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PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY
No. 1. "Two Archaeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida,"
by Hale G. Smith. 32 pages, 4 plates............... 0.50
No. 2. "The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida,"
by John U. Griffin and Ripley P. Bullen.
43 pages, 4 plates ................................ 0.50
No. 3. "The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida,"
by Ripley P. Bullen, 48 pages, 7 plates.......... 0.50
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150 pages, frontispiece, 6 maps.................... 2.00
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President: William H. Sears, Fla. State
Museum, Gainesville, Florida
let Vice President: John H. Goggin, 312 Peabody Hall
Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
2nd Vice President: Marvin J. Brooks, 805 N.h. 15th Ct.
Miami 33, Florida
Secretary D. C. Laxson, 231 W. 41st Street,
Treasurer: Bale G. Smith, Bax 3051, Florida
State University, Tallahassee, Fla.
Editor: Charles H. Fairbanks, Box 3051,
Fla.State Univ.,Tallahassee, Fla.
Executive Committeeman: Irving Rouse, Tale Univ.
W. J. Armitead, Tampa
The Florida Anthropologist, vol. XI, no. 4, 1958
ODRE FLORIDA RADIOCARBON DATES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
Ripley P. Bullen
In 1956 I presented a paper at the annual meeting of the
Florida Anthropological Society, subsequently published in the
Florida Anthropologist (Bullen, 1956), which discussed three Flo-
rida and two Georgia radiocarbon dates. This paper will discuss
six new Florida Archaeological radiocarbon dates.
At the same time I am including all known Florida radiocar-
bon dates. Some of these other dates were originally secured for
geological as opposed to archaeological purposes. It seems worth-
while to examine them from the archaeological viewpoint.
Before discussing these dates, I wish to state that part of
what I shall say, particularly in respect to some of the correla-
tions, is speculative. This should be kept in mind by the reader.
Table I presents a chart of Florida culture periods and ra-
diocarbon dates. The left hand side follows the 1956 presenta-
tion. The right hand side gives the corresponding periods for
the St. Johns River area with four new Florida archaeological ra-
diocarbon dates indicated.
Dates on this chart came from samples tested at the Univer-
sity of Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project Radiocarbon Laboratory
under the direction of Professor H. R. Crane except for the three
St. Johns II dates which came from samples run at the Lamont Geo-
logical Observatory under the direction of Drs. J. Laurence Kulp
and Wallace Broeckler. Specimens consisted of charcoal except in
the two cases marked "shell". Of these, the lowest one in the
right hand column is based on midden shell from Sapelo Island,
Georgia, while the next lowest is based on a marine shell from
the cotton site in Volusia County, Florida.
The three St. Johns II period dates shown in Table 1 came
from samples secured at the Castle Windy site, a large shell mid-
den about twelve miles southeast of New Smyrna Beach, Florida.
Stratigraphic excavations were made there recently by the author
representing the Florida State Museum and Frederick W. Sleight
of the Central Florida Museum. Field work and the three radio-
carbon dates were sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation
of Springfield, Vermont. Dates were reported by Broeckler of the
Lamont Geological Observatory to Bullen and Sleight in letters.
The profile in the tested area consisted of an inferior oys-
ter shell layer, 6 feet thick; and intermediate zone of coquina
shells, 5j feet thick; and a superior zone chiefly composed of
clam shells and dirt, 5 feet thick. St. Johns Check Stamped
sherds, made of a rather hard paste, were found throughout the
deposits which totaled 161 feet vertically.
The highest charcoal sample, taken from a depth of 1i feet,
produced a date of 650 J 100 years ago or about A. D. 1306. As
shown in Table I, this date fits nicely into the cultural se-
quence of the area.
The second date, 930 : 100 years ago or about A. D. 1025,
came from a narrow charcoal impregnated band which, at a depth of
10 to 10I feet, formed the base of the intermediate coquina zone.
The third date 910 + 100 years ago or around A. D. 1045, came
from charcoal scattered between depths of 14 and 16i feet. We
had anticipated that the third date, because the charcoal for it
came from deeper in the midden, would be older than that for the
base of the coquina zone. While runs on both of these samples
were made at the same laboratory, one was tested some six months
after the other. Both of these dates are within a few years of
each other. Apparently, the inferior oyster shell zone, which
consisted of loose shells, accumulated very rapidly.
As will be noted in Table I, the earlier Castle Windy dates
have been applied to the earlier half of the St. Johns II A per-
iod. By definition, the line dividing St. Johns II times from
those of the St. Johns I period represents the introduction of
St. Johns Check Stamped pottery (Goggin, 1952). The date for
this introduction has been previously estimated as approximately
A. D. 1125 (Goggin, 1950, p. 10). Neither of the earlier Castle
Windy dates applies to the earliest St. Johns Check Stamped pot-
tery at the site nor is there any reason to believe the earliest
deposits at this site represent the earliest St. Johns Check
Stamped pottery in the region. It appears, therefore, that St.
Johns II times may have begun earlier than has been previously
Castle Windy is the first coastal midden for which we have
radiocarbon dates from more than one zone. It has always been an
interesting conjecture to guess how long it takes for such mid-
dens to accumulate. The dates given here for Castle Windy cannot
readily be applied to another site. As indicated earlier, they
date neither the beginning nor the abandonment of the site. How-
ever, it would appear that the Castle Windy site was occupied -
probably intermittently for about 300 years.
Thursby Midden, Owl Totem
On exhibit at the Florida State Museum in Gainesville, Flo-
rida, is a large owl mounted on a perch which was carved from
one piece of wood and was, originally, 12 feet 2 inches in
length. This Iinense carving was found in June 1955 by Mr. Vic-
tor Roepke of Eustis, Florida, in muck of the St. Johns River
beside the Thursby Midden near DeLand, Florida.
The remaining portion of the lower part of this carved pole,
the part which was in the ground when it was mounted in prehist-
oric times at the site (Bullen, 1955, Fig. 2), had to be removed
to mount the owl totem for exhibit. Dr. James B. Griffin, Direo-
tor of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, sug-
gested we send him a piece of the sawed-off portion of the pole
so that it might be dated by a radiocarbon determination. This
was done and the fragment was subsequently dated at the Univer-
sity of Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project Radiocarbon Laboratory
under the direction of Dr. H. R. Crane as their sample number M-
464. The date, received from Dr. Griffin in his letter of May
16, 1958, was 650 1 200 years ago or about A. D. 1300.
In an article describing this owl totem and written short-
ly after it was found, I concluded it was "made during the St.
Johns lib period or between 1400 and 1500 A. D." (Bullen, 1955,
p. 72). Evidently, the carving was not made during the St.
Johns lib period (forgetting the standard deviations), the radio-
carbon date is wrong, or the date generally accepted in 1955 for
the beginning of the St. Johns IIb period was wrong.
While the evidence is not too strong, I am convinced the owl
totem was made during the St. Johns IIb period. In view of other
radiocarbon dates, there seems to be no good reason to question
the date given for the manufacture of this owl carving but there
is now some reason to question the date previously used for the
beginning of the St. Johns lib subdivision of St. Johns II times.
We have a radiocarbon date of A. D. 1400 + 200 years for the
Ft. Walton period zone of site J-5 on the bank of the Chattahoo-
chee River in west Florida (Bullen, 1966). This date applies, I
believe, to a middle part of the Ft. Walton period (Bullen, 1958).
If so the beginning of this period must be earlier.
The St. Johns lib subperiod is the eastern Florida temporal
equivalent of the Ft. Walton period of west Florida (Goggin, 1952,
p. 36). The question then becomes, "How much earlier than A.D.
1400 did the Ft. Walton period start and how much time elapsed
before its influences were sufficiently evident in eastern Flori-
da to indicate St. Johns IIb as opposed to St. Johns IIa times?"
Obviously, this question cannot be answered at present but it
would appear that a date of A. D. 1300, or even earlier, would be
reasonable for the beginning of the Ft. Walton period and that
the division between St. Johns IIa and St. Johns IIb might not be
very different in date.
Recently Dr. James B. Griffin (letter of Sept. 3, 1957) of
the University of Michigan sent John W. Griffin the results of a
radiocarbon run on a Fasciolaria gigantea shell from Level 16 of
Sq. 15R1 at the Cotton site in Volusia County, Florida. We appre-
ciate John Griffin's courtesy in permitting us to discuss this
previously unannounced date.
Examination of the profile presented by Griffin and Smith in
their report of work done at the Cotton site (1954, p. 59) readi-
ly determines the provenience of the tested specimen. It came
from a depth of 71 feet below the surface, 3J feet above the base
of the cultural deposits. It was in decorated fiber-tempered
pottery deposits 7 feet below the lowest chalky sherd in the same
square and 4+ to 5 feet below the lowest chalky sherd in an ad-
jacent square. Orange Incised sherds were found from the surface
downward to at least 2J feet below the tested specimen. Many of
the Orange Incised vessels had rims of the wide, decorated vari-
The radiocarbon date for this specimen, 3020 + 200 years or
approximately 1060 B. C., clearly applies to the decorated por-
tion of the Orange period as indicated in Table I. It is of the
same order of magnitude as the date indicated on the left hand
side of Table I for the close of fiber-tempered pottery times but
is 140 years earlier. The standard deviations of either
date, however, spans this difference.
I have elsewhere (Bullen, 1954; Griffin and Smith, 1954, p.
43) suggested that Orange Incised pottery with wide decorated
rims was typical of the later part of the decorated portion of
the Orange period. The lateness of the date from the Cottin site
would seem to support this theory. That this date is earlier
than that given in Table I for the close of the Orange period
will be discussed in the next section.
Poverty Point. Louisiana
For comparative purposes it is interesting to examine the
radiocarbon dates for Poverty Point, a large Louisiana site be-
longing, at least in part, to the fiber-tempered period.
Fiber-tempered pottery from Poverty Point is undecorated but
sherds of steatite vessels from there have wide decorated rims
similar to those of Orange Incised vessels at the Cotton site.
This similarity and the fact that steatite sherds at the Cotton
site and at South Indian Fields are limited to the upper part of
decorated fiber-tempered ceramic deposits (Griffin and Smith,
1954, p. 44) indicates that the Poverty Point site should repre-
sent a very late phase of the fiber-tempered period.
The association of steatite sherds, plain fiber-tempered
sherds, and fragments of St. Johns Incised vessels in a narrow
zone at Site J-5 on the bank of the Chattahoochee River in north-
west Florida, about a third of the way from the east Florida
sites to Poverty Point, would seem to substantiate this correla-
tion. Dates from the fiber-tempered period at the Poverty Point
site should, within reasonable limits, equate with those from J-5
(1200 B. C.) and the Cotton site (1060 B. C.).
Of the six dates available for Poverty Point (Ford and Webb,
1956), five, ranging from 383 B. C. to 1194 B. C., came from mi-
nute charcoal fragments found in one fire bed. Runs on these
five samples were made at four different laboratories. The earli-
est date of 1194 B. C., from a determination made at the Humble
Laboratory, lies nicely between our Florida dates. The other
dates, however, are substantially later.
Averaging the six Poverty Point dates results in a figure of
about 850 B. C. This is 200 years more recent than the Cotton
site date and 350 years more recent than the one for site J-5.
While the possibility of cultural lag in ceramics is present at
Poverty Point, data from there and from the Cotton site suggest
that the date of 1200 B. C. for the fiber-tempered pottery zone
at site J-5 which we presented two years ago as a terminal date
for the Orange period is probably too early. A date of 950 B.C.
for the close of the Orange period would reconcile the radiocar-
bon dates from these three sites.
Among enigmatic radiocarbon dates is one of 2700 + 500 years
ago, about 750 B. C., derived from deer bones tested at the Uni-
versity of Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project Radiocarbon Labor-
atory under the direction of Professor H. R. Crane. Dr. James B.
Griffin kindly arranged for the test and sent us the results in
his letter of March 29, 1956.
Bones for this test came from midden deposits at the Bluff-
ton site in Volusia County, Florida, below those which contained
fiber-tempered pottery (Bullen, 1955). The date, 750 + 500 B. C.,
should apply to the preceramic portion of Archaic times. As it
is later, instead of earlier, than dates for the Orange period,
this date is suspect.
There are reasons, other than archaeological ones, for look-
ing askance at this date. On Dec. 23, 1955, Dr. Griffin wrote
regarding carbon of burned bones from Bluffton that: "Sample 263
from Layer 3 has about 2/3 of a counter and they will try to run
that. The other three samples, Nos. 264 from Layer 5, 265 from
Layer 6 at the 12 foot depth, and 266 from Layer 6, 15-171 foot
depth, do not have sufficient carbon. I do not know what is the
matter with the bone material from Bluffton, but it apparently
has a low carbon yield." In his letter transmitting the date, he
wrote that the tested specimen was M-264 from Layer 5 and that,
as they did not have enough material for a full counter, the ac-
curacy was not as great as usual.
Even if, by any possibility, sample M-263 from Layer 3 in-
stead of M-264 from Layer 5 was the tested sample, it would not
resolve the problem presented by this date. The highest part of
Layer 3 should date at or just before the introduction of fiber-
tempered pottery (Bullen, 1955, p. 4). A date of 750 + 500 B. C.
is too recent for any such period. Probably, this date should be
entirely disregarded because of the technical difficulties, men-
tioned earlier, in preparing the sample.
Another enigmatic date is one from the Joes Creek part of
the Seminole Field fossil collecting area in northwestern St.
Petersburg, Florida. Here, in 1953, I excavated an Archaic type
spear point at the request of H. Herbert Winters, then with the
Florida Geological Survey and now at the University of California,
from a narrow fossil bearing zone in the side of a newly straight-
ened and widened drainage canal. The point was discovered but
left in situ by Mrs. A. R. Turner who lives beside the site.
Subsequently, she found two chert chips and a worked fragment of
chert in the same zone and, barely above it, a mass of charcoal.
This charcoal was sent by the Florida Geological Survey to Colum-
bia University where it was dated at the Lamont Geological Obser-
The published date is 2040 + 90 years ago or about 100 B. C.
(Broecker, Kulp, and Trucek, 1956, p. 161). Previously, under
date of May 13, 1954, I received from Winters a date of 2600 +
230 years ago from the same sample. This difference in dates, a-
bout 600 years, is not important in this case but it illustrates
one difficulty in correlating radiocarbon dates. By writing Dr.
Kulp, I found that the earlier date was based on the "black car-
bon" method while the more recent date was the result of a run
using the "carbon dioxide" method. The latter method is supposed
to be the more accurate.
The zone in which the spear point and chips were found was
about 6 inches in thickness and contained both rounded and sharp
fragments of fossil bone, pebble phosphate, horse teeth, scutes
of an extinct armadillo, fragments of turtle shells, a few shark's
teeth, and coarse as well as fine sand. This narrow zone rested
upon sterile grey-green fine sand the surface of which appeared
to me to be eroded by water. It was overlaid by several feet of
sterile fine sand deposited, presumedly, by wind. I was able ,
at least to my satisfaction, to trace the narrow fossil and arti-
fact bearing zone towards the north and down into an old channel
of Joes Creek.
I believe the fossil and artifact bearing zone to represent
material reworked by Joes Creek, abetted by tidal action, many
years ago. The human artifacts may have become mixed with the
fossil bones at the time of reworking. The dated charcoal, it
would seem, must have arrived in situ at the very end of the
period during which the fossil-artifact bearing zone was deposit-
ed or extremely shortly thereafter. It dates such a time but
does not date when the spear point was made nor when the animals,
whose bones appear in this zone, were living.
I believe it only proper to state that my collaborator in
this project, H. Herbert Winters, does not agree entirely with my
interpretations as given above. I believe he does agree in gen-
eral with my conclusions as he wrote under date of May 13, 1954
that "The recentness of the date suggests that the fauna and the
artifacts were not in situ but were redeposited from elsewhere."
Kulp in his 1952 article "The Carbon 14 Method of Age Deter-
mination" gives in Table 3 a date of 4900 + 200 years ago for
sample L-141A which is described as "Florida Everglades Peat."
He also states (pp. 264-65) "Several samples of peat at the bot-
tom of the peat section from different parts of the Florida Ever-
glades have been dated. They all give ages around 5000 years,
suggesting that just prior to this time the lower peninsular of
Florida was under water."
These dates indicate that we should not expect any archaeo-
logical remains in the Everglades peat area until after 3000 B.C.
The archaeological evidence agrees as the oldest remains known
for extreme south Florida consist of fiber-tempered and semi-
fiber-tempered pottery and steatite sherds which can be dated as
having been made around 1500 to 500 B. C. Such remains have been
found as far south as Fort Myers and West Palm Beach but not fur-
Kulp, in his article referred to above, gives (pp. 263-64)
dates for various sea levels in the Mississippi delta region af-
ter a maximum low of 273 feet below Mean Sea Level as follows:
Sea Level 80 feet lower 11,000 years ago
Sea Level 70 feet lower 9,000 years ago
Sea Level 50 feet lower 7,000 years ago
Sea Level 25 feet lower 3,000 years ago
These data indicate an encroachment of the sea on the land
in the delta area over a very long time. The apparent rate, a-
bout 3/4 of a foot a hundred years, is not applicable to Florida
because of the probable sinking of the land in the delta region
as a result of the vast weight of debris carried there by the
Mississippi River. However, the idea of a gradual rise in sea
level over a long period of time does interest Floridians as more
sites, such as those at Bayport (Coates, 1955), off the coast of
Pinellas County (Neill, 1957, p. 20.), and near Tampa (Charles L.
Knight, personal communication), are found submerged in the Gulf
Hulings and Olson (1955, p. 232) in an article in the Quar-
terly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences state that "a
carbon 14 analysis from a sample taken at Shell Point (14 miles
from Alligator Harbor) indicates that MSL at 400 A. D. was at
least 2.85 feet below present NSL." The Shell Point referred to
is located in Wakulla County, Florida.
This date, 1550 + 250 years ago, was supplied by Dr. Herman
Kurz and came from Spartina alterniflora rhizones found at a
depth of over 5 feet below the surface (at 2.85 feet below MSL)
and tested at the University of Michigan (Olson, 1955, p. 39a).
A sea level at Shell Point at least 2.85 feet lower than at
present may be compared with the situation at Johns Island in the
mouth of the Chassahowitzka River in Hernando County. There arti-
facts were found in the marsh behind the island between depths of
20 inches and 3 feet (Bullen and Bullen, 1950, p. 42) suggesting
a sea level when these artifacts were deposited approximately
that indicated for Shell Point at A. D. 400. Definitive sherds
were not found in the Johns Island marsh but the plain pottery un-
covered suggested an early Weeden Island time period. If this
tenuous correlation has merit, the date of A. D. 400 might be ap-
plied to early Weeden Island times. As will be noted from Table
I, a date of about A. D. 350 for this period was suggested in the
paper presented two years ago.
We have indicated earlier that the Orange period, when fiber-
tempered pottery was made, could be dated as lasting approximate-
ly from 2000 to 1000 B. C. Preceramic Archaic material would be
older. There is a surprising lack of such material along the
Florida Gulf Coast although it is found inland.
The Gulf of Mexico is shallow near the Florida Gulf Coast.
It is reasonable to presume fiber-tempered pottery and older pre-
ceramic sites along the coast were situated near a coast line
further out into the Gulf than the present one and that they were
inundated by sea water many years ago.
A casual examination of coastal charts of the Florida Gulf
Coast suggests that a drop of 10 or 12 feet in mean sea level
might result in such a coast line. Such a drop would be 3i times
that suggested as a minimum for Shell Point at A. D. 400 or 1500
years ago. Projecting this date backward in time a very dub-
ions procedure suggests that such a coast line might have exist-
ed 3500 to 4000 B. C.
If this speculation approaches reality at all, we may expect
to find Archaic sites at substantial distances out in the Gulf. I
suggest this as a project for ambitious skin-divers.
Broeker, W. E., J. L. Kulp, and C. S. Tucek
1956. "Lamont Natural Radiocarbon Measurements III." Sci-
ence, Vol. 124, No. 3213, pp. 154-65. Lancester.
Bullen, Adelaide K. and Ripley P.
1950. "The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida."
American Antiquity, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 23-46, Men-
Bullen, Ripley P.
1954. "Culture Changes during the Fiber-tempered Period in
Florida." Southern Indian Studies, Vol. VI, pp. 45-8.
1955. "Carved Owl Totem, Deland, Florida." The Florida An-
thropologist, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 61-73.
1955. "Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County, Flo-
rida." The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.
1956. "Scme Florida Radiocarbon Dates and their signifi-
chance The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 9, No. 2,
pp. 31-36. Gainesville.
1958. "Six Sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim
Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida." River Basin Sur-
veys Papers No. 14. Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 169, pp. 315-57.
Coates, Gordon C.
1955. "Recent Tests at the Battery Point Site, Bayport
Hernando County, Florida." The Florida Anthropolo-
gist, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 27-30. Gainesville.
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1954. "1953 Excavations at Site 9HL64, Buford Reservoir."
Florida State University Studies, No. 16, pp. 1-26.
Ford, James A., and Clarence H. Webb
1956. "Poverty Point, A Late Archaic Site in Louisiana."
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History, Vol. 46, No. 1. New York.
Goggin, John M.
1950. "Florida Archeology 1950." The Florida Anthropolo-
gist, Vol. 3, Nos. 1-2, pp. 9-20. Gainesville.
1952. "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology, Florida." Yale University Publications
in Anthropology, No. 47. New Haven.
Griffin, James B., editor
1952. Archeology of Eastern United States, University of
Chicago Press. Chicago
Griffin, John W., and Hale G. Smith
1954. "The Cotton Site: An Archeological site of Early Ce-
ramic times in Volusia County, Florida." Florida
State University Studies, No. 16, pp. 27-60. Tallah-
Hulings, Neil, and F. C. W. Olson
1955. "Subsurface beach sands of Alligator Harbor." The
Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences,
Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 227-32. Gainesville.
Kulp, J. Laurence
1952. "The Carbon 14 Method of age determination." The
Scientific Monthly, Vol. 75, No. 5, pp. 259-67.Lan-
Neill, Wilfred T.
1957. "Historical Biogeography of present-day Florida"
Bulletin of the Florida State Museum Biological Sci-
ences, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 175-220. Gainesville.
Olson, F. C. W.
1955. "The Hydrography of Alligator Harbor, Franklin County
Florida." The Oceanographic Institute, Contribution
No. 28, Florida State University. Tallahassee. Mime-
Crane, H. R., and J. B. Griffin
1958a "University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates II."Science,
9 May 1958, Vol. 127, No. 3306, pp. 1098-1105. Lan-
1958b "University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates III."Science.
7 Nov. 1958, Vol. 128, No. 3332, pp. 1117-1123. Lan-
WEEDEN ISLAND "E
500- WEEDEN ISLAND I
SITE C-14 NORTHERN
DATE ST. JOHNS
1335tl00- ST. JOHNS IT B
I 15t100 ST. JOHNS r A
ST. JOHNS I B
ST. JOHNS IA LATE
ST. JOHNS IA
(ST.JOHNS INCISED POT.)
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec. 1958
DATES OF BUSYCON GOUGES AT THE BLUFFTON SITE, FLORIDA
Ripley P. Bullen and William M. Sackett
This article reports the results of ionium-uranium dating of
three Busycon shell gouges from preceramic levels at the Bluffton
site in Volusia County, Florida. An unsuccessful attempt was
made a few years ago to secure radiocarbon dates for these levels
from deer bones (Bullen, 1958). It failed because of the small
amount of carbon in the bones. It is of interest to consider
another attempt to date this important preceramic deposit.
Sackett, as part of his Ph. D. problem under the direction
of Dr. H.A. Potratz at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri,
made uranium and ionium determinations on various calcium carbon-
ate materials including the three shell gouges which were suppli-
ed by Bullen. Such analyses give ionium-uranium ratios which may
be used for dating purposes.
Technical details and a discussion of the procedures and of
the theory involved are omitted here but are available (Sackett,
1958). The method deals with the disequilibrium of uranium and
its radioactive daughter, ionium, in calcium carbonate materials.
The method is applicable to materials from 1000 to 300,000 years
old with maximum reliability (+ 5%) for materials having an opti-
mum age of 50,000 to 150,000 years and a uranium content of ap-
proximately 2 ppm. Good reliability would be secured for speci-
mens 10,000 to 250,000 years old.
While the gouges from Bluffton were a little too young for
this method of dating, they did have the advantage for experimen-
tal purposes of coming from superimposed levels at one place and
of being, within certain limits, of known approximate dates.
The three Busycon gouges were excavated from Square A3 of a
stratigraphic test made at Bluffton in 1951 (Bullen, 1955). In
the published report of this test, the stratigraphic position of
these three gouges is shown in the central column of Table 1 (Bul-
len, 1955, p. 4). All were from levels well below the lowest un-
decorated fiber-tempered pottery.
The following table is taken, in part, from Sackett's disser-
tation (1958, Table 18, p. 52). Stratigrapihic depths have been
Ionium-Uranium Ages for Three Marine Shell Gouges
Sample Depth in Apparent age e estimated
Number Bluffton midden years ago) y submitted
V-67-61 61-7 feet 3000 + 3000 or 0-6000 4000
V-67-70 12-12* feet 4000 + 4000 or 0-8000 4000-5000
V-67-74 15-15i feet 6700 + 3300 or 3400-10,000 5000
The large limits of error occur because of the relatively
small amount of uranium present as well as the relatively young
age of the samples. With greater age and/or a greater amount of
uranium present, a larger amount of the uranium daughter, ionium,
would have grown in the material and th@ accuracy would have been
Nevertheless, the results of this experimental dating are of
considerable interest archaeologically. The dates of the first
two samples, in spite of the large margin of error, do suggest
the correct order of magnitude. The third date, that from speci-
men V-67-74, with a minimum age of 3400 years ago or 1450 B. C.
and a maximum age of 10,000 years ago or 8,000 B. C. is particu-
larly interesting. What the actual date should be, within this
range, is, of course, unknown. As all these samples were from
deposits below those containing the earliest pottery in Florida
they should all be older than 2000 B. C. (Bullen, 1956; 1958).
The results of the ionium-uranium determinations are in agree-
In spite of the large margin of error, dates are not too far
different from those estimated for these samples before the deter-
minations were made. In general, ionium-nranium ages are higher
than radiocarbon dates for the same calcium carbonate material.
Hence, the date given for Specimen V-67-74, 6700 + 3300 years ago
or around 4700 B. C. is greater than anticipated. It is the old-
est archaeological date so far for Florida but does not approach
the age when man first came to our State.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1955. "Stratigraphic tests at Bluffton, Volusia County Flo-
rida." The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.
1956. "Some Florida radiocarbon dates and their signifi-
cance." The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 9, No. 2,
pp. 31-36. Gainesville.
1958. "More Florida radiocarbon dates and their signifi -
cance." The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 11, No. 4,
pp. 97-110. Tallahassee.
Sackett, Williai M.
1958. "lonium-Uranium ratios in marine deposited calcium
carbonates and related materials." Unpublished Ph. D.
dissertation. Washington University. St. Louis.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XI, No. 4, Dec. 1958
THE GRANT SITE--Br-56
William H. Sears
In November 1957, the Florida Highway Archaeological Salvage
Committee was notified that the Grant site would be disturbed by
the widening of U. S. Highway 1. A check on the ground, using
the project maps and survey stakes, indicated that this work
would completely destroy the site, but that a pair of test pits
would salvage the essential data. In accordance with our arrange-
ments with the Florida State Road Department, a ten-man crew was
made available from highway maintenance forces for one week to ex-
cavate these pits.
Our particular thanks are due to the planning and survey
crews for this project, headed by Mr. H. A. Weaver; to the State
Road Department; to the maintenance engineer for this area, Mr.
Warnicke; and to the maintenance crew under road foreman A. L.
McNeill, who did the work.
The map (Figure 1) gives the outline of the quarter-mile
long midden which was the major feature of the Grant Site. This
mound, composed of black midden and shells, reached a maximum
height, in the area around our two test pits, of 6 to 8 feet a-
bove the surrounding terrain. Earlier references to the site by
Gidley and Anderson (Rouse, 1951, p. 169) give estimated heights
up to 14 feet. No trace of the burial mound mentioned by Rouse
ibidd., p. 168) could be found. The small stream flowing across
the north end of the site is fresh at low tide.
It is obvious on the ground, and verified by Rouse's inform-
ants, that a large part of the midden was removed by commercial
shell operations years ago. The section so removed is indicated
on Figure 1 by hachuring. The extent of this work is pointed up
by reports, by the name, and by small segments remaining around
the edges of the area. This part of the midden was mostly shell.
The remaining portion, in which we dug, was mostly black dirt
midden. Some of the data available indicate that this differen-
tiation in midden type has chronological implications.
GRANT SITE BR-56
Test I SHELL REMOVED
M I D D DSco % 100oo'
Locations for our two test pits were selected to give maxi-
mum potential depth and to avoid areas already partially disturb-
ed by tree removal. In both cases the surface was undisturbed
and appeared to consist mostly of shells. Pits were started as
10 by 10 foot squares, and were excavated throughout in 1-foot
levels. Both pits were cut to 5 by 10 foot size at 24 inches,
and cut again to 5 by 5 foot at 48 inches. The tremendous quan-
tities of sherds and bone, balanced against bad weather and other
factors, necessitated the reductions in size. Excavation ceased
at 60 inches in both holes, on the surface of a consolidated mass
of shell midden. In both holes, the north profiles were kept ver-
tical as pit size was reduced and, in both cases, the profiles
from the surface to 60 inches showed only black earth with fre-
quent bands of wood ash and bone.
Since the observed physical stratigraphy does not appear to
have any interpretable cultural-chronological significance, pro-
file drawings are not included in this report.
The consolidated material at 60 inches appears to have been
originally a different type of material from that above it. In a
number of large chunks beaten loose with pickaxes, and in others
loosened by bulldozier work around trees, this material is rela-
tively clean shell with occasional bone fragments. Unless some
very unusual washing action has taken place, it was, before con-
solidation, a normal coastal shell midden, composed predominantly
of shells, with soil and materials of organic origin comprising
only a small fraction of the total volume. There was then, even
before this cementation, a distinct change in midden character at
60 inches. The picture above 60 inches is one of extremely rapid
accumulation of refuse and ashes from large fires.
Distribution of the major pottery types is entered in Fig. 2.
I have not been able to detect any consistent trends through the
columns in either pit. Detailed analyses were made of check
sizes, linearity, and, in all types, rim forms. Some description
of the results will be found under the respective types below,
but again no indications of vertical change were noted.
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
# % # % # % # % % Totals # % # % # % # % % Totals
St. Johns 140 24 243 19 126 17 66 18 27 18 602 212 33 202 27 85 17 130 17 8 11 637
St. Johns 218 37 500 37 278 39 197 54 61 40 1254 155 27 246 33 220 43 330 43 28 39 979
St. Johns 5 6 6 5 22 2 2 2 6
Simple Stamped __ _
Glades Plain 150 26 367 28 248 34 96 26 43 28 904 237 37 244 32 178 31 252 33 19 26 930
Belle Glade 64 11 144 11 51 7 27 7 14 9 300 32 5 52 7 19 4 49 6 10 14 162
Sand Tempered 8 1 13 1 8 1 2 9 6 40 8 1 6 1 5 1 14 2 3 4 36
Savannah Fine 1 1
Dunns Creek 2 2 1 2 3
Little Manatee 1 1
Zoned Punctated 1 1
Miscellaneous 2 13 4 1 20 2 3 5 4 14
Total per level 587
1287 724 394 154 3146 647 757
510 782 72 2768
Discussion of Pottery Types
St. Johns Plain. Our sample fits the type description (Griffin,
1945, p. 220) for the harder end of the range. Rim forms were
checked, and in general there were a few more flattened lips than
rounded ones. About 60 percent flat lips and 40 percent round is
close to the average distribution for both units and all levels.
St. Johns Check Stamped. Type description (Griffin, ibid.) fits
again for the harder end of the range. Of the sample, 80 to 95
percent fall in the 4 to 6 checks-per-inch range, the remainder
being evenly divided between 2 to 3 checks and 7, or more, checks.
Rim-lip forms average 70 to 80 percent flattened, 10 to 15 per-
cent rounded, and a final 5 to 10 percent beveled, thinned, fold-
ed and so on. A few sherds in each unit were classified as lin-
ear check stamped. The low occurrence, less than 1 percent in
any case, was constant and, apparently, nonsignificant.
St. Johns Simple Stamped. A few sherds, never as much as 1 per-
cent of any unit, were stamped with a grooved paddle. Again the
low occurrence was constant and nonsignificant.
Glades Plain. This very sandy ware fits the type description
(Goggin and Sommer, 1949, pp. 33-4) perfectly. The average rim
form defies description, except that it is direct. Lips are
crudely smoothed and may be very flat at one spot, and well round-
ed an inch or two further along.
Belle Glade Plain. Shreds classified in this type (Willey, 1949,
p. 26) exhibit the typical "dragged" surface as well as faceting.
There is some overlap in paste characteristics with St. Johns
Plain and Glades Plain, but such sherds are only faceted, not
dragged, and have been included in the St. Johns or the Glades
counts. Of 130 rims, only three possessed rounded lips. All of
the others had flat lips, either direct or thickened, with a T-
shaped lip as the extreme. All vessels seem to have been shallow
Sand-tempered check-stamped. These 76 sherds, 1 to 6 percent of
the total in any unit, could be classified as Savannah Check Stam-
ped. I suppose that, technically, they are Savannah Check Stamp-
ed. However, in this context, it seems most likely that they
were produced by using a check-stamped paddle on the Glades Plain
sand-tempered paste. That is, the sherds are a cultural accident
rather than indicators of cultural contact.
Minor Types. Savannah Fine Cord Marked, Dunn's Creek Red and
Little Manatee Zoned Stamped need no discussion. References are,
respectively: Caldwell and Waring, 1939; Goggin, 1948, pp. 7-8;
Willey, 1949, pp. 443-4. All are usual, if numerically insignifi-
cant types in St. Johns II and, I presume, Malabar II contexts.
Their chronological significance is discussed in the conclusions.
Miscellaneous. This category includes an assortment of unclassi-
fiable sherds. None of them, to the best of my knowledge, have
any cultural-chronological significance in this context. Includ-
ed, usually one sherd each, are: Chalky and sand-tempered sherds
with incised line or two, punctations, red filming, fabric mark-
ing, and scoring.
P Plummets (P1. I, J)------------------------------------ 2
Hones or smoothed sherds (P1. I, K)---------------------- 5
Ground or polished stone
andstone none rragmentSTTTTT-------------------------- 9
Grooved sandstone sharpening stone-----------------------
Celt chip-gray stone---------------------------------- 1
Busycon tool fragments
All snow part or nafting hole or part of worked end
(P1. IN)------------------ 6------------------- 6
Fragment engraved bone pin------------------------------ 1
Finellas Point (P1. I M)------------------------------- 1
rtagments~Yofsmall points or knives---------------------- 3
The Pinellas Point was in Level 1 of Pit I, and other chip-
ped stone fragments were in Levels 1 or 2. Probably because of
greater volume excavated, all other artifacts were in the first
four levels of one pit or the other, usually in the first three.
No significant vertical distribution was noted, excepting, possi-
bly, the high position of the chipped stone specimens.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Our test excavations in 5 feet of midden have given us a
large sherd sample, with the St. Johns series predominating, fol-
lowed by an only slightly smaller quantity of Glades Plain and
then by a consistently high percentage of Belle Glade Plain. On
my first visit to the site, before any bulldozing had been done
on the highway contract, I noted that a few handfuls of sherds
picked up on the surface in the northern part of the midden--the
area where large quantities of shell had been removed--were all
plain types, Glades and St. Johns Plain.
I pointed out in the first part of this report that the
available evidence indicated that this area had contained shell
midden, in contrast to the black dirt midden in the area we exca-
vated. I would suggest then that there is a possibility that the
shell midden was produced in an early period, probably Malabar I.
The reality of this earlier, pre-check stamping period--which we
did not find in our tests--is verified by Anderson in a letter to
Rouse: "I found check-stamped sherds to a depth of four feet and
a considerable amount of plain below this. Also exposed was ce-
mented refuse of bone, sand, and shell with the shells showing a
larger variety than any I have formerly laid eyes upon. Of in-
terest also is that (despite the cementation) they lay fairly
well above the present sea level"(Anderson in Rouse, 1951,p. 169).
My observations on the character of the cemented layer, and on
the plain ware period agree with Anderson's in all respect. It
seems likely that this site had quite a long history.
We can demonstrate, I think, that the 5 feet of midden in
which we excavated is representative of a middle part of the Mala-
bar II period, neither the earliest nor the latest. Pertinent
data come from the few decorated sherds, the quantities of St.
Johns Check Stamped, and the rim forms of the Belle Glade series.
Relevant sherds are the single specimen of Savannah Fine
Cord Marked, the Little Manatee Zone Stamped, and the zoned-punc-
tated Weeden Island-like specimen. The cord-marked type occurs
in the St. Johns IIb period in the northern St. Johns (Goggin,
1952, p. 109; Sears, 1957, p. 24) while the Little Manatee Zoned
Stamped is a Weeden Island II type from the west coast (Willey,
1949, pp. 443-4), although widely if sparsely distributed else-
where. One sherd of its closest relative, Little Manatee Shell
Stamped, was found in a St. Johns IIb context with Savannah Fine
Cord Marked and St. Johns Check Stamped at the mouth of the St.
Johns (Sears, 1957, p. 6). The type Dunn's Creek Red occurs
through too long a time span to be useful here, but the zone puno-
tated sherd is probably a copy of a Weeden Island type and is
somewhat indicative of temporal position.
These three sherds then concur in a St. Johns IIb or late
Weeden Island II dating for this 5 feet of midden. Additional
evidence is afforded by comparisons with the South Indian Fields
site (Ferguson, 1951), a few miles northwest of Br-56. Sherds of
the St. Johns, Belle Glade, and Glades series occur there in ap-
proximately equal proportions in the top three levels of two
tests. There are significant differences however. In Test Y-l
at South Indian Fields, St. Johns Check Stamped is present only
in percentages of 9.4, 4.1, and 1.3, respectively, in Levels 1, 2,
and 3 ibidd., p. 39), while in Test Y-2 this type reaches percent-
ages of 37.2, 16.4 and 25.6 percent in the three levels. These
percentages are of the St. Johns series rather than of the total
sherds, but a glance at our chart (Fig. 2) indicates that Test
Y-2 is quite like our two units with respect to St. Johns Check
Stamped. With our few trade sherds indicating a St. Johns IIb
level, and using the assumption that existence of a level with a
sparse amount of the check stamped indicates its gradual intro-
duction, it seems clear that our sample is a good representation
of a Middle Malabar II unit.
It may also be relevant that we have only three rounded rims
in our Belle Glade Plain sample. At the Fish Eating Creek sites,
Porter (1951) found a hint that the rounded rims were earlier.
That the Grant site midden, in that part tested, did not
reach into the contact period is, I think, quite clear through
the lack not only of historic trade goods but in the lack of San
Marcos or Jefferson ware pottery types which would indicate the
main Spanish contact period.
There are two facts about this midden, both shared with
other south central and southeast Florida sites to some degree,
which are of particular interest. These are:
1. the consistent usage, through whatever span of time may
be represented by 5 feet of midden, of ceramics of three major
and distinct ceramic series, the St. Johns, Glades, and Belle
Glade. None of the three can be disposed of as trade ware since
the quantities are this high. To the north of this site, the
Glades and Belle Glade series drop out; to the south, on the
coast or in the inland area around Lake Okeechobee, the St. Johns
series drops, except for varying amounts of the check-stamped
type quite late (Goggin and Sommer, 1949; Willey, 1949; Laxson,
1953, p. 6). As a problem in geographical dispersion there is
simple decrease in the various series with increasing distance
from apparent centers, conditioned somewhat by time. Culturally,
the situation is something else again. What sort of cultural
situation causes a specific culture, a single village in this
case, to manufacture three distinct kinds of pottery, each of
them the major variety for some other, readily distinguishable
culture? Actually, if the foreign wares are factored out, there
is not an indigenous pottery tradition left.
2. the food habits of this community. During this same
time span represented by the midden penetrated by our two tests,
food seems to have been predominantly fish. The total bulk of
shell in the 5 feet of midden excavated would not run over 25 per-
cent of the volume, if that, whereas tremendous quantities of
fish bone were observed and collected. I rather doubt that there
was an ecological reason for this, since some types of shell fish
seem to have always been present in the warm shallow waters of
the Indian River. The commonest type present in the midden is a
small pelecypod of the area family. This heavy dependence on
fish is quite comparable to that observed in this area by Jonathan
Dickinson in 1696 and 1697. A perusal of his journal reveals
many accounts of fishing and the use of fish as food, whereas
shell fish collecting and eating are scarcely mentioned. The
numbers of fish present, and the adequacy of Indian fishing tech-
niques, are indicated by the following statement: "In two hours
time he got as many fish as would serve twenty men: there were
others also fishing at the same time, so that fish was plenty"
(Dickinson, 1945, p. 35). What caused a shift on this coast from
a dependence on shell fish to a dependence on fish I do not know,
but that it took place is certainly evident.
Caldwell, Joseph and A. J. Waring, Jr.
1939. Type description Savannah Fine Cord Marked in News-
letter, Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Vol.
1945. Jonathan Dickinson's Journal, or, God's Protecting
Providence, being the Narrative of a Journey from
Port Royal in Jamaica to Philadelphia between August
23, 1696 and April 1, 1697 (edited by Evangeline Wal-
ker Andrews and Charles McLean Andrews, New Haven).
Ferguson, Vera Masius
1951. Chronology at South Indian Fields, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 45, New
Goggin, John M.
1952. Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archaeology, Florida. Yale University Publications
in Anthropology. No. 47. New Haven.
1948. Some Pottery Types from Central Florida. Gainesville
Anthropological Association, Bulletin No. 1. Gaines-
Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III.
1949. Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41. New
Griffin, James B.
1945. The Significance of the Fiber Tempered Pottery of the
St. Johns River in Florida. Washington Academy of
Sciences, Journal, Vol. 6, pp. 220-46. Menasha.
Laxson, D. D.
1953. Stratigraphy at a Hialeah Midden. The Florida Anthro-
pologist, Vol. VI, No. 1, pp. 1-8. Gainesville.
Porter, Rita Kristensen
1951. An Analysis of Belle Glade Plain Rim Sherds from Two
Fisheating Creek Sites. The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. IV, Nos. 3-4, pp. 67-75. Gainesville.
1951. A Survey of Indian River Archaeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 44. New
Sears, William H.
1957. Excavations on Lower St. Johns River, Florida. Con-
tributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sci-
ences, No. 2. Gainesville.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949a. Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Washington.
1949b. Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology No. 42. New Haven.
Florida State Museum
S Gainesville, Florida
A July, 1958
4 :. I
C- -' ..i v, *x ~
i Y' 1'
Plate 1. Artifacts from the Grant Site. A, B St. Johns Check Stamped, C Savannah Fine
Cord Marked, D, E Belle Glade Plain, F Little Manatee Zone Stamped, G, H Glades Flain,
I Sherd hone, J Sherd plummet, K Shaped, smoothed sherd, L Projectile point or knife,
M Pinellas Point, N Tip from Busycon tool.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec. 1958
A UNIQUE VESSEL FROM MURPHY ISLAND, PUTNAM COUNTY, FLORIDA
Ripley P. Bullen
On March 22, 1958, John Hodge of Palatka, Florida, brought
to the Florida State Museum the remarkable pottery vessel shown
in the accompanying illustrations. It seems worthwhile to record
this find which, after it was examined and photographed, was re-
tained by the finder.
The vessel was found on Murphy Island in the St. Johns River
about five miles south of Palatka. As will be seen from the il-
lustrations, it is in the shape of an animal whose hollow back
forms the vessel proper. About six inches in length, it is made
of St. Johns Plain paste and is undecorated except for incision
on the face of the animal. Unfortunately, the ears, part of the
face, and three of the legs are missing.
In modeling this bowl, the Indian artisan has given the im-
pression of a long, slender animal in spite of the exceptional
width of the body, necessary to form the liquid-holding portion
of the effigy. The long, extended neck and head and the forward
extending legs (three are missing but all originally were bent
forward) suggest a crouching animal about to spring.
It is impossible to decide with certainty which animal the
Indian artist had in mind. The general form and sleek lines sug-
gest to me a mink or an otter. Others may feel some other animal
was the model. The tapering, rat-like tail (see picture of bot-
tom of vessel) would seem to rule out a squirrel as a possibility.
It is also impossible to determine how this effigy bowl was
used. Why was it made in the form of an animal? From the care
used in its manufacture and from the rarity of vessels of this
nature, it seems certain it was made for ceremonial purposes.
With the Murphy Island vessel were found sherds of St. Johns
Check Stamped pottery. This association is of interest as it
helps to date the manufacture of this bowl. Clarence B. Moore in-
vestigated Murphy Island in 1895 and found evidence of occupation
over an extremely long period of time. The check-stamped sherds,
mentioned above, would seem to indicate the illustrated vessel
was made during some portion of the St. Johns II period. The
vessel's form and shape suggest it may have been made at a time
when Middle Mississippian culture influences were active in Flo-
rida. Such a period would be late during St. Johns II times -
probably around 1300-1400 A. D.
Florida State Museum
April 2, 1958
A unique vessel from Murphy Island, Putnam County, Florida
INDEX, VOL. II, 1958
Boyd, Mark F.
Horatio S. Dexter and Events Leading to the Treaty
of Moultrie Creek with the Seminole Indians......... 65-94
Bullen, Ripley P.
More Florida Radiocarbon Dates and
Their Significance ................................ 97-110
Dates of Busycon Gouges at the Bluffton
Site, Florida.................................... 111-113
A Unique Vessel from Murphy Island,
Putnam County, Florida........................... 125-127
Fairbanks, Charles H.
Some Problems of the Origin of Creek Pottery........ 53-64
John R. Swanton, Obituary............................. 95
Larson, Jr., Lewis H.
Cultural Relationships Between the Northern
St. Johns Area and the Georgia Coast................ 11-22
Lazarus, William C.
A Poverty Point Complex in Florida.................. 23-32
Neill, Wilfred T.
A Stratified Early Site at Silver Springs,
Florida................ ...... ..................... 33-52
Sears, William H.
The Maximo Point Site............................... 1-10
The Grant Site--Br-56............................. 114-124
Book Notices inside back covers, Nos. 1, 2, 3, & 4.
Index, Vol. XI, 1958....................................... 128
Covington, James W.
1957. The story of southwestern Florida. 2 vols. New
York: Lewis Historical Publ. Co., $48.50.
Vol. 2 consists of local biographies compiled by the publish-
ers. Vol. 1, of some 500 pages is a narrative history of the
southwestern part of the state. Contains some useful new data on
the Florida Indians, especially the Spanish Indians and the last
Seminole War. The author exhibits his usual careful research in
Lewis, Thomas M. N. & Madeline Kneberg
1958. Tribes that slumber. Indians of the Tennessee Re-
gions. Knoxville, Tenn.: Univ. of Tennessee Press. pp. xi, 196,
99 illustrations and maps. $3.75
Stated to have been written for "students, for amateur arch-
aeologists, and for all other persons with curiosity about the
Indians." The book, however, is more than a popularization of
the archeology of Tennessee. It is the best over-all summary to
date of the Indian history of the Middle South. It is based lar-
gely on the excavations in the Tennessee Valley Authority reser-
voirs and thus covers a good section of Tennessee and the adjac-
ent states. Contains a useable index and suggestions for further
reading which are identified as technical, non-technical, semi-
technical. A highly useful book for many readers.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958. The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No.4,
Gainesville, University of Florida. 48 pp., 5 figs., 10 plates.
This is the first site report of work done under the highway
salvage program in Florida. Uullen found a fairly deep midden
which he believes was occupied intermittently from Paleo-Indian
times down to fairly recent periods. He found Suwannee points, as
well as Bolen points and Arredondo points. The last two types
are probably of Archaic date. CHF
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. XI DECEMBER, 1958 NO. 4
More Florida radiocarbon dates and their
significance...................... Ripley P. Bullen 97 S
Dates of Busycon Couges at the Bluffton .
Site, Florida..................... Ripley P. Bullen &
William M. Sackett 111
The Grant Site--Br-56 ............ William H. Sears 114
k unique vessel from Murphy Island, Putnam
County, Florida.................... Ripley P. Bullen 125
Index, Vol.XI, 1958............... 128
Book Notices ..................... C.H.F. Inside back cover
The Florida Anthropologist publishes manuscripts on any
subject pertaining to Florida or southeastern anthropology.
Manuscripts should be typed on one side of the sheet only,.
with 65 spaces to the line, 35 lines to the page. Tables H
must be typed in final form with inked lines. Citations C
should follow the style of The American Anthropologist .
Footnotes and bibliography should be typed on separate pages. S