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Aft" owl A
41 1 W-
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Two Field Trips
------------------ -Fletcher Martin 35
Perico Island: 1950
- - - - --Ripley P. Bullen 40
A New Interpretation of the Carrabelle Site
- - - - -Robert MacDonald 45
The Snapper Creek Site
------------------ -John M. Goggin 50
Review Here They Once Stood, the Tragic End of the Apalachee
Missions by Mark F. Boyd, Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin
------------------- John M. Goggin 65
Contributors to this Issue
Published at the University of Florida
c--- __--__ __'
I-^j- j ^ ^^-^-
The following sketches were made during two trips to Indian sites which I made with my friend
John Goggin. Pictorially the activity was more interesting at Ichtucknee but at both places the
gestures of the people at work made good subjects.
The drawing above shows one of the many small boils which flow together to form the Ichtucknee
River. Those on the following page of the figures in the water show the manner of digging in a clear
stream. A glass bottom bucket or diving goggles are used to look into the water. The sand on the
bottom is agitated with tho hand and the current carries it away slowly uncovering new areas of the
I found the work at both sites fascinating and my wife and I were both properly excited each time
we found any small artifact.
Our joy was soon tempered because we had to surrender our prizes to our host in the name of
science. Despite this we have become enthusiastic amateur archeologists.
CCaL- Jap LAt
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ir~i I i iI ~--
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PERICO ISLAND: 1950
Ripley P. Bullen
On May 25, 1950, I was able to visit and make some tests at Perico
Island, type site of the Perico Island Period in the Manatee Region of the
Florida Gulf Coast. The burial mound and cemetery of this site were exca-
vated in 1933-34 by Marshall T. Newman who also dug a trench, 25 feet long
and 5 feet wide, in the smaller of the two shell middens present. This trench
produced Biscayne Plain (chalky), Glades Plain (sand-tempered), Perico Plain
(limestone-tempered), Perico Incised, Perico Linear Punctated, and St. Simons
Plain (fiber-tempered) sherds. Designs on Perico Incised sherds were similar
to those sometimes found on fiber-tempered pottery.
Newman's notes did not indicate the temporal relationships between these
pottery types and it was hoped our tests would produce the needed stratigrapb-
ic data. Although unsuccessful in that respect, it seems worthwhile to record
our data to supplement that reported by Willey.1
The site is located along the western shore of Perico Island in Section 27,
Range 16 E, Township 34 S, six miles west of Bradenton, Florida. It borders
Sarasota Pass which connects Sarasota Bay with Tampa Bay. Willey, from
Newman's notes, describes the site as consisting of two units: to the north,
a large shell midden connected at its southern end by a shell ridge to a
burial mound, and, to the south, a small shell midden from the southern end
of which another shell ridge continues. To the east of the shell ridge connect-
ing the burial mound and the larger midden was the cemetery area. Willey
mentions that before removal of shell for commercial purposes, the southern
midden was probably larger than it was in 1933-34.
Results of our examination, which was very cursory, differ slightly from
those presented by Willey. The entering road crosses the site just north of a
large, slightly dome-shaped field composed of sand and shells and sparsely
covered with weeds. This area we took to be the burial mound. Extending to
the north is a shell ridge or midden, about 5 feet high, leading to the large,
northern midden. A considerable portion of this large midden has been removed
for commercial purposes. To the south we did not note any clean cut break
between the burial mound and the southern shell midden. There is, however,
a slight suggestion that shell has been removed from the northern end of the
southern midden, i.e. between it and the burial mound.
As indicated above, the shell ridge or midden, between the burial mound
1For results of Newman's work and a discussion of the site, see Willey, 1949, pp.
and the large midden, is not a low, narrow walkway such as may be seen at
Terra Ceia and Shaws Point. It is a shell and black dirt midden supporting a
good growth of grass and trees. The smaller midden, to the south, is composed
predominantly of crushed shells practically devoid of black dirt. It supports a
weak growth consisting of such plants as cacti and Spanish bayonets.
Some distance south of the burial mound we found evidence of a ditch,
about 30 feet long and 5 feet wide, extending into the smaller midden from
its western periphery. Undoubtedly, this was the trench dug by Newman even
though Willey's account has the trench entering from the eastern instead of
the western periphery.
We excavated two stratigraphic tests, both 5 feet square. One was located
in the shell midden a short distance north of the burial mound (Test A below)
and the other in the smaller midden, 10 feet west of its center line and 20
feet north of Newman's trench (Test B below). Material was removed and
bagged by arbitrary 1-foot levels.
Test A uncovered a homogeneous deposit, 5 feet 8 inches thick, of shells
and black dirt (sand, charcoal, and nitrogenous material) resting on gray
sand. Whole shells, presumedly as a result of trampling, were mixed into the
top 6 to 8 inches of this, otherwise sterile, sand. Marine shellfish remains
included Venus, Busycon, Spisula, Fasciolaria, Pecten, Strombus, Macrocal-
lista, Dinocardium, Polinices, 4elongena, and Ostrea (sp.) shells. The land
snail, Euglandina, was also present. Oyster shells were rare throughout the
deposit but more frequent towards the bottom.
Sherds from Test A are listed in Table 1. Other items consisted of a sand-
stone grindstone, a piece of limestone, a fragment of red ochre (?), and three
deer and two fish bones in the top foot; a piece of limestone, a fragment of
marl, and two bird bones in the second foot; a Fasciolaria columellar pounder,
a perforated Pecten shell, three fish bones and a tooth like that of a porpoise
in the third foot; a piece of limestone, the tip of a Busycon pick (?), a Busy-
con pounder, and three fish and two deer bones in the fourth foot; and another
fish and another mammal bone between depths of four and five feet.
At Test B, in the smaller midden, water was encountered at a depth of
three feet which prevented excavation below a depth of about four feet. Red-
brown stains at a depth of 2% feet indicated high water mark. To the exca-
vated depth of about 4 feet, a homogeneous deposit of crushed shells contain-
ing an occasional whole shell was found. Shells were the same types as at
The deposit at Test B was virtually devoid of dirt or other debris except
for sherds, pebbles, and, rarely, a fragment of animal bone. All sherds, except
three, were eroded and rounded as if they had been exposed on a working
beach. Explanation of this situation is difficult. Presumedly, the shells were
crushed by trampling and small, angular movements, caused by tidal action,
ground and rounded the edges of sherds. Similarly, black dirt, etc., may be
presumed to have washed away.
Sherds are listed in Table 2. Other material included a perforated Venus
shell and a fragment of deer bone from the 1 to 2 foot zone; five limestone and
sandstone pebbles, three deer and two fish bones from the 2 to 3 foot zone;
and a piece of bone and three pebbles from a depth of greater than 3 feet.
Table 1. Distribution of Potsherds in Test A
Depths in feet 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 Spoil
Biscayne Plain 2
Belle Glade Plain 1
Pasco Plain 1
Perico Plain 1
Smooth Plain 16 1 1 2
Glades Plain 8 22 11 8 2 6
Totals 26 24 12 10 2 8
Table 2. Distribution of Potsherds in Test B
Depths in Feet 0-1 1-2 2-3 Below 3 Spoil
Plain, Lake Jackson paste 1
Pasco Plain 1 2
Perico Plain 1
Glades Plain 15 64 35 8
Totals 1 16 67 35 8
Twenty-seven sherds were found on the surface of the burial mound area
and on the top and sides of the northern part of the smaller midden. These pot-
tery fragments included one Gulf Check Stamped, one sand-tempered with
contorted paste, four semi-chalky, and twenty-one Glades Plain sherds.
In excavating the burial mound Newman found 496 sherds of which 8 or
1.6% were limestone-tempered. Presumedly, the burial mound went with the
northern midden where our test produced 82 sherds (including those from the
spoil) of which 2 or 2.4% were limestone-tempered. This sample checks well
with Newman's inventory for the burial mound. While quantities are small, it
should be noted from the table that the limestone-tempered sherds were rela-
tively deep, implying that limestone tempering, as a trait, was present rela-
tively early in this part of the site. It may have lasted later than our data
Our test in the smaller midden does not agree at all well with results
secured by Newman. We failed to find any Perico Incised, Perico Linear
Punctated, or fiber-tempered sherds. Newman's trench produced 281 Perico
Plain (limestone-tempered) and. 229 Glades Plain (sand-tempered) while we
found only 4 limestone-tempered sherds out of a total of 127 sherds. It seems
certain we did not penetrate the same deposits.
This discrepancy may be readily explained by assuming we would have
found more limestone-tempered and some fiber-tempered pottery if we had
been able to dig to the base of the deposit. This might be implied by the rel-
atively deep provenience of the two limestone-tempered sherds found in Test
In spite of the rather small quantities of limestone-tempered sherds in-
volved this'is a rather convincing argument. We excavated about one-fifth
(20%) as much area as Newman in the small midden and found 127 sherds
which is greater than one-fifth of 552, his total number of sherds. If the
ratio of limestone-tempered to sand-tempered pottery for this midden were
anything like 293 to 229, as suggested by Newman's data, we should have
found a very much higher percentage of limestone-tempered sherds. Such not
being the case, we can only conclude that the large quantity of limestone-
tempered pottery reported by him must have come from the lowest levels of
the small midden which were not penetrated by our test.
While present data do not justify any conclusions, it may be suggested as
a speculation that there was an early period at Perico Island when fiber-
tempered pottery was known and when fiber-tempered types of decoration were
transferred to limestone-tempered vessels (Perico Incised). This period prob-
ably was of very short duration and was followed by a much longer period
during which Glades Plain pottery dominated the ceramics of the area upon
a Deptford Santa Rosa-Swift Creek time horizon. The Deptford Bold Check
Stamped sherds secured by Newman from the burial mound and the Gulf
Check Stamped sherd found by us on the surface support such dating.
All burials at Perico Island were flexed. Such burials are found at Weeden
Island burial mounds of the Tampa Bay area only in sub-mound or basal
mound locations. Probably Perico Island was abandoned at about the time of
the introduction of Weeden Island ceramics. Subsequent to this abandonment,
limestone-tempering, as a trait, may have spread southward from north of the
Tampa Bay area, where it is known to have had a respectable antiquity,2 to
appear south of the bay in early Weeden Island times.3
In any event, our tests did not reveal the complete situation at Perico
Island. Additional tests should be made. These should cover a sufficiently
large area so that a good sample would be secured and confidence could be
placed on the results.
BULLEN, ADELAIDE K., AND RIPLEY P. BULLEN
1950. "The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida,"
American Antiquity, vol. 16, pp. 23-45. Menasha, Wise.
BULLEN, RIPLEY, P.
N.D. The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida. Manuscript.
WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949. "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast," Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, vol. 113. Washington.
Florida Park Service
2Bullen and Bullen, 1950.
A NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE CARRABELLE SITE
Robert MacDona Id
The portion of the Carrabelle archaeological site dealt with in this paper
is a shell midden about one-half a mile east of the Carrabelle Site proper.1
This site, like the Carrabelle Site is on the Gulf of Mexico coast, 1.2 miles
east of the town of Carrabelle. It is cut through by Florida Highway 30A
which has exposed midden refuse. The site extends along the beach about
300 yards, and is bound on the north and south limits by small fresh water
sloughs. The southern slough is vegetated with scrub oak and palmetto and
does not appear to have been connected previously with the nearby salt water,
as it is separated by about 100 feet of land exclusive of the road fill. The
northern slough, which is actually a shallow pond and clear of vegetation
except for sawgrass growing in muck beds, had obvious connection with the
Gulf, which is broken only by the present road fill. Shell and sherds are to
be noted along the road and beach to the vicinity of Willey's excavations.
This suggests that the two sites may be one large site, and this assumption
is supported by the results of the test excavation to be described. Inland
extent of the site is uncertain but appears to be about 800 feet.
Three test squares were excavated on two successive week-ends. Square
A was put in the first day, excavated through level 5, closed up, and reopened
and excavated through level 6 to sterile soil the following week-end. Squares
B and C were put in on the second week-end, excavated through levels 2 and 3
respectively, and closed. The latter two squares appear to have been in wind-
disturbed beach deposits and the results of the excavations in those pits are
therefore disregarded in this paper, except to note that all the sherds recover-
ed from them are pre-Weeden Island types.2
Square A, which was in an apparently undisturbed area, was excavated
in levels of varying depth in an attempt to correlate sherd counts and types
with soil conditions and shell deposits. The pit was a 3 foot square and was
oriented to a north-south axis. In levels 1 and 2 (both 6 inch levels) and
level 3 (a 4 inch level) shell comprised about 60 per cent of a context of
dark gray sand. At the bottom of level 3 charcoal stains and fragments were
noted in the northern half of the pit, 15 to 16 inches below ground surface.
Dark gray sand continued into level 4 (4 inch level) but there were few shells
(about 20 per cent) and little animal and fish bone scrap. Charcoal fragments
were present in this level. At the beginning of level 5 (4 inch level) 20 inches
below ground surface, shell percentage increased to 80 per cent with accompa-
1This site carries the designation of Fr-2, See Willey, 1949, pp. 38-47.
2All period types mentioned herein are based on those defined in Willey, 1949.
nying black midden soil and more bone was found in this level. These condi-
tions prevailed through level 6 (6 inch level) to 30 inches at which point the
refuse disappeared. The northeast quarter was extended through sterile gray
sand to 50 inches; under 50 inches there was sterile yellow-brown sand.
The same shell species were found in each level, varying only in number
of individuals per level. These included the common oyster (Ostrea virginica),
the cross-barred Venus (Chione cancellata), the channeled whelk (Busycon
canaliculatus), the calico shell (Pecten gibbus), and the leafy rock oyster
(Chama macrophylla). The channeled whelk and leafy rock oyster were largely
in the first two levels, while the others were found about equally throughout.
Some coquina shells (Donax variabilis) were present in all levels. Fish and
turtle bones were present in all levels. Skate jaws were found in the upper
Table 3. Numerical and Percentile Distribution of Potsherds, Square A
4- -J ~ I ^
1 4(12.9) 4(12.9) 2(06.5) 2(06.5) 19(61.3) 31
2 2(12.5) 1(06.3) 2(12.5) 2(12.5) 9(56.3) 16
3 1(20.0) 1(20.0) 1(20.0) 1(20.0) 1(20.0) 5
4 1(100.0) 1
5 3(23.0) 1(07.6) 1(07.6) 4(30.7) 4(30.7) 13
6 1(100.0) 1
Total 6(09.0) 6(09.0) 3(04.5) 1(01.5) 6(09.0) 4(06.0) 8(11.9) 4(06.0) 28(41.8) 67
Ceramic stratigraphy in Square A is somewhat confusing, inasmuch as
four sherds of fiber-tempered ware were found in levels 1 and 2, two in each
level. They were underlain by Deptford-type sherds which are generally con-
sidered to have followed the fiber-tempered pottery period on the Northwest
Coast. The pit is, to all appearances, undisturbed and no rodent burrows were
noted; so the assumption must be made that they are in stratigraphic sequence.
The other pottery types from the square are: Deptford Linear Check Stamped,
Deptford Simple Stamped, Deptford Simple Stamped ("Crossed variety"), Gulf
Check Stamped, West Florida Cord Marked, Fabric-impressed ware (the latter
three on Deptford paste), a fingernail punctated (or incised) type, unclassified
Plain wares A and B, and residual Plain (also on Deptford paste). The finger-
nail punctated (or incised) type, is a rim sherd with slightly outflaring rim
and two rows of shallow fingernail imprints or ticks (about 8 per inch) on a
gritty paste.3 One sherd each of unclassified Plain A and B were found;
type A in level 1, and type B in level 2. They are described as follows:
Unclassified Plain Type A
Method of manufacture: Coiling
Temper: Fine Sand.
Paste texture and color: Almost chalky and slightly contorted.
Surface texture and color: Smoothed to low polish, chalky feel.
Exterior gray-black; interior whitish
Thickness: 3 mm.
Unclassified Plain Type B
Method of manufacture: Coiling.
Temper: Medium to small grit particles.
Paste texture and color: Gritty. Red to about 2 mm. of interior.
Surface texture and color: Smoothed to low polish, slightly
gritty feel Exterior red; interior black.
Type A is similar to Florida East Coast St. Johns types, and Type B may
be related to Alabama and Georgia types.
Non-ceramic materials were not common, consisting only of chert spalls,
two of which were found in level 1 of Square A. Six chert chips came from
Any conjectures concerning the history of this site, or any inferred
typological relationships are necessarily limited by such factors as the
small size of the area excavated and the inadequate amounts of material
recovered. Keeping these facts in mind, however, it is still permissible to
advance tentative hypotheses in an attempt to explain the nature and occur-
ence of the deposit.
3Dr. John M. Goggin has pointed out the close similarity between this sherd and the
type Fort Drum Incised from Glades I, late in South Florida. This paste is similar
as is the use of short, slightly curved, incised ticks. However, these are in vertical
rows rather than horizontal rows.
The percentage occurence of sherds and refuse indicates that the periods
of most intensive occupation took place during the deposition of levels 1, 2,
and 5 (see table 1). Levels 5 and 6 showed about equal amounts of midden
deposit, but the one sherd from level 6 contrasted with thirteen from level 5
seems to indicate an increase in the use of pottery in the later stages of
occupancy. This may have been the result of development of' the art within a
single group, with an accompanying population growth; or it may have been
caused by the displacement of a group who placed little emphasis on the use
of pottery by other peoples whose ceramic technology was relatively more
advanced; or a combination of the two events. The latter solution was prob-
ably the case, since the type found in the bottom level (an early cord-marked
variety) continues into the later occupations in levels 5 and 3, but new types
are introduced in level 5, including the marker type for the Deptford Period,
Deptford Linear Check Stamped.4
A period of little or no occupancy followed the heavy deposits of level
5, in which a context of lighter colored soil, fewer shells (20 per cent), and
only one sherd (a fabric impressed design) was present. Several explanations
for this abandonment indicated in level 4, could be presented and all would
be equally pausible. Destruction of the settlement by a violent storm, a de-
cline in the shellfish or fish supply, or migration caused by pressure from
neighboring peoples: any of these factors could have caused the break in
habitation. It is equally possible that the people simply moved to a different
portion of the site during this period.
The heaviest concentration of cultural remains was in the upper three
levels, with the frequency increasing on a graded scale from level 3 to level
1. This indicates reoccupation of the area in a gradual increase in intensity
over an unknown time period. A slight ecological shift is noted in the presence
of conch and leafy rock oyster shells, as these species were virtually absent
in the lower levels.
Nothing can be stated positively concerning the chronological position
and relationships of this site because of inadequate evidence. However, it
may be postulated with some assurance that, judging from materials at hand,
the site is an almost pure Deptford site, possibly carrying over into the ear-
liest stages of Santa Rosa-Swift Creek. One complicated stamped sherd from
level 2 of Square B and two from level 3 of Square C (all early types) were
found. As mentioned, the disturbed nature of these squares precludes accurate
stratigraphic correlations; but the presence of the complicated stamped type
indicates later Swift Creek occupation of the area. The possibility exists
that complicated stamping originated in the Deptford Period, but this cannot
4A Deptford Linear Check Stamped sherd with a red painted interior with traces on the
exterior was found on the surface.
be demonstrated with the evidence at hand. What can be said, however, is that
all the types found in Square A could very well have originated in Deptford
The presence of fiber-tempered pottery in the upper levels confirms, in my
opinion, Willey's hypothesis that this type did not reach the Gulf Coast until
the Deptford was well entrenched in the region. The presence of the foreign
pottery types in the upper three levels indicates that fairly extensive trade
had been established with the East Coast, the Glades area, and the Alabama-
Georgia area at this early time. Glades I is equated with Deptford in Goggin's
(1950) new chronology and this fits in part the position I have given the site.
The problem of fabric-decorated sherds is still unsolved in this area, but the
results of this excavation would indicate that the practice originated during
the earliest periods.
The affiliations of this site with others in the near vicinity are obscure.
The results of this pit are similar to those obtained by Willey at Fr-2 in his
excavations nearest the beach. Willey contends that the cemetery excavated
by Moore (1918) was the burial area for his (Willey's) village site. If true,
then the site discussed in this paper appears to be also related to Moore's
site, and in addition, an areal extension of Fr-2. Willey does not offer a
satisfactory explanation for the discrepancy between Moore's Deptford
materials and his own Weeden Island materials obtained from other exca-
vations a few hundred feet farther inland. The conclusion to be inferred is
that there is still an unlocated Weeden Island burial mound in this area.
WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949. "Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast," Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 113. Washington, D. C.
GOGGIN, JOHN M.
1950. "Florida Archeology--1950," The Florida Anthropologist,
vol. 3, pp. 9-20. Gainesville, Florida
MOORE, CLARENCE B.
1918. "The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited," Journal of
the Academy of Natural Sciences, vol. 16, pp. 557-560.
Florida State University
THE SNAPPER CREEK SITE
John M. Goggin
Snapper Creek was formerly one of the few streams draining the Everglades
south of Miami, Florida. In contrast to similar streams which cut through the
rock ridge bordering the glades, this flowed much of its course underground
emerging in a rock pothole near the eastern edge d the ridge. From there it
flowed in a narrow channel through the rock and thence through the mangroves
to Biscayne Bay.
The spot where the creek appeared was locally strategic to man since
fresh water was not conveniently found for some distance to the north or
south. It apparently appealed to the early Indians for a refuse midden is now
found here (NE4 of SW%, Sec. 7, T.55 S, R.41 E). Because of interesting
material found on its surface and in view of the steadily increasing disturb-
ance of the site by modern occupancy some limited excavations were carried
out in September, 1950.1
PREVIOUS ARCHEOLOGICAL WORK
The site (Da 9) appears to have escaped archeological attention until
visited by the writer and Charles M. Brookfield in June, 1947.2 At that time
a series of artifacts were collected which are now in Yale Peabody Museum.
Another small collection, made by H. H. Brix in 1903, was purported to
have come from Snapper Creek, and is now in the American Museum of Natural
History (cat. no. 20/138-40). Inasmuch as this collection contains as the
dominant type Biscayne Check Stamped pottery, it is doubtful if this is the
site from which it came. None was found in our work and all of our material
was considerably earlier. Perhaps there is another, as yet unlocated site in
A number of years ago in the course of the Everglades drainage program
a canal was cut through the rock ridge following in part the old course of
Snapper Creek. This cut through the refuse deposit leaving a small section
1Thia paper is a contribution from the research program of the Department of Sociology
and Anthropology, University of Florida, made possible by a grant from the Viking
Fund, Inc. Appreciation is expressed to Charles Deering McCormick, for obtaining
permission for our excavation from the owner, the Charles Deering Estate.
2Da 9 is the site designation in the University of Florida-Florida State University
archeological site survey (Goggin, 1950c).
on the north bank, and a larger on the south. The southern part now measures
approximately 100 feet (NE-SW) from the canal to its end at the now dry bed
of old Snapper Creek. The width is from 50 to 75 feet. Sherds are found over
a much wider area particularly in the rocks around the old stream bed.
Where not cleared the vegetation is a thick tropical hammock on the three
landward sides. Soil is virtually non-existant except for pockets in the uneven
eroded oolitic limestone which appears at the surface of the ground everywhere,
except when covered by Indian refuse deposits.
The long axis (NE-SW) of the midden is parallel to, and on the very edge
of the rock ridge and is built on its sloping face. To the eastward is an ex-
tensive mangrove swamp. However, directly in front of the center of the mid-
den is a deep hole in the rocks which was formerly a spring. Even now it
holds water but its salinity varies with the rains.
At the present time the midden is the backyard of the caretaker's house.
It is partially occupied with poultry yards and shelters and the remainder has
been cultivated as a garden in years past. The site then has been subjected
to a greater or less disturbance in most parts.
The highest and least disturbed appearing part of the site was chosen for
excavation and an initial five-foot trench (Trench 1) fifteen feet long was
staked out parallel to the long axis of the midden. Starting at the south end
(0') five-foot squares were marked. Subsequently another square was added to
the south end of the trench and designated as 0' to -5'. Trench 2 was immedi-
ately adjacent to the No. 1 on the west side; only one section (10'-15') was
dug. In all, five squares were excavated. A more extensive excavation had
been planned but mosquitoes cut our work short.3
Excavation was carried out in arbitrary four-inch levels to bed rock.
After the final level first reached rock all pockets were included in that
level. Thus, due to the uneven rock surface the bottom level varies from
1 to 10 inches deep in places. Four levels were excavated in each square.
They are numbered in order 1 to 4 from the bottom up.
The "minus" section of Trench 1 was not extended further because of,
rising-bed rock. It first appeared in square 0' to -5' at approximately 4"
deep, covered a fifth of the square at 8" and more than three-fifths at 12"
3All digging was done by voluntary labor. I am very grateful to Charles D. McCormick,
Gaines Wilson, Mary Spangenberg, and Nani Goggin, and to the University of Florida
students, Mr. and Mrs. Paul D. Hahn, and Robert Spangenberg. Without their interest-
ed help this project could not have been carried out.
deep. Elsewhere no rock was found until after the 12" level.4
The refuse deposit was composed of black dirt with a small proportion
(less than 10 percent) of shell and animal bones. The shells include Busycon
sp., Strombus gigas sp., Cypraea sp., Fasciolaria gigantea, Fasciolaria
tulipa, Venus sp., Macrocallista sp., Lucina sp., and an oyster drill. Bone
remains have not been completely identified but include as the most common
forms (in order) turtle, deer, and fish. Less common are shark, small mammal,
and bird bones while alligator and ray remains are scarce. Crab claws were
found in three surface sections only, and may represent recently killed land
crabs which are numerous in the vicinity. One human tooth also came from a
Other unusual foreign material was present. Included are fourteen frag-
ments of pumice occurring in all parts of the excavation and at all depths.
This material, useful to the Indians for its abrasive qualities, is float brought
to Florida on the Gulf Stream. One hard crystalline rock fragment may be
part of a stone celt or other tool, it is not a native Florida stone. Two flint
chips found are rare in this part of the state where the stone is not native.
Both were in the lower two levels.
Artifacts were relatively abundant in all parts of the site. Only in section
0' to -5' was there a significant variation in quantity. This is explainable in
terms of the rock outcropping, occupying so much bulk of the section. In all
2789 sherds came from the excavation and 42 from the surface. Along with
these are 43 other excavated artifacts. Stratigraphically there is some varia-
tion in general quantity. Level 4 has definitely the least, with the bulk of the
artifact material-in levels 2 and 3.
Some differences in the distribution of materials are noticeable. For pur-
poses of this study all materials from Trench I, 0' to 15' and Trench II, 10' to
15' will be pooled by level and discussed as a single sample. Trench I, 0'
-5' will not be included because the rock outcrop produced a situation not
comparable to the other sections.5
Three major groups of potsherds can be first considered (Table 4): the
Glades series, the Goodland series, and the Biscayne series. There seems
40n completion of excavation and after refilling iron pipes were left as corner markers
in the eastern side of Trench 1 at points -5' and 15'.
5Detailed section by section counts are on file and are available for students. It is not
thought that the expense of reproducing them in detail would be warranted.
Table 4. Percentile Frequency of Pottery by Series
Levels Glades Series Good land Series Biscayne Series Total
tobe little significant difference in their distribution through the site. In
level 3 the Glades series does show a small decrease with a gain in both of
the other two groups. However, it appears too small to be of major significance.
Turning to the Glades series itself we can analyze it in terms of plain and
decorated forms. The percentile frequency of these forms is given in Table 5.
It will be noted that only rim sherds are compared. These types are all forms
Table 5. Percentile Frequency of Glades Series Rim Sherds
Level Glades Fort Drum Fort Drum Opa Locka Unclassified Total
Plain Punctated Incised Incised Incised (by number)
4 66.66 14.28 4.76 4.76 9.52 21
3 55.91 27.95 12.90 2.15 1.07 93
2 66.66 17.46 12.70 1.58 1.58 63
1 97.77 2.22 45
of the same basic ware, and decoration when present is only in the rim area.
Thus body sherds cannot be distinguished and are classified as Glades Plain.
An examination of Table 5 reveals some changes through the occupation
of the site. In the lowest level decorated forms are very rare, being only
2.22% (1 sherd). But in the next level they are abundant comprising over 33%
of the total and for the remainder comprise as much or more.
There is some variation in frequency of the decorated types themselves.
Opa Locka Incised, never common, does increase slowly but consistently in
quantity, while both Fort Drum Punctated and Fort Drum Incised reach a peak
in level 3 and then decline in level 4. In the case of Fort Drum Incised the
difference between levels 2 and 3 is not too great while the decrease in
level 4 is considerably more. At present this cannot be interpreted.
Artifacts other than pottery occurred in some quantity and variety. They
are found in all sections but Trench I, 0' to 5' and are summarized in Table 6.
Table 6. Numerical Frequency of Other Artifacts
Levels 4 3 2 1 Total
Busycon pick A 1 1
Strombus celt 3 3 2 4 12
Stone celt fragment 1 1 1 3
Columella hammer (?) 1 1
Hammer grindstone 1 1
Notched Shark tooth 1 1 2
Flat grinding stone 1 1
Sherd hone 1 1
Socketed bone point 1 1
Worked Sailfish bill 1 1
Bone spatula fragment 1 1
Bone pin and fragments 3 6 5 1 15
Shell square (?) 1 1
Fractured shell tip 1 1 2
Perforated shark vertebrae 1 2 3
Worked bone 1 1 2
Most occur in such small numbers that no significance can be concluded from
their distribution. Strombus celts and bone pin fragments are most numerous
but still occur so rarely, but in every level as to show no important con-
Modern materials, iron, glass and chinaware were common in all surface
le-els. Occasional specimens were found as deep as level 2. This is under-
standable in view of the long occupation of the site in modern times. We also
have fragments of the same Indian vessel scattered through the top three
levels. In considering differences, between the levels then, these evidences
of disturbance should be kept in mind.
The decorated ceramic complex represented here, Fort Drum Punctated,
Fort Drum Incised, and Opa Locka Incised, enables the site to be placed
easily in the existing temporal sequence. Similar material was found in the
lower levels of Cane Patch and Bear Lake 1 (Goggin, 1950a) and at Onion
Key, and Tamiami Trail 3 (unpublished notes).
In the discussion of its presence at the first two sites the relative posi-
tion of the Fort Drum types was recognized but in what temporal period they
belonged was uncertain. They were earlier than a period characterized by
Key Largo Incised pottery, the marker for Glades II, but Glades I had hither-
tofore been considered as having no decorated pottery. As a result no con-
clusion was reached as to the exact period of the Fort Drum types. Actually
data were not clear enough to indicate if they were contemporaneous with
Key Largo Incised or not (Goggin, 1950a: 245).
However, this question can be clearly answered now as a result of our
excavation here. The lack of Key Largo Incised in our sample is good evi-
dence of its absence at this time. Therefore, we can say that this site is
pre-Glades II as defined by the presence of Key Largo Incised. It should be
recognized then as Glades I, late, with Glades I, early, being the pre-decorated
Level 4 at this site is unusual in its low percentage of decorated material.
It is possible that here we have an horizon with little or no decorated pottery,
(the old Glades I by previous definitions), or Glades I, early.
The position of Opa Locka Incised is of interest. It is clearly present here
being represented by small but increasing quantities of material through time.
At Bear Lake I, it is also associated with Fort Drum Incised but in addition
with later material as it is at Cane Patch (Goggin, 1950a). It would seem to
be a type which bridges the two horizons, Glades I, late and Glades IIa,
appearing before Key Largo Incised but also contemporaneous with it. Other
unpublished data confirms this opinion.
In conclusion we can interpret our site as pre-Glades II and can call the
top three levels Glades I, late. The lowest level may represent a Glades I,
early horizon. On the basis of the new chronological chart the site would
have a date in the early centuries before the time of Christ (Goggin, 1950b,
Because this paper is limited in size, no detailed account of the artifacts
will be presented. Most are types already described in the literature (Goggin,
1950a; Goggin and Sommer, 1949; Willey, 1949) and others will be considered
in detail in a general paper on the Glades area now in preparation.
Potsherds were relatively abundant and quite interesting. As a whole this
site offers us the best series of Fort Drum types from the East Coast. Inas-
much as the site was predominantly occupied during a period when those
types were used, we have an excellent series for detailed study.
Glades Plain. This sand-tempered type was the predominate ware found.
Specimens were usually coarse and friable but it is not clear whether this is
wholly or partially due to their extreme weathered condition. Nevertheless,
the few in good condition are not well smoothed. Vessel shapes are similar
to decorated forms.
Goodland Plain. About 5 percent of the total sherds were represented by
this type. It is difficult to classify for it is very close to Glades Plain in
many respects but generally has a fine grit temper. It is intermediate between
gritty ware and chalky ware in general paste. Shapes are similar to Glades
Fort Drum Punctated. This type has a grit-tempered paste similar to
Glades Plain. Decoration is a row or rows of punctations on the rim just
below the lip. It is consistent in this respect, yet great variation is found
in size, number, and form of these punctates. These have been analyzed but
no particular temporal range can be noted for any style.
Hollow reed punctation, applied vertically, both large (Fig. 6,H) and small
is present on 7 sherds. These sherds with small punctates (Fig. 6,I,J) come
from a single globular vessel with a sharply inturned rim. Medium sized reed
punctation applied diagonally (Fig. 6,K) is present with 3 sherds from a
single vessel. A reed was also applied in a gouge like fashion leaving a
trough, but with the characteristic core at the end. Both 1 and 2 rows of these
punctates were applied. One row examples usually have continuous lines
(Fig. 6,N,Q,R). Five of these sherds, apparently from five different vessels
were found. Two interrupted rows of punctates appear on 5 sherds (Fig. 6,M)
all from the same vessel, a globular bowl with gently inturned rim.
Broad flat gouges made with a rough tool which left striation marks are
found on 5 sherds from 1 or 2 vessels (Fig. 6,U).
Irregular shaped punctations made with rough ended tools or unknown
tools occur on 16 sherds; 12 from 10 (?) vessels have one row (Fig. 6,O,P,
S,T), 3 have two rows and 1 has four rows. Finally, there are 2 sherds with
curved fingernail-like punctations.
Fort Drum Incised. The paste of this type is typical gritty ware of the
site. With few exceptions it is soft and friable and was apparently usually
not well finished. Fragments of one vessel are exceptional with a hard smooth
finish comparable to much later material.
The type typically is decorated with diagonal or vertical incised gashes
or ticks on the upper rim, lip, or from the lip down onto the rim. Several
forms of decoration are found here in the 21 rim sherds present which appar-
ently came from ten vessels.
L IiL-nL E 0 I77 )
O 8 Q
sF n ~
Fig. 6. Potsherds. A-F, Fort Drum Incised; G, Opa Locke Incised; H-U, Fort Drum
Punctated. (Scale 1/1)
Nine sherds are decorated with ticks on the rim. These are from 4 vessels.
A group of five sherds with right angled, neat, sharp but delicate ticks came
from a large globular bowl with inturned rim and rounded lip (Fig. 6,A,B).
Crude, bold, left angled ticks are found on three sherds from two vessels.
One vessel shape is a globular bowl with a moderately inturned rim and a
flat, slightly overhanging lip (Fig. 6,D). The other vessel shape cannot be
determined. A single sherd has fine but crudely incised vertical ticks on the
rim just below the lip.
Lip ticks are found on 12 sherds from 6 vessels. These can be divided
into those with fine but irregularly applied ticks or cuts on the lip and those
with wide, shallow incisions which are almost grooves and extend from the
lip onto the rim.
Two sherds from a single vessel have the latter form of decoration (Fig.
6,E). It was apparently made with a rough tool for fine striations may be
seen in the cuts.
The fine ticked rims are without exception narrow lipped vessels (Fig.
6,C,F). Two are large open bowls, two globular inturned rim vessels, and
one of indeterminate form.
Opa Locka Incised. As a group the four sherds of this type offer some
general variation from other forms. Four vessels are represented, two of
which are small, thin walled, globular, incurved rim vessels, two with flat
flanged lips and one with rounded lip. The fourth is a small sherd from what
may be an asymetrical bowl. Decoration in all cases is by a series of three
downward opening loops. They are usually delicate and many form only a
slight curve (Fig. 6,G) to more pronounced curves. One is bold and sloppy.
Unclassified incised gritty ware. Four weathered sherds from the same
vessel are unique. They are of a basically fine grit-tempered paste with
scattered fine to medium limestone inclusions. It is decorated with an overall
design in hatched incision. Several small surface holes may be punctations
but are more likely places where limestone tempering has leached out.
Busycon pick A. Two Busycon picks A were found in the excavation
and on the surface. They are 16 cm. and 12.5 cm. in length respectively,
and similar to others found elsewhere in the region (Goggin, 1950a, Fig. 79,X;
Goggin and Sommer, 1949 Pl. 5, A, C).
Strombus celt. A total of 17 whole celts and fragments were found in
our excavation and in surface collecting. These were all made from the
thick lip of the Strombus gigas shell. Whole (or nearly so) specimens meas-
ured as follows (maximum length and width): 11.7 by 5.2 cm., 11.5 by 6.3
cm., 11.5 by 5.8 cm., 9.8 by 5.4 cm., 8.8 by 4.7 cm., 8.6 by 4.6 cm., (Fig.
7,D), and 7.9 by 4.6 cm.
These are like others found in the area. They have been illustrated in
Goggin and Sommer (1949, P1. 5, F, G) and Willey (1949, P1. 11, A-D).
Stone celt fragment. Three fragments of fine grained, hard, foreign stone
show smooth worked surfaces. They are apparently fragments of a stone
celt, all perhaps from the same tool. It must have been a specimen 8 or 9 cm.
in length, with a blunt but rounded poll.
Columella hammer. A single weathered but possible specimen of this tool
was excavated. It is the central column of a Fasciolaria gigantea shell
neatly trimmed and showing use at the ends. A smaller fragment from the
surface shows much more use.
Hammer-grindstone. A piece of compact limestone, roughly rectangular
in shape, shows evidence of use as a hammer and as a grinding stone. A
grove on one face is similar to those on arrowshaft straighteners. It meas-
ures approximately 9.1 by 5.8 by 5.4 cm. No similar examples are known in
Notched shark teeth. Shark teeth were used extensively in southern
Florida for cutting purposes. They were tied to wooden handles (Cushing,
1896) and often attached through perforations at the base. In addition others
were secured by lightly notching the base of the tooth. This notching perhaps
served more to remove the sharp edge of the tooth, which would cut lashings
rather than to give a deep grove for holding. Two examples of notched teeth
were found here (Fig. 7,C). They measure 20 and 17mm. respectively.
Flat grinding stone. A small fragment (36 by 36 by 10 mm.) of coarse,
dense, sandy limestone is a piece of a once much larger grinding slab. One
surface is worn flat through use.
Sherd hone. A single potsherd (Glades Plain) was used as a hone or
sharpening tool. It bears a deep groove in one surface worn through use.
It probably was used for sharpening bone tools.
Socketed bone point. A single point fragment of a small socketed bone
point was present. These are sections of hollow, small, mammal or bird
bones shaped to a point with a transverse cut and a square cut base.
(Goggin, 1950a, Fig. 79, G; Willey, 1949, P1. 7, D-E).
Fig. 7. Bone and Shell Artifacts. A, bone pin; B, engraved head of bone pin; C,
notched shark tooth; D, Strombus celt. (Scale 2/3)
Worked sailfish bill. A tip fragment of the boney bill of a sailfish (or
marlin) was present. The point has been resharpened. It may have been a
Bone spatula fragment. The end fragment of a spatulate bone tool was
found. It is 17mm. wide with a concave point.
Bone pin and fragments. One of the most typical Indian ornaments in
South Florida was a well shaped, sometimes carved, ornamental bone pin,
apparently to be worn in the hair.
One almost complete specimen (Fig. 7,A,B) was found in Trench I (10'-
15', 4"-8"). It is a flat topped type with a cutout area below the head. This
probably was once inlaid, perhaps with tortoise shell. With the tip missing
it measures 12.9 cm.
Fifteen other fragments were found. These were mostly small tips (6),
or central sections (8) but included one basal piece. These are all too small
to be classified as to subtype.
Shell square. A section of Busycon sp. shell was apparently deliberately
given a roughly square (35 by 37 mm.) shape. The sides were formed by break-
ing but were partially ground. It is rather crudely formed and its function
is not known.
Fractured shell tip. A weathered tip of a Strombus gigas conch was found.
This questionable artifact has been discussed and illustrated previously
(Goggin, 1950a: 244, Fig. 79, Y).
Perforated shark vertebrae. Three large shark vertebrae were found which
show signs of deliberate perforation, presumably for suspension, perhaps as
ornaments. These are similar to others found in the region (Goggin, 1950a.
Fig. 79, A).
Worked bone. A section of deer bone 6.5 cm. long shows grinding on one
side but its function is not known.
A small section of well cut and polished deer (?) bone was perforated
with a biconicalhole 2 mm. in diameter. It was neatly drilled from two
The Snapper Creek site was occupied by a small group of Indians prob-
ably some 2000 years ago. All evidence indicates a continual occupation
of the site, probably for a period of several hundred years. The size of the
group at any one time was small, perhaps an average of 25 people. They
were similar in most respects to other small groups living at the same time
on the lower East Coast, south of Miami.
The region was especially attractive to Indians because of the fresh
water supply, although it is difficult to understand why it was abandoned
and never reoccupied. The people here had ready access to game in the
surrounding hammocks, pinewoods, and glades and to sea food in the waters
of Biscayne Bay. The abundant remains of animals and marine shells testify
to a usage of most of the major forms of animal food in the area. Undoubtedly
various plant foods were utilized. From our knowledge of later peoples it is
safe to assume that these too had no knowledge of agriculture.
No evidence of houses or other structures were found but it is quite
probable that the Indians had some form of shelter. It was possibly a simple
pole frame covered with thatch.
Technological skills were varied. Cutting tools of two types were made
from heavy conch shell in lieu of adequate hard local stone. These could be
ground to shape with available local stone grinding slabs. Bone too, was
shaped by grinding and sawing into projectile points.and ornaments. Fine
cutting work especially with wood and bone was possible with hafted sharks
Stone work was limited, on our evidence, to the preparation of such tools
as a grinding stone and the hammer-grinder. The two flint chips suggest a
knowledge of flint chipping, although that material is foreign to the area.
Esthetic developments are not noteworthy yet numerous bone pin frag-
ments testify to a least simple personal ornamentation. The pins when new
and complete, especially the inlaid ones, must have been quite attractive
with their good lines and fine polish.
Pottery decoration is the other artistic expression we can recognize at
this time. It is simple and often crude yet follows a deliberately conservative
pattern. This cultural norm clearly required (excepting a few examples) that
decoration, either tick-incised or punctated, be confined to the lip and rim
area of the vessel. Nevertheless, within this scope great variation was
Incision could be fine or coarse, right or left angling, and on lip or rim or
both. Punctation, too, was expressed with even wider latitude. Punctates
were solid or hollow; small or large; and round, irregular, or elongated. And
they were arranged in even or uneven rows of 1, 2 or 4 lines. The range with-
in which the artist was confined was a relatively narrow one, yet one
For all of the isolation here near the end of the peninsula, and with
their thorough utilization of the technological and subsistence potentialites
of the environment these people were, nevertheless, not completely isolated
from more distant regions to the north. The presence of flint chips and stone
celt fragments indicates northern contacts. Whether these people traveled
north themselves or received these objects after they had passed south
through many hands cannot be determined. However, tools from distant areas
were found useful.
We find in this flexibility somewhat of a parallel to the picture in ceramic
decoration. Here is a basic adherence to the local tool complex, yet a will-
ingness to incorporate exotic tools into their complex, if available, but no
desire to obtain a major supply of them. Flint, for example, could have been
obtained in much greater quantities.
It is fascinating, but perhaps dangerous to attempt to envision psycholog-
ical attitudes in the Snapper Creek culture with the little information we
have. Yet, it could certainly be considered as conservative in terms of its
basic internal consistency (and likeness to its neighbors). But it was not
the extreme conservativeness of many groups. Instead, we find socially
approved outlets for personal expression and experimentation which must
have satisfied certain desires among the inhabitants.
One hundred and twenty-five square feet were excavated in the Snapper
Creek Site, a small black dirt midden. Abundant potsherds and other re-
mains were revealed in four six-inch levels.
On analysis the decorated pottery was found to be predominately Fort
Drum Punctated and Fort Drum Incised with a few sherds of Opa Locka
Incised. The clear cut sample and grouping of this material has led to a
re-examination of the previous uncertain temporal placement of this
It now seems clear that the Fort Drum types proceed Key Largo Incised
and thus Glades II horizon. Their complex is now dated as Glades I, late.
Glades I, early is still reserved for the non-decorated pottery horizon,
which may be represented at the earliest level of the site.
CUSHING, FRANK H.
1896. "A Preliminary Report on the Exploration of Ancient Key-
Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida," Proceed-
ings, American Philosophical Society, vol, 35, pp. 329-448.
GOGGIN, JOHN M.
1950a. "Stratigraphic Tests in the Everglades National Park,"
American Antiquity, vol. 15, pp. 228-246. Menasha, Wise.
1950b. "Florida Archeology, 1950," The Florida Anthropologist,
vol. 3, pp. 9-20. Gainesville, Florida.
1950c. "The State-Wide Archeological Site Recording System,"
Laboratory Notes, No. 1 Anthropology Laboratory. University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
GOGGIN, JOHN M. AND FRANK SOMMER III
1949. "Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida," Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41. New
WILLEY, GORDON R.
1949. "Excavations in Southeast Florida," Yale University
Publications in Anthropology, No. 42. New Haven, Conn.
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Florida
Here They Once Stood, the Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions by Mark F.
Boyd, Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin. 189 pp., 12 pls., 5 figs., end paper
maps. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1951. $3.75.
This long awaited book is a combination of history and archeology pre-
sented in three separate papers with two appendices. Included are a histori-
cal summary of the decline of the Apalachee missions with a series of
source documents, and two accounts of archeological excavations in Spanish
mission period sites. Together these papers comprise an interesting and
Setting the background for the archeology is the historical paper by Dr.
Boyd. It comprises an excellent 19 page historical summary and 85 pages
of Spanish documents and notes covering the period 1698-1708. This is an
illuminating group of material presenting the events leading up to and
during the Carolinian invasion and destruction of Apalachee. They shed new
light on the history of these events and shatter the idlylic picture of peace-
ful Indians happily living in missions until rudely disrupted by the English
and their Allies.
Instead we see as a prelude to the English attack a tension-charged
region with the mission priests in the middle of conflicts between the ad-
ministration, Spanish settlers, and the Indians. Furthermore, the English
were not completely unwelcome in some places when they came. Although
some Indian groups fought valiently until defeated, others purchased the
freedom of their towns from destruction. Then too, there is a clear implica-
tion that when the English finally retreated they carried with them not only
captive Apalachee Indians but numerous willing mission deserters. For the
average student, without access to archival material, these documents will
be source material contributing to many specialized studies.
Section II, "A Spanish Mission Site in Jefferson County, Florida" by
Professor Smith is the final report on an important mission period site
(a preliminary account appeared in The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, nos.
1-2). Excavation revealed the remains of two small structures, while around
them were number ams Indian and Spanish potsherds and many other artifacts.
Although neither structure clearly appeared to be the remains of a church,
and even though no other structures were found in extensive trenching, it is
nevertheless thought by the authors that this was a mission settlement,
probably, in fact, San Francisco de Oconee. As the first complete report
on an excavated Spanish site in Florida this will stand as a landmark.
Brief exploratory excavations in an old fort and mission site, just west
of Tallahassee, are reported by Mr. Griffin in Section III, "Excavations at
the Site of San Luis." This brief account (21 pages) serves two main pur-
poses, first, it corroborates historic accounts of this site as being Spanish,
and second, it points out the rich rewards to come from a more extensive
excavation in this key site, and pivotal point of late Apalachee history.
The varied assemblage of Indian and European materials found in the exca-
tion is well discussed. It is hoped that Mr. Griffin will be able to do further
Two appendices complete the book. They comprise pottery type descrip-
tions and a trait list of the two excavated sites.
The volume as a whole is a fine example of book art, probably the best
yet produced by the University of Florida Press. In its preparation and
editing a professed aim was to make it more appealing to the general reader,
and to aid in this, material which is normally of interest only to the special-
ist was placed in appendices. The book is one which is worthy of a place in
every library, large or small, concerned with Florida archeology and history.
John M. Goggin
CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE
Fletcher Martin. Mr. Martin is an internationally known artist represented
in the major museums of the country. A former War Artist-Correspondent for
Life Magazine, he has also taught at several schools. At present he is Visit-
ing Professor of Art at the University of Florida
Ripley P. Bullen. Mr. Bullen presents in this issue one of a series of
reports on his research in the greater Tampa Bay area. He is Assistant
Archeologist, Florida Park Service.
Robert MacDonald. Mr. MacDonald is a student in Anthropology studying
under Professor Hale G. Smith at Florida State University.
John M. Goggin. Dr. Goggin teaches Anthropology at the University of
'Yi40-w- e- -oft -