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/tV9 PUBLISHED BY THE
'7FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Indian Sites at Florida Caverns State Park
--------------------------------Ripley P. Bullen 1
An Historic Indian Burial, Alachua County, Florida
--------------------------------John M. Goggin
Mary E. Godwin, Earl Hester, David Prange, Robert Spangenberg 10
Notes Concerning an Historic Site of Central Florida
-------------------------------Frederick W. Sleight 26
An Indian Mound at Hypoluxo, Palm Beach County
-------.------------------------Gilbert L. Voss 31
Recent Discoveries of Early Man
-------------------------------Frederick W. Sleight 34
A Southern Cult Specimen From Florida
......---------------------------John M. Goggin 36
Contributors to this issue-------------------------------- 38
Published at Gainesville, Florida
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Vol. II May, 1949 Nos. 1-2
INDIAN SITES AT FLORIDA CAVERNS STATE PARK
Ripley P. Bullen
Development of Florida Caverns State Park in 1940 produced pottery
and other evidence of occupation by Indians. As a result archeological
investigations were carried on in four places designated as: Parking
Area, Cave No. 10, Rock Shelter, and New Cave. Civilian Conservation
Corps personnel did the work under the technical supervision of J.
Clarence Simpson, Florida Geological Survey, who wrote a report on
the field work. Subsequently, collections were examined by Charles
H. Fairbanks of the National Park Service, who wrote a report on the
pottery. Neither report was published. At a much later date John W.
Griffin, Archaeologist, Florida Park Service, examined these caves
and found some more pottery.
This paper is based on these reports and on examination of the available
collections. Fortunately, both Simpson's and Fairbank's reports
supply many details. Considering the time which has elapsed since
excavation, these data are surprisingly complete.
Florida Caverns State Park is located on the Chipola River in north-
west Florida, three miles north of Marianna. A significant feature
of this area is the underlying limestone in which caves have been
formed. Some of these caves were used by Indians.
A small midden was excavated at the Parking Area. Sherds and other
debris were found in the upper six inches of the ground.
No fragments of bone or shell were discovered but they may be pre-
sumed to have disappeared as a result of leaching.
Pottery, comprising the bulk of the collection, includes the following
Ft. Walton Incised ........................ 6
Pinellas Incised .......................... 3
Lake Jackson Plain. ....................... 2
Fragments of handles ..................... 6
Miscellaneous incised ..................... 15
Miscellaneous punctated. .................... 2
Scored surface ........................... 1
Rims with broad, shallow notches across lips ..... 2
Plain rims, sand-tempered. .................. 52
Plain, sand-tempered .................... .676
Plain, limestone-tempered ................ .. 2
Total sherds ....... .f
Many of these sherds contain sizable limestone inclusions. The
limestone-tempered sherds differ from the others only in containing
a much greater amount of limestone.
Fairbanks' description of pottery from the Parking Area, based appar-
ently on 34 sherds, agrees closely with the above tabulation. He does,
however, mention a bold, incised, guilloche design bordered in one case
by two lines of triangular punctates, in another case by three lines of
square punctates. These designs were "very neatly executed just below
the lip." Fairbanks is evidently referring to a Ft. Walton Incised
vessel. Included among the Ft.. Walton Incised sherds in the above
tabulation are sherds with a boldly incised design bordered by two
lines of circular punctates. Sherds are not large enough to determine
if the design is a guilloche but the similarity to those mentioned by
Fairbanks is obvious.
Other material from the Parking Area includes five stemmed points,
two utilized flakes, a hammerstone, and nineteen chips all of chert.
Three of the points are illustrated in Figure 1 (D-F).
The other two are represented by basal fragments of similar points.
Utilized flakes are large chips the edges of which are chipped for or
by use. The hammerstone is a battered piece of chert, 7.5 cm. in
maximum dimension. A flat piece of sandy limestone, 9 by 7 by 1.5
cm., had been used as a sharpening stone. A more or less rounded
piece of limey claystone, 7.5 by 6 by 4 cm., shows cutting or scraping
marks. Apparently some type of ornament or effigy was being made
but the progress is insufficient to indicate the intended shape. Several
small rocks, a fragment of a stalactite, the fossil cast of the inside of
a clam, and a piece of cannel coal complete the lithic inventory. Bone
is represented by only one worked fragment.
The archaeological period represented by the midden at the Parking
Area is Fort Walton. We have here the remains of a small Indian
village of about 1450-1650 A.D. Data are insufficient for reconstruc-
tion of the life of this community, but from the small size of the midden,
only one or two families are indicated.
Cave No. 10
Entrance to this cave was through a low flat arch, approximately six
feet wide by two feet high, which extended fourteen feet as a low
tunnel to an irregularly shaped room. The latter was about thirty-
five feet across with a low ceiling averaging not more than four feet
ij uVVU U
0 I IN.
Fig. 1. Potsherds and stone points. A, potsherd, Cave No. 10; B-C, potsherds, from caves off
Park land; D F, stone points, Parking Area.
A line of control stakes, four feet apart, was -nstalled across the
center of this cave. An exploratory trench, two feet wide, was dug
beside these stakes and test pits made in all parts of the cave. The
balance of the pottery-producing layer was then peeled off and screened.
Cave deposits consisted of four strata or zones which decreased in
thickness as the rear of the cave was approached. Near the entrance
tunnel was a superior zone of sterile soil representing relatively recent
wash. This layer was three inches thick at Stake 1 but extended less
than sixteen feet towards the rear of the cave. Below it and extending
further towards the rear was a soil zone, two inches thick, which con-
tained Indian pottery. At the base of this soil zone was a crust of
hardened limey soil, one inch thick. Sterile clay filled the space be-
tween this crust and the rock floor of the cave. This clayey deposit
was ten inches thick at Stake 1 and six inches thick at Stake 4, sixteen
feet towards the rear. At Stake 7 (twenty-eight feet) sticky damp dirt,
two inches thick, rested on bed rock. The limey crust was evidently
formed by chemical deposition from percolating water. Such deposition
would naturally occur at the top of the clay soil where there was a
change in porosity.
Loose material, found on the floor of the cave before excavation,
included fragments of Indian pottery, glass, and china of recent origin.
The latter may have been thrown down the tunnel as none was found in
the pottery-producing stratum.
In this stratum no cultural material was found other than sherds of
Indian pottery and food bones. There was no evidence of fire nor
any indication, other than sherds and bones, that the cave had been
Animal remains were principally those of deer and opossum, plus
domestic pig, goat, and horse. The last three were on or near the
surface. Simpson ascribes the presence of these domesticated animal
bones to the habit opossums have of carrying bones into their burrows.
Regarding the deer bones he writes that all deer bones were "badly
gnawed by rodents and had lain about on the floor of the cave for a
considerable time before they became buried." This implies that the
bones of domestic animals were not so gnawed.
Sherds from Cave No. 10 contained inclusions of limestone, sometimes
one centimeter in diameter. Of the sixty-five sherds found in this
cave, fifty-five represent the three vessels illustrated in Figure 2.
The balance are plain sherds which, presumedly, are also from these
One container (Fig. 2, C) is about 29 cm. in greatest diameter and
14 cm. deep. It is a carelessly made example of Ft. Walton Incised.
Shallow notches extend downward on the rim from the lip. Below
these notches the rim is decorated by means of two incised lines and
a series of punctates. The upper line parallels the lip. The lower line
is broken six times in encircling the vessel, forming a design which
repeats three times. Details of the design at one point of change are
shown in Figure 1, A.
Fig. 2. Pottery vessels (restored). Cave No. 10.
About one-third of the second vessel was found. It is a good example
of Pinellas Incised (Fig. 2, A). This container was originally about
23 cm. in diameter and had four small loop handles. It is interesting
to note the variation in size and shape of these handles as constructed
on the same vessel.
The third vessel is of a different shape, being smaller and relatively
deeper. It has a pinched or punctated rim (Fig. 2, B).
This pottery indicates use of Cave No. 10 by Indians during the Fort
Walton period. No doubt these Indians were those who lived at the
present Parking Area. The lack of other evidence of occupancy in the
cave, except animal bones, suggests it to have been used as a storage
place, dump, or mine for clay rather than as a dwelling site. Judging
from the differential condition and location of animal bones, those of
domestic animals correlate with the fragments of glass and recent
china found on the cave floor, and the deer bones with the Indian pottery.
At the Rock Shelter an overhanging ledge protected an area roughly
twelve feet wide and seven feet deep. Test pits indicated an accumu-
lation of ash, soil, and midden debris, eighteen inches thick. There
being no apparent stratification, the dirt was carefully removed and
Many chert chips, some utilized flakes, several whole and broken
points, fragments of bone awls or bone pins, broken and split deer
bones, other animal and bird bones, and various shells were found.
These shells included salt water varieties: cockle (Cardium), scallop
(Pecten), and clam (Venus), identified by Simpson; fresh water mussels
(Unionidae); the following freshwater snails: Goniobasis (near to
boykiniana, Lea), Pomacea paludosa Say, Viviparus goodrichi Archer;
and the land snails: Mesomphix vultu (H. B. Baker form hartwrighti,
Pils), and Euglandina rosea Ferrussac.1
One artifact had been made from the columella of a conch. It is 3 cm.
in length and about 1 cm. across. One end has been flattened and the
other end worked to a blunt point. A groove extends three-quarters of
the distance around the middle of the specimen. This artifact may
have functioned as a button, an ornament, or in some other way.
Simpson mentions in his report the absence of sherds in debris from
the Rock Shelter. However, a small bag marked "Typical Midden
Material from Rock Shelter" contained ash, shells, bones, chips, and
a small sherd. This sherd contained a large amount of sand temper
and could easily have been mistaken for a piece of rock. It was once
stamped but the markings are now indistinct. In his subsequent exami-
nation of this rock shelter, Griffin found two sherds, one plain and
1. The snail shells were kindly identified by William J.
Clench, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, to whom samples were sent.
one check-stamped. These sherds are sand-tempered and similar
in paste to the one mentioned above. Thus the Rock Shelter was
occupied during a period when pottery was made by Indians.
Points from the Rock Shelter are not available but they are described
in Fairbanks' paper. He writes that eight points, seven of chert and
one of quartzite, were found. The largest was 61 by 40 by 12 mm. and
the smallest 36 by 22 by 10 mm. All were predominantly percussion
flaked with some pressure retouching along the edges. Five had
"straight stems, square bases; one had a straight base with side
notches, and one had a straight base with diagonal notches."
From this description it would appear that these points were not
very different from those illustrated in Figure 1, D-F. The notched
points may differ substantially from these but the impression is that
Fairbanks was describing minor variations of the type of stemmed
point illustrated for the Parking Area.
Debris from the Rock Shelter indicate it to have been used as a habi-
tation by Indians. While points are similar to those from the Parking
Area, the few sherds known for the shelter are different in paste and
decoration. This fact suggests the occupants of the Rock Shelter to
have been different people from those whose village was at the Parking
Area. It will be suggested later that these people may have been
those we refer to as Deptford or Santa Rosa-Swift Creek.
Entrance to this cave was made with difficulty by a small tunnel from an
upper level. At the lower level was a large room. The floor of this
was covered to an unknown depth by a deposit of light tan clay almost
without any sand admixture.
Except close to the walls, the surface of this clay was covered with
footprints. These tracks included deer, bear, and human footprints.
The latter were those of bare feet. As they were in some cases under
prints of the black bear, it seems safe to assume these human foot-
prints may have been those of Indians.
In one end of the cave a small pit, 18 inches in diameter and 9 inches
deep, was found. This hole had been dug by means of a pointed stick.
Presumedly this was done to secure the relatively pure clay for the
manufacture of pottery.
Several skeletons of deer were also found. The entrance used in the
investigation of this cave was not large enough to admit deer. It is
believed, therefore, that at one time there was another entrance
through which deer and presumedly bear and man entered. This
presumption is based on the presence of deer tracks. If deer had
been dragged into the cave by bears, it is doubtful that they would have
been in condition to make tracks.
Fairbanks mentions two other caves, not on Park property, in which
a few chips and sherds were found on the surface. One produced
sherds of the Fort Walton period, the other check-stamped sherds.
In the collections from Florida Caverns State Park are twelve sherds
which do not bear Simpson's field numbers. Probably they are sherds
from the two caves off Park land referred to above by Fairbanks. At
least they fit the description.
Two of these sherds are illustrated in Figure 1 (B-C). One is from a
Ft. Walton Incised vessel while the other has a punctated appliqued
band a short distance below the lip. Both contain limestone inclusions.
It is believed these came from the first cave off Park land.
The other ten sherds are all heavily tempered with sand and do not
contain limestone inclusions. Two are Gulf (?) Check Stamped, one
simple-stamped, three indistinctly stamped, one cord-marked, one
scored, and two plain. These sherds are different from the rest of
the Florida Caverns collection, except for those from the Rock Shelter
with which they appear to equate. These sherds and those from the
Rock Shelter appear to represent remains of either Deptford or early
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek people.
Florida Caverns State Park was probably occupied in prehistoric times
by two groups of Indians. The earlier, who may have been Deptford
or early Santa Rosa-Swift Creek people, lived at the Rock Shelter
and also used one of the caves not on Park land. At the Rock Shelter
they seem to have subsisted chiefly on shell fish, wild animals, and
birds. No doubt they also collected roots, nuts, and fruit. That they
had communication with the Gulf is shown by the cockle, scallop,
and clam shells.
Whether this shelter was their primary abode or whether it was a
frequented hunting camp or a refuge from a nearby village is not
At a later time people of the Fort Walton period occupied a small
village at the Parking Area. The Fort Walton period is thought to
have lasted from about 1450 to 1650 AD. Due to the presence of large
stemmed points and the absence of small narrow triangular points,
this occupation possibly occurred in early Fort Walton times, circa
1500 A.D. (At Safety Harbor, a site of the same time period, Florida
Park Service excavations found large stemmed points relatively deep
and narrow triangular points relatively shallow.)
These people were undoubtedly farmers who supplemented their diet
by hunting. They manufactured clay vessels as storage and cooking
containers. The utilized chert flakes may have been used in the manu-
facture of wooden tools. Their large points seem too heavy for use
with the bow and arrow; they may be points for spears propelled by
throwing sticks or atlatls. If used as knives they would have been
useful in cutting up game, but, if hafted on poles these points would
make good weapons for the taking of bears. Unquestionably these
people were familiar with the bow and arrow but they may not have
tipped their arrows with stone.
That people from this or a similar village used the caves is evident.
Vessels from Cave No. 10 are of the same period as are the few sherds
from one of the caves off Park land. Due to the lack of occupational
debris it is certain they did not live in the caverns.
Quite likely these caves were exploited for the good pottery clay
found in them. A suggestion of this was found in New Cave where a
pit had been dug with a pointed stick. Such a source of good clay must
have been of considerable value to villagers of the Parking Area.
This would explain the human footprints and pit in New Cave.
Possibly vessels, or parts of them, were taken into the Caverns as
containers for clay or as scoops in the procurement of clay. This
would explain the vessel and parts of two others found in Cave No. 10
as well as the lack of occupational debris. Deer bones in this cave
may represent lunches of the worker or may have been taken there
by opossums as suggested by Simpson.
Exploitation of these caverns by Indians from the village at the Parking
Area as a source of pottery clay indicates their exploration of the
terrain and knowledge of local resources.
Florida Park Service
AN HISTORIC INDIAN BURIAL,
ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA
John M. Goggin, Mary E. Godwin, Earl Hester,
David Prange, and Robert Spangenberg
Human bones protruding from a road cut in eastern Alachua County
led to the discovery of an interesting human burial by the authors.
Since information concerning the late historic period is rare in Flori-
da, it has been considered worthwhile to record this burial in full.
The site of the burial, known as the Zetrouer Site (A66), lay on the
side of a small flat-topped hill, the western side of which has been
cut off by a highway. However, the bulk of the hill still remains and
other interments may be in the vicinity. Some refuse on the nearby
ground surface and along the road cut suggests that the area was once
a village. This material occurs up to some six or eight inches in depth
and includes flint chips and potsherds. The latter comprise the fol-
lowing types (number of sherds in parenthesis): Prairie Cord Marked
(2), Alachua Cob Marked (2), Alachua Plain (1),2 and unclassified
smooth plain (1). There was also a fragment of a large flint blade.
About a hundred feet south of this hill is another site (A67) on a some-
what lower rise. Examination of the road cut here also revealed
flint chips, potsherds, and other artifacts. The sherds comprise both
Indian and European types. The latter are eight olive jar fragments
and six sherds of majolica ware, a soft paste earthenware decorated
with white, blue, black, green, and brown glazes. Indian pottery types
include (number of sherds in parenthesis): San Marcos Stamped (23).
1. The paper represents a contribution from the research
program of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology,
University of Florida, supported in part by a grant from the
Viking Fund, Inc.
Assistance in removing the burial and in photographing was
given by Ernest and Arthur Godwin. The paper was written
by the senior author on the basis of artifact analysis made
by the other authors. Robert Spangenberg prepared the illus-
trations. Mr. Horace Zetrouer, owner of the property, has
courteously offered the University permission for further
work on the site. As soon as conditions permit, a detailed
study will be made of this area.
The special help (as noted in text) of the following indivi-
duals is gratefully acknowledged: Stephen V. Grancsay,
Curator of Arms and Armour, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York City; Fred H. Heath, Professor of Chemistry, University
of Florida; and Ripley P. Bullen, Assistant Archeologist,
Florida Park Service, Gainesville
2. These types are all described in Goggin (1948a).
Mission Red ? (1), Jefferson plain ware (1),3 Alachua Cob Marked
(3), Prairie Cord Marked (7), St. Johns Plain (3),4 St. Johns Check
Stamped (3),4 unclassified smooth plain gritty (12), and unclassified
plain gritty (28). A potsherd disk, made from an olive jar sherd, is
also included, as are two glass fragments, a small triangular flint
point, anid a gun flint. However, these last two specimens were found
on the road shoulder and may have been moved in. The disk is a late
artifact form typical of West Florida.
This comprised one skeleton of an adult male, apparently an Indian.5
It lay on its left side in a flexed position with the knees drawn up
close to the body (Fig. 3). The arms, bent at the elbows, extended at
right angles from the body. The orientation of the burial was almost
due east and west, the feet lying to the east.
The skeleton is not in good condition. The skull had been exposed by
weathering and is too fragile and fragmentary for reconstruction and
measuring. The mandible is also fragmentary but enough remains to
indicate that it was not exceptionally large. The teeth are badly worn
and contain caries. The long bones were in the best state of preser-
vation, but the others, particularly the ribs, vertebrae, and phalanges
were badly decayed and in some instances gone.
Accompanying the burial were a number of artifacts apparently depos-
ited as funerary offerings. Lying on top of the individual's chest
were an iron trade tomahawk and iron knife, while nearby, under the
knees, was a glass mirror. Several inches in front of the flexed
legs were three deposits. The first consisted of a mass of 98 lead
musket balls plus seven fresh gun flints. Nearby, but to one side, an
area of very blackened soil indicated where the powder pouch had
probably lain, while next to the first deposit of musket balls was
another numbering 160 in all. Associated with these were a river
pebble and a small silver brooch. This had probably been attached
to the shot pouch. On the burial itself, under the legs, and in the
vicinity of the waist, was a small brass buckle which had remnants of
a leather belt adhering to it. Behind the flexed legs, just above the
heels, a brass kettle was placed in an inverted position. Near the
rim of the vessel a curved piece of iron was all that remained of an
unidentified object. Another piece of flat iron strip found nearby is
Somewhat above the level of the skeleton and at the back, was a mass
deposit of a number of articles, probably once contained in a bag of
3. These three are described in Smith (1948).
4. Described in Griffin (1945).
5. Ripley P. Bullen was kind enough to examine the skele-
ton. He concluded that it was the remains of an adult
male of small stature, about 5 feet 5 inches tall, and
about 55 years of age at the time of death. (Communica-
tion, March, 1949).
Fig. 3. View of burial. Most of the skull was lost through exposure
and erosion. The mass deposit lies to the left of the trowel.
perishable material. These included two brass buckles, seven worn
gun flints, a coil of copper wire, a short spring made of copper wire,
a very small fragment of sheet copper, a short section of heavy copper
wire, 30 lead balls of two sizes, red paint, yellow paint, an iron knife,
needle fragments, a triangular iron file, a flat wood rasp, two pocket
clasp knives, a gun lock (flint lock), two rings of heavy flattened
copper wire, several miscellaneous and unidentified iron fragments,
and a river pebble.
It is surprising that with-all the firearms accessories, no gun was
present, and no trace of any was seen. It is possible that one may have
been to the west of the skeleton, and was removed by road building acti-
vities. However, if such had been the case it is probable that some
notice of the site would have reached the local people.
In the loose fill surrounding the burial there were two sherds of plain
gritty ware, probably Alachua Plain. No traces of a pit could be dis-
cerned in the sand matrix but it is probable that one had been dug from
the present ground level for this burial. It could have been excavated
through the surface refuse area, but the present cross section of the
bank above the burial showed only a normal soil profile. The sherds
and chips in association with the burial can best be explained by their
being in grave fill derived from the surface material.
In the discussion of the following artifacts it should be kept in mind
that the measurements of the iron specimens are only approximate,
especially the shorter measurements. All these objects are heavily
coated with rust and thus their size is distorted.
Brass kettle. A brass kettle in excellent shape lay at the feet of the
burial (Fig. 4, C). It is a well made vessel with the hammering marks
only faintly evident. The height is 12.9 cm., basal diameter 19.2 cm.,
and rim diameter 25.7 cm. The rim is neatly rolled. An iron bail
attached to brass supports riveted to the rim (Fig. 4, A-B), has now
Iron tomahawk. An iron tomahawk lay on the chest of the burial
(Fig. 5, D) This is the popular trade form with the head hollowed
out to form a pipe bowl; thus it could be used for either a pipe or
weapon. It is 19 cm. long with a blade 6.3 cm. wide. Remains of
wood in the hafting hole indicate a former handle. Adhering to this
weapon, preserved by iron salts, are textile remnants.
Iron knives. A long knife lay on the chest of the burial (Fig. 5, B).
It is a simple tapering blade affixed within a thick handle by two rivets,
each 27 mm. long. The knife itself is 15.9 cm. long and 1.9 cm. wide
at the base. The handle appears to have been wood. Another blade,
9.8 cm. long, was in the mass deposit. It is thin, with a notched base,
and is 18 mm. wide, with a flat back 1.5 mm. thick (Fig. 8, D).
Fig. 4. Brass Kettle. A, cross-section of support for handle; B, detail of support for
handle; C, kettle. (A-B, 8/10; C, 4/10).
Fig. 5. Metal objects. A, triangular file; B, knife blade; C, clasp knife (reconstructed);
D, pipe tomahawk; E, gun lock. (7/10).
Clasp knife. A single bladed clasp knife in the mass deposit was
about 8.6 cm. long, similar in form to modern pocket knives (Fig. 5,
C). A metal bolster was on one end--at the other the handle expanded
in a curve to form a grip.
Fragmentary remains of another similar knife were also found near
Gun lock. One of the specimens in the mass deposit was a badly
rusted gun lock complete with flint. As can be seen from the illustra-
tion (Fig. 5, E; the spur of the hammer was broken off in cleaning), it
is a typical lock, although too badly rusted for precise identification.
However, Stephen V. Grancsay, who has kindly examined the lock,
believes that it is probably from "an English Brown Bess musket of
the mid-eighteenth century."6
Gun flints. Fifteen gun flints were found in all. Of these seven were
apparently within or next to a shot pouch, seven were in the mass
deposit of small articles, and one was in the gun lock. Those with the
shot pouch were fresh unused flints ranging in size from 27 x 27 mm.
to 30 x 31 mm. The material is a grey flint, foreign to Florida, and
probably of English origin. The workmanship is excellent (Fig. 6, G-M).
The seven flints found with the mass deposit apparently represent
specimens discarded for use on firearms, but retained for some
unknown purpose--perhaps as a source of sparks for making fire. In
material they are like the former flints but are so battered and chipped
that their size is reduced and workmanship obscured (Fig. 6, A-F). The
last flint, still in the gun lock, is like those of the first group.
Lead balls. A total of 289 lead balls, ammunition for muskets or
pistols, was found. These include 98 within one group, 160 in the
second group, 30 with the mass deposit, and one in the loose fill,
probably from either of the first two groups.
The great bulk of the specimens, 272, were large balls, measuring
14 mm. (9/16 inches) in diameter. These were undoubtedly ammuni-
tion for a musket. The smaller balls were perhaps for use in a pistol,
or as buck shot, and measured 5 mm. (13/32 inches) in diameter.
Although many of the balls were considerably decomposed, those which
were less so indicated that they were probably only recently cast when
deposited. Their general appearance is one of freshness and they
often retain the ring left where the molds joined.
Glass mirror. A rectangular piece of glass lying under the knee of
the skeleton was undoubtedly a mirror (Fig. 7, A). It is rather crudely
cut into a rectangular shape, measuring 10.1 cm. by 7.3 to 7.6 cm.,
with a thickness of 3.4 mm. However, the silvering has eroded away.
6. Personal communication, April 21, 1949.
Fig. 6. Gun flints. A-F, mass deposit; G-M, shot pouch. (7/10).
"--- ----- -----
E F G
Fig. 7. Miscellaneous objects. A, mirror; 1-C, obverse and
reverse views of silver brooch; D, copper ring; E, brass buckle;
F, coiled wire; G, ccffr ring. (1/1).
Brass buckles. Three identical,brass buckles were found (Fig. 7, E).
Two, without tongues, were lying together in the mass deposit. The
third was in the region of the waist at the front of the skeleton, and
was probably attached to the individual's belt at the time of burial.
A rusted iron tongue and leather remnants still adhere to that speci-
men. The buckles measure 29 mm, in length and 33 mm. in width.
Silver brooch. A single bangle or brooch, accompanied a group of
musket balls (Fig. 7, B). This is a trade piece, not of Indian manu-
facture. It is 25 mm. in diameter, but the ring itself is only 3 mm.
wide. The tongue which fitted on one side in a specially notched place
is missing; perhaps it was of iron and rusted awa,. The upper surface,
as can be seen from the sketch, has a simple sinuous design in relief;
the reverse side, originally plain, has been decorated by some posses-
sor with a simple incised design of running V's (Fig. 7, C).
Paint. Small remnants of red and yellow pigment in the mass deposit
were undoubtedly the remains of body paint. The red was bright
vermillion in color and unlike the dull native ochres. An analysis
revealed the presence of Mercuric Sulphide (HgS), commonly known
as cinnabar.7 In addition considerable iron was present, apparently
an oxide, in a fine powder. This was too fine to have been rust de-
rived from surrounding metal. It may have been a native ochre mixed
with the more valuable cinnabar.
Textiles. Remains of woven cloth still adhere to the tomahawk (Fig. 5,
D). These are fragments of a coarse textile in a simple over one and
under one weave (Fig. 8, E). The yarn diameter is about 1 mm. and
both warp and weft are equal in size. The yarn is single ply. It is
not possible to determine whether this material is of local weave, or
an imported trade textile.
Adhering to a needle or awl was a short section of cord about 1 mm.
in diameter. It is either a tightly twisted or a multiple ply cord.
Leather thong. What appears to be a short section of leather thong is
5 mm. wide and 1 mm. thick. It came from the mass deposit and was
preserved by iron salts.
Triangular file. An iron file in the mass deposit is triangular in form
and 14.5 cm. long (Fig. 5, A). Its greatest dimension is about 17 mm,
tapering to 7.5 mm.
Wood rasp. A broken section of an iron wood rasp came from the
mass deposit (Fig. 8, B). It measures 7.9 cm. in length (broken),
with a width of 2.7 cm. at the widest end tapering to 2.2 cm. at the
narrowest (broken) end, and is 7 mm. thick. Similar rows of large
teeth occur on each side--seven to a line 23 mm. long.
7. Made by Fred H. Heath (personal communication, May 12,
Needles. Three fragments of what appear to be large needles were
also in the mass deposit. The greatest section was 50 mm. long and
about 1.5 mm. in largest diameter.
Another needle (?) or awl had a short section of coarse twisted cord
adhering to it, preserved by rust (Fig. 8, C). It was 8.1 cm. long and
2 to 3 mm. thick.
Copper rings. Two copper rings were found in the mass deposit.
Both are made of heavy wire, slightly flattened by hammering and bent
into shape. An average cross section would be 3 by 3.5 mm.
The larger ring (Fig. 7, G), a crude circle, measures 42 by 45 mm.
and is tightly closed. Its function is not known. The smaller is not
completely closed and measures 16.5 by 19 mm. (Fig. 7, D). It would
make an excellent nose ring but it is not reported that such were in
Copper coil. A spring or coil of copper wire, 1 mm. in diameter,
was in the mass deposit. The wire was tightly rolled in seven coils
10 mm. in diameter and 10 mm. long (Fig. 7, F). Its function is not
known, although Brannon (1935: 43) who illustrates a similar specimen
from Alabama, calls the type a "wire 'hair ribbon.' "
Copper wire. This is a straight piece of heavy copper wire, 51 mm.
long and 3 mm. in diameter. One end is slightly expanded as if from
being hammered. The specimen came from the mass deposit. Its
function is unknown.
Copper wire coil. A loose coil of copper wire in the mass deposit
measured about 55 mm. in diameter. However, it was brittle due to
oxidation and immediately broke on removal. It was about 1 mm. in
River pebbles. One small quartzite (?) pebble, foreign to Florida,
was asociaed with the second group of musket balls. This was some-
what rectangular in shape, 37 mm. long, 27 mm. wide, and 17 mm.
thick. On one side a greater degree of smoothness is perhaps indica-
tive of its use as a polishing stone.
A second pebble, from the mass deposit, is 52 mm. long, 30 mm.
wide and 19 mm. thick. A small protruding face shows a very high
polish resulting from use. (Fig. 8, F).
Iron hook. A hook-like object found adjacent to the kettle has no
Iron sleeve. An iron tube, formed by bending (?) sheet metal, came
from the mass deposit. It is 28 mm. long, and 5 mm. in diameter,
with a metal thickness of 1 mm. Its function is unknown.
Iron nails. Three iron nails could be definitely recognized. In a
fragmentary condition the largest measured 42 mm. long. It is hand
g lB C
Fig. 8. Miscellaneous objects. A, gun (?) spring; B, wood
rasp; C, needle (?) or awl; D, knife blade; E, textile weave
(reconstruction); F, polishing stone. (1/1).
forged, square stemmed, with an oval flat head. Two smaller specimens
were similar but measured only 24 mm.
Iron screw. A single flat-headed wood screw was in the mass deposit.
Its broken length is 22 mm. with a head diameter of 5 mm.
Miscellaneous iron fragments. A number of these were found including
one mass of what appears to be several nails or bolts. Another un-
identified piece is a shaft 45 mm. long with a flat section of iron 15
by 20 mm. attached, off center, to one end. The other end appears to
be slightly expanded. A thin spring-like object was also found in the
mass deposit (Fig. 8, A).
In evaluating this burial we are faced with a lack of comparative
material. The only other Florida finds resembling this are burials in
a small mound at Bayard Point on the St. Johns (Moore, 1894; 188-9).
Here were found one female and two male skeletons. Both of the
latter had flint lock guns, and in addition one had musket balls, the
other a bone-handled awl, remnants of a powder horn, and a flint and
steel (?). The female burial had in association glass beads, brass
finger rings, glass (mirror ?) fragments, and red paint. Both male
skeletons were extended interments, the heads pointing to the west in
one instance, and to the northwest in the other. Comparable data
were not given for the female burial.
In certain broad details the Bayard Point find is similar to our burial.
However, there are also many significant differences, as our burial is
subsurface while the others are in a mound and apparently are not
intrusive. The orientation is similar in both instances, although the
body preparation is different. Offerings also show some similarities
as in case of musket balls, red paint, flint and steel (?), and mirror.
The absence of glass beads with the Bayard Point males is also com-
parable to our burial.8
Similar material is known from elsewhere in the Southeast (Brannon,
1935) but it has not been systematically studied or dated.
In view of the lack of good comparative material it is apparent that
our interpretation of the burial must be based on the burial itself and
the associated artifacts. The skeleton is too fragmentary to determine
whether it is Indian or white. However, the extensive wearing of the
teeth is a typical Indian characteristic. Moreover, the placement of
such a variety of objects with the dead and the use of a flexed burial
position are clearly Indian traits.
8. The great scarcity of glass beads at a British trading
post, Spaldings Lower Store (circa 1763-1783) fits in with
their absence here.
The next problem is the general dating of the burial. A number of
factors suggest that an 18th century date, probably in the last half,
is reasonable. Spanish power dominated this region until 1706. During
that period they effectively kept firearfus away from their missionized
Indians.9 Moreover, they were not known to have introduced brass
kettles, preferring to encourage local ceramic arts.
On the other hand English traders in Georgia, and later in Florida
(1763-1783), distributed vast quantities of trade goods in form of fire-
arms, silver jewelry, brass kettles, red paint, etc. to the Indians.
The material found with this burial definitely suggests that it is of
English origin. A date previous to 1700 for t. burial seems to be
improbable because the Spanish still dominated the region at that
time. However, shortly after 1700 this area was virtually abandoned
until about 1750, when certain tribes of Muskhogean derivation moved
southward settling on Alachua Savanna (Paynes Prairie), a short
distance to the southwest. These were later known as the Seminole.
It would have been possible, then, for the burial to have been made
either before or after 1750. However, since it appears that few, if
any, Indians were in the region in the years immediately previous to
1750, and since it is known that many with English trade contacts were
here subsequent to 1750, it is much more probable that our burial
dates from the latter period. The tentative mid-eighteenth century
date for the musket lock supports this conclusion. If this date is
acceptable the burial undoubtedly was that of a Seminole Indian.
The general nature of the burial also is similar to those reported
for the Muskogee, a term used by Bernard Romans, writing in the
last half of the eighteenth century, to include the Florida Seminole as
well as the Creeks. However, evidence suggests he was more familiar
with the former, so he may well be generalizing from Seminole data.
Romans (1775: 98-99) noted that "the dead are buried in sitting
posture, and they are furnished with a musket, powder and ball, a
hatchet, pipe, some tobacco, a club, a bow and arrows, a looking
glass, some vermillion and other trinkets, in order to come well
provided in the world of spirits." This assemblage, in terms of
non-perishable items, is close to that found by us, and further supports
the probability that it is a Seminole burial.
Turning to other archeological data from the vicinity for clues in
dating the site, we find little of help. Midden material from around
the burial area falls within the general Alachua Period, an horizon
estimated to date from 1475 to 1725 (Goggin, 1948b). However, the
specific ceramic sample found suggests that a date of pre-1600 would
be most likely.
The midden area to the south gives again a different picture. Here
the presence of Spanish and the San Marcos Stamped pottery suggests
a date of 1650 to 1725, and judging from the preponderance of com-
9. See discussion of that policy in Goggin (MS).
plicated stamp motifs the date of the site is nearer the early part of
the period. This equates with the Leon-Jefferson Period to the west and
the St. Augustine Period to the east.10 These are both Spanish contact
culture periods, the former that of the Apalachee missions. The
cultural complex here undoubtedly dates from the Spanish mission
activity among the Potano Indians, and is called the Potano Mission
In conclusion it appears that the burial is one of an Indian, perhaps a
Seminole. It undoubtedly dates from the 18th century, probably in
the latter half. This date is suggested by the nature of the associated
trade material. The site in which the burial was made may date from
the 16th century, while the nearby midden area is probably late 17th
century in date. Apparently neither has any direct association with
Brannon, Peter A.
1935. The Southern Indian Trade. Montgomery, Alabama.
Goggin, John M.
1948a. "Some Pottery Types From Central Florida," Gaines-
ville Anthropological Association Bulletin, no. 1
1948b. "A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archeology,"
The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, pp. 57-60 n.p.
MS. Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology, Florida. (Manuscript, Yale Peabody Mu-
seum, New Haven.)
Griffin, James B.
1945. "The Significance of the Fiber-Tempered Pottery of
the St. Johns Area in Florida," Journal of the Wash-
ington Academy of Sciences, vol. o. 7, pp. 2-
223. Menasha, Wisconsin.
10. See Smith (1948) for a definition of these periods.
Moore, Clarence B.
1894. "Certain Sand Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida,
Part H," Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences,
n.s. vol. 10, pp. 129-246. Philadelphia.
1775. A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida.
Smith, Hale G.
1948. "Two Historical Archaeological Periods in Florida,"
American Antiquity, vol. 13, pp. 313-319. Menasha,
University of Florida
NOTES CONCERNING AN HISTORIC
SITE OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
Frederick W. Sleight
Several years ago the author was informed of a mound and habitation
site west of Tavares, Florida. Further inquiry into the matter revealed
not one but two mounds and a camp site. The area in question is
located on the west end of Lake Dora in Lake County and is about two
miles west of the above mentioned town of Tavares. Casual observation
revealed that both mounds had suffered considerable mutilation. The
camp site adjacent to the lake shore, although never excavated, has
suffered from cultivation. Accurate study of the two mounds will
never be possible; however, subsequent finds have been made in the
refuse piles and fallen banks. These salvaged materials will be the
subject of this paper.
That the area has long been known to "treasure" seekers is demon-
strated by the present condition of the two mounds. Reference to
Moore (1895: 536-9) verifies the fact that this party came into the
region in the early part of 1895. He states that both sites had been
"dug through by relic hunters." In addition to this, we are informed
that his party did "completely" dig the larger of the two sites.
It might be well to review briefly the findings made, and reported, by
Moore (1895) as the referenced material may not be accessible to
lay readers. The site was described as being about five feet high
and fifty feet in diameter. It was composed entirely of sand, and
throughout were exhibited fire-places or charcoal accumulations.
Evidently, numerous "bunched" or secondary burials were present,
but in all cases advanced deterioration prevented recovery of measur-
able specimens. No complete pottery vessels were found although
sherds of a plain and a decorated surface were reported. "Those
adorned with red pigment predominated."
The objects that captured Moore's attention were a number of elongated
stone pendents typical of earlier discoveries from central Florida.
What was interpreted as a bird amulet was uncovered. This specimen
measured 2.1 inches and was believed to have been made from diorite.
Several polished celts as well as fragments of chert and one projectile
point completed the material removed and reported by Moore.
It is of interest to note that European trade material was not present in
this, the larger of the two Tavares sites. However, the mound that had
contained such items had not escaped the attention of Moore. Even
in 1895 it seems that this smaller site had been heavily mutilated
and was not excavated further by the Moore party. They did refer to
the fact that glass beads were in evidence on the surface of this site.
In recent years the author has salvaged several items from this smaller
mound near Tavares and through diligent search in the refuse of earlier
diggings has retrieved a small collection of European trade beads and
three pottery vessels. The material thus preserved is scant and does
not represent a complete picture of any phase of the life and times of
the peoples who constructed this mound. However, even in its frag-
mentary form, these items may aid in reconstructing a section of
The European trade beads recovered from the Tavares site bear a
close similarity to those recently uncovered by Griffin and Smith
(1948) in the Goodnow Mound. In the excavation of this latter site
they report the finding of numerous trade materials. As that mound
had had but little previous digging, an opportunity afforded itself for
the making of percentile studies and counts of the various beads found.
The beads listed in this paper come from a site, on the other hand,
that has had considerable mutilation; therefore, it is realized that
the bead count herein recorded undoubtedly gives an erroneous propor-
tion of the original numbers, varieties, and associations. The collection
does offer, however, a crude picture of what must have been contained
in the site prior to its destruction.
For comparative purposes this account will follow the organization
of the Goodnow report in its description of glass beads.
Except for two beads, all varieties found were of the seed bead category,
the colors consisted of the following:
light blue. .................. 155
dark blue ................... 75
white ....................... 75
black ....................... 37
light blue (translucent) .......... 13
white (translucent) ............. 4
total ....................... 362
There are three beads of the seed bead type that are outstanding from
the more numerous group listed above. In outline, color, and style,
they are seed beads; however, their large size makes them prominent.
light blue (7mm. dia.). ............ 1
dark blue (8mm. dia.) ............ 1
black (6mm. dia.) ............. 1
None of the pseudo-Hudson's Bay (Cornaline d'Aleppo) beads or its
original counter-part was found in the Tavares site. This is also
true of the star or chevron beads.
One bugle, or tubular, bead was recovered. This specimen measures
32 mm. long and 6 mm. in diameter. This type bead has also been
referred to as a "pipe" bead. The decorative aspect of this bead
consists of alternating longitudinal bands of red, white, blue, and
The remaining specimen to be discussed is what the author has chosen
to call a tear-drop bead. It measures 24 mm. long and 13 mm. through
its widest diameter. Without doubt this pendant type bead was made
in a mold and was "pulled" in such a manner as to produce a thin
section of glass that was lapped over to form an eye. The glass is
light blue and nearly translucent. On opposite sides, where the mold
evidently joined, there are squeeze ribs that extend roughly 1 mm.
from the sides of the bead and thus form a flange type element. This
flange is assymetrical and does not maintain the same extension
distance on one side as it does on the opposite.
Beads similar to those discussed above have been found in numerous
sections of Florida as well as other sections of the New World. The
interested reader should refer to the Goodnow report. For comparative
purposes, Woodward's recent paper dealing with trade material from
a California Yokut site would prove of value (Walker and Woodward,
1947). Of course, Orchard's (1929) paper has long proven an authority
for the detailed study of beads of the American Indian.
Three specimens of pottery were salvaged from the Tavares site
despite the random digging of relic seekers. While searching the
surface for beads, the author noted the wall of a pottery vessel in
an exposed bank under a fallen tree. Further investigation revealed
the vessels discussed below. What their relation to other material in
the mound might have been will never be revealed as all the surrounding
soil had been disturbed long ago. It has been deemed worthy to describe
these vessels so that the fragmentary information they offer will not
be overlooked in the process of unveiling the shroud of time.
The recovered specimens are:
Vessel 1 (Fig. 9, C): An example of St. Johns Check Stamped
Type.1 It measures 8 cm. in depth, 9.5 cm. in width at the
mouth, and 13 cm. at the widest diameter. The checks average
five to the inch. Fractured base indicates "killing." Vessel
designed for suspension: two sets of perforations on opposite
Vessel 2 (Fig. 9, B): An example of St. Johns Plain in an
extended globular shape measuring 8 cm. in depth and 5 cm.
in diameter at the rim. Designed for suspension as indicated
by two holes on opposite rims.
1. Identification of pottery was made through the kindness
of John W. Griffin.
Fig. 9. Pottery vessels from near Traveres. A, Sarasota
Incised; B, St. Johns Plain; C, St. Johns Check Stamped.
Vessel 3 (Fig. 9, A): A Sarasota Incised vessel with
perpendicular, thin walls and a flat bottom. Measures 6 cm.
in depth and 9 cm. in diameter. The hole in the base a result
of "killing." Decorated with a continuous incised band of
diamonds and triangles filled with punctates, negative design
Griffin, John W. and Hale G. Smith.
1948. "The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County,
Florida," Contributions to the Archaeology
of Florida, no. 1, Florida Park Service.
Moore, Clarence B.
1895. "Certain Sand Mounds of the Ocklawaha
River", Journal of the Academy of Natural
Science, n.s. vol. 10, pp. 518-43, Philadelphia.
Orchard, William C.
1929. "Beads and Beadwork of the American Indi-
ans," Contributions, Museum of the American
Indian, Heye Foundation, vol. 11, New York.
Walker, Edwin F. and Arthur Woodward.
1947. Excavation of a Yokuts Indian Cemetery.
The Kern County Historical Society, Bakers-
Mt. Dora, Florida
AN INDIAN MOUND AT HYPOLUXO,
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Gilbert L. Voss
During the month of April, 1948, a small but interesting Indian mound
located on the Henry Porter property in Hypoluxo was levelled for a
building site, and the writer was fortunate to be on the scene at the
time. This mound, though located only one hundred and fifty feet east
of U. S. Highway No. 1 and in plain view from the road, was known only
to the local residents and had never been disturbed. Hopes therefore
ran high during the excavation period, but the only artifact found was
a large broken pot which has recently been reconstructed. As no
other object of any description was found within the mound, the signi-
ficance of its existence is open to conjecture and theory.
The mound was circular, ninety feet in diameter and ten feet high,
composed entirely of white sand. This sand had been obtained from
a section of the surrounding land at a distance of fifty feet from the
perimeter of the mound, indicated by a shallow, water-filled bog on
the north, northwest and west sides.
The levelling of the mound was accomplished by Mr. Porter, who used
a small tractor and a sand drag to return the sand to the bog as a
filler. Each drag load was closely scrutinized for artifacts or bones,
but it was not until all but about two feet of the mound had been scraped
away that a few potsherds were turned up. When these came into
view the use of the tractor was discontinued, and Mr. Porter uncovered
the rest of the potsherds by hand. .
As soon as I heard of the excavating and the finding of the potsherds, I
obtained permission to work the rest of the mound. This I proceeded
to do, first carefully searching the exposed surface for any remaining
sherds, which were quite plentiful. I then measured the position of
the pot and found that it occupied the exact center of the mound, and
had originally been placed one or two feet above the original surface
of the ground.
I then laid out and dug a series of trenches which thoroughly covered
the area, but found nothing more except five or six small pieces of
charred cabbage palm fronds. Sifting the sand through a fine screen
as I worked brought no better results, and I was satisfied that the
mound contained nothing more of interest. Mr. Porter then resumed
the levelling and at the present time no trace of the mound remains.
Mr. Porter kindly gave me the potsherds to attempt a reconstruction,
and the work has progressed slowly until now about three-quarters of
the original bowl has been reassembled. There were indications of
two periods of breakage, one quite old and caused by the slow settling
and pressure of the sand, and the other one very recent which I pre-
Fig. 10. A, Cross-section of mound (not to scale). Hatched area is dark earth, stippled area is
white sand. B, Sketch map of mound area (not to scale. C, Biscayne Plain vessel (7.5 inches
high, 12 inches diameter).
sume to have been caused by the wright of the tractor. This last one
was very unfortunate as it made my work much more difficult.
As reconstructed, the pot is slightly oval at the top, measuring 30 cm.
in diameter lengthwise and 25 cm. crosswise. The overall height is
19 cm. The bowl is undecorated, has a plain lip, and is of very crude
workmanship. The rim is 4 mm. thick and the base 10 mm., the
average for the sherds measured being about 7 mm. These sherds
seem to be identical with others found by me at two points in Lake Worth
within half a mile from this site and dredged from the shallow waters
of the lake bottom.
Dr. John M. Goggin volunteered to classify the pottery for me, and I
sent him two small sherds for this purpose which he identified as
Biscayne Plain, a type common to the eastern section of the Glades
Area within which this site is located. On the basis of pottery alone,
the archaeological period represented by this mound may tentatively be
identified with Glades periods I, I, or II. Thus it is of little value as
When excavated, there was evidence that the bowl was filled with a
rich black earth, in sharp contrast to the white sand of the mound. I
communicated this fact to Dr. Goggin, suggesting that the bowl may
have been a burial urn. His reply is interesting. "In regards to the
question that you have raised about the pot, I would doubt that it was
a burial urn. Such an inference would be supported only by the pres-
ence within the bowl of actual human remains. The black earth in-
side the vessel could be due to several things. In part it could be due
to a concentration of organic matter leeched from the soil above,
particularly when such soil did stand out in contrast to soil surround-
ing the vessel which would have been leeched clean."
The position of the bowl in the center of the mound seems to indicate
a cermonial significance, especially as there were no other artifacts
accompanying it. What this significance may have been seems likely
to remain among the multitude of archaeological enigmas.
RECENT DISCOVERIES OF EARLY MAN
Frederick W. Sleight
In an earlier issue of this journal an outline was presented concerning
the general scope of evidence pointing to the antiquity of man in the
Americas (Sleight, 1948). Since that paper was published, work has
continued in various parts of this hemisphere. One of the purposes
of The Florida Anthropologist is to keep its readers informed con-
cerning such investigations.
A recent item concerning early man is the report from the U. S.
Geological Survey and the Smithsonian Institution that Raymond M.
Thompson, associated with the former department, has discovered
a fine example of the Folsom point (Sleight, 1948) while working in
the vicinity of the Utukok River headwaters in northwestern Alaska.
This, of course, is immeasurably important when we consider that
Folsom points indicate a period of manufacture comparable to the
period of the last ice age. A discovery of this type is new to this
region and may lead to further important sites.
A second discovery that may prove to be one of the most outstanding
pertaining to man in the Americas has been made in California. The
site is located in Inyo County along the southern end of Owens Valley.
It has been referred to as the Little Lake or Stahl Site, and the work
of excavation and evaluation is being conducted by the Southwest
Museum, of Los Angeles. Complete reports of the findings are not
available as yet; however, preliminary outlines have been published
In short, the Stahl Site (named for its discoverer, Willy Stahl) appeared
at first to be another lake site typical of the Pinto horizon of early man
in California (Campbell and Campbell, 1935). It is known that other
sites representative of this period extend back in time as much as
3,000 years, while some observers claim an antiquity for them of
no less than 10,000 years. It was believed that the site in question
was another camp ground of this early occupation. Thus, excavation
To the amazement of all concerned, test diggings began to reveal
post hole molds2 and closer observation exposed an oval of such
depressions. Preliminary reports contend that here is an example
1. Harrington, 1948a; Harrington, 1948b; Simpson, 1949.
2. Posthole mold refers to a depression in the ground
formed at some earlier time by the insertion into the earth
of a post or pole. Many early house forms were accomplished
by setting posts upright in the earth to form the basic
structure. In time these posts might disappear as a result
of decay, fire, or other agencies. Often if the conditions
were favorable, the space once occupied by the post would
fill in and thus preserve the hole. Remnants of the actual
post are often found in Southwestern archaeological sites.
of an actual dwelling occupied by Pinto people at least 3,000 years
ago. If all of the facts at hand bear out the original contentions,
archaeology has provided us with the oldest man-made habitation yet
found in the New World.
From the evidence at hand it is difficult to reconstruct the true nature
of this habitation. Twenty-three posthole molds were located, and
these indicate a general oval outline. According to the published
findings this structure must have measured 13 feet in length and 8
feet in width. It is a bit early to speculate on the structural design
above ground as this evidence has long since been destroyed by the
Campbell, Elizabeth and William Campbell.
1935. The Pinto Basin Site An Ancient Aboriginal
Camping Ground in the California Desert,
Southwest Museum. Los Angeles.
Harrington, M. R.
1948a. "A New Pinto Site," The Masterkey, vol. 22,
no. 4, pp. 116-18, Los Angeles.
1948b. "America's Oldest Dwellings?" The Master-
key, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 148-52, Los Angeles.
1949. "The Plot Thickens at Little Lake," The
Masterkey, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 19, Los Angeles.
Sleight, Frederick W.
1948. "Man Enters America," The Florida Anthro-
pologist, vol. 1, nos. 1-2, pp. 23-27, n.p.
A SOUTHERN CULT SPECIMEN FROM FLORIDA
John M. Goggin
Typical Southern Cult embossed copper work is rare in Florida--it is
therefore of interest to illustrate an unusual example (Fig. 11).1 This
specimen (Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Catalog
no. 17/145 was excavated some years ago in a mound near Old Oka-
humpka, Lake County by Clarence B. Moore. It was not illustrated,
Moore merely noting that it "seems to be of an interesting character
entirely dissimilar from the usual lines of semi-perforations."i
Although the specimen is too fragmentary to reconstruct the original
design it is very clearly, both in design details and technique, similar
to pieces ascribed to the southeastern Southern Cult,3 and, as Moore
says, quite different from the simple punctated copper work of the
Northern St. Johns area. It is one of the few specimens of the style
in the state and also the southern-most, suggesting that influences of
the cult reaches into the peninsula, if only in the form of casual
Although the specimen is easily recognizable as a cult object, the dat-
ing of it is a more difficult problem because of the lack of definite
material in the mound. Most of the pottery seems to have been plain
and red painted ware, perhaps Dunns Creek Red. However, a surface
find is a sherd with an incised and punctated design and an applique
human face (Museum of the American Indian, Catalog no. 17/285).4
The sherd is not a distinct example of any recognized pottery type, but
on the basis of both paste and design it seems classifiable as Weeden
Island Incised. However, it has been considered by other workers as
Fort Walton Incised, ignoring the fact that the paste is more like the
1. This paper represents a contribution from the research
program of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology,
University of Florida, aided by a grant from the Viking
2. Clarence B. Moore "Certain Sand Mounds of the Ockla-
waha River, Florida," Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences, vol. 10, p. 543, Philadelphia, 1895.
3. See A. J. Waring, Jr. and Preston Holder, "A Prehis-
toric Ceremonial Complex in the Southeastern United States,"
American Anthropologist vol. 47, pp. 1-34, Menasha, Wisconsin,
4. Moore, op. cit. Fig. 91.
5. See John M. Goggin, "A revised Temporal Chart of Florida
Archeology," The Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, nos. 3-4,
pp. 57-60, 1948.
Fig. 11. Embossed copper plate, Mound near Old Okahumpka.
The difference in classification is important because both pottery
types are markers for distinct periods, the Weeden Island Incised
being representative of the Weeden Island Period while Fort Walton
Incised is typical of the later Fort Walton Period.5 Thus the value of
the sherd as a means for dating the copper plate is weakened by the
difference of opinion.
In summary, we can note the presence in peninsular Florida of an
example of typical Southern Cult embossed copper work. It may date
from either the Weeden Island or Fort V alton periods, although in the
writers opinion it is more likely the former.
University of Florida
CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE
Ripley P. Bullen. Mr. Bullen is Assistant Archeologist, Florida Park
Service and his paper reports on activities of that organization.
John M. Goggin, Mary E. Godwin, Earl Hester, David Prange and
Robert Spangenberg. Dr. Goggin, editor of this journal, is Associate
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Florida. Mrs.
Godwin, and Messers Hester, Prange, and Spangenberg are all students
at the University. The paper describes the results of an archeology
field trip taken by this group.
Frederick Sleight. Mr. Sleight, well known to the readers of this
journal, is Consultant in Archeology, Rollins College.
Gilbert L. Voss. Mr. Voss, of Hypoluxo, is a student of marine biology
at the University of Miami, but one with wide interest as evidenced by
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
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John M. Goggin, Department of Sociology and
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