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VOLUME IV No. 3
& 34, 1'
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Volume XV, No. 3
C O N T E N T S
Temple Mound Museum at Ft. Walton Beach, Fla.
William C. Lazarus . 65
Early Pottery in the Tampa Bay Area
Lyman 0. Warren . .71
A Newly Discovered 1838 Drawing of a Seminole Dance
William C. Sturtevant .73
Suwannee Points in the Simpson Collection
Ripley P. Bullen . 83
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLO-
GIST is published quarterly by
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ADDRESSES FOR CORRESPONDENCE:
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OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
PRESIDENT-Cliff E. Matlox
DBM Research Corp., Cocoa Beach
lit VICE PRES.-Charlton Tebeau
Univenrsly of Miami, Coral Gables
2nd VICE PRES.-Hal. G. Smith
Florida State University, Tallahassee
TREASURER.J. Floyd Monk
1960 SW 61st CI., Miami 55
SECRETARY-Mrs. Clilf E. Mattox
209 Beverly Road, Cocoa
Mr. Noel P. Herrmann
6267 SW 12th St., Miami
Or. William H. Sears
Florida State Museum, Gainesville
Mr. Carl A. Bansan
2310 Resthaven Dr., Orlando
Charles H. Fairbanks
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University, Tallahassee
TEMPLE MOUND MUSEUM
AT FT. WALTON BEACH, FLA.
William C. Lazarus
The first fully municipal museum to operate in the State of Florida
opened its doors to the public on June 1, 1962. It contains 12 exhibits
which trace the cultural periods of the Northwest Florida Coast from
Paleo -Indian to Fort Walton.
The museum is located on the flank of the Fort Walton Temple
Mound (OK-6M) in a hollow tile stuccoed building. The public area of
the museum is air conditioned and contains 525 square feet of space.
Another 200 square feet is used as laboratory space. Public rest
room and off street free parking for museum visitors are provided.
U. S. Highway 98 passes directly in front of the mound and museum
while Florida Highway 85 runs immediately behind the mound with
off street parking and easy access to the museum available. Both
approaches are marked, identifying the mound and directing the pro-
spective visitor to the museum. The City has erected appropriate
signs at the city limits calling attention to the mound and museum.
The museum is fashioned along interpretive lines, the first six
exhibits form a coherent element and can be likened to the first
Act of a Drama. Paleo-Indian and Archaic Periods are covered on
the first three panels which extend from floor to ceiling and contain
shadow-box lighting of artifacts. Flip-flop lighting is used on a map
of the Northwest Florida Coast to show the changes which occurred
when sea levels rose at the end of the Wisconsin Glaciation. A fourth
floor-to-ceiling panel titled Baked Clay Objects" is a three dimen-
sional life size night scene showing the feet of an individual, a skin-
lined boiling hole, a fire and the transfer of Elliott's Point Complex
Clay Balls into a stew. It is based on the hypothetical use of these
baked clay objects as substitutes for cooking stones.
The fourth exhibit is a case containing fiber tembered sherds from
the Northwest Florida Coast. Second compartment in this case
displays the tetrapod pot with a mat impression around the rim from
WL-29 which has been classified as belonging to the ALEXANDER
series (or the Florida equivalent thereof). This Transitional Period
vessel which has been restored is considered to be one of the oldest
ceramic vessels in the Southeast.
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XV, No. 3, September, 1962 65
o i 2 34
Plan of Temple Mound Museum, Ft. Walton Beach.
Interior views in the museum
The fifth display, which concludes Act I, contains representative
DEPTFORD period sherds recovered from the base of the Fort
Walton Temple Mound by Dr. C. H. Fairbanks in the 1960 excavation.
All classified types of Deptford Series sherds are then illustrated.
The features of Deptford ceramics are listed. The coil method of pot-
tery making is then shown including the use of a stamping paddle.
The case features the fact that downtown Fort Walton Beach was a
village (Deptford) in the first Century B.C. The museum is on the actual
As an interlude between Act I and Act II, an attractive stabile mounted
on the wall shows the linear development of cultures on the Northwest
Florida Coast from Paleo-Indian to Fort Walton. The periods are show,
to scale (one inch equals 300 years). '
Act II is devoted to the Santa Roas-Swift Creek and the Weeden
Island I and II periods. Weeden Island Iartifacts include a carved stone
human head, the human figurines (see Florida Anthropologist Vol. XIII
No 2-3). Rim effigies and a tortoise shell pictograph are among other
unusual items. A separate case contains the fine collection of elaborate
Weeden Island I ceramic vessels and objects from the Buck Mound
(OK-11) which is located about 1,000 feet west of the Museum. A dog
burial has been reconstructed and is on display. Emphasis is placed
upon the sophisticated nature of the Weeden Island Culture, which
occupied many sites in the vicinity of Fort Walton Beach.
The visitor then passes into Act II where a large diorama of down-
town Fort Walton Beach circa 1500 A. D. is on display. It views the
Temple Mound and the great shell Mound from above the waters of
Santa Rosa Sound showing village life around the large spring which
existed in those times beside the Great Shell Mound. This diorama,
made in Fort Walton Beach by the Arts and Design Society in 1959
was part of the Florida Quadricentennial Displays and has been on
tour for the past two years. The sides and back of the diorama are
encased in an irregular shaped drape which is decorated with wook
In keeping with the flamboyant characteristic of the Fort Walton
culture, there is then displayed a collection of 93 representative cer-
amic vessels in a single floor-to-ceiling case which is over 14 feet
long. It is literally a "wall of pots". They vary in size from 23 inches
in diameter to miniature burial vessels only 2 in diameter. The
classic 6 point Ft. Walton dish is demonstrated in several sizes. (The
museum uses this unique vessel design as its emblem.) Hooded bottles
museum uses this unique vessel design as its emblem.) Hooded bottles,
human effigy vessels, Moundville-like blackware and the unique
HOGTOWN BAYOU Epigonal style are shown. The sun circle on human
han design and other Southern Death Cult symbols appear on some
vessels. A pair of flat bottom Caddoan-like vessels are included. This
single case undoubtably contains the largest and most flamboyant single
collection of the Fort Walton ceramics to be assembled anywhere.
"Baubles, Bangles, and Beads" of the Fort Walton Culture occupy
the next display case. Most of this collection was recovered during the
1960 excavation into the Temple Mound. Three of six known giant
ceramic ear plugs are central in this display. A variety of shell beads
made from the columelli of the conch are exhibited. In addition a string
of small shell beads are shown. These beads appeared to have been
sewed to the clothing based on their position with regard to a child
burial found in the mound. The incense cake (believed to be Copal),
found in association with the burial, is also on view. A brass hawk bell
from the Bunker Cutoff Mound the only European trade item currently
on display can be seen in this case.
The final case contains a wide assortment of rim effigies from Fort
Walton vessels. Human, animal, bird and reptile forms are represented,
depicting the art, humor, and the pathos of the Fort Walton people.
All artifacts on display in this museum were recovered from sites
which are within 70 miles of Fort Walton Beach. The majority of the
materials came from within 30 miles of the museum.
Although a public museum, the City has stipulated that its operations
must be self supporting. This is being accomplished through a 250
per person admission charge andthroughthe sale of archaeological and
historical publications, colored slides of local artifacts, and an
authentic cast reproduction of one of the best Fort Walton vessels
displayed in the museum.
The museum has been in planning for the past four years. It came
into being in record time and with an almost incredibly small amount
of capital outlay once approval was secured. Authorization to start
work on the museum was issued on April 24, 1962. The building was
still in the configuration of a real estate office with interior walls, the
roof leaked and the wiring was defective. The sum of $750.00 was
approved for the project with opening date expected to be June 1st.
In the final week of the construction the appropriation was increased
Thirty eight calendar days after go ahead, the museum opened for
a preview showing to civic leaders on May 31st. The last exhibit had
been sealed in its case just two hours earlier.
The museum is being manned by interested volunteers during the
month of June in order to permit operating funds to accumulate.
Later a paid attendant is contemplated if attendance revenues warrant
it. The museum is operated seven days a week 10 to 12 except on Sun-
day and 3-5 every day. Attendance figures for June were about 700
Ft. Walton Beach
EARLY POTTERY IN THE TAMPA BAY AREA
Lyman O. Warren
Hydralic filling operations in the Tampa Bay area have pumped up fiber tempered, St.
Johns, and Deptford sherds along with Archaic projectile points from the shallowly sub-
merged areas of the coastal waters. Along with the artifacts there have appeared bones of
extinct animals such as mammoth, Miocene deer, Miocene horse, and giant beaver. No
direct associations are possible with dredged materials butthe author believes many more
sites are present.
Ripley Bullen's paper, "Archeology of the Tampa Bay Area",
presented before the Florida Historical Society at Saint Petersburg
in 1951, states that early potsherds have been uncovered in a few
places in the Tampa Bay Area. These include Perico Island, John's
Island, and Bayport. A few fiber-tempered sherds have been recov-
ered from Perico Island. Bullen suggested that the earlier fiber-
tempered period sites may have been drowned out by the advance
of the sea, since there is evidence that the Gulf is encroaching on
the shore line at a rate of about one foot in a hundred years. Since
World War II, Bullen's prophecy has been amply confirmed by the
extensive dredge & fill operations in this area. These activities
have uncovered some early sites hitherto submerged beneath the
waters of Boca Ciega, Terra Ceia, and Tampa Bays, including four
that I know of which contained early pot sherds.
(1) The Kellogg Fill, adjacent to the Duhme Road in Seminole, on
the east shore of Boca Ciega Bay is one such area. Here a rather
large number of blue-black stone artifacts (including one Suwannee
type point, and one side-notched Bolen Bluff type point) was pumped
out of the bay bottom from below the present low tide mark. In ad-
dition, an Orange Incised sherd as well as St. John's Plain sherds
were discovered. The ratio of stone tools to the sherds was about
20 to one. The collection from the area is a mixed one, a surface
collection solely, with no possibility of stratigraphy in this type of
pumping operation. The fill was very rich in mammoth remains,
especially teeth, and had a good representation of other Pleistocene
fossils as well. Outstanding, too, were about 2 dozen astragali of a
three toed Miocene horse, and a similar number of astragali of a
small Miocene deer-like creature; these were in one sector of the
fill in a sort of "pocket". Most of the fossils and artifacts were of
what I have termed a gun metal blue. This coloration they have
picked up, I believe, from a greenish-blue clay which is abundant
along the west central Gulf coast. Some of the finds were brown and
these seemed to be related to a brownish clay in a part of the fill.
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XV, No. 3, September, 1962 71
(2) A few miles to the south of the Kellogg Fill and immediately
to the north of the Corey Causeway to the city of St. Petersburg
Beach an island was pumped out of Boca Ciega Bay. The site was
brought to my attention by my son and a friend of his, and could
easily be identified by a large number of quahog shells lying along
the beach. On this strand for about a couple of hundred feet stone
artifacts were found, about 20 in all. The points were stemmed with
the exception of two side notched ones. The most interesting finding
however, was a well-preserved and easily identifiable Deptford
Check Stamped sherd.
(3) A few miles to the east, near Maximo Point is another dredge
and fill operation at the south end of 31st St. South. Mr. Edward
Dunn of St. Petersburg has made an interesting surface collection
from the area. Several stone artifacts were found including pro-
jectile points with a most distinctive minute stem. Sherds included
St. Johns Plain and one heavily fiber tempered, plain black sherd.
(4) On the other side of Tampa Bay in Ruskin, Hollsborough County
is a large real estate development known as Apollo Beach. One section
of the area was pumped out of the bay. Here was a rich collection
of stone artifacts, spalls, and a few sherds including two lightly
fiber tempered ones. The development has been characterized by
numerous isolated Pleistocene fossils of which teeth of the giant
beaver were the most noteworthy.
To summarize briefly, two points might be made about the recent
Tampa Bay Area surface finds. (1) The fiber tempered, St. Johns,
and Deptford sherds are being uncovered by pumping operations
from below the low tide mark as Bullen had anticipated 10 years
earlier. (2) The sherds may be more common than this paper sug-
gests, for whenever they have been specifically looked for and re-
tained they have shown up more frequently. There is implied, I
believe, a need to instruct amateurs (who of course are the ones who
do this sort of collecting) in the recognition and reporting of these
finds. We need to remember that these sherds are not as attractive
to small boys as "arrow heads" and that being found on the littoral
make ideal skipping objects on the surface of the water.
St. Petersburg, Florida
1838 DRAWING OF A SEMINOLE DANCE
William C. Sturtevant
A drawing in the Huntington Library is reproduced and commented on,
particularly with regard to its value for the history of Florida
Seminole material culture. Twenty-one traits of ethnographic interest
shown in the drawing are listed and annotated.
Most of the known depictions of Seminole individuals, activities, and
artifacts which date from before the days of photography and have any
claim to accuracy, have recently been reproduced in Emma Lila
Fundaburk's Southeastern Indians (1958). Two important items she
missed were later reproduced: a village scene from a lithograph
issued in 1837 by Gray and James of Charleston, S. C. (the most use-
ful from a set of eight now in the Prints and Photographs Division of
the Library of Congress, and the only one so far reproduced--on
p. 215 ofJosephy et at., 1961); anda fine colored lithograph of "Noco-
shimatt-tash-tanaki, Grizzly Bear, Seminole chief," after a painting
done by Arthur Schoff in Mexico in the early 1850's (originally pub-
lished facing p. 52 of Emory, 1857, and recently reproduced in color,
but much reduced andwitha misleading caption, on p. 35 of La Farge,
1960). These illustrations together with the vast number of available
photographs of Seminole subjects (which begin as early as 1852)
form an important resource for the study of the history of Seminole
material culture, particularly clothing and personal ornaments. The
purpose of the present communication is to place on record and pub-
lish for the first time a valuable addition to this corpus.
The Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery in San Marino,
California, contains a famous, large, well cared for manuscript
collection. However, it is an unlikely place to look for Seminole
material and has probably not previously been searched or queried for
this purpose. Thus the writer paid a brief visit to the Library during
a recent trip to California, with the hope of locating something of
interest. To his delight, the card catalog led him immediately to a
small volume containing the early pencil sketch of a Seminole dance
here reproduced. The original, measuring 8-5/16 by 7-1/4 inches,
is tipped in as a fold-out (the horizontal line in the reproduction
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XV, No. 3, September, 1962 73
represents a crack where the fold comes) between the first two
leaves of a notebook of 69 leaves which is catalogued as manuscript
HM 4021, "Miscellaneous sketches and notes by, and newspaper clip-
pings about, Hamilton Wilcox Merrill, mounted in a blank book'l The
composition suggests that the right hand side of the drawing may have
been cropped. The only other Florida materials in the notebook are
two newspaper clippings of dispatches from St. Augustine of April 3
and May 23, 1840, regarding Seminole war activities and mentioning
Merrill, and a clipping of an article on "A cruise in Lake Okeecho-
bee" by "Ned Buntline," from the Western Literary Journal and
Monthly Review of the late 1870's or early 1880's. The library also
possesses three letters written by Merrill from Florida to members
of his family in 1838 and 1839 (Merrill, MSS. b-d)--these are ordinary
soldier letters containing nothing of anthropological interest. The
only other sketches in the notebook are two quite crude and entirely
uninteresting "camp sketches," each showing aburroanda man, one
date Monterey, 1846.
The artist, Hamilton Wilcox Merrill, was born at Byron, Genesee
County, New York, on February 14, 1814. He was appointed to the U. S.
Military Academy at West Point in 1834, and graduated in 1838 as
27th in a class of 45. He was appointed Second Lieutenant in the
Second Dragoons on July 1, 1838. He participated in the Cherokee
Removal in that year, and then went to Florida with his regiment. In
November and December, 1838, he was in the vicinity of Fort Butler
(on the St. Johns) and Black Creek; in early March of the next year
he was still at Fort Butler, but in May he passed through New York
city with troops from Black Creek destined for Fort Columbus, New
York. During 1839-1840 he was on recruiting service. On February
18, 1840, he was promoted to First Lieutenant, Second Dragoons.
In 1840 he returned to the "Florida War"--in March he was involved
in some minor engagements with the Indians as part of a force under
Col. Twiggs which went from Volusia to the neighborhood of Fort King
and returned; in May he helped put down a mutiny among the Second
Dragoons at Palatka. He was still in Florida during part of 1841; later
in the year he was transferred to garrison duty at Mount Vernon, Ala.,
and later Baton Rouge, La. He served on frontier duty in Indian Terri-
tory in 1842-1845, in New Orleans in 1845, and in Texas in 1845-
1846. Promoted to Captain in 1846, he fought in the Mexican War in
1846-1848, and was brevetted Major in 1847 "for gallant and meri-
torious services in the Battle of Molino del Rey, Mexico." He was on
sick leave during 1848-1850, and then on frontier duty in Texas until
1856. In 1856-1857 he took leave of absence, and on February 18,
1857, he resigned from the army. In 1857 he married, and took the
practice of law in New York city, which he continued until his death
there on July 14, 1892 (1).
The sketch is signed by Merrill and dated 1838 on the front (see
Plate I). On the back is written "Indian Dance. Seminoles." and
"Camp Sketch of Indian dance Fort Butler E. Ga. St. Johns River."
Fort Butler was located on the west side of the St. Johns Just south
of Lake George, about at the site of the modern town of Astor, Lake
county (Mackay and Blake, 1839). The fort was established on Novem-
ber 5, 1838 (Coe, 1898, p. 265). Thus the sketch can be dated to
November or December, and it was perhaps done within a few days of
the establishment of the fort, since Merrill wrote home on November
15 and December 19 from "Black Creek, E. Fla." (perhaps from
Fort Heilman, on Black Creek in present Clay county, north of Fort
Butler about 65 miles measured in a direct line) (Merrill, MSS. b, c).
A preliminary search has not located references to Indians in this
neighborhood at that time, so that no firm suggestion can be made as
to the band affiliation of Merrill's subjects. The autumn of 1838 was
a relatively quiet period of the Second Seminole War, especially in
northern peninsular Florida. There is a possibility that the Indians
shown by Merrill were among those who were captured or surrendered
during 1838 and were deported from Tampa in February, 1839. About
two years later the region around Fort Butler was within the range of
Halleck Tustenuggee and Powis Fixico and their followers, and not far
from that of Coacoochee (Wild Cat) and his band (Sprague, 1848, pp.
221-227, 271),--all of these apparently being Mikasuki (Porter, 1951).
This sketch is of considerable ethnographic interest. Except for a
rather unclear scene by Catlin of Seminole fish-drying (Fundaburk,
1858, ill. 207), it is the onlypre-photography representation of Semi-
nole activities done from life of which the writer is aware. There
are also exceedingly few photographs of Seminole dances, even
very recent ones (two are reproduced in Sturtevant, 1954, p. 60;
I suspect that the photograph in Densmore, 1956, pl. 172, was
taken during some sort of exhibition for tourists, rather than at a
Seminole ceremony). Merrill's is by far the earliest depiction of
Seminole men in ordinary dress (with one minor exception), and of the
backs of Seminole men's clothing. The houses--sketchy as they are--
are among four known representations from the pre-photography
period. Obviously Merrill was not a very skilled artist. However,
he seems to have been accurate: the details shown ring true when
compared with other (usually later) evidence, as is shown briefly
in the notes accompanying the trait list below.
This list notes features of Merrill's sketch which are of ethno-
graphic interest. The interpretations and evaluations are drawnfrom
the author's examination of many museum collections, published
and unpublished illustrations, and printed and manuscript accounts,
and from ethnographic observations and interviews among the Florida
Seminole during four field trips in 1950-1953 and 1959. Detailed
documentation will be presented in later publications on Seminole
material culture and its history.
In the notes the figures shown in the sketch are referred to by
number. Number 1 is the man without a shirt in the center back of
PLATE 1. Seminole Dance at Fort Butler, November orDecember, 1838. Reproduced from
Merrill, MS. a, through the courtesy of the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery,
San Marino, California.
. \/ i
the circle of dancers; the other dancers are numbers 2 to 11 count-
ing counterclockwise from him; in the foreground from left to right
are numbers 12 to 16; the small childat the right above the two dogs
is number 17; the woman at the extreme right is number 18. All of
these except 13, 16, 17, and 18 seem to be adult men (there may be
another woman vaguely shown seated in the shelter at the right).
The dance is around a fire, as expected. The movement should be
counterclockwise; the drawing is unclear on this point. The
leader of the line of dancers cannot be identified. On the basis
of later evidence, one expects the leader (or a singer else-
where) to have a rattle, the dancers to be holding fans (of
palmetto leaves, in modern times) between their faces and the
fire, and the dancers to be arranged facing forward in a line
behind the leader. All these features are missing--either this
is a dance now obsolete, or the artist has simplified. The oc-
casion for such a dance, in November or December, cannot
at present be identified.
Clothing and Ornament
No clothing. Three children (13, 16, 17) are shown unclothed. Of
these, number 16 seems to be somewhat older than Seminole
children without clothes in modern times.
Haircut. Where shown, the men have longer locks hanging before
their ears (1-5, 8-11). Apparently none have the scalp locks
or shaved or close-cropped heads one expects from later
Cloth headbands. Narrow bands of cloth are tied around the heads
of several men (2, 4-6, 8-12, 14, 15); these are not the full
turbans shown in most depictions of this and later periods--
but somewhat similar headbands are also known from other
illustrations (e.g. Fundaburk, 1958, ills. 205, 284). Several
of these men wear plumes (perhaps the ostrich feathers
known from later times) in their headbands (2, 4-6, 8, 10-11).
No headdress. 1, 3, 7, (and children--13, 16, 17).
Earring. A disc shaped earring, undoubtedly of silver, is worn by
nos. 5 and 9. The first, but not the second, may perhaps
include a conical piece between disc and earlobe. The type
was very common among Eastern tribes; for other Seminole
examples, see Fundaburk, 1958, ills. 179, 211, and Goggin,
1955, p. 187, pl. 6c.
Gorget. No. 2 wears two, no. 11 wears one. Both are the usual form
of silver gorget, which may have been either trade items or
of Seminole make.
Neckerchief. A neckerchief with one point hanging in back, probably
made from a shawl with floral print, is worn by 4-7 and
perhaps 14; others may also wear them. The type is usual.
Hunting coat. Nos. 2-8, 10-12, 14-15 wear the 'long shirt' typical
of Seminole men at this and later periods (see Sturtevant,
1956, for descriptions of the type and of two examples
collected before 1845). All those shown are apparently of cloth;
all have broad triangular collars probably all trimmed with
a simple zig-zag applique design around their lower edges.
All those shown with the front visible have it fastened to-
gether--in fact, were it not for all known museum specimens
and many illustrations of this type of shirt, one could assume
that it was not open all the way down the front. Most (but
not all) known examples have a short slit in the center back
of the skirt bottom; this is not shown by Merrill. Some of
these examples have fringed skirt bottoms (7), zig-zag
applique around the skirt bottom (2, 4, 5(two bands?), 6, 7,
14), or no design around the bottom (8, 11?), and frilled cuffs
(3, 6, 10); all these features are parallelled in other illustra-
tions or specimens.
Belt. Not shown in detail, but those drawn (2-8, 10-12, 14) are
consistent with the expected woven or braided wool belt
tied at the right.
Shot pouch. No. 6 wears a small pouch on his right hip, suspended
from a cord over his left shoulder. This seems to be the
small, utilitarian type known from a few museum specimens,
rather than the better-known elaborately beaded type (for the
latter, see Goggin, 1951).
Garters. Nos. 4-6, 8, wear patterned garters, undoubtedly the well-
documented woven or braided wool type. Although the drawing
is somewhat unclear, all are apparently here worn without
leggings, which is contrary to expectations (but easily con-
Breechclout. Nos. 1 and 9 wear breechclouts without other clothing
Although no details are shown, this is a useful datum. There
is one other illustration of a Seminole man wearing a breech-
clout at this same period (Fundaburk, 1958, ill. 307--the
original is clearer), one somewhat doubtful museum specimen,
and modern informants have described the item.
No leggings, no moccasins. This is an indication that the men were
wearing ordinary clothes, not those worn on special occasions.
Woman's dress. No details can be discerned in no. 18, other than
the fact that the skirt is long, as expected.
Bows. Two are shown, in right foreground. The form is unclear, but
they are perhaps drawn too short for men's bows, in which
case they may represent boys' toys.
Arrows. There are five, in the trees at left and right and with one of
the bows. Fletching details are not shown, butthe feathers are
too long. The point on the arrow on the ground is convention-
alized and inaccurate. ..
Mortar. At the extreme right a woman (18) seems to be pounding with
a pestle in a hole cut in a horizontal log. A good illustration of
such a mortar is given by MacCauley (1887, p. 514), who calls
it a "koonti log." Actually this was merely a substitute mortar,
used for pounding corn because the regular heavy upright log
mortar was not carried when travelling.
Cooking frame. A pole rests in two forked posts over a fire at upper
right, evidently to be used to suspend pots over the fire.
Pot. Near the two fires at right is what appears to be a small metal
trade pot with a bail handle.
Temporary shelters. Three are plainly shown, and perhaps part of a
fourth is indicated at upper right. Two types seem to be repre-
sented: one with the lower ends of the rafters resting on the
ground, the other with the rafter ends resting on wall-plates
supported by short wall-posts. MacCauley (1887, p. 502) shows
a shelter very similar to the second type, but mistakenly
assumed this to be typical of merely one band, whereas it was
the normal temporary shelter of all Seminole bands. Some
modern ones are very like these except that they have a roof of
canvas instead of thatching.
1. This biographical information comes from obituaries clipped from
the New York Tribune and New York Times of July 15, 1892, pasted
into Merrill, MS. a, and from Heitman, 1890 (which gives his class
standing as 25th), Cullum, 1868 (which gives his class standing as
27th), Merrill, MSS. b-d, the 1840 newspaper clippings mentioned
above, another clipping from a New York paper of May, 1839, in
Merrill, MS. a, and the date and place on the drawing here reproduced.
Coe, Charles H.
1898 Red Patriots; The Story of the Seminoles. Cincinatti: The Editor Publishing Co.
Cullum, George W.
1868 Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Aca-
demy at West Point. N. Y., from itsEstablishment, March 16,1802 to the Army
Re-organization of 1866-67. Vol. 1, 1802-1840. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
1956 Seminole Music. Bureau of American EthnologyBulletin 161. Washington, D. C.
Emory, William H.
1857 Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, made under the
Direction of the Secretary of the Interior. Vol. 1. 34th Congress, 1st Session,
House of Representatives Executive Document No. 135. Washington, D. C.
Fundaburk, Emma Lila
1958 Southeastern Indians, Life Portraits; A Catalogue of Pictures, 1564-1860.
Luverne, Ala.4 Emma Lila Fundaburk.
Goggin, John M.
1951 Beaded Shoulder Pouches of the Florida Seminole. Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. 4, Nos. 1-2, pp. 2-17, 6 figs. Gainesville.
1955 Osceola: Portraits, Features, and Dress. FloridaHistorical Quarterly, Vol. 33,
Nos. 3-4, pp. 161-192. Gainesville.
Heitman, F. B.
1890 Historical Register of the UnitedStatesArmy, fromits Organization September
29, 1789, to September 29, 1889. Washington, D. C.: The National Tribune.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr., et al., editors
1961 The American Heritage Book of Indians. New York: American Heritage Pub-
lishing Co., Inc., and Simon and Schuster, Inc.
La Farge, Oliver
1960 The American Indian. (Special Edition for Young Readers.) New York: Golden
Mac Cauley, Clay
1887 The Seminole Indians of Florida. Bureau of(American) Ethnology, Fifth Annual
Report, pp. 469-531. Washington, D. C.
Mackay, John, and J. E. Blake
1839 Map of the Seat of War in Florida, Compiled by Order of Pvt. Brigr. Genl.
Z. Taylor, Principally from the Surveys and Reconnaissances of the Officers
of the U. S. Army. Washington: W. J. Stone So. (Facsimile: Exhibit G in Plain-
tiff's Petition, (1951), Docket No. 73, Before the Indian Claims Comiission.)
Merrill, Hamilton Wilcox
MS.a (Miscellaneous Sketches and Notes by, and Newspaper Clippings about, Hamil-
ton Wilcox Merrill, Mounted in Blank Book.) 69 leaves, 7 3/8 ins. x 3 7/8 ins.
MS. HM 4021 in Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino,
MS.b (A.L.S. to Asa Merrill, Esq., Black Creek, E. Fla., Nov. 15, 1838.) 4 pp., fol.
MS. HM 4024 in Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery.
MS.c (A.L.S. to Amos Hewitt, Jr., Black Creek, E. Fla., Dec. 19, 1838.) 4pp., 4 to.
MS. 4025 in Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery.
MS.d (A.L.S. to Amos Hewitt, Jr., Fort Butler, E. Fla., Mar. 9, 1839.) 4 pp., 4 to.
MS. HM 4026 in Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery.
Porter, Kenneth Wiggins
1951 Origins of the St. John's River Seminole: Were They Mikasuki? Florida An-
thropologist, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 39-45. Gainesville.
Sprague, John T.
1848 The Origin, Progress, and Conclusion of the Florida War...New York: D. Ap-
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Sturtevant, William C.
1954 The Medicine Bundles and Busks of the Florida Seminole. Florida Anthropolo-
gist, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 31-70. Gainesville.
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2 pls. Gainesville.
Bureau of American Ethnology
Washington, D. C.
SUWANNEE POINTS IN THE SIMPSON COLLECTION
Ripley P. Bullen
Reports and illustrates eighteen Suwannee Points or basal fragments from the Simpson
Collection from the central and western highlands areas of Florida. Two are from the
coastal lowlands. A plea is made for an atlas of Suwannee Points from Florida.
Some years ago I visited Mrs. Henry Simpson at High Springs with
J. Gilbert Wright, then Curator of Exhibits at the Florida State
Museum, and made notes on Suwannee points in the Simpson collect-
ions. Pictures of these specimens presented here were made by Mr.
The late J. Clarence Simpson, in the first issue of THE FLORIDA
ANTHROPOLOGIST, presented to science the first evidence for the
presence of Folsom-like, what we now call Suwannee, points in
Florida. It is a pleasure to present additional information subsequent-
ly secured by Clarence and other members of his family.
Eighteen Suwannee points or basal fragments thereof in the Simpson
collection are illustrated in Figures 1-3. Data accompanying these
specimens, reading from left to right in the illustrations, are as
Figure 1 A-1839, about 3 inches long, from mouth of Santa Fe River;
A-99, from Ichtucknee River; 6401, 2 inches long, from Ichtuckee
River; A-1905 (Fig. 3, a, of Simpson's original article), 3-1/2 inches
long, from Lily Spring Run of the Santa Fe River; A-4348, a plaster
cast of a fluted point found near the natural bridge of the St. Marks
River; A-3734 (Fig. 3, b, of Simpson's original article), 3 inches
long, found resting on clay beneath five feet of seemingly undisturbed
sand in Hillsborough County.
Figure 2 A-65 (Fig. 3, c, of Simpson's original article), from the
lower part of the Ichtucknee River; A-4347, 2 inches long, from the
mouth of the Santa Fe River; A-4348, reverse of Figure 1, d, plaster
cast of flutedpoint found near the natural bridge of the St. Mrks River;
four of the remaining five broken points came from the mouth of the
Santa Fe River and the fifth from near the trestle over that river.
Figure 3 4767, from Dunmagans old mill near High Springs; A-4766,
from the road between Rochelle and Gainsville; the other four, all
basal portions, came from the mouth of the Santa Fe River.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. XV, No. 3, September, 1962 83
Fig. 1. Suwannee Points and a cast of a fluted point.
~9; -- .,
%-~f w- y^~ w-~l
- *i^ .. .
Fig. 2. Suwannee Points, basal fragments, and a cast of a fluted point.
Fig. 3. Basal fragments of Suwannee Points.
Examination of these points indicates that fluting, while it may
occur, is extremely rare in Suwannee points. Typically, they exhibit
grinding of the sides and bottoms of basal areas. This is clearly
shown in some of the illustrations.
Comparison of these points with those in the collection of Mr. and
Mrs. C. E. Burkhardt, also of HighSprings, shows a great similarity
(Bullen 1958: P1. I, L- P; and on exhibit at the Florida State Museum
in Gainsville). This same close similarity exists whenthey are com-
pared with those illustrated by Neill (1958: 43) for a site near Silver
Springs and, to a slightly lesser extent, with those illustrated by
Goggin (1950) for Site A-36 near Gairiesville. It seems likely that
these various illustrations, when considered to-gether, give a good
idea of the range of variation in Suwannee points.
The distribution of Suwannee points, indicated above, shows a heavy
concentration from Marion County northwesterly to the Suwannee
River. Within this area the highest concentration occurs at the mouth
of the Santa Fe River and on the south side of Paynes Prairie. A few
are known for West Florida (W. C. Lazarus, personal communication),
one was mentioned above for Hillsoborough County, and Edwards
(Bullen 1958: 29-30) found some near Melbourne in Brevard County.
The last instance, if not the last two, are from coastal lowlands
while those listed before came from central or western highland
More recently, a rather similar point (Fig. 4), 2-1/8 inches long and
found in Lee County was brought to the Florida State Museum by
Mr. and Mrs. Charles R. Hursh. Also from coastal lowlands, it
represents the furtherest south location for a Clovis-Folsom-
Suwannee point in the United States unless one has been found in the
extreme southern tip of Texas near the mouth of the Rio Grande River.
The author would like to prepare an atlas of all known Suwannee
points from Florida and, for this purpose, would appreciate receiving
photographs of such points showing chipping scars (both sides and with
a scale for size), an indication of the thickness, and information
relative to location and situation of the find. Well over fifty Suwannee
points have been found in Florida but the information about them is
scattered and not in a condition suitable for study. It seems likely
that study of these specimens and of the data accompanying them would
substantially increase our understanding of the early Paleo-Indian
period of Florida.
Fig. 4. Suwannee-like Point from Lee County, Florida.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 "The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida." Contri-
the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 4.
Goggin, John M.
1950 "An Early Lithic Complex from Central Florida." American
Antiquity, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 46-49.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1958 "A Stratified Site at Silver Springs, Florida." The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 33-52.
Simpson, J. Clarence
1948 "Folsom-like Points from Florida." The FloridaAnthropol-
ogist, Vol 1, No. 1, pp. 11-15.