2000 Florida Anthropological Society Inc.
The Florida Anthropological Society Inc. holds
source text of the Florida Anthropologist
considered the copyright holder for the text
all rights to the
and shall be
and images of
The Florida Anthropological Society has made this publication
available to the University of Florida, for purposes of
digitization and Internet distribution.
The Florida Anthropological Society reserves all rights to this
publication. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use"
provisions of U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted.
Contact the Florida Anthropological Society for additional
information and permissions.
Volume XIII No. 4
1 73,f7 5
The FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
a publication of the florida anthropological society
Volume XIII, No. 4
C O N T E N T S
A Preliminary Report on 9-Go-507: The Williams Site,
Gordon County, Georgia .... Dan and Phyllis Morse
Oakland Mound (Je 53), Florida: A Preliminary Report
S .................... L. Ross Morrell
Two Skulls from a Fort Walton Period Cemetery Site (OK-35),
Okaloosa County, Florida
*....... .Grey L. Adams and William C. Lazarus
Thlonoto-Sassa: A Note on an Obscure Seminole Village
of the Early 1820s ....... .Kenneth Wiggins Porter
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLO-
GIST is published quarterly by
the Florida Anthropological Soc-
iety during March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription is by
membership in the Society for individuals
interested in the aims of the Society. An-
nual dues are $3.00 (students $1.50).
Libraries and institutions may subscribe
to THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST at
$2.75 per year.
ADDRESSES FOR CORRESPONDENCE:
Membership applications Secretary
Back issue orders Treasurer
General inquiries Secretary
Newsletter items President
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
PRESIDENT William C. Lazarus
103 South Bay Drive Ft. Walton Beach
1st VICE PRES. Cliff E. Mattox
207 Beverly Road, Cocoa
2nd VICE PRES. William C. Massey
1018 NE 28th Ave., Gainesville
TREASURER J. Floyd Monk
1960 SW 61st Ct., Miami 55
SECRETARY Mrs. Yulee W. Lazarus
103 South Bay Drive Ft. Walton Beach
Dr. John M. Goggln
312 Peabody, University of Florida
Mr. Noel P. Herrmann
6267 SW 12th St., Miami
Dr. William H. Sears
Florida State Museum, Gainesville
Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University, Tallahassee
A Preliminary Report on
9-Go-507: THE WILLIAMS SITE,
Gordon County, Georgia1
Dan and Phyllis Morse
Georgia Historical Commission
The Williams Site is the fourth archaeological site to be ex-
cavated under the highway salvage program in Georgia. This
program began actively in June of 1959 and should continue
throughout the period of Interstate construction. Instrumental
in the forming of this program in Georgia were Mr. Vernon
Smith of the State Highway Department; Mr. Lewis Larson,
Archaeologist for the Georgia Historical Commission; Mr. C.E.
Gregory, past Executive Secretary of the Georgia Historical
Commission; and Mrs. Mary G. Jewett, present Executive Secre-
tary of the Commission. Numerous other individuals have aided
in the formation and continuation of this salvage program and the
cooperationand interest expressed all over Georgia has been very
The Williams Site, named after the previous owner, the late
Mr. M. H. Williams, is betweenthe towns of Resaca and Calhoun
on the southern shore of the Oostanaula River, directly in the path
of proposed Interstate Highway 75 inthe northwest Georgia valley
and ridge region. Cecil Cook,Jr., locatedthe site while making
a survey for the Commission in the summer of 1958. With the
possible exception of some artifacts reportedly found by owners
and tenants inthe general area, there is no other collection from
A total of eight weeks of intensive excavation,interruptedby
snow and rain, were supervised by Dan F. Morse from February
1 through May 11, 1960. Federal aid constituted ninety percent
of the excavation cost while the State through the facilities of the
Commission provided the remaining ten percent. This preliminary
report is being done because of the importance of the site not only
as concerns the prehistoric interpretation of the Southeast but
also that of the entire Eastern United States.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, No. 4, December, 1960
0 25 /
Figure 1: Plan of Excavation at 9-Go-507. Shaded areas indicate the following
component concentrations: A- Late Archaic; B- MaHan Focus; C- Component
"B" of Williams Focus; D- Component "C" of Williams Focus.
; .1 .-jW;:,u mrown JOnu .-i-.U -
.:* ''.Light Brown Sand.
Yellow Sand .. -..
Yellow Sand ;
Figure 2: Schematic Cross-Section of 9-Go-507
A sand knoll around 200 feet in diameter is the site. It is
bounded on the northwest by the 15-foot high terrace of the Oosta-
naula River, just upriver from the southern end of anoxbow. On
the edges of the knoll and on surrounding knolls, the soilis yellow
clay with only the plow zone being composed of sand. From a dis-
tance of 2000 to 3000 feet to the southeast, the terrain rises 40
feet to a clay and gravel bluff 670 feet above sea level.
A total area of around 7700 square feet was excavated. Exca-
vation units were dug as five-by-ten and ten-by-ten foot units and
varied from two to four and a half feet below the surface of the
ground. These units were dug in four levels which seemed to best
fit the site cross-section.
Level 1: Plow Zone. Over most of the site, the Plow Zone
varied from 0. 5 to 0. 7 feet below the surface. In the edge of the
field near the river, it becomes as deep as 2. 0 feet. The soil is
a dark brown to gray sand which is very loose in texture. The
plow had intruded into a gray sand layer, also loose in texture,
which represents recent river alluvium. The gray sand, when
itwas present, was includedwith the actual Plow Zone as Level 1.
Level 2: Buried Soil. Immediately below the Plow Zone is
a series of hard, compact, very dark brown sand layers inter-
spersedwith loose-textured white to yellow sandlenses. Inmost
areas, this appears as a single dark brown layer varying from
0.05 to 0. 2 feet in thickness. Only rarely it was found that this
zone had been obliterated by cultivation. In the Buried Soil and
directly beneath it were found most of the artifacts obtained at
the site. Normally a total of two inches was excavated as a level,
to insure getting not only this zone but also any possible basal
remnants of the Plow Zone.
Level 3: Dark Brown Sand. From the Buried Soil to a depth
of about 1. 5 feet is a layer of heavily mottled dark brown sand.
The Dark Brown Sand almost pinched out completely at the up-
river and downriver extremes of the excavation. Near and out-
side the cultivated field it was covered by more overburden. In
about half of the squares, especially in the more sparsely in-
habited parts of the site, the base of the Dark Brown Sand was
very sharply defined. In other squares, the transitionto the next
strata was less distinct.
Level 4: Light Brown Sand. Level 4 is composed of lightly
mottled light brown sand containing enough clay to cause it to be
the most compact of all the strata at the site. This level varies
fromten totwelve inches in thickness. The erosional surface in
some cases is topped by a sandy lens. At least one feature origin-
ates from the surface of the Light Brown Sand and there is a very
good possibility of a concentration of certain projectile point types
in this layer.
The basal strata is a lightly mottled yellow sand layer which
is sterile of artifacts. Throughout the site cross-section are thin
and irregular horizontal bands of sand which may be indications
of short-lived ground surfaces. There is of course the possibility
that these bands are merely ground water lines.
There is very little known of the Late Pleistocene and Recent
geological stages in the Southeast. This particularly is true of
Georgia. High terraces, erosional remnants in broad valleys,
and the spacial clustering of early projectile points indicate pluvial
rivers and minor mountain glaciation being contemporaneous with
the glacial advances in the north.
The Williams Site probably was covered by water during the
Valders stage. In the north, after the Valders Maximum at about
10, 700 years ago, the climate was warmer and generally wet, cul-
minating in the warm and dry Altithermal at around 3500 years ago.
(Mason, 1958:23f) It is suggestible that the disconformity between
the Light Brown Sand and the Dark Brown Sand is Altithermal in
date. The Buried Soil appears to represent another dry period of
late date, perhaps of around 2000 years ago, according to pottery
found either in or above it. The Grand Sand then represents another
wet period in the very recent past, which may be due to European
influence through land clearing.
A number of features were found at 9-Go-507. They were
bothaboriginal and natural in origin, someproving difficult to be
labeled either. Categories are tree root molds, refuse and/or
storage pits, post holes, hearths, and burials. Very few arti-
facts were found in association with these features.
BURIALS. A total of three burials were found; there were no
artifacts associated. Feature 2 was a pit about 1.8 feet in dia-
meter which was very hard to define in the Yellow Sand. Two
small groups of burnt bone were in the northeastern third of the
pit about 0. 3 of a foot distant in depth; each was around half a foot
thick. The highest group, just in the Yellow Sand, was in a layer
of dark brown sandwhile the rest of the pit fill was a light brown
to yellow sand.
Feature 15 was a burnedbone area about eight inches in dia-
meter which extended from 2. 5 to 2. 9 feet below the present ground
surface, being just in the Yellow Sand. The bone was in a dark
brown sand matrix. As in the case of Feature 2, the bone frag-
ments were disarticulatedand badly broken and were not cremated
in place. In neither case could any clues be found for afield iden-
tification of sex and age.
Feature 3 was a pit 3. 2 by 2. 3 feet in dimensions which in-
truded 1. 5 feet into the Yellow Sand. A six-inch high bench var-
ied from two to six inches wide along the northwestern wall; the
oval pit walls were vertical and the base flat. A few fragments
of a skull, a set of teeth, andportions of one femur and two tibiae
-indicated a burial flexed on its left side with the skull to the north-
east. This individual was a female in her late twenties judging
from the tooth wear and bone size.
Figure 1: Feature Three, a Burial, at the Williams Site. View is toward the north-
east. An unexcavated pit is partially exposed in the upper part of the photograph.
HEARTHS. Several possible hearths were found but only one
is definitely to be so considered. This is Feature 12. An area
containing 45 rocks and 30 rock fragments, mostly burnt quartzite,
was about 2. 6 feet in diameter and extended from 0. 2 feet below
the Buried Soil to the base of the Dark Brown Sand. The rocks
were essentially on the same level and lay directly upon a square
basin some two to three inches deep which was filled with char-
coal and burnt dirt. Only five small rock fragments were in this
Perhaps 20, 000 quartzite rocks and fragments were found
throughout the excavation. Many of these exhibited evidence of
having been burnt and the fragments were broken identically to
those found in Feature 12. The other possible hearths were areas
of rock concentrations containing between 40 and 70 rocks on one
level with bits of charcoal over and in the quartzite matrix in some
cases. These were in the Dark Brown and the Light Brown Sand
for the most part; one was in the Yellow Sand.
POST HOLES. Some 20 to 25 molds which looked as if they could
have been the result of buried posts were found. One burnt post
hole contained 28 rocks between one and two inches in diameter.
All the molds ranged between 0. 5 and 0. 8 feet in diameter and
from 0. 3 to greater than 1. 5 feet deep. No molds were found to
have originated higher than 0. 1 to 0. 3 feet below the Buried Soil.
Three groups, each consisting of three closely spaced post
molds, exhibit an arch pattern. Assuming that this indicates
either circular or oval houses and fitting other molds into the arch
patterns, then the houses possiblywere between 16 and 23 feet in
diameter. Occasionally small fragments of friable clay were found
in the excavations--one pit contained quite a bit of this red and
yellow burnt sandy clay--and they indicate the possibility of wattle
and daub houses being present.
OTHER. With the exception of Feature 22 which contained a
Fabric-impressed vessel, almost nothing was found in some 65
pits distributed about the site. Only rarely can these pits be
accurately defined above the sterile sand, for apparently a con-
siderable amount of leaching has taken place. Several pits were
found to be tree molds which with rare exceptions did not appear
to intrude through the Buried Soil.
One groupofpitsmayhavebeen for storage. These extended
to between 4. 5 and 5. 0 feet beneath the surface and were 4. 0 to
4. 5 feet in diameter. Feature 17 may have been slightly bell-
shaped but otherwise the walls were mainly vertical and the bases
slightly concave. Another group of pits were two to three feet in
diameter and extended to between two and four feet beneath the
surface. Several pits seem to have not intruded into the Light
Brown Sand as inferred from charcoal and artifact concentrations
in the Dark Brown Sand. Feature 10 was a concentration of burnt
Figure 4: Williams Site Corn in situ. Note its position in relation to the site
stratigraphy and to two intersecting pits which intrude into the Yellow Sand
in the foreground. The surface of the square block is the base of the Buried
Figure 5: Williams Site Corn in situ. This is probably
the earliest corn yet recorded for the eastern United
States. Its association with Early Woodland artifacts
indicates a date around 250 to 500BC.
nut fragments just beneath the Buried Soil. In addition two areas
of flint chippage concentrations were found, suggesting chipping
The most important find at 9-Go-507 was Feature 7. This
was a group of 30 to 40 burnt corn cobs in an area about eight
inches indiameter and four inches indepth. The top of the group
was 0. 4 feet beneath the base of the Buried Soil. Also included
mixed in with the cobs were ash, wood, cane, and one-half of a
shelled acorn. No pit was discernible since the group was in the
Dark Brown Sand. The cobs are oriented in every conceivable
direction and it appears as if the whole unit was thrown into a pit
much as ash units are found ina small compact hill in later refuse
pits. The two largest cobs are three inches long andabout three-
fourths of an inch in diameter.
The corn is similar to cobs found by John Wear of Fairmount
in an Early Woodland refuse pit at 9-Pi-103 but appear to be dif-
ferent from cobs foundby the Commissionat 9-Wd-1 in possible
Late Woodland context, cobs found by the Commission at Etowah
in an Etowah context, and those found associated with Mouse Creek
material in northwest Georgia by John Wear. At 9-Wd-1, also
excavated under the Highway Salvage program, a group of cobs
were found which exhibited evidence of being deposited during a
corn planting ceremony. These differed from the Williams Site
specimens inbeing placed infour orderly rows in a specially pre-
pared pit. As at 9-Go-507, the cobs had been shelled. The
Williams Site cache does not give evidence for or against a corn
ceremony. However, the cobs were not badly broken up and some
sort of a ceremonywould be expected--whether at planting, har-
vesting, or in-between--in a culture concerned with the success
of a corn crop. There are many instances of corn ceremonialism
in the Eastern United States but they are mainly found in a Mississi-
ppian or historical context.
It is emphasized that very little interpretation of the pre-
Mississippian prehistory of Georgia has been accomplished.
Therefore, new archaeological complex names are introduced
here. The McKern Taxonomic System is utilized because it is
felt that the resultant classification of archaeological data lends
itself best to archaeological and anthropological interpretation.
(McKern, 1939, and Griffin, 1943:327-341)
POTTERY.We have not completed a formal analysis of this
material and type collections from other areas have not been
studied extensively. Hence it would be folly either to call these
sherds by recorded type names, having to choose between several
possibilities, or to make up new names. Therefore, merely a
skeletal breakdown of sherd variationwas made as to temper and
surface treatment. (Note Tables 1 and 2.)
The Fabric-Impressed sherds constitute only about 2. 5% of
the total collection. They were concentrated in an area about 25
feet in diameter with a restorable vessel being approximately in
the center of this concentration. All the sherds are grit-tempered
and the fabric impressions are coarse in appearance. The restor-
able vessel is a wide-mouthed coconut-shaped specimen with a
sub-conical base, completely covered by fabric impressions.
The vessel is approximately 11 inches high and 10 inches in dia-
meter. Like all vessels broken at the Williams Site, coiling was
the method of manufacture. Though few in number, the Fabric-
Impressed sherds tend to be slightly lower in depth than all other
Simple Stamped, Checked Stamped, and Plain sherds form
around 95% of the total sherd collection. The majority of Simple
Stamped sherds, the most prominent surface treatment at the
Williams Site, are heavily tempered with fine to medium coarse
sand particles. A few are limestone-tempered. Most of the
simple stamping is a series of irregular, wide, and deep bands
almost as if a handful of twigs constituted the stamping implement.
A small percentage of sherds exhibit fine parallel bands. Normal-
ly, most vessels were smoothed after being stamped on the ex-
terior rim area. Legs which are a continuation of the vessel wall
surround a flat base and are stamped on the proximal half. Bases
usually do not exhibit stamping. Rims are slightly to greatly out-
curving. Lip notching is rare and most lips are rounded in cross-
section though some have been flattened.
The check stamps are large; there are no fine Check Stamped
nor any Linear Stamped sherds present. Vessel characteristics
TABLE 1. POTTERY CATEGORIES AT 9-Go-507
Grit Limestone Sand
Simple Stamped X X
Check Stamped X X
Plain X X
Complicated Stamped X
TABLE 2. POTTERY CATEGORIES FOUND AT 9-GO-507
SHERD CATEGORIES ZONES IN SITE
Plow Zone Buried Soil Dark Brown Sand Light Brown Sand Total
Surface Treatment Temper Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Fabric-Impressed Grit 2 1.0 8 1.6 16 2.3 6 12.0 32 2.2
Simple Stamped Sand 116 55.5 323 63.1 407 58.1 23 46.0 870 59.4
Limestone -- -- 1 0.2 2 0.3 -- -- 3 0.2
Plain Sand 69 32.9 126 26.5 208 29.8 9 18.0 417 Z8. 5
Limestone -- -- 1 0.2 2 0.3 -- 3 0.2
Check Stamped Sand 13 6.2 30 5.8 49 7.2 12* 24.0 104 7. 1
Limestone -- -- 1 0.2 3 0.4 -- -- 3 0.2
Punctated Sand -- -- 1 0.2 -- -- -- -- 1 0.1
Complicated Stamped Sand 2 1.0 1 0.2 1*+ 0.1 -- -- 4 0.3
Eroded Surface Sand 6 2.9 10 2.0 8 1.2 -- 24 1.6
Grit 1 0. 5 -- -- -- -- -- 1 0.1
Limestone -- -- -- 2 0.3 -- -- 2 0.1
TOTALS 209 100.0 512 100.0 698 100.0 50 100.0 1464 100.0
*10 Check Stamped sherds in two units.
**Complicated Stamped sherd from a 6" to 12" level.
Archaeological Unit Grit Limestone Sand Simple Stamped Check Stamped Plain Other Total
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Prcent mber Percent Number Percent
Site 9-Go-507 Component C
Plow Zone 2 8.3 -- -- 12 50.0 -- -- 9 37.5 1 4.2 24 100.0
BuriedSoil 1 .9 -- -- -- 72 68.0 11 10.4 21 19.8 1 0.9 106 100.0
Dark Brown Sand 5 4.3 -- -- -- 76 66.1 15 13.1 19 16.5 -- 115 100.0
Light Brown Sand 1 100.0 -- -- .. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 100.0
TOTALS 9 3.7 -- -- -- -- 160 65.0 26 10.6 49 19.9 2 0.8 246 100.0
Site 9-Go-507 Component B
Plow Zbne -- -- -- -- 36 65.5 1 1.8 18 32.7 -- 55 100.0
BuriedSoil 1 1.8 34 60.6 3 5.4 18 32.2 -- -- 56 100.0
Dark Brown Sand 5 1.5 -- -- -- I 200 61.2 17 5.2 104 31.8 1 0.3 327 100.0
Light Brown Sand -- -- -- 9 56.3 6 37.5 1 6.2 -- -- 16 100.0
TOTALS 6 1.3 -- -- -- 279 61.5s 27 5.9 141 30.9 1 0.2 454 100.0
Site 9-Go-256 Component A
Feature 10 1 3.5 28 96.5 -- -- 29 100.0
Feature 15 1 1.8 -- -- 33 57.8 21 36.8* 1 1.8 1 1.8 57 100.0
Feature 19 8 30.8 1 3.8 6 23.1 11 42.3 -- -. -- .. 26 100.0
TOTALS 10 8.9 1 .9 6 5.3 72 64.3 21 18.8 1 -.9 I1 .9 112 100.0
*All 21 eherde are from one vessel.
TWO SKULLS FROM A
FORT WALTON PERIOD CEMETERY SITE(OK-35)
Okaloosa County, Florida
Grey L. Adams
William C. Lazarus
The purpose of this paper is to present the physical charac-
teristics of two skulls recovered from a Fort Walton Period Cem-
etery Site (OK-35) near the southern shore of Choctawhatchee Bay
in Okaloosa County, Florida.
The site was found and a 5-foot by 10-foot pit was dug into it
by a group of boys in November 1959. After removing about 10
whole vessels, 11 broken but restorable vessels (including two
inverted over the skulls to be described) and several hundred
sherds and other artifacts, the boys realized there were skulls
beneath two vessels. All of the vessels and all but a few sherds
have been examined and are clearly Fort Walton pottery types.
Busycon shell celts, projectile points, chunky stones, shell beads
and shell hair pins and two very large ceramic ear plugs came
from this one hole.
The vessels wereremoved from the site by theboys with the
crania still in them. The mandibles of both skulls became dis-
associated but presumably were in place with the skulls before
they were disturbed. The second-listed author received the skele-
tal materials with the vessels stillaround the masses of dirt con-
taining the crania. The two mandibles were separate. Examina-
tion of the hole and the spoil from it was accomplished within 24
hours after the removal of the skulls. No other bones of the axial
or appendicular skeleton could be found although fragments of a
third crania were found in the spoil. It is therefore assumed that
the two skulls to be described were skull burials only.
The skull hereafter identified as Skull No. 1 was largely con-
tained in a sand tempered simple bowl with lateral expansions
spaced 180 degrees apart at the rim. One of these lateral expan-
sions were missing. The vessel's maximum diameter is 13-1/4"
and its maximum depth is 6". This vessel lacks a rim collar and
is decorated with a band of "diamond-with-dot" pattern. Thick-
ness of the vessel is uniform (5-6mm). It is a black to gray color,
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, No. 4, December, 1960
and roughly 1-1/2 inches in diameter. It is notched on the two
unbroken edges and has a curved row of closely-set round punc-
tates on one surface.
The possibility of four distinct pottery-using cultures is in-
dicated both by the pottery distribution at 9-Go-507 and by the
results of tests made at other sites in this general area. The
mutual exclusiveness of the different pottery assemblages is of
course not absolute. But it is thought typical of a situation in
which different cultures at different times have occupied a simi-
lar but not identical site area.
There seem to be two separate components which include
Simple Stamped and Check Stamped vessels in their respective
artifact assemblage. Each seems to occupy a basic area measur-
ing about 50 by 25 feet in extent. These two components represent
permanent occupations as evidenced by the presence in this part
of the excavation of not only the bulk of the artifacts from 9-Go- 507
but the post holes, burials, refuse and/or storage pits, and the
cache. Table 3 demonstrates the variety within and the difference
between pottery category percentages of these two components.
According to the chi-square (X2) reliability test of correlation,
there is a very low probability (between 01 and .001) that these
two pottery assemblages are from one component. This conclu-
sion is, of course, underlaid by the basic premise that in a given
primitive (pre-state organized) culture there will be no significant
difference in the archaeological assemblages from different gen-
eralportions of the village. Component B tends to be just slight-
ly lower than Component C stratigraphically.
The chi-square testwas madebetween the two 50-by-10 foot
areas which seem to be in the center of the artifact concentration
of each occupation. Individual levels within and between five-by-
ten foot units within either component, according to the same
statistical test, are not significantly different. Since the com-
ponents under discussionin this paper essentially occupythe same
geographical space, it is assumed that differences between com-
ponents reflect temporal discontinuity.
Data gathered by John Wear from the MaHan Site (9-Go-256)
has important implications concerning the change from fabric im-
pressing to simple stamping and the priority of simple stamping
over check stamping. A total of 21 features have been excavated
and analyzed at this multiple-component site. Of these, 12 are
roughly divisible into three pottery-making components. (Note
Two components are very similar in having a high percent-
age of Fabric-Impressed sherds, but are different in this respect
from the two main pottery-making components at the Williams
Site. These former two are grouped into the MaHan focus. Com-
ponent B has a high precentage of grit-tempered Fabric-Impressed
TABLE 4. COMPONENTS OF THE MAHAN FOCUS AT 9-Go-256
Archaeological Feature Grit Limestone Sand Simple Stamped Plain Cord Marked Eroded Surface Total
NumberPercent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
1 55 47.9 35 30.4 20 17.4 5 4.3 -- -- -- -- -- 115 100.0
5 132 60.2 63 28.8 18 8.2 4 1.8 -- -- 1 0.6 -- .218 100.0
8 33 56.9 8 13.8 3 5.2 8 13.8 4 6.9 2 3.4 -- 58 100.0
20 41 59.5 19 27.6 7 10.1 1 1.4 -- -- -- -- 1 1.4 69 100.0
TOTALS 261 56.8 125 27.1 48 10.4 18 3.9 4 0.9 3 0.7 1 0.2 460 100.0
2 60 90.9 -- -- -- 4 6.1 -- 1 1.5 1 1.5 66 100.0
6 32 88.9 -- -- 3 8.4 -- 1 2.7 -- 36 100.0
7 32 80.2 1 4.4 -- -- 6 15.4 -- -- -- -- -- 39 100.0
12 47 76.0 6 9.6 1 1.6 6 9.6 2 3.2 .. -- -- -- 62 100.0
21 32 74.4 3 7.0 3 7.0 4 9.3 -- -- 1 2.3 -- 43 100.0
TOTALS 203 82.6 10 4.1 4 1.6 23 9.3 2 0.8 3 1.2 1 0.4 246 100.0
sherds, varying around 50 to 60% of the total, and a very low per-
centage of Simple Stamped sherds, varying around 2 to 14% of the
total. The bulk of the other sherds are limestone-tempered and
sand-tempered Fabric-Impressed specimens. Component A is
composed of between 75 and 95% grit-tempered Fabric-Impressed
sherds, with other-tempered Fabric-Impressed sherds being less
than or about the same percentage as the Simple Stamped repre-
sentation, which is 8 to 15% of the total collection. Cord-Marked
sherds are very minor and constitute about the same frequency in
The Fabric-Impressed component at the Williams Site is very
close to Component A (MaHan focus) at the MaHanSite since there
is only grit-tempering present. The presence of Simple Stamped
sherds in a Fabric-Impressed complex is very important, especi-
ally in light of the complete absence of Check Stamped sherds.
With this data it has to be inferred that Simple Stamped vessels
began during a time in which Fabric-Impres sed as a surface treat-
mentwas popular andbefore the advent of CheckStampedvessels.
The third component at the MaHan Site is very similar to the
Simple Stamped components at the Williams Site. (Note Table 3. )
Therefore all three have been grouped into the Williams focus.
Fabric-Impressed vessels may or may not be a minor part of the
respective artifactassemblages. Feature 15 contained 21 Check
Stamped sherds (37% of the feature total) but all are from one
vessel. Furthermore, only three other Check Stamped sherds
have been found at the MaHanSite and these are all from the sur-
face. Hence Check Stamped sherds are either absent or form a
very minor pottery category in all three components of the Williams
focus. For ease of classificationatthe presenttime, each of these
foci is defined by one of these main surface treatments.
Two refuse pits at the Murphy or Pickens Site (9-Pi-103) help
complete the Early Woodland picture in northwest Georgia. Both
pits are almost identical in sherd content and further demonstrate
the relative mutual exclusiveness of simple stamping and check
stamping as major surface treatments. Since this component is
significantly different from those composing the MaHan and
Williams foci, it is called here the Murphy focus. (Note Table 5.)
In summary, these three foci are closer in type to each other
as a group than to either Late Archaic or to Hopewell Santa-Rosa
Swift Creek. These three foci then can be grouped into the Dept-
ford aspectwhich with other aspects can be grouped into the Early
Woodland phase (Woodland pattern). If it is felt that there is too
much difference between the MaHan focus and the Williams focus
for such a classification, then we suggest as a possible solution
their clustering into two sub-aspects of the Deptford aspect. We
may assumeAD 0 as the beginning date of Hopewell in Georgia--
marked by the presence of Complicated Stamped sherds--and 800
BCas a beginning date for Early Woodland--marked by the great-
er predominance of pottery over steatite. Table 6 is an attempt
to show the general trend through time of surface treatments on
pottery in the Deptford aspect.
NON-POTTERY. Several thousand flint and several hundred
quartzite chips were found. Also collected were flint and quart-
zite knives, scrapers, about 500 projectile points, a half dozen
drills, and at least 1 graver. Almost all of the projectile points
fall into a stemmed category. A few might be considered corner-
and side-notched forms. Only three or four were of the Tennessee
Greenville type. The purpose of Illustration 5 is to show variabi-
lity in shape and flaking pattern. These projectile points are attri-
butable to both Early Woodland and to Archaic, though most come
from the portion of the site where the two Williams focus com-
ponents were concentrated.
Thus far in the analysis, about 50% of the projectile points
in the Light Brown Sand exhibit attributes which are characteris-
tic of Middle Archaic in the Eastern United States. These attri-
butes are basal and lateral grinding, parallel blade trim flakes,
TABLE 5. POTTERY VARIABILITY IN THE MURPHY FOCUS
9-Pi-103 FEATURE 1 FEATURE 5 TOTAL
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Fabric-Impressed 1 1. 5 0 0.0 1 0.9
Simple Stamped 9 13.0 5 10.6 14 12. 1
Plain 10 14.3 7 14.9 17 14.7
Check Stamped 48 69. 7 34 72.4 82 70.6
Eroded Surface 1 1.5 1 2. 1 2 1.7
Totals 69 100.0 47 100.0 116 100.0
TABLE 6. GENERAL TREND THROUGH TIME OF POTTERY
CATEGORY SUCCESSION IN THE DEPTFORD ASPECT
FOCI YEARS Fabric- Simple Check
BC Impressed Stamped Stamped
MaHan 6 50
Figure 7: Miscellaneous Stone Implements from 9-Go-507
A- Gorget; B- Pendant: C- Scraper; D- Knife
basal thinning flakes, closely-spaced small and steep basal trim
flakes, serrated blade edges, and either a wide and shallow side
notch or astem. Three major varieties are present at 9-Go-507.
In the Joe Holmes collection in Adel, Georgia, are examples of
several varieties of the Dalton type and a close approximation to
the Hardaway type from central Georgia. Also found on these sites
around Adel are Middle Archaic beveled types as well as three
types of early end scrapers, including concave and convex ended
thumb scrapers with graver spurs. All that can be said at the
present time is that the early Williams Site projectile points appear
to be slightly later than the Dalton and Hardaway varieties and
probably date from between 6000 and 4000 years ago.
Objects of slate, greenstone, and schist include chips, un-
finished artifacts, knives, scrapers, polished hoes, and a pestle
A A A A
Figure 8: Projectile Points from 9-Go-507. Symbol A signifies
the specimen was found in the light brown sand; arrows indicate
the extent of lateral grinding.
reused as a hammerstone or chopper measuring seven inches in
length and two and a half inches in diameter. Fragments of two
rectangular gorgets with slightly expanding sides and one expanded
center gorget were found. Also found was a greenstone pendant
shaped similarly to a celt. A full-groovedaxe of green porphyry
weighing one pound is typical of northern Georgia in having a short
poll and in being long and narrow in shape. Two perforated atlatl
weights and the axe probably belong with the Late Archaic occupa-
tion. One complete weight is made of red quartzite and is a bi-
faced hour glass variety; the other specimen is broken, made from
a granite, and is rectangular barreled variety. (See Knoblock,
1939, for definitions of these terms.)
The Williams Site is important in three ways. First, there
is a clustering of early projectile points in the lowermost water-
laid strata knownhere as the "Light Brown Sand" and a possibili-
ty that the deposition of this layer endedat the climax of the Alti-
thermal around 1500 BC. Second, data collected at this site and
nearby sites give the indication that Fabric-Impressed, Simple
Stamped, Check Stamped, and Complicated Stamped surface treat-
ments of pottery vessels, each in this order, were successive
major decoration styles through time. Finally, the high probabili-
ty that the 9-Go-507 corn is associated either with Component B
or C of the Williams focus and thus is Early Woodland in date is
of immense importance. Although early agriculture has been sus-
pected by several archaeologists, this is the earliest direct evi-
dence of corn yet found in the Eastern United States.
GRIFFIN, James B.
1943 The Fort Ancient aspect; its cultural and chronological
position in Mississippi Valley archaeology.
Ann Harbor, University of Michigan
KNOBLOCK, Byron W.
1939 Bannerstones of the North American Indian.
LaGrange, Privately Printed.
MASON, Ronald J.
1958 Late Pleistocene geochronology and the Paleo-lndian
penetration into the lower Michigan Peninsula.
Museum of Anthropology.
Anthropological Papers No. 11, Ann
Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
McKERN, W. C.
1939 The midwestern taxonomic method as an aid to archaeo-
logical culture study.
American Antiquity, 4:(4):301-313.
The authors would like to express their appreciation
to Mr. John Wear of Fairmount, Georgia, for his coopera-
tion in the preparation of this paper.
Three-quarter view of human effigy ceramic pipe found
with burials on the east bank of the Pascagoula River in
the city of Pascagoula, Mississippi. The maximum
height of this figure is 4 inches. The red "pants" and
the quality of the artifact suggest a WeedenIsland Peri-
This artifact is on display at Old Spanish Fort Museum,
OAKLAND MOUND (Je 53), FLORIDA
A Preliminary Report
L. Ross Morrell
The Oakland Mound (Je 53) is located 5. 0 miles northwest
of Lloyd, Florida, on the farm of Mr. L. A. Delp. The mound
lies in a hill valley within the Gulf Coastal Plain. The topography
indicates that a streamwas probable during aboriginal times but
now the water table is such that a stream is not visible. The
nearest water at present is a small lake approximately one mile
to the northeast. The mound is oval in shape with its diameters
being 95 feet north-south by 70 feet east-west. The highest point
at the center of the mound is approximately 8 feet above original
Excavation was done by students from the Department of
Anthropology at Florida State University, under the direction of
Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, Edward M. Dolan, and Bennie C. Keel.
Excavationwas carried on during weekends of 1958 and 1959 and
was temporarily halted due to lack of time of all concerned.
The 0 base line was set up approximately due east from the
center of the mound. A ten-foot trench was dug from the east
side to the center of the mound; this trench was divided into four
ten-foot squares. The squares were excavated in six-inch levels.
Subsequently a second trench was dug from the south extremity of
the mound to the center intersecting the east-west trench. This
trench consisted of six five-foot squares and was also excavated
in six-inch levels but was not extended to mound base when the
excavations were temporarily halted. All soil removed during
excavation was screened through 3/8-inch hardware cloth, and
the sifted soil was then removed by means of a winch-powered
Mound construction was of a fine silty loam. Due to the thor-
oughness of leaching throughout the excavated portion of the mound,
very little can be said regarding the construction stages. Nodefi-
nite signs of layers, developed surfaces, or internal structures
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, No. 4, December, 1960
Four burials were uncovered and all appear to be bundle
burials. Two burials were near the surface and two were just
above original ground level. Burials seem to have been placed on
the surface of the accumulating mound and covered with mound
If the type of burial foundplus the absence of internal struc-
tures are considered, the mound would appear to be the continuous
use type described by Sears (1958:277).
DEPTFORD BOLD CHECK STAMPED
The majority of decorated sherds foundwithin the mound (84
or 18. 3%) were Deptford Bold Check Stamped. The decoration
and rim form are the same as described by Willey (1949:357).
The only restorable pots recovered during excavation were
three of this type. The three restoredvessels as well as all check
stamped base sherds with footed supports were of the tetrapodal
Of the check stamped sherds, 68 or 82. 1% had a fine sand
temper, while the remaining 15 or 17. 9%, were fine sand and
sherd tempered. Inboth cases, however, the sand seems to have
been present in the clay and not includedby the potter. The 17. 9%
of sherds definitely show particles of crushed sherds and in a few
cases the finished surface of the crushed sherd is visible. The
sherd tempered subtype differs only in the addition of the sherd
fragments to the standard Deptford paste.
The three nearly whole vessels were all within 1. 5 feet of
each other, and not indirect associationwith any of the four bur-
ials. They seem to have formed a pottery deposit. Even though
the vessels were broken, the bases were present and they're not
the typical burial offerings with basal perforation.
Vessel A is a deep cup with tetrapodal supports and slightly
outcurving rim. Height 5. 5", maximum diameter 5. 3", and an
orifice diameter of 5. 0".
Vessel B is globular with tetrapods and slightly outcurving
rim. Height 6. 7", maximum diameter 6. 8", orifice diameter
Vessel C is globular with tetrapodal supports, constricted
neck, outcurving rim, and slashed incisions around the shoulder.
The orifice is an irregular oval. Height 7. 0", maximum dia-
meter 7. 3", orifice diameter 6. 1". (Figure 1.)
DEPTFORD SIMPLE STAMPED
Less than half as many Deptford Simple Stamped sherds oc-
curred (35) as did check stamped (84). Temper, decoration and
Figure 1: Deptford Bold Checked Stamped Vessels with Tetrapodal Supports
rim form are the same as described by Willey (1949:357).
SWIFT CREEK (EARLY)
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped made up 4. 6% or 21 of the
total sherd count. Within this type 28. 6 (6) were sand tempered
and 71. 4 (15) were sand and sherd tempered. The stamped de-
signs were quite indefinite and generally seemed to consist of rela-
tively narrow bands, rather widely spaced. These sherds prob-
ably belong to the Early variety as defined by Willey (1949:378).
The most frequently occurring sherd type was a very sandy
plain type, which made up 38. 3% of the total sherd count.
SAND AND SHERD TEMPERED PLAIN
A sand and sherd tempered plain was the second most common
type found at the Oakland Mound. Approximately 25% of these
sherds have a chalky feel and are very friable. (It might be noted
that these sherds are much more sandy than St. Johns types.)
The remaining 75% appear to have the same temper as used in
the sand and sherd tempered check stamped sherds.
FIBER TEMPERED PLAIN
Only 3. 1% (14) of the sherds excavated were fiber tempered
plain. All of these sherds were small and relatively scattered in
the mound fill. This sandy fiber tempered plain appears to be
the transitional type described by Goggin (1952:68).
No. Percent Types
2 .44 West Florida Cord Marked
1 .22 Smooth Plain
4 .87 Scored Line (Sand Tempered)
1 .22 Steatite
ARTIFACTS OF CHIPPED STONE
While counting the stone.artifacts, it was decided to separate
the unworked chips into patinated and unpatinated; however, this
proved to be of little value since approximately half were patina-
ted and half were unpatinated. Therefore, nothing significant can
be said in reference to the unworked flint chips.
A total of 11 flint artifacts were excavated from the mound.
These consisted of 3 side scrapers, 1 large blade, 1 constricting
stemmed Archaic point reworked into an end scraper, 1 basal
Fiber Tempered Plain
Deptford Bold Check Stamped
Deptford Bold Check Stamped
Total Check Stamped
Deptford Simple Stamped
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
Total Complicated Stamped
Sand & Sherd Tempered Plain
West Florida Cord Marked
Sand & Sherd
Sand & Sherd
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Figure 2: Pottery Types and Percentages
half of a sloping stemmed point, 1 Archaic point with concave
based sloping stem and sloping shoulder, 1 side notched point
fragment, basal two-thirds of a corner notched point, frontal por-
tion of a large bi-facially chipped point, 1 eared triangular point
with concave base and slightly convex edges. Nothing really dis-
tinctive appears among the stone artifacts excavated at the Oak-
land Mound. (Figure 3.)
Numerous fragmented deposits of burned clay were also found
in mound fill. Of these burned clay pieces, 29 might possibly be
clay ball fragments, although no really definite ball fragments
Small fragments of charcoal were collected from both mound
fill and from the poorly defined submound humic layer. This con-
solidated charcoal sample was sent to the Humble Oil Company
Laboratory for dating (sample No. G. 582). The date given was
2850 +110 BP (890 BC) (Fisk, letter). Since the consolidated
sample included charcoal from a submound level, it can thus be
assumed that the mound is no older than 890 BC.
A preliminary interpretation of the Oakland Mound and ex-
cavated material has led to the following hypothesized reconstruc-
The small number of transitional sandy fiber tempered plain
sherds that are present in mound fillwere probably derived from
an early occupation of the borrow area.
The major occupation was Deptford. During this Deptford
occupation of the Swift Creek Ceramic tradition began to pene-
trate from Georgia (Fairbanks 1952:286) and the Burial Mound
tradition appears from the west. Along the Northwest Florida
Gulf Coast the Swift Creek and Gulf Ceramic traditions generally
appear together (Willey 1949:372), but at the Oakland Mound there
was a complete absence of the zoned incised or rocker stamped
types of the Gulf traditions.
Thus the Oakland Mound can be placed at a point within the
Deptford Period when the Swift Creek Ceramic tradition had just
begun to diffuse from the north and the Burial Mound tradition
was just beginning to enter Gulf Coastal Florida from the west.
It was a period, moreover, when the Gulf Ceramic tradition had
not yet arrived in this region. I feel that the Oakland Mound
demonstrates either that the burial complex diffused from a differ-
ent center than the Gulf Ceramic tradition or that it preceded the
Ceramic tradition by a definable interval of time.
A B C
0 1 2
D L i --o
Figure 2: A- Scored Line; B- Swift Creek Complicated Stamped;
C- Deptford Simple Stamped; D- Flint Work from Mound Fill
Sears (1960, Figure 7) has suggested that the "Continuous
Use" type of burial mound was slightly older than the "Mass Burial"
type at the Bayshore Site. The evidence from the Oakland Mound
suggests that it is the earlier type in much of the Florida Gulf
On the basis of present evidence, the Oakland Mound appears
to be the earliest burial mound thus far excavated in this area.
FAIRBANKS, Charles H.
1952 "Creek and Pre-Creek" in Archeology
of Eastern United States Edited by James
B. Griffin. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, p. 286.
FISK, H. N.
(Letter) Exploration Department, Hum-
ble Division, Humble Oil & Refining
Company. Written to Dr. Donn S. Gorse-
line, Oceanographic Institute, Florida
State University, July 26, 1960. Sample
No. G. 582.
GOGGIN, J. M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. John's
Archaeology, Florida in Yale University,
Publications in Anthropology, p. 68.
SEARS, William H.
1960 The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg Florida
in Contributions of the Florida State Mus-
eum, Social Sciences No. 6, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Figure 7.
"Burial Mounds on the Gulf Coastal Plain,"
American Antiquity Volume XXIII. No. 3,
January 1958, p. 277.
WILLEY, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume
113. Washington, D. C. Government
Printing Office, pp. 357-378.
are similar to Simple Stamped vessels. The Plain sherds are
mostly rim and base fragments, and probably are from stamped
A total of four sand-tempered Complicated Stamped sherds
were found. Crude curvilinear designs are apparently"bulleyes"
and partial arcs of circles. Not one sherd can be demonstrated
to have been foundbelow the level of cultivation. The Complica-
ted Stamped sherds are not concentrated in a tight area and for
reasons to be explained later in this paper are probably"cultural
droppings" left from a minor camp site situation in Middle Wood-
A sand-tempered punctated sherd was found in the Buried
Soil. The punctates are deep and oval to round in shape. There
also may be remnants of simple stamping on the sherd.
Other pottery objects include one-half of a disc made from
a Simple Stamped sherd. Another specimen was not made from
a sherd. This is a fragment of a flatartifact 1/8 of an inch thick
Figure 6: Pottery from 9-Go-507. A. Legs (simple stamped). B. Rim Profiles with
Exterior to Left. C. Pottery Object with Punctates. D. Punctated Sherd Obverse
Surface and Cross Section.
well fired and hard. No kill hole is present. It is a classic Fort
Walton Incised vessel quite common in the Choctawhatchee Bay
This vessel was removed from the mass of sand and roots
which contained Skull No. 1. Removal of the sand revealed that
the cranium was basically intact but that the facial structure below
the eye sockets was disturbed, broken or missing. (A relative of
one of the boys had carried off a section of the upper jaw as a
souvenir!) After considerable air drying in a humid atmosphere,
the sand and roots were removed from the inner portions of the
cranium. Measurements of the No. 1 cranium are as follows:
Length 194 mm
Height 148 mm
Breadth 160 mm
This No. 1 cranium is thick, dark tan in color and the sutures
of the brain case are fully closed on the inside. The superciliary
arch (brow ridge) is prominent. One of the two mandibles fits and
matches this skull and is presumed to belong to it. All teeth ex-
cept one incisor are in this lower jaw. All are mature and heavily
worn. The available incisor is of the "shovel shaped" variety
leaving no doubt as to the American Indian race of this individual.
From the above characteristics it can be deduced that this
No. 1 skull belonged to a mature Indian male. The skull is de-
finable as "short" or round (cranial index 82. 5) and the vault is
considered high (cranial height 72. 2).
Since the cranium was basically intact, an attemptwas made
to project a true silhouette from which it might be possible to
produce an artist' s conception of this individual based on authentic
data. A 500 watt beam of focused light from aprojector was loca-
ted 10 feet in front of the subject, and at an equal elevation from
the floor. A vertical drawing boardwas then positioned as close
behind the skull as practicable (about 7 inches from the shadow
line on the skull). In a completely darkened room, except for the
projector beam, a sharp line silhouette appeared on the drafting
The skullwas then oriented to the desiredposition byobserv-
ing where the line between light and shadow appeared on the sur-
face of the skull. Lateral and Anterior views are shown in sil-
houette by Figures No. 1 and 2, respectively. The mandible sil-
houettes were made separately and then carefully oriented with
respect to the auditory foreman.
These silhouette data plus information on the beads and shell
pins generally associatedwith the two burials provided the artist
with basic information upon which to create a likeness of a male
who lived in the Fort Walton cultural context.
Figure No. 3 presents the first-named author's conception.
To aid in this conceptual drawing he usedas references the human
effigy forms found in Fort Walton contexts along the Northwest
Florida Coast (Willey 1949 and others). The 1560 drawing by Joh
White titled "Indian Woman of Florida, with Earthen Bowl and Ears
of Corn ( ?)" (Holmes 1903 P1. I) was also employed.
The vessel which encased Skull No. 2 had been extensively
broken by roots and was further fractured in the uncontrolled dig-
ging of it. Several large sections were still in place on the mass
of dirt androots that contained this skull. Unfortunately this mass
was far less rigid than that which contained Skull No. 1 with its
nearly whole vessel. The fragmented vessel was removed and
later reassembled. It is defined as a large shell tempered casuela
bowl with 4 knob adornos equally spaced along the base of the
collared rim. It has a maximum diameter of 12" and a maximum
depth of 6-1/2". The incised pattern of "Y" and"inverted Y"ele-
ments is executed with broad (3 mm) shallow lines. The surface
appears to be a slip which was firedblackand polished. The tem-
per is very fine shell and the vessel is soft and crumbly-parti-
cularly the core material. There is an impact kill hole inthe
base. This vessel is also a typical Fort Walton Periodtype identi-
fied as Pensacola Incised.
Removal of the sandand roots around this skull revealed that
it was extensively fractured by the handling. The cranium was a
light color when dry and was very thin particularly in the vicinity
of the coronal suture and frontal bone. The skull below the eye
sockets was shattered in small splinters and/or missing. How-
ever, the occipital region was intact.
After drying and hardening of the exposed bones, theywere
removed from the interior sandanda careful attemptwas made to
reconstruct this No. 2 Skull. It was apparent from the occipital
area at the start that there was deformation. As the smaller frag-
ments were glued together and then added to the larger segments
it appeared that this deformation was considerable. A conscious
effort was therefore made to avoid any exaggeration of this condi-
tion. The end result of this restoration was the following char-
acteristics for this No. 2 cranium:
Length 161 mm
Height 130 mm
Breadth 167 mm
This cranium is very thin, cream colored and the inner suture
lines appear to be fully closed. The second mandible seems to
match this skull in color and texture but carelessness in excavat-
ing makes this an assumption rather than a fact since arealfit
cannot be demonstrated. All teeth were missing fromthis man-
dible. The left side of the mandible reveals that bothpremolars
and the first and second molars hadbeenlost by this individual for
a considerable periodprior to death. The bone structure beneath
these four teeth was depressed and smooth. A lateral growth of
the jaw bone on the left side is very obvious where the bone mater-
ial was redeposited to adjust for this void.
From these characteristics, it appears that No. 2 Skull is
that of a mature female whose cranium had undergone considerable
cradleboard deformation. As reconstructed, this skull is abnor-
mally short (cranial index 104) and the cranial height (91.0) is
definable as a high vault.
The same silhouette projection technique was used on this
skull. Lateral andAnterior views produced by this technique are
shown in Figures No. 4 and 5. The artist's conception of this
woman is portrayed in Figure No. 6. The hair style tends to
moderate the extremely high cranial index and lends some con-
servatism to this first attempt to portray a woman who lived in a
Fort Walton Period context.
The common characteristic of these two associated skulls
appears to be round-headedness and high vault. Occipital defor-
mation of the female appears certainbut is lacking for the male.
There can be no guarantee that either of these skulls repre-
sents a typical Fort Walton Period individual. The male skull is
certainly more reliable than the female. However, the complete
dearth of knowledge on the physical characteristics of the Fort
Walton People prompts the publication of this material as a first
These skulls have been turned over to the University Museum
at Florida State University at Tallahassee for safe keeping.
FUNDABURK, E. L. and FOREMAN, M.D.
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands, Luverne,
HOLMES, W. H.
1903 Aboriginal Pottery of the Eastern United States,
Bureau of American Ethnology, Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
KROGMAN, W. M.
1939 A Guide to the Identification of Human Skeletal
Material, F. B. I. Law Enforcement Bulle-
tin Volume 8, No. 8, August 1939.
WILLEY, G. R.
1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast,
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,
Volume 113, Washington, D. C.
A NOTE ON AN OBSCURE SEMINOLE VILLAGE
OF THE EARLY 1820s
Kenneth Wiggins Porter
A locality in the vicinity of Tampa Bay known as "Thlonoto-
sassa or plenty of flints" is well known as a landmark to students
of the early history of Florida Territory, and today a village bear-
ing the name of "Thonotosassa" is located slightly southwest of a
lake by the same name. When Colonel George Mercer Brooke
wrote on September 9, 1828, to the Adjutant General, in regard
to the possible boundaries of a military reservation, he recom-
"the reservation should commence from Gad-
sdenpoint (which separates Tampa from Hills-
borough bay .) along the eastern shore of
Tampa to its head, from thence, a due north
course to the Indian boundary line, then east
along this line to a spot opposite to the east-
ern side of the Thlonotosassa hammock (and
including to said hammock) and from thence a
due south east course til it strikes the Alla-
pahia river, (with the islands in the Hillsbor-
ough bay. )"
Lieutenant Robert C. Buchanan wrote in his journal, under
date of November 27, 1837, that the command to which he was at-
tached left Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, for the Kissimee at 10 A. M.
"We marched 12 miles this day and encamped
on one of the chain of ponds called Thlonoto-
sassa or plenty of flints. "2
From the above references it will be noted that the term was then
applied both to a "chain of ponds" and to a hammock, while today
the name is attached to a post village and a lake.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, No. 4, December, 1960
In 1823, however--although how much earlier or later is un-
known--the term was also at least sometime s applied to a Seminole
village in that vicinity. George A. McCall, writing under the date
of 1823, refers to "The town. 'Thlonoto-sassa, not far from
Camp Brook at the head of Hillsborough, or Tampa, Bay, which
was "under the rule of 'Tustenuggee-thlock-ko, "' which he trans-
lates as "Stout Chief. The village was apparently still there in
1826, or at least in that general vicinity, for under October of that
year McCall refers to "a long-legged lathy negro boy of some four-
teen years, belonging to one of the Thlonoto-sassa Indians," as a
frequenter of Camp Brooke; this was the later-to-be famous Indian
Negro Gopher John.4
Here, however, the mystery begins. No town of Thlonoto-
sassa appears in any list of Seminole villages or on any map of
Florida of this period; to my knowledge it is mentioned, under that
name, only by McCall. A possible explanation is that McCall
merely called it Thlonoto-sassa, because of its location in the
vicinity bearing that name, and that its Seminole name was actual-
ly something else. Only McCall, too, mentions a town chief named
"Tustenuggee-thlock-ko, or "Stout Chief," but, as the late Dr.
JohnR. Swanton points out, this name is not of much help iniden-
tifying either the village or the chief, since a more accurate trans-
lation would be "chief of the warriors of the first class" and the
principal war-leader in any town frequently bore that title. He
may not have been the only chief in the village and "Tustenuggee-
thlock-ko" himself may have also borne another more distinctive
A recently published list of Seminole towns in 1823, however,
throws some light on this town and its chief, although by no means
as much as one might wish. The master of the "long-legged lathy
negro boy," Gopher John, who in 1826 was noted by Mc Call as
"belonging to one of the Thlonoto-sasa Indians, we know from
other sources was "Charles Cavallo" or "Charles Cohia, also
known as "Old Cowaya" and doubtless identical with "Charley Coh-
wy-yah, who on April 14, 1838, is mentioned as about to surren-
der--in a sentence immediately after a reference to the surrender
of "John Coh-wy-yah", which is one of the many forms of Gopher
John's "Indian name. There is, further, no doubt that "Charley
Coh-wy-yah" was identical with "Captain Cowia, whose surren-
der tookplace onApril 20, 1838, and "Capt Coaih, "a man of over
50 who, with his family, arrived at FortGibson on June 26, 1838.
In Horatio S. Dexter's 1823 list of Seminole towns, with their
locations, chiefs, and other information, appears anunnamedvil-
lage, "about 25 m. NE from Tampa, with chief named "Imotley
or Cap. Cavallo, populatedby-70 Indians and 10 Negroes. 7 Here,
surely, is the "Thlonoto-sasa Indian" to whom Gopher John be-
longed, who turns out to have been the chief of the village of which
the "lathylong-legged boy" was a resident. Whether or not"Cap.
Cavallo" is to be identified with "Tustenuggee Thlock-ko, who
in 1823 McCall described as ruler of the town of Thlonoto-sassa,
is, of course, uncertain. The alternate name of "Cap. Cavallo"--
Imotley"--is, of course, a form of Emathla, and it, like "Tus-
tenuggee-thlock-ko, is a title, meaning "leader, rather than a
personal name; it was borne, for example, by the second chief of
the Seminole Nation, better known to the whites as King Philip,
father of the famous Wild Cat, but this St. John's River chief is
obviously not the same as the chief of the Tampa Bay village which
McCall referred to as Thlonoto-sassa.
Unfortunately, however, as we have seen, Dexter leaves the
village presided over by "Imotley or Cap. Cavallo" without a name;
we consequently cannot tell from his list whether it is to be identi-
fied with one of the numerous Tampa Bay villages mentioned in
lists compiled at about the time of the annexation of Florida in
1821, and included in Swanton, or whether it is a village which
has failed of inclusion in any other of the available contemporary
lists. The late Dr. Swanton has pointed out that "Hich-a-pue-
susse", or Hitchipusy, "about twenty miles southeast of Chuku-
chatta, at the same distance from the head of Tampa Bay", is the
village which, on the available maps, is shown as nearest Thlono-
tosassa Lake, but since the Dexter list includes "Hitche-puksasa, "
as well as the unnamed village presided over by "Cap. Cavallo,"
the two cannot be identical.
Dr. Swanton's tentative identification of "Thlonoto-sassa"
with "Hitchipusy, however, suggests that, even if not identical,
Thlonoto-sassa was at least in the immediate vicinity of "Hitchi-
pusy. And Horatio S. Dexter's account of his exploration of the
Tampa Bay region does include a description of such a village,
lying on the way from Chickuchatta to "Hitchipusy, but consider-
ably nearer the latter. "After leaving the Hammoc of Chucachate
4 Miles S. ", Dexter wrote, "the land is sandy pine barren, then
you come to pine lands of the best quality, soil a mixture of red
clay. The Ponds are numerous and skirted with rich hammocks
of considerable depth. 9 Miles from Chucuchate you enter a Ham-
moc of 3/4 of a mile in width which you cross in sight of its E.
extremity. This hammoc extends NW & ends in the neighborhood
of the big Hammoc. 3 Miles S you arrive at a settlement of Ind-
ians, who plant Corn, Pumpkins, Water Melons, etc., etc. This
settlement is situated on the banks of a Lake about 1 Mile long,
the land which rises to a height for about 100 feet. The scenery
of this lake is extremely picturesque, the timber on the banks
principally live oak & pine. This pine land is of the best quality,
mixed with red Clay, & continues of the same quality until you
arrive at the settlement of Tomakitchy (chief of "Hichepuksasa. "
KWP), distance 18 miles (i. e., from the starting point of "Chuca-
chate. KWP). "10 Here, it would seem logical, in this mile-long
lake is present-day Lake Thonotosassall and in this village 12
miles south of Chickuchatta and 6 miles north of "Hichepuksasa"--
which a Swanton list describes as "about twenty miles southeast
of Chukuchatta, at the same distance from the head of Tampa"--12
is the unnamed settlement of "Cap. Cavallo, "about 25 n. NE
from Tampa. "
If we accept the identity of (1) the village of Captain Cavallo,
(2) the settlement describedabove by Dexter, and (3) that to which
McCall gives the name of Thlonoto-sassa--a name which, for pur-
poses of convenience at least, we might well also use--we are also
able to arrive at some probabilities as to the origins of the Thlono-
tosassa Indians, from what we know of the associations of Captain
Cavalloand, more importantly, of his far more famous "slave"--
and probable son--John Cavallo or Gopher John. Their known
associations were almost exclusively with the Alachua group of
"original Seminole" who, in this period, centered about head-
chief Micanopy. 14 During 1837 John Cavallo was referred to as
some sort of "brother-in-law" to Holatoochee, Micanopy's close
kinsman (brother or nephew) and heir apparent; served as personal
representative of Alligator, Micanopy's war-chief; was sent as a
messenger from Micanopyand the chiefs most closely associated
with him to the St. John's River Seminole, whose head-chief was
Philip, or Emathla, who had married one of Micanopy's sisters;
was imprisoned and escaped along with Wild Cat, or Coacoochee,
Philip's son; and was a commander, along with Coacoochee and
Alligator, at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee. When inApril, 1838,
Alligator was finally induced to surrender, it was announced:
"John Co-hi-a is with Alligators people and will come in with
him, while Captain Cavallo was also in the group who surrendered
along with Alligator. "John Coh-wy-yah his family, announced
Col. Persifor F. Smith, Apr. 14, 1838, "about 10 have come in.
Charley Coh-wy-yahwill be here tomorrow with his people, "and
a letter from Fort Fraser stated: "On the evening of the 19thAlli-
gator reported himself, and next morning brought in his family
with Captain Cowia. "Old Cowaya" died notlong after his arri-
val in the Indian Territory--freeing John by his will--and John's
associations continued to be with the Alachua group and their kins-
men; he served with Holatoochee as guide and interpreter to United
States troops in Florida, was interpreter to Micanopy in the Indian
Territory and to Alligator and Wild Cat on a mission to Washing-
ton, and finally acted as Wild Cat's second-in-command in the
Indian andNegro hejira to, and colony in, Mexico. He was never
more than briefly, or in any way closely, associated with other
elements among the Seminole--Mikasuka, Red Stick Creek, or
Tallahassee. The conclusion is fairly obvious that the village of
"Old Cowaya" or "Captain Cavallo"--Thlonto-sassa--was popu-
lated by Alachua refugees.
1. Clarence Edwin Carter, compiler and editor, The Terri-
torial Papers of the United States, Volume XXIV, The
Territory of Florida, 1828-1834 (Washington, D.C.,
1959), p. 69. I have eliminated several of the colonel's
commas which contribute only confusion.
2. Frank F. White, editor, "A Journal of Robert C. Buch-
anan during the Seminole War, Florida Historical Quar-
terly, XXIX (October, 1950), p. 133.
3. Florida: AGuide to the Southernmost State (Oxford Univ-
ersity Press, 1939), p. 538.
4. Maj. Gen. GeorgeA. McCall, Letters fromthe Frontiers
(Philadelphia 1868), pp. 138, 141, 163-165.
5. Letter to author: Mar. 12, 1941.
6. NationalArchives: Department of the Interior, Seminole
File J102-1848, Maj. B. L. E. Bonneville, Fort Gibson,
June 10, 1848, toMaj. Gen. Thomas S. Jesup, Washing-
ton, D. C. ibidd. Florida (Emigration) File Al 282,"State-
ment of Indian Negroes with the Army of Florida on the
1st of June, 1841;" ibid., Florida (Emigration) File 1838-
M436; ibid., Seminole File, "List of Negroeswho surren -
dered under a proclamation of Major General Jesup,"
Fort Gibson, Dec. 10, 1847; Quarter Master General's
Office, Consolidated Files, Fort Gibson, "Negroes who
surrendered to General Taylor....;" General Jesup's
Papers, Box 6, Col. Persifor F. Smith, Fort Keais,
Apr. 14, 1838, to Lt. J. A. Chambers, AAG, Armyof
the South; ibid., Box 12, John Munroe, Ft. Fraser,
Apr. 21, 1838, to Lieut. Chambers.
7. Mark F. Boyd, editor, "Horatio S. Dexter and Events
leading to the Treaty of Moultrie Creekwiththe Seminole
Indians, Florida Anthropologist, XII (September, 1958),
p. 82--hereafter cited as Dexter.
8. John R. Swanton, Early History of the Creek Indians
and Their Neighbors (Washington, D. C., 1922), pp. 406-
9. Letter to author: Jan. 28, 1941.
10. Dexter, p. 90.
11. Florida, p. 538; various maps of Florida.
12. Swanton, p. 407.
13. My knowledge of the associations and activities of John
Cavallo orGopher John (ca. 1812-1882) is based on sev-
eralyears of research in manuscript and printed sources;
anything approaching a complete set of references even
on this particular subject would be prohibitively cumber-
some. For all references within my knowledge to "Old
Cowaya", see note 6, especiallyletters from Col. Persi-
for Smith and John Munroe.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS IN THIS ISSUE
KENNETH W. PORTER is Professor of History at the
University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. He has long been
interested in the Seminole Indians of the early 19th century
and has many papers on individuals and groups concerned
with the founding.and early history of the Seminole Nation.
DAN and PHYLLIS MORSE were archaeologists for the
Georgia Historical Commission. Recently Mr. Morse began
a tour of duty in the U. S. Army. Their evidence for corn
from an Early Woodland site, as reported in this issue, may
result in extensive revision of ideas concerning the economic
base of the early cultures in the southeast.
COL. WILLIAM C. LAZARUS is Society President this
year. He is the Technical Advisor to the Commander at the
Air Proving Ground Center at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
His hobby of archaeology has lead to extensive studies of
materials found on the Northwest Florida Coast.
CAPT.GREY L. ADAMS is stationed at the Air Proving
Ground Center at Eglin. He is a graduate of the University of
North Carolina where he specialized in anthropological art.
Further studies in Paris and the University of the Philippines
have contributedto his success as an artist in many exhibitions
in recent years.
L. ROSS MORRELL is a student at the Department of
Anthropology, The Florida State University. He has recent-
ly been conducting the Archaeology Club for the Tallahassee