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FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Membership is open to all interested in the aims of the
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items to the President.
PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY
No. 1. "Two Archaeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida,"
by Hale G. Smith. 32 pages, 4 plates....... ..... 0.50
No. 2. "The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida,"
by John W. Griffin and Ripley P. Bullen.
43 pages, 4 plates...........*...............*.... 0.50
No. 3. "The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida,"
by Ripley P. Bullen, 48 pages, 7 plates.......*...** 0.50
No. 4. "The European and the Indian," by Hale G. Smith,
150 pages, frontispiece, 6 maps..................... 2.00
No. 5. "Florida Anthropology," C. H. Fairbanks, ed......... 1.25
President: John M. Goggin, 312 Peabody Hall, Univ.
of Fla. Gainesville Florida
slt Vice President: Marvin 3. Brooks, 805 N.W. 15th Ct.
Miami 33, Florida
2nd Vice President: Cliff E. Mattox, 209 Beverly Rd.,
Secretary: William C. Massey Dept. of Anthro-
pology Univ. of Fla.,ainesville,Fla.
Treasurer: Harry L. Goetz, 5012 Suwannee,
Tampa 3, Florida
Editor: Charles H. Fairbanks, Box 3051 Fla.
State Univ., Tallahassee, Florida
Executive Committeemen: Irving Rouse, Yale University
E. Y. Guernsey,Box 426,Cocoa Beach Fla.
Wa. C. Sturtevant,Bureau of Am. Eth-
nology, Washington 25, D.C.
THREE SALVAGED TEQUESTA SITES IN DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA
D. D. Laxson
Between the later part of 1958 and February, 1959, the fol-
lowing three middens, located in Dade County, Florida, were des-
troyed during various construction projects. Fortunately, mater-
ial representative of the Tequesta culture was salvaged from each
before destruction was complete.
FLORIDA PORTLAND SITE
This site (Fig. 1, top) is located in a rectangular hammock
3.6 miles south of the Tamiami Trail on Khrome Ave. and 1.2 miles
west of the entrance to the Florida Portland Cement Plant.
The midden was destroyed during the construction of a con-
crete dynamite bunker and the E-W bisecting of the hammock by a
railroad spur. Five test pits were excavated north of the bunker
among guava, paw-paw and bamboo trees. The area was further
cleared and the spoil pushed north into the swampy area in the
fall of 1958 and excavations ceased.
The site is known locally as, "The Bamboo Mound."
LITTLE RIVER SITE
The Little River midden (Fig. 1, center) is situated between
the west bank of the river and the east side of the F. E. C.
right of way directly opposite NE 82nd Terrace, which dead-ends
at the tracks, in the village of El Portal.
During the building of a dam, part of a Flood Control Pro-
ject, by the U. S. E. D. the midden was bulldozed. After search-
ing the site for an area where levels could be depended upon,
three pits were excavated adjacent to the F. E. C. right of -way
in a narrow strip of black dirt 200 feet long, and 30 feet wide.
The area was 7.6 feet above MSL. Excavations were completed Dec-
ember 23, 1958.
BRICKELL POINT SITE
This midden (Fig. 1, bottom) is on a high rock out-cropping
along the south bank of the Miami River. It is adjacent to the
Brickell Point Apartments on the north and the residence 501-B
Brickell Ave. on the south.
Soil is shallow on top becoming several feet deep sloping
eastward to the channel in Biscayne Bay that runs N-S between the
site and Burlingame Island.
Surface collecting was accomplished and tests confined to
the SE quadrant of the midden, this being the only undisturbed
area during the clearing of the land preparatory to the erecting
of a building for Lodge No. 948, B. P. O. E. A single test trench
was excavated. The first foot showed signs of old fill, black
dirt and shell extended to a depth of 30 inches to the limestone
By February, 1959 construction had reached the point where
further excavations were useless and the site was closed out.
The midden was evidently part of the well known Miami Midden
No. 1 (Goggin, 1949. p. 92) located on the opposite bank of the
river where the Dnpont Plaza Building now stands.
Shell tools and potsherds were found 300 feet west on SE 5th
Street along the rivers edge in a wooded area, owned by Mr. J. C.
Ray, between the YMCA Playground and a parking lot.
Ceramic stratigraphy, for the most part, in the Florida
Portland site ran true to form with Glades III types superimposed
on Glades II types as shown in the Pottery Distribution Chart.
Unique sherds included a variation of Surfside Injcied (Fig. 2,4)
and several new incised designs (Fig. 2, 6, 7). The zig-zag
motif, found pendant to the rim in some Dade County sites, was
confined to the top of the rim on two sherds in the 0-6 inch
level. A single sherd of the "double" Key Largo was in the 6-12
inch level (Fig. 2, 3).
Despite the sites distance from the coast, a considerable
number of shells and shell artifacts were found (See Artifact Dis-
tribution Chart). A small one and one-half inch long Busycon
pick, possibly a toy, was found on the surface. Manufacture was
identical with the larger type.
Shark vertabrae were rare compared to the other two sites.
This may mean the sharks were not, or could not be easily hauled
the eleven miles from the coast to the habitation site.
A carving (Fig. 2, 5), that might be classified as an art ob-
ject, was found in conjunction with Glades Plain and Belle Glade
pottery. While the exact level could not be ascertained, a dat-
ing of early Glades III is likely.
The object, a small bird (Florida State Museum, Cat. No.
94380) was made from antler and originally carved seated on a
perch of some kind. The carving and scraping was well done and
the surface highly polished. The eyes were drilled to a depth of
.1 of an inch and slightly countersunk. Possibly a piece of
pearl or shell was fastened in the socket.
Seminole faceted and spherical beads along with iron pot
fragments were found on the surface.
At the Little River site, Pit 1 was located 100 feet west of
the river and 20 feet east of the RR tracks directly opposite the
dam. Pits 2 and 3 were located in line with and south of Pit No.
Sherds were mostly those of the Glades III period but some
Glades II sherds came from greater depths (See Pottery Distribut-
ion Chart). Two sherds bearing a resemblance to Englewood In-
cised (Fig. 2, 1, 2) were found at the 0-6 and 6-12 inch level.
It was noticed sherds of the Glades II period could be exca-
vated from the river bank; however exact levels could not be de-
termined and no test pit was dug. It is possible the habitation
area was moved westward during Glades III times away from the
river, which is tidal.
Bulldozers had crushed hundreds of immature Stombus shells
on the surface. These shells had evidently been brought to the
site since it is doubtful they were in the river considering its
fresh water drainage from the northwest.
Shark vertebrae, some perforated, were fairly common.
Digging was confined in the Brickell Point site to strata ex-
posed by a foundation pit in the SE quadrant of the area. Sherds
were mostly Glades Plain with Dade and Miami Incised atthe lower
level as indicated in the Pottery Distribution Chart.
Appreciation is expressed to the following; Mr. N. J. Wink-
leman, Mr. J. A. Albertson and Mr. Marvin Brooks for calling at-
tention to the sites; Mr. John Hackett, Mr. Noel Herrmann and Mr.
Bob Masters for help in excavating; Mr. O. A. Stephens, Plant
Superintendent of Florida Portland, Mr. Charley Miller of the
Clewiston office of the U. S. Engineers and Mr. D. B. Hilton ,
Secretary, Miami Lodge No. 948 of the B. P. O. E., for permission
Gratitude is also expressed for the help of Mr. Ripley P.
Bullen, Curator of Social Sciences of the Florida State Museum
for help with typology and photography; Mr. J. C. Ray, owner of
the SE 5th Street property adjoining Brickell Pt. for permission
to make a surface collection and to Mr. Wayne Allen and Mr.Donald
Burger for help with the foundation pit at Brickell Pt.
Goggin, John M., and Frank Sommer, III.
1949. "Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida." Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41, New
Goggin, John M.
1950. "Florida Archaeology 1950." The Florida Anthropolo-
gist, Vol. III, Nos. 1-2, pp. 9-20. Gainesville, Fla.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949. "Excavations in Southeast Florida." Yale University
Publications in Anthropology, No. 42, New Haven, Conn.
Fla. Portland Little River
0n-" 6-12n 12-16" n-i 6-12n
0-6" 6-12" 12-18"
Body sherds 1091 859 908 113 124 120 101 95 49
rlain rims 214 171 17 17 13 31 7 ts
ilaaes Toolea 3 b5 U _______
ST. JonNs uneck stamped 13 Ib
Surrsi e incised &b i 1-
Kev Largo incised 3 14 ~
Matecumbe incised I
Miami Incised 9 *W 1 -- -_
Dade inciseda 2
a LoCka Incisea 1 2 4 1 1 I 1
t. Drum Incised -2 b
Glades Tooled-Surrside var. 1
Unique Incised ) ~ 1
Unitae Ancised 1_ 1
Unique incised wuj I
Finger-naii incised 2
TiCed rim i
Zig-zag motir., op or rim. A
gnglewoo "liKe" Incised. 1 1
Key Largo var. 1 1
rlain "cnaixy" ware b
Artifact Fla. Portland Little River Briokell Pt.
0-6" 6-12" 12-18" 0-6" 6-12" 12-18" 0-6 6-12" 12-18"
Strombus celts 5 4 6 6 4 3 1 1
Busycon picks 2 2 2 1
Petaloid Strombus celts 1
Bone points 1 1 1
Toy shell pick 1
Columnella awl 1 1 1 2 1 3 1
Busycon receptacle 5 1 1
Shark vertebrae 1 1 22 8 5 15 9 4
Macrocallista scraper 1 1
Columnella chisel 1
Perforated shark tooth 1
Bird of carved antler 1
Seminole beads 30
Bald eagle talon 1
Pumice abrader_____ 1
S wtS. /.
LOCATION OPF SITS-
Fig. 2. Sherds and bird effigy of
antler; 1-2, Little River Site;
3-7 Florida Portland Site.
SOME POTTERY CONTRIBUTIONS TO EARLY FABRIC TECHNIQUES
Carl A. Benson
This paper was read originally at the Florida Anthropologi-
cal Society's annual meeting in February of 1959. The original
was derived mainly from notes. Where possible, more details will
be given here.
It is believed basketry made its first appearance during the
Archaic Period and is the forerunner of various types of ceramics.
Baskets and mats had many uses, and their styles and forms
varied greatly. Mats were used for burial purposes in some loca-
lities and were also used for portable beds, hamocks, housing,
floor coverings and many other purposes. Basketry was equally ir-
portant and was made water tight with the use of resin and tars
and fashioned to carry liquid as well as storage containers for
food and herbs.
Woven nets and fish traps also attested to the skill of the
early craftsman, as numerous fish bones in midden heaps will help
The arrival of pottery goods did not replace basketry but
did feel the influence in some cases when vessels were patterned
after or were shaped with the aid of baskets.
Basketry and mat weaving generally falls in three types;
Plain plaited, Twined and Twilled. There are many variations of
each and reflect the imagination of the designer. Table #1 ex-
plains the various types and lists the sherds and their classifi-
cation. Where no other design is present, sherds have been class-
ified as plain. It is probable that all the fragments ( excepting
the Oragne Plain sherd) fall within the early transitional period
between Orange and St. Johns I.
The sources of basket materials were plentiful and generally
included cane, reeds, palms, palmetto and grasses. Where strength
and rigidity was required, outer strips of cane was used. The
more pliable goods were made from grasses and twisted fibers. An
Orange Plain sherd loaned to me by Ripley Bullen from the Chatta-
hoochee River area has impressions of woven oane stripe nearly an
inch wide. These wefts and warps are much larger than ones studi-
ed thus far on the other sherds. This sherd represents a very
early period of both basketry and pottery and is especially im-
portant as it follows the Archaic Period and gives us an inkling
of some of Florida's earliest known basketry.
Very little evidence remains today of fabrication in early
Florida because of perishable material used in constructing the
various mats and baskets. By using the basketry impressed sherds
as negatives and pressing soft clay against the impressions, a
reasonable facsimile of the original basket or mat weave can be
reproduced. Some of the detail is clear enough to determine that
the strands are twisted fiber, or strips of cane.
Except for the Chattahoochee sherd, the sherds found cae
from Tick Island or the immediate region. Extensive shell oper-
ations are going on at this site, and the sherds found were sur-
face collections. One interesting basal impression came from a
St. Johns Incised vessel bottom with incisions visable on the
sides. This again helps portray the types of basketry manufact-
ured during this transitional period.
It is probable that some of the still wet vessels were plao-
ed upon mats or pieces of baskets to dry, thus leaving an impres-
sion when the pot was removed. Further reasoning could favor in-
tentional impressions for decorative purposes because of the pres-
sure that would have to be exerted against the bottom to create a
sharp imprint. Segmented coiling in pottery making would require
some pressure and smoothing to fuse the coils together in the
bottom, and could account for some impressions, accidental or
otherwise. All of the sherds appear to be base pieces, which
could give support to the first theory. Further work and study
on this subject could be more conclusive.
In a unique way, the ancient Indian has preserved for us
some of his knowledge of basketry methods.
Summary and Acknowledgment
The collection of sherds used in this article has been given
to the Florida State Museum at Gainesville with the hopes that
future excavating in the Southeast can turn up other impressions
to help broaden our knowledge of this ancient craft.
My sincere appreciation to Ripley P. Bullen, Dr. William H.
Sears and Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks for their encouragement and
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Wood-
ruff Reservoir Area, Florida. Smithsonian Institution,
Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 169.
Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archa-
eology, Florida. Yale University Publications in Anth-
ropology. No. 47.
Fundaburk, Emma Lila
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands. Emma Lila Fundaburk, Pub-
lisher. Inverne, Alabama.
Moore, Clarence B.
1894 Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida,
Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila.
Plain Over and under weave.
Plaited Checker-board design. 1 St.Johns Plain
Twined Weft of two or more 4 St.Johns Plain
strands crossed over
each other between
Twilled Weft of two or more 9 Orange Plain (1)
strands over and under St. Johns In-
groups of warp elements. cised (1)
a' n., '
Fig. 1. Fabric impressed sherds at left with clay positive
impressions at right. Twilled fabrics. Orange Incised
at upper left, others are St. Johns Plain.
Fig.2: Fabric impressed sherds at left, positive impressions
Top row: Patterned twilled, St. Johns Incised at left, St.
Johns Plain at righT-7
Middle row: lef pair plain twined; right two pair plain
plaited. All are St. Johns Plain.
Bottom row: Patterned twined, T. Jonf NPTih- n.
DATING ENGLISH PIPE STEMS
Dating historic sites by measuring pipe stem hole diameters
has aroused considerable comment and criticism (Chalkley, 1955)
since it was first proposed by Harrington in 1954. Omwake has
presented some evidence to support Harrington (1956, 1958). A
number of additional tests of this method from already dated his-
toric sites in other areas should answer some of the criticism
and provide independent checks of it as a dating technique. A
sample of 437 pipe stems from the Carolinian trading post atOc-
mulgee National Monument in Macon, Georgia, was measured for this
purpose; and the results confirm those obtained originally with
Harrington's sample from other colonial sites. The pipe stem dia-
meters from Ocmulgee place the site in time on the end of Harring-
ton's 1680-1710 range and in the beginning of the 1710-1750
range and in the beginning of the 1710-1750 period; the small num-
ber of 4/64's and the dwindling number of 6/64 pipe stem hole dia-
meters seem to indicate that the 1680-1710 period was just ending
and that no great extension into the next had occurred. This a-
grees substantially with the trading post date. which falls some-
where between 1690 and 1715. The accompanying histogram shows
the distribution of percentages of the following groups of pipe
stem hole diameters: 4/64, 5 specimens; 5/64, 144; 6/64, 219;
7/64, 60; 8/64, 8; 9/64, 1.
Chalkley, John F.
1955 A critique and a rebuttal of the paper "Dating stem
fragments" by J. C. Harrington. Quarterly Bulletin of
the Archaeological Society of Virginia. Vol. 9, No. 4.
Harrington, J. C.
1954 eating stem fragments of seventeenth century clay to-
bacco pipes. Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeological
Society of Virginia. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Omwake, H. G.
1956 Date-Bore correlation in English shite Kaolin pipe
stems, yes or no? Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeo-
logical Society of Virginia, Vol. 11, No. 1, unpaged
1958 Kaolin pipes from the Schurz Site. Bulletin of the
Archeological Society of Connecticut. No. 29, pp.3-13
New Haven, Conn.
Green Bay, Wise.
4 5 6 7 8 9
STEM HOLE DIAMETER
IN 64'THs OF AN INCH
BIRD REMAINS FROM SOUTH INDIAN FIELD, FLORIDA
Robert D. Weigel
The determination of vertebrate remains from archeological
sites often poses a problem for archeologists. This is especial-
ly true for other than mammalian bones. Houck (1951) has listed
a number of mammals from South Indian Field, however, the lower
vertebrates were determined only to Class.
On July 29, 1956, Mr. A. T. Anderson, former owner of the
archeological site (Br 23) at South Indian Field near Melbourne,
Florida, turned over to me, for identification, several bird bones
which had been excavated from the Main Hammock on the property .
The bones were taken from a borrow pit situated between burials 2
and 3 (Rouse, 1951).
According to Anderson, the bones were associated with fiber-
tempered pottery, characteristic of the Orange Period (Rouse, op.
cit.) which extended, in this area, from about 1500 to 500 B. C.
The six species identified are all common, aquatic, migrant
or breeding forms found in the area today.
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus). Pied-billed Grebe.-- Left
Phalacrocorax anritus (Lesson). Double-crested Cormorant.
Ardea herodias (Linnaeus). Great Blue Heron.-- Right hum-
Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus). Common Egret.-- Right cora-
Adtbya affinis (Eyton). Lesser Scaup. -- Right humerus.
Fulica americana (Gmelin). American Coot. -- Right carpometa-
carpus, left humerus.
Of the mammals identified from this site (Houck, op. cit.)
only the beaver, Castor sp., does not presently occur in peninsu-
I am indebted to Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of the University of
Florida for the loan of comparative material used in making the
Houck, Margaret Van Winkle.
1951. Animal Remains from South Indian Field. Appendix to
"Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida" by Vera
Masius Ferguson. Yale Univ. Publ. in Anthrop., no.
1951. A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Yale
Univ. Publ. in Anthrop., no. 44.
Dept. of Biology
WHAT WAS IT?
Ripley P. Bullen
The adjacent picture illustrates a unique object found in
tidal wash at Mormon Key, Monroe County, Florida, during 1957 by
Robert R. Ozmer of Everglades and given by him to the Florida
State Museum (cat. no. 94050). It was originally sent to the
Museum for identification by Orin Fogle of Winter Haven, a friend
of Mr. Ozmer.
The object is made of clay of a paste typical of the Glades
area and similar to that called Glades Plain. It is undecorated
so that decoration cannot be used as a means of determining when
it was made. Obviously, it has been in brackish water for while
as evidenced by the oyster shell adhering to it.
It is the shape of this object which makes it unique and
makes one wonder the purpose for which it was made. As shown in
the illustration, it resembles a doughnut-cutter. Does it exhibit
an exaggerated "kill hole" made before the clay was fired? Was
it part of a tremendous composite ear spool? Could it have been
mounted on a staff as a symbol? Was it an aboriginal holder for
a candle-like torch of pitchy pine?
This notes ends as it began with a Question. What func-
tion did this object fulfill in Glades society many years ago?
Florida S4Jte Museum
S I 76-
n.d. [19591 Seminoles of Florida. no place, no publ. ETalla-
hassee, Florida State Dept. of Agriculture]. 48 pp., many
Good color, the summary of Seminole history is adequate.
Many errors and distortions in the treatment of modern sem-
inole culture and current conditions. Pictures poorly se-
lected and ineptly captioned. Will probably appeal to school
children, but cannot be recommended.
1959 Memoirs or a quick glance at my various travels and
sojourn in the Creek Nation. Translated and edited with an
introduction, notes, and index by Ben C. McCary. Marietta,
Ga., Continental Book Co., 250 pp., $7.50.
The first English translation commercially available a pri-
mary source on the Creek with some material on the Choctaw,
Chickasaw, Caddo, and frontier affairs. Milfort was a pro-
t6g6 of Alexander McGillivray and served as a Creek war
chief during the post-Revolutionary period. Dr. McCary has
provided an exact and interesting edition.
Van Camper, J. T.
1959 St. Augustine, capital of La Florida. St. Augustine ,
72pp., 60 illus., $1.00. ( Order from: St. Augustine Hist-
orical Society, 22 St. Francis St., St. Augustine, Fla.)
A general history of the Spanish province of La Florida
and its capital.
Stafford, Harry Errald
1959 The early inhabitants of the Americas. New York, Van-
tage Press, 492 pp. 13 illus., map end papers, $6.50.
A confused history of the peopling of the Americas, with
some attempt to describe the historic tribes. Includes all
the fantastic theories (7) of migrations. Not recommended.
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Three salvaged Tequesta sites in Dade County, Florida
D.D.Laxson...... . . . 57
Some pottery contributions to early fabric techniques
Carl A. Benson . .. . . 65
Dating English pipe stems
Carol Irwin . . . . . 71
Bird remains from South Indian Field, Florida
Robert D. Weigel . .. .. ... 73
What was it?
Ripley P. Bullen . . . .... 75
C.H.F. . . ... Inside back cover