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MEM 9STRN PIEg AK4t1[1 EDfRoIllT
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Dugouts of the Mikasuki Seminole - -- ilfred T. Neill 77
The Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County, Florida
- - Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Balles 85
Bone Artifacts, Resembling Projectile Points,
From Preceramic Sites in Volusia County, Florida
- - H. James Gut and Wilfred T. Neill 93
Further Excavations at Hialeah, Florida -D. D. Laxsou 95
Editorial Office as the Florida State University, Tallahassee
Published at the University of Florida, Gainesville, for the
Florida Anthropological Society.
Lithoqraphed by the University ol Flortda Printinq Department
DUGOUTS OF THE MIKASUKI SEMINOLE
Wilfred T. Neill
Little is known of the material culture of Southeastern Indians in de-
tail. Early writers stated that the aborigines made bows, arrows, dugouts,
etc., but these artifacts and the techniques of their manufacture were sel-
dom discussed at satisfactory length. The Florida Seminole have retained
many of the old crafts, usually modified as a result of white contacts but
nevertheless of interest. It therefore seems worthwhile to report on a col-
lection of Mikasuki dugouts, and to describe the method by which these
vessels are made.
The Florida Seminole are of composite origin, and are now divided
into two linguistic groups. Those Indians living on the Big Cypress Res-
ervation, on the State Reservation, and along the Tamiami Trail, are
Hitchiti-speaking people, descendants of the Mikasuki. During the Semi-
nole Wars, the Mikasuki were exceptionally belligerent and intractable,
and even today they are (in general) more conservative than the Muskogee-
speaking Seminole., The present paper has reference to techniques and
artifacts of the Mikasuki only.
CHARLIE CYPRESS, THE AUTHOR'S INFORMANT
For several years I have known Charlie Cypress, one of the oldest
living Seminole of the Mikasuki band. During this time Charlie has made
several dugouts, and I have observed him at his work. Before describing
Charlie's handicraft, however, it may be well to say a few words about
the man himself.
Charlie was born at Point-of-Cypress in the Devil's Garden, before the
Mikasuki were pushed into Big Cypress Swamp by the rising tide of white
settlement. The date of his birth is uncertain, but it could not have been
many years after the removal of Billy Bowlegs in 1858. Charlie's older
relatives took an active part in the Second Seminole War; they were among
the Mikasuki who rejected all peace offers.
When Charlie was a boy, the enmity between white and Indian still
flared up at times. Charlie admits that, on one occasion, he and some
other Seminole lads fired on a party of white men who had ventured onto
the Indians' hunting grounds. However, he soon made peace with his
neighbors and became a plume hunter, raiding egret rookeries and selling
the birds' feathers to white buyers.
In 1935 Charlie came with his family to Silver Springs, where his quiet
dignity soon endeared him to the community. From time to time he has
been called back to the Big Cypress to perform shamanistic rites over
some indisposed Seminole. Charlie treats diseases by cupping, blood-
letting, the application of herbs, and especially by prolonged chanting.
Many Seminole prefer Charlie to any white practitioner.
Charlie still adheres to an old style of dress and ornamentation. lie
has never donned shoes or trousers, although on cool days he is not averse
to wearing several vests over the blouse of his one-piece dress. Like a
few other elderly Seminole, he shaves away most of his hair from time
to time, leaving only a crest across the forehead and another down the
mid-line of the head. Often he binds scarves about his head, turban fash-
ion. On ceremonial occasions, he wears a huge turban with a plume and
silver band. Charlie's manner of dress is not an affectation but a mark of
his conservatism in this regard.
One is tempted to discuss Charlie Cypress at greater length, but the
foregoing remarks should suffice to indicate that he is quite a repository
of tribal lore. A portrait of Charlie appears in Fig. 2.
THE MANUFACTURE OF DUGOUTS
Charlie Cypress always makes dugouts in the same way, and his
finished products are practically identical with the older Seminole dug-
outs, a few of which are still in existence.
The Seminole dugout is always made from bald cypress. This tree is
selected because of its tall, straight bole with few lower branches; a
section of the trunk can be made into a dugout with a minimum of effort.
Also, the bald cypress usually grows in or beside water; thus the finished
vessel does not have to be carried overland. In addition, cypress wood is
little affected by immersion. Twisted, bent, or hollow trees are avoided.
In the Everglades and adjoining areas, where most of the Florida
Seminole nowr reside, bald cypress is virtually the only tree to attain the
size and shape requisite for manufacture into a dugout. However, early
records indicate that bald cypress was the preferred wood for such vessels
throughout the Southeast, even where other trees were available.
It should be mentioned that the common cypress of South Florida is
the dwarf or pond cypress, which is too small to be made into dugouts.
The larger bald cypress is generally confined to river swamps, lake
margins, and sloughs. In recent years, most stands of bald cypress have
been logged, or set aside for eventual logging, There are very few of
these trees on any of the Seminole reservations. The name, Big Cypress
Swamp, does not have reference to the size of the trees, which are most-
ly of the dwarf species.
Fig. 1. (Upper) An early stage in the manufacture of a Mikasuki dugout. The
heavy thwart eventually will be cut away. (Lower) A partially finished
dugout. Note the characteristic shape of the prow, and the simple rack
on which the vessel rests.
Charlie either fells a cypress or selects one that has been blown over
by a storm. The general shape of the dugout is then roughed out with
powerful, sure strokes of an axe. The chips and chunks first split away
are of very large size, as shown in Fig. 1. Ample wood is left for the
future shaping of the prow. The vessel-to-be is not completely severed
from the rest of the tree; both ends of the dugouts are connected with
the remainder of the tree trunk until the shaping process is nearly com-
Next, the hollowing of the log is begun. For this purpose the axe is
used, supplemented occasionally by a hatchet. Two hollows are cut into
the log, in such a fashion as to leave a solid, heavy thwart between them.
This thwart, which prevents warping as the vessel dries, eventually will
be cut out. In Fig. 1, Charlie has roughed out one hollow and is begin-
ning the second. A long dugout may require two or even three thwarts.
The dugout is now hewed completely away from the remainder of the
tree trunk. At this stage Charlie usually has the vessel brought to his
hut, although in South Florida the craft may be finished on the spot. The
dugout is placed on a simple rack, as shown in Fig. 1. The heavy thwart
is cut away; no trace of its presence is left.
Next, six or eight holes are made through the bottom and lower sides
of the dugout. These are begun with a point of the hatchet blade, and
finished with a pocket knife. Each hole is about an inch in diameter.
These holes have puzzled many white men, but the explanation of their
presence is quite simple. When viewing a dugout from above, one cannot
very well estimate the thickness of the bottom. However, through the
holes one can see how thick this portion of the vessel is, and can there-
fore determine just when to cease the hollowing process. Before the
vessel is placed in the water, wooden plugs are hammered into the holes.
The plugs are then smoothed off, above and below, to a level with the
remainder of the bottom.
The later stages of the hollowing process, and the final shaping of
the prow, are accomplished by the use of a short-handled adze. This
tool is shown in Fig. 2. Charlie's adze is an old one, apparently hand-
forged, its blade and handle polished from years of use. It was given to
Charlie by the father of Josie Billie.
The Mikasuki name for this adze cannot be written exactly without
recourse to phonetic symbols. It may be rendered approximately as
p'thlee sh'nlogit. The initial p is close to b; the apostrophes represent
a barely voiced sound, something like a short i; the thl approaches shl;
and the final t is scarcely heard. P'thlee is the Mikasuki term for a dug-
out; sh'nlogit signifies "it scoops out". The Muskogee-speaking
Fig. 2. (Left) The final shaping of the vessel is accomplished by means of a
short-handled adze. (Right) A portrait of Charlie Cypress, the author's
Seminole call the adze bithlo shinlowa, a phrase cognate with the
Often a hole is cut through the "keel" of the prow, just below the
gunwale; this hole serves for the passage of a mooring rope. The dugout
is now ready for use. If placed in the water, it will float perfectly bal-
anced, and no further work is necessary. Decking is sometimes added
at bow and/or stern. This decking is made of narrow planks carefully
trimmed to fit the contour of the vessel.
"Canoe-building" ceremonies and chants have been reported among
the Seminole, but so far as I know, Charlie Cypress holds no such
ceremonies at Silver Springs.
Probably Charlie could finish a dugout in two days' time. However,
he usually takes at least six or seven days, in order to prevent the vessel
from warping as a result of too rapid drying. Sometimes he has taken as
long as six weeks.
Fig. 3. Model of a Mikasuki dugout. Note the prow shape, and the presence of
decking fare and aft.
Fig. 3 shows a realistic model of a Mikasuki dugout, made by Charlie.
It may be seen that the stern is slightly elevated, the bow decidedly so.
The prow is sharp, with an anteriorly projecting keel and a flanged gun-
wale. (The prow shape facilitates passage through the saw-grass which
so often chokes the waterways of the Everglades.) Decking is present,
fore and aft.
A COLLECTION OF MIKASUKI DUGOUTS
In recent years, South Florida has been vastly altered by large-scale
drainage projects. The Big Cypress Swamp now goes absolutely dry for
months at a time. Near abandoned Seminole camps one may see a rotting
dugout drawn up to what was once an island shore-line, although today
there is no water anywhere in the vicinity. The drying up of the region,
the lack of bald cypress, the construction of roads, and the availability
of "used cars" have led to the virtual abandonment of the dugout as a
means of transportation. Few new dugouts are being made, and the old
one are rotting away.
For several years, E. Ross Allen has salvaged Seminole dugouts
whenever possible. Nine specimens in his collection will be described
briefly. These were accumulated by purchase from Seminoles in the
general vicinity of Immokalee and along the Tamiami Trail. (Even rot-
ting dugouts at abandoned camps are claimed by the nearest Seminole
family, who will part with them for a small consideration.) Probably
all the vessels are attributable to the Mikasuki.
Dugout No. 1 is 26 feet long, and 33 inches wide throughout most
of its length. The holes in the sides and bottom of this vessel appear
to have been made with a large brace-and-bit.
No. 2 is a fragment 17 feet, 6 inches long, and about 28 inches wide.
There are four irregularly shaped holes along the mid-line of the bottom.
This specimen was found at Bamboo Camp, an abandoned Seminole en-
campment southeast of Immokalee. Nearby Indians, who claimed the dug-
out, said it was made by Ingraham Billie about 1925.
No. 3 is 20 feet, 9 inches long, and 24% inches wide. At the stern
there is a decking of four boards, cut to fit the taper of the craft, and
supported by a board thwart. The decking is held in place by small
No. 4 is 28 feet, 6 inches long, and 28 inches wide. There is a deck-
ing of 15 boards at the bow end, and another of five boards at the stern.
No. 5 is 20 feet, 1 inch long, and 27 inches wide. It was made by
Charlie Cypress. This vessel was not intended for much use, and Charlie
therefore left the bottom a bit thicker than usual.
No. 6 is 24 feet long and 25 inches wide. Several board strips have
been tacked lengthwise on the inside of the bottom, probably to seal
splits in the wood. There is a narrow, thwart-like board seat in the bow.
No. 7 is a large specimen, 30 feet, 9 inches long, and 25 inches wide.
The stern is bluntly pointed rather than rounded as in the other examples
No. 8 is unusually small, being but 13 feet, 9 inches long, and 20
inches wide. Narrow strips of wood have been tacked along the bottom.
This vessel was said to have been made by John Tiger in 1907.
No. 9 is 16 feet, 6 inches long, and 20 inches wide. Viewed from
above, the prow is very long and tapering. The sides are three-quarters
of an inch thick, the bottom slightly thicker.
These nine dugouts are all very similar in general shape and appear-
ance, differing among themselves only in size and minor details. The
elaborate prow treatment is especially characteristic. It is probable that
this style of dugout was developed by the Seminole after they reached
Florida, for the vessels of the Creeks and other southeastern Indians
were of different design (as far as one can judge from a few specimens
and scanty descriptions). At one time the Seminoles made large vessels,
equipped with mast and sail, and capable of carrying 30 or 40 people on
ocean voyages to Cuba and the Bahamas. Unfortunately, little is known
of these larger craft beyond the fact of their existence.
Figs. 1 (left) and 2 (right) were made by G. M. Bushman, the remainder
by Bruce Mozert. I am indebted to E. Ross Allen for these photographs,
as well as for permission to examine the collection of Mikasuki dugouts.
Ross Allen Reptile Institute
Silver Springs, Florida
THE BATTERY POINT SITE, BAYPORT,
HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA
Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen
During the early summer of 1953, two interesting artifact collections were
brought to the Florida State Museum. The first, donated by Waddell A. Biggart,
II, of Brooksville, a student at the University of Florida, consisted of five
projectile points, a large ovate-shaped knife, a sherd of Pasco Incised pottery,
and a musket ball. Types of pottery, stone knife, and projectile points sug-
gested a very early ceramic period, dating probably to the last centuries before
The second collection, donated by Dr. John D. Kilby of the Department of
Biology of the University of Florida and an Associate of the Museum, included
small and medium sized adze-like percussion-flaked stone tools, stone scrapers,
projectile points, and fifty-three sherds. Among the last were examples of St.
Johns Incised and Pasco Incised, dating possibly to about 400 B.C. (Goggin,
1950), and several sherds of the little known pottery types called PericoIncised
and Perico Linear Punctated.
This larger collection confirmed suggestions presented by the first. The
adze-like stone tools were similar to those found in the lowest zone at Johns
Island in the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River, where they were associated
with Pasco Incised and St. Johns Incised pottery (Bullen and Bullen, 1950).
As this was only the second time large stone tools of this kind had been
found in probable association with these pottery types and only the second
find of Perico Incised and Perico Linear Punctated pottery, so far as we know,
the site was visited and a third collection made. These three collections will
be treated here as one.
Bayport is located on low, sandy land between the Gulf of Mexico and an
estuary which forms the mouth of the Mud and Weekiwachee Rivers. Near the
southern end of this peninsula, at Battery Point, material had been dredged
from the Gulf and spread on the adjacent sand as part of a development project.
All three collections were made from this dredged material.
We were unable to find any in situ evidence of Indian habitation, although
the dredged material unquestionably came from only a short distance offshore.
We did not dig a test hole as the surface of the sand was at so low an eleva-
tion water would have been reached at a shallow depth.
Debris on the shore included recent bottle caps, Indian artifacts, pre-
historic food bones, and fragments of fossilized bone (turtle and manatee).
Several archaeological periods were represented in the three collections which
have been classified as follows:
Ocmulgee Fields Incised(?) 1
Pinellas-like plain 4
Little Manatee Zoned Stamped 1
Weeden Island Plain 1
Deptford Linear Check Stamped 2
Perico Incised 8
Perico Linear Punctated 4
Perico Punctated 10
Perico Plain 2
Pasco Incised 5
St. Johns Incised 7
Simple-stamped, semi-fiber-tempered 3
Semi-fiber-tempered plain 2
Sand-tempered plain or Glades Plain 14
St. Johns Plain 41
Pasco Plain 166
Projectile points 14
Worked fragments 4
Ovate knife 1
Asymmetric trianguloid knives 2
Small adze-like tools 5
Medium sized adze-like tools 4
Cores or blanks 10
Net sinkers (?) 2
The stone industry from the Battery Point site (Fig. 1, L-N) is very similar
to that found in the lowest zones at Johns Island, about ten air miles to the
north (Bullen and Bullen, 1950). Small and medium sized, percussion-flaked,
adze-like tools, cores, and core-hammerstones are duplicated in both collec-
tions. Details of shape and manufacture are the same. There are differences
in the inventories, as might be expected.
As has been mentioned, both sites produced St. Johns Incised and Pasco
Incised sherds. At Johns Island, such pottery was associated in the ground
with the large stone tools. At Battery Point such an association cannot be
0 p---- P
Fig. 1. Stone Artifacts from the Battery Point Site. A-B, net sinkers (?).
C-D, large thumbnail scrapers. E-K, projectile points. L-N, per-
cussion flaked adze-like tools. 0, ovate knife. P, asymmetric
demonstrated, but seems most likely.
At Johns Island at least two ceramic periods were represented by deposits
which overlay those containing the large stone tools and associated pottery.
That a similar situation may at one time have existed at the Battery Point site
is suggested by the Deptford and Weeden Island period pottery in the collec-
tions from that site.
It may also be pointed out that the geographic situation at both sites is
fairly similar. At Johns Island we have four feet of occupational debris on a
small island facing the Gulf. The-front of this island, towards the Gulf, is
rapidly eroding, while the base of deposits bearing cultural materials rests on
limestone at mean tide level. In other words, there is at Johns Island clear
evidence of a substantial rise in sea level relative to the land since the time
of first occupation of the island.
At Battery Point, the site seems to have been completely eroded away or
inundated by the waters of the Gulf. Both sites suggest that very early ab-
original habitation sites, of the fiber-tempered or of the preceramic periods,
along the Gulf coast of Florida may long since have been covered by the sea.
Two other questions are raised by the collections from Battery Point. One
refers to the semi-fiber-tempered sherds, and the other to the Perico types.
Semi-fiber-tempered pottery has previously been reported from several
places in Florida. One was at Fernandina on Amelia Island in extreme north-
east Florida. There, a few such sherds were found stratigraphically between
fiber-tempered and St. Johns or chalky pottery (Bullen and Griffin, 1952, p. 50).
These semi-fiber-tempered sherds contained grit, and suggested a development
towards a Deptford or sand-tempered, as opposed to a St. Johns or temperless
chalky paste. That they were simple-stamped increased their resemblance to
products of the Deptford period of Georgia.
Goggin (1949, p. 24; 1952, pp. 68,97) mentions similar pottery for the St.
Johns River area of east Florida, some with additions of sand as well as
fibrous material as temper, and some a hybrid chalky-fiber-tempered ware.
For west Florida, Glenn T. Allen, Jr., a graduate student at Florida State
University, has verbally reported finding a few semi-fiber-tempered sherds
during his survey work in the Gulf coast region south of Tallahassee. As at
Fernandina, these sherds contained some mineral aplastic and were simple-
The Battery Point site, with simple stamped, semi-fiber-tempered pottery
(Fig. 2, I-J), is located part way down the west coast of the Florida peninsula.
Further south, around Charlotte Harbor, two sites have produced this kind of
Fig. 2. Miscellaneous Sherds from the Battery Point Site. A, Perico Incised.
B-C, Perico Linear Punctated. D-E, Perico Punctated A. F, Perico
Punctated B. G, combined Perico Punctated B and Perico Incised.
H, combined Perico Punctated B and Pasco Incised. I-J, simple-
stamped, semi-fiber-tempered. K-L, St. Johns Incised. M-N, Pasco
pottery. At Useppa Island, Griffin (1949) reported sherds containing sand
as well as fibrous tempering material, but they were not simple-stamped.
During the summer of 1953, William W. Plowden, Jr., found semi-fiber-tempered
pottery while surveying the north side of Charlotte Harbor (personal communica-
The last example came from Old Fort Center on the west shore of Lake
Okeechobee. Again, the sherd contained sand as well as fiber-tempering
(Griffin, 1952, p. 329). It was not simple-stamped.
Geographically, places where semi-fiber-tempered pottery has been found in
Florida cover most of the state, except for the extreme southern or Everglades
area. Obviously, stratigraphic testing in key locations is needed. In the
meanwhile, we can suggest that in extremely late fiber-tempered times ceramic
influences from the north, presumedly related to the Deptford of Georgia, enter-
ed Florida and modified the pottery of the people then living here. To judge
from the apparent relative rarity of semi-fiber-tempered pottery this transitional
ceramic period, if such it may prove to be, was of extremely short duration.
The other problem relates to decorated limestone-tempered sherds which
we refer to as Perico Incised and Perico Linear Punctated. So far as we are
aware, these types have not been reported previously except from the type
site, Perico Island, which is west of Bradenton and about seventy miles fur-
ther south than Battery Point.
Willey (1948, p. 215; 1949, 365) was limited to a small collection of twelve
examples when he set up his definitions of these pottery types. The Battery
Point collection is similarly limited, but gives us our first subsequent oppor-
tunity to examine them. Before discussion these sherds, let us state we are
unable to note any meaningful classifiable differences between Perico paste
and that referred to as Pasco. Both are tempered with crushed limestone in
varying amounts. Sometimes the temper particles are all finely crushed, but
frequently large lumps are included.
Perico Incised, Linear Punctated, and Punctated (to be described below)
all seem to have incurved rims. Willey noted this point in his definitions. If
we are to differentiate between Pasco Plain and Perico Plain, let the latter
refer to limestone-tempered vessels with this incurved rim. We have followed
that procedure here, calling the rest of the undecorated limestone-tempered
sherds Pasco Plain.
Willey's illustrations of Perico Incised and Linear Punctated (1948, P1. XX;
1949, P1. 14) show incised and linear punctated designs forming a running band
of triangular areas on an incurved rim just below the lip. The Battery Point
collections include similar designs (Fig. 2, A-B). We also have a sherd with
three rows of nearly linear punctations which compares well with one illus-
trated by Willey (1949, P1. 14, E).
Battery Point produced some variants which do not fit Willey's definitions,
and for which we would propose the name Perico Punctated. One form, Perico
Punctated A, consists of rows of long, narrow, fairly deep punctations which
parallel the lip (Fig. 2, D-E). Another, Perico Punctated B, has a single row
row of similar punctations extending downward from the lip (Fig. 2, F). This
decorative detail (Perico Punctated B) is sometimes combined with other
motifs similar to Perico Incised (as in Fig. 2, G) or Pasco Incised (as in Fig.
The materials from Battery Point do not give us badly needed chronological
information. Nevertheless, they do increase our knowledge of the archaeology
of Florida. They locate the second site where heavy, percussion flaked, adze-
like tools are found in probable association with' Pasco Incised and St. Johns
Incised pottery, the second site where Perico Incised and Perico Linear
Punctated pottery are found, and another site where simple-stamped, semi-
fiber-tempered pottery is found. In view of our present knowledge, these data
are important. If others know of or learn of similar sites, it would be of im-
portance to get them recorded.
Bullen, Adelaide K., and Ripley P.
1950. "The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida." American
Antiquity, Vol. 16, No. 1. Menasha.
Bullen, Ripley P., and John W. Griffin
1952. "An Archaeological Survey of Amelia Island, Florida." The
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 5, Nos. 3-4. Gainesville.
Griffin, John W.
1949. "Notes on the Archaeology of Useppa Island." The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. II, No. 3-4. Gainesville.
1952. "Prehistoric Florida: A Review." In Archeology of Eastern
United States (James B. Griffin, Editor). Chicago.
Goggin, John M.
1949. "Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory." In The Florida
Indian and His Neighbors (John W. Griffin, Editor). Winter Park.
1950. "Florida Archeology 1950." The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. 3, Nos 1-2. Gainesville.
1952. "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeology,
Florida." Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No.
47. New Haven.
Willey, Gordon R.
1948. "Culture Sequence in the Manatee Region of West Florida."
American Antiquity, Vol. 13, No. 3. Menasha.
1949. "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Washington.
Florida State Museum
BONE ARTIFACTS, RESEMBLING PROJECTILE POINTS,
FROM PRECERAMIC SITES IN VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA
H. James Gut and Wilfred T. Neill
Recently the authors examined four bone artifacts which resemble stemmed
or side-notched projectile points. Apparently such implements have not been
reported previously from Florida (or indeed from anywhere in the Southeast).
Fig. 1. Bone Artifacts from Florida.
The artifacts are shown in an accompanying photograph. The specimen
on the left was found by the senior author at Lemon Bluff midden (Vo 61),
in situ at a depth of about five feet. The two center specimens were col-
lected by David Leonard at the Lemon Bluff site, in shell "slump" along a
cut face of the midden. The artifact on the right of the photograph was
discovered by the authors at Good's Shellpit. It was found in the bottom of
an excavation, about ten feet below the original midden surface and a foot
above the present water table.
Each specimen probably was made from the femur of a deer, and is
therefore concavo-convex in cross-section. The smallest of the lot measures
53 mm. in length, the largest 107 mm. The artifacts show little or no evidence
of wear. (Although one point is broken, the fracture is a recent one.) It seems
improbable that they were used as ordinary projectile points.
The Lemon Bluff site is a midden located on a backwater of the St. Johns
River, in Volusia County, Florida, about eight miles east of Sanford. Pottery
is confined to the upper two feet of the midden. Therefore, one of the bone
points, found here in situ at a depth of five feet, presumably dates from pre-
ceramic times. For further remarks on the Lemon Bluff site, see Goggin (1952)
Good's Shellpit is a midden on the St. Johns River, in Volusia County,
about six miles northwest of Sanford. Apparently, it has not received a site
number; it lies between Vo 44 and Vo 48. At this site, pottery is confined
to the upper three or four feet of one small area farthest from the river. Most
of the midden is an impressively large expanse of shell, completely without
sherds. The bone point from this locality, while perhaps not in situ when
found, surely came from the deeper levels and from the non-ceramic portion
of the site. For further information about Good's Shellpit, see Gut (MS).
The available evidence suggests that the bone artifacts described herein are
from a preceramic horizon.
Most accounts in the literature of "bone projectile points" have reference
either to bi-pointed, awl-like forms, or else to socketed points. As far as the
authors are aware, notched or stemmed points of bone have been reported no
nearer to Florida than New York. In the latter state, they have been found in
the partly preceramic Brewerton Focus (Griffin, ed., 1952).
The largest point from Lemon Bluff is now in the Florida State Museum.
The two smaller points from this locality belong to David Leonard, of Sanford.
The artifact from Good's Shellpit is in the possession of the junior author.
Thanks are due to Mr. Leonard for permission to examine and photograph his
specimens, and to Ripley P. Bullen for helpful advice.
Goggin, John M.
1952. "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeology,
Florida," Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No. 47.
Griffin, James B., editor
1952. Archeology of Eastern United States. University of Chicago
Gut, H. James
MS. "Preliminary Notices of Vertebrate Remains from Two St.
Johns River Shell Mounds." (Read at Annual Meeting of the
Florida Anthropological Society, Winter Park, 1952.)
Ross Allen Reptile Institute
Silver Springs, Florida
FURTHER EXCAVATIONS AT HIALEAH, FLORIDA
D. D. Laxson
This article pertains to excavations in the second midden (Dd-76, Uni-
versity of Florida records) of a cluster of three located in Section 35, Town-
ship 52, Range 40 east, Dade County, Florida (Site Hialeah No. 2, Fig. 1).
Findings from the first hammock midden (Hialeah No. 1) were described in
The Florida Anthropologist of March, 1953 (Laxson, 1953).
The midden is in the north-central portion of a roughly oblate shaped
hammock, 500 feet NE-SW and 325 feet N-S, located 850 feet east of Peters
Pike and 375 feet south of the Hialeah Garden Fill Company's road (Fig. 1).
Elevation of the land in the area varies from six to ten feet above mean sea
level. The midden slopes gradually to the north and west, but drops off
sharply east and southeast. The highest point on the midden is a little over
two feet above the terrain.
The largest banyan tree in the hammock was chosen as a bench mark.
Angular measurements off all test pits were accurately made from this point
by transit for the site map.
Aerial photographs of the region (FPL Map 271-782, 1950 Series) plainly
show the remains of an old slough, 500 feet wide, running NE-SW and bisec-
ting the hammock area. It can be traced easily southwest to the canalized
Miami River at a point approximately one and one-half miles northwest of
the junction of Peters Pike and Highway 27. It is thought not too fanciful
to suppose that in the past it offered access to the area for the dugout
canoes of the aborigines.
Since the vegetation at IIialeah No. 2 seemed different from that at the
first site, the more common growth will be mentioned here. Trees are pre-
dominantly banyan and hackberry. Other vegetation includes myrsine, wax
myrtle, trema, paw-paw, elderberry, swamp bay, Virginia creeper, wonder
leaf, goldenrod, false nettle bush, groundsel, rouge bush, scarlet bush, and
potato tree. Three kinds of ferns, swamp, Boston and shield, and two grapes,
Simpson and Muscadine, were seen The oldest present vegetation seems
about fifty years old. There was evidence the hammock had been burned
No attention was paid to the fauna. However, several specimens of the
nocturnal barn owl were observed and more than two dozen different butter-
flies were collected.
Digging started in March, 1953, and was completed in June. All test
pits were five feet square, shallow, and in close proximity to one another,
Fig. 1. Left, excavation plan of Hialeah No. 2 midden site. Right, location
and relative positions of three middens.
the material being fairly well concentrated. Soil in the tested area was
muck and quartz sand over limestone, honeycombed with solution holes.
The layer just above the limestone was a hard breccia of minute bone and
shell fragments in marl.
Test results are given stratigraphically in the accompanying tabulation.
No 8-12 inch zone is shown for Pits IV and V as the underlying limestone
was encountered at a depth of eight inches in these pits. Pottery types are
illustrated in the previous article (Laxson, 1953).
As the tabulation shows, Glades Tooled sherds were limited to or
heavily concentrated in the superior 0-4 inch zone in all five tests. Clearly
this superior zone may be classified as of the Glades III period, post 1125
A.D. (Goggin, 1950, pp. 10-11).
Of considerable interest was the finding of a single San Marcos Stamped
sherd in the 0-4 inch zone of Test II. Such pottery is representative of the
St. Augustine period of northeastern Florida, circa 1600-1720 A.D. (Goggin,
1950, p. 10). So far as is known this is the southern most point at which an
example of this ceramic type has been found.
This zone also contained all of the eight blue glass beads uncovered.
These beads are typical of those used by Seminole during the 19th century.
TABLE 1. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SHERD TYPES.
Pit I Pit II Pit III Pit IV Pit V
0-4 4-8 8-12 0-4 4-8 8-12 0-4 4-8 8-12 0-4 4-8 0.4 4-8 Totals
San Marcos Stamped 1 1
Shell-coquina-tempered, plain 1 1 2
St. Johns Check Stamped 2 1 5 3 1 12
St. Johns Plain 1 1 1 1 4 6 2 16
Glades Tooled 2 5 2 2 1 14 1 27
Glades Red 1 1 2
Glades paste, black paint 1 1 2
Thickened Glades Plain rims 1 2 2 2 1 8
Glades Plain 32 47 34 134 62 7 66 40 8 51 40 110 73 704
Belle Glade Plain 4 2 2 5 2 15
Variant, Opa Locka Incised 1 1
Miscellaneous brushed 1 1
Miscellaneous incised 1 1
Totals 34 49 34 141 69 7 75 46 8 71 56 126 76 792
Faceted blue glass beads 1 1 5 1 8
Small short bone point 1 1
Short bone points 1 4 5
Fragment bone pin 1 1
Small bone awl 1 1
Cut shell 1 1
Strombus Celt 1 1
Totals 1 2 1 5 1 5 1 2 18
Bits of iron, large pieces of turtle bone, and several Cal. 30-40 Krag car-
tridge cases, adopted by the U. S. Army in 1893, also were found in this
zone and on the surface. They may pertain to Seminole using the hammock
or to other hunters around the turn of the century.
The 0-4 inch top zone of IIialeah No. 2 contains evidence of the use
of this hammock by at least three if not four groups of people the aborigines
of Glades III times, possible refugees from the St. Augustine area, Seminole,
and the users of Krag rifles.
In spite of the lack of definitively decorated sherds such as Key Largo
Incised, it may be suggested that lower zones represent Glades H times.
Lack of Glades Tooled sherds would so argue. At IIialeah No. 1, short
bone points were limited to Glades II deposits. Presence of these points
in Pits I and IV between depths of four and eight inches, and their absence
at higher elevations in both middens, also would argue that the lower zones
at IIialeah No. 2 are Glades II in date.
One or two of these bone points seem to have some black material
adhering to them. It may be pitch or asphaltum used to fasten them to shafts.
Food remains include crabs, snails, and clams, Busycon, Strombus gigas
and Macrocalista shell fish, fish vertebrae, sharks, turtles, snakes, and
alligators. Mammals are represented by bones of the opossum, otter (Lutra
canadensis), rabbit, deer, gray fox (Urocyon cinereus argenteus), and deer.
The only identified bird bone is the beak of the white egret (Casmerodium
This list is extensive, compared with many archaeological sites, probably
because conditions for the preservation of bone were favorable. Apparently,
the aborigines at the midden were omnivorous. Attention is called to food
originating at the coast or in the ocean, indicating the inhabitants may have
ranged over a fairly large area for their sustenance. The old slough, men-
tioned earlier, may have been important to them as an avenue to other areas.
Appreciation is expressed here for the help of the following people:
Mr. Jack Christiansen, owner of the land; Prof. Roy Woodbury of the Univer-
sity of Miami for identification of the flora, Mr. Richard Hessler, of Miami
Edison, who collected the butterflies; Dr. Iarley B. Sherman of the Univer-
sity of Florida, for identification of mammals; Dr. Pierce Brodkorb for identi-
fication of the bird beak; Mr. Ripley P. Bullen, curator of social sciences,
Florida State Museum, for invaluable aid on typology and preparation of the
manuscript; Mr. Robert Master, of Florida Power and Light, and Mr. Noel
IIerrman, of Eastern Air Lines, for help with the digging and screening, the
aerial photos and the map.
Goggin, John M.
1950. "Florida Archeology 1950." The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. 3, Nos. 1-2. Gainesville.
Laxson, D. D.
1953. "Stratigraphy at a Hialeah Midden." The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol 6, No. 1. Gainesville.
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