasco Series. Complicated Stamped of Swift Creek style and Cord
Marked sherds seem to be additions to the series which included Pasco Plain, Pasco Red
and Pasco Checked Stamped.
The Bayport Mound (He-1) is located about one mile north of
Bayport, Hernando Co., Florida. (Moore, 1903, pp 415-424). It has
been identified as a burial mound built in Weeden Island times and
was used in both Weeden Island I and II Periods with some reuse
as a Safety Harbor burial place. (Willey, 1949 pp 325-326). Willey
has identified a vessel (No. 38946) from this Mound, now in the
R. S. Peabody Foundation collection as being Pasco Check Stamped.
Early in 1962, a collection of several thousand sherds was re-
covered by screening an area in the southeastern quadrant of this
Mound by Gerald S. Spence and others. In classifying this large
collection, which thoroughly confirms the Weeden Island I and II
dating, a group of 372 limestone tempered sherds was identified
as belonging to the Pasco Series, a central Florida type defined by
Two variants from the established types were observed among
the Pasco Series sherds from the Bayport Mound. Also some infor-
mation was provided on the size and shape of seven Pasco series
The variants noted are (1) Complicated Stamped (Fig. la) and (2)
Cord Marked (Fig lb) which occur on typical Pasco paste. Neither of
these justify the creation of a new type based on the quantities ob-
served at this site to date (see Table I).
Pasco Plain 331
Pasco Red 14
Pasco Check Stamped 23
Complicated Stamped 2
Cord Marked 2
If the paste of the Complicated Stamped sherds was sand tempered
instead of limestone tempered, these sherds would be very conven-
tional examples of the type Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Late
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 107
Variety), which along with the Pasco types is in the Weeden Island
Similarly if the temper of the two Cord Marked sherds was sand
instead of limestone, these sherds would be indistinguishable from
the variety known as West Florida Cord Marked (Late Variety).
The cord used to wrap the paddle which made these impressions was
4.0 mm. in diameter (10 raps in 4.0 cm.) and there are five twists
of the cord to a centimeter visible on one sherd.
The Pasco Check Stamped sherds in this collection can be identi-
fied as belonging to at least three different vessels. Using sizable
rims sherds for estimating size and shape, the following character-
istics of Pasco Check Stamped vessels have been observed:
No.1 Deep, clear rectangular checks (1.5 x 4 mm) applied at a slight
angle to the rim. (Fig Ic) The lip was rounded and unmodified. The
rim diameter of this globular vessel was about 6 1/2 inches. Thick-
ness varied from 6 to 8 mm. Temper particles ranged up to 5mm.
Color varied from brown to reddish brown. Some red clay particles
occurred in the paste.
No.2 The blurred checks were linearized (lands larger in one dir-
ection than the other). Stamping was applied at about 45 deg. to the
rim, which was slightly outflared. The lip was pointed with a slight
evidence of an outward fold of excess material. Temper particles
ranged up to 6mm. Thickness was between 7 and 8 mm. This vessel
was cylindrical downward from the rim for at least three inches.
Rim diameter was about 13 1/2 inches. Color and paste were similar
to vessel No. 1.
No.3 Blurred, linearized checks were similar to vessel No. 2.
Stamping was applied at 45 deg. to the rim. The lip was rounded with
excess material left on the outside resembling a fold. (Fig. Id) The
vessel was a pot of about 8 1/2 inches rim diameter with a slightly
converging orifice. It paralleled vessel No. 2 in other respects.
The Pasco Plain vessels were estimated as follows:
No.4 This plain pot had a slightly converging orifice. The rim
diameter was about 9 1/2 inches. The rim was folded. In other
respects it paralleled vessel No. 1.
No.5 About 25% of this vessel was salvaged. It was a plain dish of
about 5 1/4 inches in diameter and 3 inches deep. The outer surface
was smooth, while the inner surface showed scraping. The lip was
rounded and unmodified. Temper was quite fine compared with the
larger vessels. Color was reddish brown.
No.6 This plain cylindrical vessel had a slightly outflared rim, the
diameter of which is about 7 1/2 inches. The lip was rounded and
unmodified. The reddish brown surfaces overlay a black core.
Temper was relatively fine and plentiful.
A single Pasco Red vessel was identified as follows:
No.7 The bottom of this vessel was the only part available for
study. Assuming a globular shape the maximum diameter was about
12 1/2 inches. The thickness of the bottom section was between 11
Pasco Series Sherds from the Bayport Mound
and 12 mm. The Paste was heavily tempered with a wide range of
lump sizes. A red slip was obvious on the exterior surface. The
core was black.
Of the 372 Pasco sherds examined from this site, none contain
incising or punctating. The coil method of manufacture is clearly
evident on the break lines of a significant number of sherds. The
majority of the sherds are brown to reddish brown with black cores.
Less than 5% of the sherds have a black exterior. Occasional small
lumps of red clay appear in the paste.
The Pasco Series of ceramic types appear to represent only a
temper variation of plain and stamped vessels in the Weeden Island
Period. The closest affinities seem to be with the late Swift Creek
types which occur in Weeden Island times.
Goggin, John M.
1948 "Some Pottery Types from Central Florida" (Gainesville
Anthrop. Association Bulletin No. 1.
Moore, C. B.
1903 "Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Florida Central West
Coast", Journal of the Academy of Nat. Sci., Philadelphia,
Willey, G. R.
1949 "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast" Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collection, Washington, D.C., Vol. 113.
Perforated Deer Phalanges In The Simpson Collection
Ripley P. Bullen
Longitudinally perforated deer phalanges are described in the Simpson Collection from
the Bluffton Midden on the St. Johns River.
Occasionally in archaeological sites one finds perforated deer
phalanges. These have small holes at each end arranged so that the
phalanges could be strung as beads. Due to poor preservation bone
work of this nature is rather rare.
In the Simpson Collection in High Springs, Florida, are fifteen
such beads as shown in the accompanying illustration. These beads
all came from one site, Bluffton on the St. Johns River, and were
found by J. Clarence Simpson some years ago. They have been
strung on a leather thong as if they formed one necklace but as they
were not found at one time or in one particular location at the site
this assembling is problematical.
As shown in the illustration, some appear unmodified except for
holes for string. Others have the proximate end "squared off" and
one or two may have been modified at the smaller end also. It is
possible, therefore, that these specimens may represent two different
kinds of beads. They may have had two different functions.
We appreciate Mrs. Henry Simpson's courtesy in permitting us to
photograph and describe these specimens. We also thank J. Gilbert
Wright, formerly Curator of Exhibits at the Florida State Museum,
for making the picture.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962.
^- -:,i -;'
Longitudinally Perforated Deer Phalanges.
The Kimball Midden, Lake County
Carl A. Benson and Howard Bruce Green II
The Kimball Midden on a hammock south ofLake Dexter on the St. Johns is described as
being 700 by 360 feet in size and seventeen feet high. Human bones were mixed among the
land and freshwater snails as well as quantities of bird and animal bones. Pottery was St.
Johns Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped found only in the top six inches.
To reach Kimball Island, a boat is needed. Leaving Lake Dexter,
one follows the St. Johns east from Lake Dexter to Alexander Springs
creek and heads south for a half mile then turns east into Kimball
Lake. From the east side of the lake, it is another half mile to
Kimball Mound on an easterly heading.
This Midden was located by an aerial photo, that is, the vegetation
was different enough to indicate a hammock situation worth further
investigation. After obtaining permission from the National Park
Service to investigate the area, we spent some time in looking over
the region. Not only did we locate the main mound which we named
Kimball Midden, but we also located four very low mounds, circular
in shape with a maximum elevation of three feet. These were deter-
mined mainly by shell exposed on the surface due to the rooting of
wild pigs in the area. Since locating the mounds, three more days
have been spent in the area with the addition of another helper, Tim
Brown. Two days were needed to survey the mound with Benson and
Brown as rod men. Another day was used in testing the strata.
Kimball Midden runs north-west to south-east. It is 700 feet long
by 360 feet wide at the south end. It has a maximum height of seven-
teen feet with an average height of eight feet. About in the center on
the south-west side is the remains of an old canal, indicated on the
map as an abandoned ditch. From aerial photos, it can be seen that
this once connected to an unnamed lake which is 1,000 yards east of
Kimball Lake. Due to the dense vegetation in the area, it is difficult
to determine with accuracy whether or not there was a creek in the
direction of the St. Johns to the north-west.
From the little testing that has been done, we came up with the
The entire mound appears to be composed of shell with no original
elevation apparent. The immediate area is damp year round and flood-
ed during part of the year. Further west on the island the elevation
is slightly higher and dry enough for pine, oak and palm to grow.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 113
Vegetation on the mound proper consists of cedar, oak, walnut, sour
orange and cabbage palm. All of this is generously laced with poison
The diet, as with most Indians of the St. Johns river area, was
comprised mainly of shell fish. Several varieties of snails made up
their diet, the most abundant being the small fresh water snail, with
two types of land snails collected for food but in a much smaller
quantity. The quantity of bird and animal bones was much smaller
in the area that was tested, than in some other mounds of the St.
Johns region. Human bones were located at various depths down to
five feet (this was the maximum depth of the preliminary test pits.)
These bones were broken and split, and were unassociated in their
relation to order. This material was between undisturbed strata and
had not been scattered by previous digging. There is a possibility
that cannibalism prevailed to some extent. In the several tests
made, bone of this type was encountered.
Pottery was rare, with only three sherds found. These were two
St. Johns Plain and one St. Johns Check Stamp. They were located
in the first six inch levels and summed up the total of several pits.
This could represent a very wide occupancy span, providing further
excavations failed to show up transitional or earlier type pottery.
Much more work is needed to come up with any definite conclusions
on this subject.
Appreciation is extended to Tim Brown, Robert Stackhouse and Mr.
Stackhouse, Sr. for their assistance with this project.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 "A Unique Vessel from Murphy Island, Putnam County,
Florida." The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 125-
Goggin, John M.
1952 "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeo-
logy, Florida." Yale University Publications in Anthropology,
THE PRESERVATION OF WOOD BY THE ALUM PROCESS
John W. Eaton
The treatment of partly decayed wood by Impregnating with alum is described, particularly
as it is used for water-logged specimens. Wooden objects are simmered in supersaturated
alum solutions which upon cooling fill the voids with minute alum crystals.
In the course of archaeological investigations, objects of wood.in
various stages of decomposition are quite often uncovered. Methods
for the treatment and preservation of these objects have been the
subject of a great deal of inquiry and research.
The state of preservation of wood is a function of the type of wood
and the elements of the physical environment. Under most conditions,
as one would expect, the harder and more dense the wood, the better
the preservation. Concerning the environment, the best preservation
prevails in the absence or near absence of moisture or in areas of
very high moisture. The presence of large amounts of water tends
to reduce the three major causes of destruction (erosion by the
elements, insect infestation, and bacterial action) by keeping air
from the wood. Poorer preservation is likely to prevail in an environ-
ment of medial and variable moisture content, since alternate ab-
sorption and evaporation results in warping.
The transportation of the wood to the laboratory or place of work
is of first importance. The techniques of fieldpreservation used will
determine the success or failure of the final preservation of the
artifacts. Wood which is wet or damp when recovered should either
be wrapped in damp fabric or newspaper, or completely immersed
in water. Desicated objects may also be immersed, or they may be
kept in their dry state, depending upon the individual case.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 115
Upon arrival of the articles in the laboratory, there are a number
of techniques which may be employed for their preservation. One
which we at Florida State University have found simple and effective,
especially in the case of waterlogged or very damp wood, is the alum-
The process works on the principle that alum (potash alum) is a
crystalline substance, almost infinitely soluble in boiling water but
relatively insoluble in water at room temperature (70 degrees F.).
The process is carried out as follows:
1. A solution of three parts by weight of alum to one part by weight
of water is prepared in a copper or iron container (not galvanized,
since the alum will attack the zinc). The ratio of alum to water is
not necessarily fixed, and can be varied; less alum for harder
woods (greater penetration) and more alum for the softer woods
(greater support). Plenderleith (1956) recommends two to three parts
alum to one part water and one part glycerine. However, we believe
that the advantages of the glycerine are slight enough to justify its
2. The objects to be treated are completely immersed in the solu-
tion which is held at a slow simmer (92 to 96 degrees C.). The length
of time for which the boiling should be continued varies with the
hardness and thickness of the wood. We have found that the minimum
should be around three hours (for objects less than two inches thick
and of medium hardness) and the maximum to be about twenty-four
hours (for hardwood objects of six or eight inches thickness). During
the boiling, the objects should be turned several times to permit
equal penetration. Nearing the end of the process, they should be
rotated three or four times, once every five minutes, to eliminate
possible excess alum deposition on the side of the wood toward the
top of the container.
3. Upon removal from the solution, the articles should be lightly
scrubbed under hot water to remove superficial crystal deposits.
4. The objects should then be set aside for drying at room tempera-
ture. If possible, accurate measurements of their weight should be
taken every twenty-four hours, the drying being deemed complete
when there ceases to be noticeable weight loss.
5. Linseed oil is then applied liberally, either straight, or in a
fifty per-cent solution with turpentine. Application shouldbe continued
until it is evident by a shiny surface coat that there has been maximum
penetration. The effects of the linseed oil are a strengthening of the
object (the alum tends to produce a marked brittleness in the wood,
some of which the oil counteracts) and a partial restoration of the
original .appearance (the alum produces a peculiar bleaching of the
If the proceeding directions for the preservation of wood are fol-
lowed fairly closely, the results obtained should be satisfactory and
Brogger, A. W., Falk, H., and Schetelig, H. Burial of a Viking Queen
in Heizer, R. F. (ed.). The Archaeologist at Work. Harper and
Brothers, New York, 1959.
Moss, A. A. Museums Journal, 1952, 52.
Plenderleith, H. J. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art.
Oxford University Press, London, 1956.
Rosenberg, G. A. Museums Journal, 1933, 33.
Florida State University
Man's Discovery of his Past: Literary Landmarks in Archaeology.
Robert F. Heizer, ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962.
179 pp., illus. $1.95.
This is the second edition of noteworthy papers in the history of
archaeology to be produced by Dr. Heizer and is a fitting companion
to the earlier "The Archaeologist at Work". It will prove interesting
and instructive to the amateur as well as the professional, the young
as well as the mature. In this short book Heizer seems to have
collected most of the significant publications on which the present
techniques of archaeology are founded.
Following a short introduction, the first papers are those dealing
with "Time and Change" in which the gradual development of the
technique of stratigraphy and dating methods are followed from the
time Steno's "The Strata of the Earth" first published in 1669 to
the quite recent publication by Libby, Anderson, and Arnold on
radiocarbon dating. It may surprise some to learn that John Middleton
had proposed fluorine dating of bones as early as 1844.
The second part deals with various speculations concerning
"Ancient Implements" and represents the basis for the modern
recognition of the antiquity of man. These important essays had a
tremendous effect on the scientific and literary developments of the
Part 3, "The Bones of Man" presents the discoverers descriptions
of the finding of Neanderthal, Java Man, and the South African Man-
like Apes along with a discussion of the Calaveras Hoax. The latter
is next to the Piltdown forgery, the most famous hoax in the history
of man's interest in his own past.
The final section deals with the early types of archaeological
collectors; Greeks and Romans who collected antiquities and John
L. Stephens' account of how he planned to purchase an entire Maya
city. All of the selections give an interesting and informative picture
of the past of our fascinating field, the study of the past.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962.
Evolution and Culture. M.D. Sahlins and E. R. Service, ed. University
of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 1960. 131 pp. $3.75.
Sahlins and Service make the attempt in Evolution and Culture to
synthesize the specific and general theories of cultural evolution as
has been done in the biological field with specific and general theories
of biological evolution.
Any systematic change can be viewed as either specific or general
evolution of culture. If, however, viewed as specific evolution, adaptive
modifications occurring in differing historical circumstances cannot
be compared cross-culturally. Specific evolution, then, is a connected,
historic sequence of forms; general evolution is a sequence of stages
exemplified by forms of a given order of development. Evolutionary
order in general evolution is bands, tribes, chiefdoms, archaic states,
and nation-state with industrial technology. Cultures which transform
more energy are higher in the scale and have more parts and sub-
systems, more specialization of parts, and more effective means for
integration of the whole. Organizational characteristics include the
proliferation of material elements, a geometric increase in the
division of labor, multiplication of social groups, and a special means
of integration: political and philosophical, such as state and universal
ethic religions and science.
General progress is viewed as improvement in "all-around adapta-
bility." Higher forms tend to dominate and replace lower, the degree
depending upon better ability to exploit greater ranges of energy
sources more effectively than lower forms. Thus the rapid spread
of modern national culture around the globe, replacing representatives
of millenia-old stages of evolution.
Higher forms are relatively free from environmental control, adapt-
ing to greater environmental variety than lower forms. One of the
major consequences of the adaptation of culture as a whole has been
the production of cultures in particular, the production of diversity.
Probably the most common condition leading to cultural divergence
is the juxtaposition of societies and their competition in a varied
environment. Another factor is expansion into large, diversified
areas of habitat, which gives rise to the process of extensive variation
known in biology as adaptive radiation.
The change to regional variants creates more efficiency through
adaptive specialization and a simplification of earlier specialized
elements vital in other environments. Thus, culture is a whole, with
different local cultures being producedby different ecological adapta-
tion. Hence, cultural regularities because all local cultures are sub-
units of the whole culture and local unique characteristics because
of different adaptation.
The principle of cultural stability is emphasized--a culture at rest
tends to remain at rest.
Culture tends to integrate itself with ecological environment to pro-
duce well-being and continuation of its bearers. General evolutionary
advance has been achieved by a succession of dominant types which
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XV, No. 4, December, 1962. 119
has embodied more varied and effective means of exploiting the energy
resources of a greater variety of environments and as a result has
tended to spread at the expense of previous types.
It is pointed out that with modern industrial-based culture, the
ideological system quite often spreads before the technological, a form
of inverse culture lag. This is heldto have produced such occurrences
as the Communist revolutions in Russia and China, where the ideas
and knowledge of industry proceeded the ability to produce the tech-
nological base necessary for integration of this material within the
culture, hence revolution.
With Evolution and Culture Sahlins and Service make their debut on
the anthropological battleground of specific versus general cultural
evolution. Though there are many points which need clarification and
considerably more justification in the viewpoint as expressed in Evo-
lution and Culture, many valuable insights are provided and many
worthwhile points of consideration are brought forth. Sahlins and
Service should be congratulated on attempting a general synthesis
of cultural evolution even though there is considerable controversy
over their success. One of the major difficulties is that they are
guilty of reduction; they attempted to make a direct translation of
evolution as expressed in biology to culture. This is pre-doomed,
for culture is both suprabiological and extrasomatic as Leslie A.
White has pointed out. The general procedure of biological evolution
may be used in studying the evolution of culture, but biological pro-
cesses cannot be applied so directly to culture as was attempted.
Florida State University
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