Table of Contents
 Editor's Page
 Ornamental Bone Carving of Southern...
 Ceramic Seriation, Radiocarbon...
 Two Sites of Interest in the Withlacoohee...
 Excavations in 1940 at the Palmer-Taylor...
 Florida Anthropological Society...
 Book Reviews
 About the Authors

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00097
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00097
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's Page
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Ornamental Bone Carving of Southern Florida: Some Late Styles and their Associations
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Ceramic Seriation, Radiocarbon Dates, and Subsistence Data from the Kissimmee River Valley: Archaelogical Evidence for Belle Glade Occupation
        Ceramic Seriation,
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Two Sites of Interest in the Withlacoohee Bay Area of Levy County, Florida
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Excavations in 1940 at the Palmer-Taylor Mound, Seminole County, Florida
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Florida Anthropological Society 1996 Award Recipients
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Book Reviews
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    About the Authors
        Page 108
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7/)', 27

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NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript's
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Volume 49 Number 2
June 1996


Editor's Page. Robert J. Austin


Ornamental Bone Carving of Southern Florida: Some Late Styles
and their Associations. Ryan J. Wheeler and Wesley F. Coleman

Ceramic Seriation, Radiocarbon Dates, and Subsistence Data from the the Kissimmee
River Valley: Archaeological Evidence for Belle Glade Occupation. Robert J. Austin

Two Sites of Interest in the Withlacoochee Bay Area of Levy County, Florida. Gregory A. Mikell

Excavations in 1940 at the Palmer-Taylor Mound, Seminole County, Florida. E. Mott Davis


Ripley C. Bullen Award: Brent Weisman
William C. Lazarus Award: Lyman O. Warren
President's Award for Distinguished Service
Chapter Awards


Austin and Pochurek: Yat Kitischee: The Archaeology of a Prehistoric Coastal Hamlet. Keith D. Ryder
Sassaman and Steen (Editors): South Carolina Antiquities Special Anniversary Issue: 25 Years of the ASSC
and South Carolina Archaeology. William H. Marquardt

About the Authors

Cover: Ancient Contract by Jeanie Fitzpatrick.

Copyright 1996 by the
ISSN 0015-3893


This issue of The Florida Anthropologist presents several
articles that should be of interest to our readers. In the first,
Ryan Wheeler continues his examination of the artistic designs
and motifs on bone artifacts. Ryan and coauthor Wes Coleman
describe several stylistic motifs that are common on bone
artifacts found at late prehistoric sites in south Florida. They
also attempt to place these designs within a context of Mississip-
pian-era iconography, comparing them to other stylistic motifs
that appear on shell and ceramics in Florida and the greater
southeastern U.S.
The Kissimmee River valley is the subject of the next article.
Ceramic, faunal, and chronometric data that have been collected
over the past 10 years are presented in an attempt to demon-
strate that the Kissimmee River was occupied by the Belle
Glade culture. The emergence of a less mobile lifestyle resulting
in large, deep middens, associated burial mounds and earth-
works, and greater population density are viewed as the result
of a local adaptation to the emergence of productive wetland
habitats beginning around 3500 to 3000 years ago.
Greg Mikell presents interesting information on two sites near
Withlacoochee Bay. Both contained lanceolate-shaped projectile
points. The Bird Creek site contained many small, lanceolate-
shaped projectile points conventionally assigned to the late
Paleoindian period. MikIl1 questions this assignment and
suggests instead that they may be associated with a Woodland
time frame. The Covas Creek site also contained Paleoindian-
like implements including a Simpson projectile point and large,
well-made unifacial tools. Both sites were brought to Greg's
attention by a local resident, illustrating once again the impor-
tance of professional-amateur cooperation.
An interesting historical piece is presented by E. Mott Davis
who participated in a 1940 excavation at the Palmer-Taylor
Mound in Seminole County. Dr. Davis relates the events

leading up to the project, which was conducted by Harvard Uni-
versity's Excavator's Club, as well as the excavation itself, with
humor and a sense of nostalgia. The photos are an especially
interesting addition.
This year's annual meeting in Sarasota was a big success, and
the Time Sifters chapter should be commended for a job well
done. The Florida Anthropological Society Awards were
presented at the annual business meeting, and the recipients are
profiled in this issue. Congratulations to all these dedicated FAS
members for their achievements in fostering the goals of the
Society and of archaeology in Florida.
I have one last item that I would like to pass on to our
readers. I received recently a notice from a grass-roots organi-
zation known as The Friends of PIT. This is a group of
volunteers who are interested in preserving the U.S. Forest
Service's Passport in Time (PIT) program which consists of
public volunteer projects in archaeology, preservation, and
restoration of cultural resources in our National Forests. These
projects are part of the Windows on the Past initiative in the
USDA Forest Service's Heritage Program. Through these
programs, the public becomes aware of the importance and
vulnerability of the nation's cultural resources.
The program is presently in danger of being cut from the
Federal budget as part of Congress's deficit reduction initiative.
If you are interested in voicing your support for this program,
you are encouraged to write or phone your Congressman as
well as Lyle Laverty, Director of the Forest Service Heritage
Program, at the following address: Forest Service, US Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Auditor's Building, 201 14th St. SW,
Washington, D.C. If you are interested in obtaining more
information on The Friends of PIT, you can write to George
and Cathy Poetschat, Friends of PIT, 13255 SW Glenhaven St.,
Beaverton, OR 97005.



JUNE 1996

VOL. 49 NO. 2




1C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, 1508 NW 1st Lane #2, Gainesville, Florida 32603
210 NW 124th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33182

This paper defines five broad styles of decorated bone carving
known from southeastern Florida, spanning the time of the pre-
pottery era through the European-contact period. Decorated
bone from the earliest occupation of southern Florida is rare,
but would appear to be related to broader styles shared by
Archaic cultures throughout the peninsula (Wheeler 1994). The
most well-known of the southern Florida forms is the effigy
style, which is related to the wood-carving traditions of Key
Marco, Fort Center, and Belle Glade. Other styles include what
appear to be local and regional manifestations of Mississippian-
related decorative motifs. The degree of influence varies, with
some very parochial forms in the Everglades style. In contrast
to the Everglades style, a peninsular geometric style is widely
distributed throughout eastern and southern Florida. The baton-
shaped bone pins, often stained with copper salts, appear to be
closely related to the high-status goods of Mississippian elites.
The enigmatic antler carvings of the Margate-Blount site
(8BD41) combine traditional forms and media of southern
Florida with motifs related to late Mississippian shell gorgets.
A description of three major styles currently known for southern
and eastern Florida follows, with specific attention paid to the
Mississippian-related forms.

Archaic and Hopewellian-related Styles

Early Decorated Styles

In a previous paper, Wheeler (1994) has discussed a group of
stylistically linked, decorated bone artifacts found at Archaic
period sites throughout the Florida peninsula. The typical motif
is a complex arrangement of cross-hatched or hatched bands in
diamond and nested-diamond arrangements. These artifacts are
primarily from sites in the St. Johns River area, although
examples from the lower Gulf coast also are known. Artifacts
with similar diamond motifs also are known from Archaic sites
in the Indian River and Everglades areas, suggesting that this
style extended well into southern Florida. Examples include a
specimen from the famous "Vero Man" site (Rouse 1951:229),
as well as Peace Camp in Broward County (Mowers and
Williams 1972:14,16).

Effigy Style

The effigy style includes in-the-round, bas-relief, and incised

animal and human images carved in bone and wood. Avian
images predominate, but serpent, mammal, and aquatic beings
also are known (Wheeler 1992a). Effigy carvings primarily date
to the Glades II period (A.D. 700-1200), with imagery derived
from Hopewellian and Weeden Island art styles. Effigies were,
however, made well into the European-contact era. These late
Glades II period specimens often are more stylized than their
predecessors, and occasionally depict humans, a form absent in
Glades II period carving. The distribution of this style is quite
broad, roughly approximating that of the peninsular geometric
forms discussed below. Figure 1 illustrates two bird effigies
from southern Florida'.

Late and Mississippian-related Styles

Peninsular Geometric Style

The peninsular geometric style is comprised of rectilinear and
curvilinear forms, incised on bone pins, pendants, and feather
holders2. Many of the designs known from this style may have
their origins in the technical work of basketry, braidwork, and
featherwork. These designs are found on artifacts from Hontoon
Island (Purdy 1987, 1988:648-649) and other St. Johns River
area sites (Stewart 1979:56; personal communication, 1992), as
well as sites in the Indian River (Ferguson 1951; Rouse 1951),
East Okeechobee (Wheeler 1992b), Okeechobee (Willey 1949a),
Ten Thousand Islands (Griffin 1988), Caloosahatchee, and
Everglades areas, representing one of the most widespread
carving styles in Florida. Simpson (1995) has recently reported
bone artifacts with these motifs from the Narvaez site in St.
Petersburg. Although some examples are socketed (Figure 2j-k),
these pins are usually tenoned (Figure 3b, d, f-g). Relative
dating of the specimens indicates a Glades IIc (A.D. 1000-1200)
origin for the designs in southern Florida. All specimens from
the St. Johns River, Indian River, and Gulf Coast areas date to
the European-contact period, indicating an expansion of the
style to the north. Examples of this form are illustrated in
Figures 2 and 3.
The three primary motifs of the peninsular geometric style are
a rectilinear guilloche (Figure 2; also see Purdy 1988), a
curvilinear design (Figure 3b, d-f), and an arc with radiating
lines (Figure 3c-d, g-j). This last design usually is confined to
the head or crown of bone pins, while the former two motifs
occur on the shafts of bone pins. Occasionally the rectilinear


VOL. 49 No. 2


JUNE 1996


a b

Figure 1. Effigy style antler and bone carvings: a) antler bird, possibly the Carolina parakeet or
peregrine falcon, 4 cm, Florida Portland (8DA45), Glades H late, FLMNH 94380; b) bone or antler
bird, 5.1 cm, Mound Key, Glades IIIc, UM 8217.

guilloche occurs on the crown of a pin (Figure 2e). These
motifs are combined on some pins (Figure 3d, g).
Designs based on textile patterns are found in many cultures,
including the Paracas of South America and the Maya of
Central America. In the latter region Robicsek (1975:285-286)
has documented the use of the "mat pattern" as a symbol or
emblem of the Maya elites. Likewise, feathers are often used in
Native American societies as insignia of powerful spiritual or
military leaders (Howard 1981:217-218, 1984:73-74). The de
Bry engravings of the Le Moyne watercolors consistently show
feathers and feather holders associated with powerful individuals
(Hulton 1977:Plates 103, 106, 110, 129). Many of the artifacts
bearing the rectilinear and curvilinear motifs described above.
could have been used as feather holders. Jordan (1963:39-40,
49) recovered a number of tenoned bone feather or plume
holders at the Goodman site where they were conjoined with
bone ferrules or rings.
Comparison of the peninsular geometric style motifs- with
those found on the large wooden owl effigy from the St. Johns
River (Figure 3a) indicates some relationship between the
designs and avian imagery. Note that variants of the rectilinear
guilloche (on the back of the owl) and the arc with radiating
lines (comprising the owl's tail feathers) are stylized representa-
tions of feathers.

Baton-shaped Bone Pins

Mississippian-style bone carvings include the distinctive baton-
like pins or combs with deeply engraved diamond motifs, as
well as animal imagery derived directly from Mississippian shell
gorgets and associated imagery, described below (Wheeler
1992a, 1992b). The baton-shaped pins are known from burial
and habitation contexts at sites in geographically disparate areas.

Examples have been recovered at Lake Jackson (Jones
1994:130; Richardson and Pohl 1982:157), Picnic Mound
(Bullen 1952:65-66), Granada (Richardson and Pohl 1982:157),
and Coral Springs (Williams 1970:143-144). W.P.A. excava-
tions near St. Augustine also produced an example (Figure 4j).
Other examples of these baton-like pins are illustrated in Figure
The baton or mace is a weapon that appears in the arts of the
Mississippian horizon (Howard 1968:26-29, 64, 76-78; Waring
and Holder 1945:Figure II, 1-w). Examples of the baton or
mace motif appear as petroglyphs, ceremonial flints, or as
weapons brandished by combative figures in Mississippian shell
gorgets and dippers (Ganier 1954). The mace or baton is incised
on some Safety Harbor Incised vessels (Mitchem 1989:361-364;
Sears 1967:Figure 8.1). Ethnographic evidence presented by
Howard (1968:76-78) indicates that the baton or war club was
among the objects used during the Green Corn ceremony of
southeastern Indians.

The Everglades Style

The geometric designs identified here as the "Everglades
Style" do not share any similarities, save for the broadest, with
the incised designs found typically on Glades pottery. However,
some unusual or unique sherds do have designs similar to those
on decorated bone. This local geometric style seems to be
largely restricted to southeastern Florida, with designs including
interlocking incised lines, "T-shaped" motifs, zoned-punctated,
zoned-hatched, and pendent-loop patterns. Designs are executed
on ornamental bone pins and pendants, as well as other utilitari-
an implements. Some of these designs share similarities with
those of Safety Harbor culture ceramics, to which they may be
related. In some cases the designs of the peninsular geometric


1996 VOL. 49(2)










Figure 2. Rectilinear motifs in bone, peninsular geometric style: a) pin, 12.4 cm, Hontoon Island
(8V0202), FBAR; b) pin, 4.8 cm, Upper Matecumbe (8MO17) (after Goggin and Sommer 1949:48-
49); c) pin, 2.5 cm, Onion Key (8M049) (after Griffin 1988:109); d) pin fragment, 2.8 cm, Riviera
(8PB30), FAU; e) pin head, 2 cm, Granada (8DA11), FBAR 78-101-330-4; f) flat pin fragment, 2.9
cm, Hontoon Island, FBAR; g) pin, 6.6 cm, Fuller (8BR90) (after Rouse 1951:Plate 5); h) pin
fragment, 6.5 cm, Palmer-Taylor (8SE18), YPM 128481; ) engraved bone with rectilinear and tail-
feather motifs, 3.5 cm, Narvaez (8PI54) (after Gamble and Warren 1966:154);j) feather holder, 2.1
cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-450-6; k) feather holder, 2.6 cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-38-95.

style are combined or reinterpreted with those of southeastern
Florida. Unfortunately, most decorated bone objects are
fragmentary, and many in our current sample have come from
unprovenienced collections or from sites where specific tempo-
ral contexts are unknown. The following is a description of
some of the classes of designs and design combinations we have
Knot-and-Braid Motif. We have included under the heading
of Everglades style several examples of knot-and-braid imagery
incised on bone. The two finest pieces were recovered from
8DA140 in Glades II contexts (Coleman 1971); the example
from Granada (8DA11) is more recent (Figure 5). Knot imagery

may be associated with the early development of the peninsular
geometric style discussed above, as both have motifs derived
from weaving and textile work.
Punctated Pendants. Bone pendants bearing punctated
designs have been recovered from a number of sites in south-
eastern Florida. Figure 6 illustrates a series of these pendants.
Note that the punctated design is often unorganized, as if
punctations were added at random. Sometimes punctations are
organized in groups, lines, or panels. Occasionally specimens
have a few incised lines. The punctated pendant from Bear Lake
(8MO33) (Figure 6b) was recovered from a Glades I late (A.D.
500-750) context (Griffin 1988:210). The pendant from Mar-














Figure 3. Curvilinear motifs in bone, peninsular geometric style: a) owl totem, 2 m, Hontoon Island (after Bullen 1955); b)
pin fragment with feather motif, 4.7 cm, Granada, FBAR; c) pin head, 1.7 cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-139-4; d) pin with
feather and tail- feather motif, 5.7 cm, Hontoon Island, FBAR; e) pendant with feather motif, 3.5 cm, Hontoon Island, FBAR;
f) pin with feather motif, 7.1 cm, Alderman (8V0135), Rollins College; g) pin with tail-feather and rectilinear-guilloche motifs,
7.2 cm, Belle Glade (8PB41), NMNH-SI 383693; h) pin head with tail-feather motif, South Indian Field (8BR23) (after
Ferguson 1951:Plate 4c); i) pin with tail feather motif, 8.8 cm, Belle Glade, NMNH-SI 383693; j) pin head, 2 cm, Granada,
FBAR 78-101-140-5.

gate-Blount (8BD41) (Figure 6c) was recovered from a Glades
liIa (A.D. 1200-1400) stratum, along with other decorated bone
artifacts exhibiting Mississippian decorative elements. The
punctated pendant fragment from Upper Matecumbe (8M017)
(Figure 6a) was associated with Surfside Incised ceramics, again
providing a temporal context of Glades liIa. Several similar
undecorated pendants are known from southern Florida,
including examples from Gait Island (Lee 1990:280), Belle
Glade (Willey 1949a:43), and Granada (Richardson and Pohl
1982:117, 119, 122, Plate 32). Some of these pendants are
paddle-shaped like the one in Figure 6b.
Interlocking Motif. A motif identified on several Everglades
area bone artifact fragments could be described as an interlock-
ing, "T-shaped" or "U-shaped" pattern (Figure 7). Goggin and

Sommer (1949:48-49) report a specimen with this design from
Upper Matecumbe. In most cases this motif takes the form of
two nested "U" designs with a central line. Some specimens
have several registers containing this design, while others have
panels with the design that wrap around the shaft of the artifact.
The technical quality of carving varies from specimen to
specimen, including some that have faint, uneven lines, and
others with deep, broad, and regular engraving. In one case,
this interlocking motif is found on an artifact that bears the
rectilinear guilloche of the peninsular geometric style. The
rectilinear motif is well-known along the east coast, but the
interlocking motif only occurs in southern Florida. The speci-
men (Figure 7a) with this combination is from Cheetum
(8DA1058) and dates to Glades IIc/IIIa (A.D. 1000-1400)


1996 VOL. 49(2)


according to Laxson's (1962) classification of pottery from the
site. Other specimens bearing this interlocking style include
examples from Granada (8DA1l) (Figure 7c) dating to the
Glades IIIb (A.D. 1400-1513) period, Big Pine Midden 1
(8MO7) (Figure 7b) associated with mixed ceramics of several
Glades periods, as well as an unprovenienced specimen (Figure
7d) from Dade County collected by the Miami West Indian
Archaeological Society.
Interlocking and Punctated Motif. The interlocking motif
described above is occasionally combined with punctations. One
particularly interesting piece with an interlocking and punctated
motif appears to have served as a handle, possibly from a
composite bone awl or fid (Figure 8a). This bone handle also
bears an incised-cruciform motif. The cruciform pattern may be
a typical component of the interlocking motif, but since this is
one of the few complete specimens known, it is impossible to
tell. A fragmentary specimen (Figure 8c), probably a pin, from
a Glades III context at Granada (8DA11), bears a similar motif,
with a possible cross-shaped incised pattern and several
groups of punctations. A decorated bone pendant from Cheetum

(8DA1058) (Figure 8b) combines a cruciform shape with similar
incised lines and a diamond-shaped central recess. This speci-
men may be abstracted from zo6morphic imagery, indicating
that some of the other Everglades-style incising may be
associated with animal designs. Cruciform motifs are known to
occur on Weeden Island ceramics, although this motif is far
more common on the pottery of the Fort Walton culture. Bone
pins or combs with diamond-shaped recesses also are associated
with the Safety Harbor and Fort Walton cultures (see discussion
of baton-shaped bone pins above).
Loop and Pendent-Loop Motifs. Several carved bone frag-
ments bear loop motifs or what may be better described as
pendent-loop motifs (Figure 9). Often these designs appear to
have been parts of larger panels or registers that wrapped
around bone implements. One specimen (Figure 9c) from a
Glades III context at Granada (8DA11) exhibits the ingenious
use of symmetry in the manner in which the pendent loops have
been executed. Other examples from the same site are less
organized, but also include pendent-loop motifs (Figure 9a-b).
Pendent loops also are a component of the peninsular geometric



Figure 4. Baton-shaped bone pins: a) 4.4 cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-462-3; b) fish bone, 2.9 cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-19-
136; c) 7 cm, Granada, FBAR; d) 3.1 cm, Granada, FBAR 78-101-24-59; e) 5.1 cm, Lake Jackson (8LE1) (after Richardson
and Pohl 1982:169); f) 6.5 cm, g) 6.2 cm, h) 6.1 cm, Picnic (81113) (redrawn from photographs in the Goggin Collection,
FLMNH); i) 5.8 cm, Coral Springs (8BD50) (after Williams 1970:144); j) Diego and Jenks Mounds (8SJ8), NMNH-SI 31738
(redrawn from sketches in Goggin field book 1944:11).





Figure 5. Knot-and-braid motifs: a) bone pin fragment, knot motif, 5.1 cm, Granada, Glades IIIb,
FBAR 78-101-184-4; b) bone pendant, braid motif, two fragments, 3 and 4.9 cm, 8DA140, Glades
H, HMSF 2343.1; c) bone pin/pendant, knot-and-cord motif, 6.5 cm, 8DA140, Glades I, HMSF



Figure 6. Bone pendants, punctated motif: a) bone pendant, 3.5 cm, Upper Matecumbe (8MO17),
Glades Ila, HMSF 1992.3; b) bone pendant, 5.7 cm, Bear Lake (8M033), Glades I late (after Griffin
1988:Figure 5.8); c) bone pendant, 3.2 cm, Margate-Blount (8BD41), Glades IIIa, BCAS.

1996 VOL. 49(2)


Figure 7. Interlocking motif: a) bone pin, two fragments, feather motif on head, interlocking or "T-
shaped" motif surrounding rectilinear guilloche, 5.8 cm, Cheetum (8DA1058), Glades IIc/Ia, HMSF
2973.1; b) pin fragment, 5 cm, Big Pine Midden 1 (8M07), Glades II/III, FLMNH 93325; c) pin
fragment, 1.9 cm, Granada, Glades IIIb, FBAR 78-101-171-30; d) pin fragment, 2.9 cm, Dade
County, HMSF 2342.2.

style, where they are related to avian images, specifically
feather and tail-feather motifs (compare with the examples in
Figure 3, as well as the head of the bone pin fragment from
Cheetum in Figure 7a and the Tamiami Trail 1 pin in Figure
10a; also see Wheeler 1992b).
Zoned-Punctated Motif. The use of zoned punctations also is
fairly common on southern Florida specimens (Figure 10). The
punctations are not particularly organized, but usually are
enclosed within incised zones. Specimens examined within this
design category include an unprovenienced fragment of bird
bone (Figure 10f) from Dade County, and another fragment of
bird bone (Figure 10e) from a Glades IIIb context at Granada,
both of which may have been beads. An engraved pin fragment
(Figure 10a) from Tamiami Trail 1 (8DA33) combines zoned
punctation with pendent loops, as well as another figure,
perhaps best described as a "barred-oval" motif, not unlike that
known on Mississippian-era artifacts (Waring and Holder
1945:5). The Tamiami Trail 1 specimen is related in many ways
to the decorated bone of the peninsular geometric style,
including the manner in which curvilinear elements form a
central diamond and in the rays or lines that emanate from the
pendent.loops at the terminal end. An unusual pin fragment
(Figure 10c) from Honey Hills (8DA411) has a raised facade on
its obverse side with an incised rectangle and punctated design.
The reverse side bears a similar design executed primarily with
punctations. Raised facades are known on other southern
Florida effigy-style bone carvings. Additional specimens from
Granada with zoned-punctated or incised-and-punctated designs

include a bone pin fragment (Figure 10b) and a bone flute or
flageolet (Figure 10d), both from Glades IIIb contexts.
Zoned-Hatched Motif. Only small fragments of bone objects
with a zoned-hatched motif have been recovered. Figure 11
illustrates several fragments with this motif, including two
unprovenienced specimens from Dade County (Figure 1 la, b),
and one from Granada (Figure lc). It is possible that this
design is more closely aligned with the rectilinear forms of the
peninsular geometric style mentioned above, which often have
zoned-hatched diamond forms.

Antler Carvings from Margate-Blount

Examples of decorated antler from Margate-Blount (8BD41)
are clearly associated with Safety Harbor and Mississippian
design and imagery, including the use of scroll, pendent-loop,
zoned-punctated, and cross-hatched motifs (Figure 12). The
three examples illustrated here were recovered by the Broward
County Archaeological Society from what could best be
described as a "ceremonial precinct." Other components of the
site include a village midden and cemetery. Within the ceremo-
nial precinct artifacts were buried, perhaps as ritual offerings,
along with the remains of alligators, rattlesnakes, turtles, and
raccoons that were ritually prepared and interred (Gypsy
Graves, personal communication, 1991; Wheeler 1992a:94-96).
The rattlesnake imagery found on the antler carving from
Margate-Blount (cf. Figures 12b and 14) mimics that known on
shell gorgets from Tennessee (see Kneberg 1959; Muller 1966).




- IT-







Figure 8. Interlocking-and-punctated motif: a) bone handle, cruciform-and-punctated motif, 11.75
cm, Dade County; b) pendant, cruciform-and-diamond motif, 6.4 cm, Cheetum, Glades II/II, HMSF
1274; c) pin fragment, 2.9 cm, Granada, Glades II, FBAR 78-101-677-6.

Figure 9. Loop-and-pendent-loop motif: a) pin fragment, 2.4 cm, Granada, Glades H, FBAR 78-101-
423-10; b) pin fragment, 2.2 cm, Granada, Glades IIb, FBAR 78-101-620-1; c) tablet fragment, 2
cm, Granada, Glades III, FBAR 78-101-342-6.

1996 VOL. 49(2)




Figure 10. Zoned-punctated motif: a) pin fragment, barred-oval and punctated motifs, 3.8 cm, Tamiami Trail
1 (8DA33), HMSF 1298; b) pin, punctations and incised lines, 7 cm, Granada, Glades IIIb, FBAR 78-101-696-
1; c) pin with raised facade, 8.8 cm, Honey Hills (8DA411), HMSF 40.6.7; d) bone flute or flageolet, 8 cm,
Granada, Glades IIb, FBAR; e) bone tube fragment, 3.9 cm, Granada, Glades IIb, FBAR 78-101-677-6;
f) bone tube fragment, 1.8 cm, Dade County, HMSF 2342.6.

The Pine Harbor site of coastal Georgia is the nearest locality
producing similar imagery (Cook and Pearson 1989:153). Pine
Harbor has produced artifacts with designs that closely resemble
Safety Harbor Incised ceramics and some of the geometric bone
carvings discussed here (Larson 1955, 1958). The antler carving
illustrated in Figure 12b combines a variety of motifs; including


many that have direct analogs in Safety Harbor motifs. The
combination of motifs, as well as the overall form of the
carving, helps confirm that these are components of rattlesnake
imagery. This interpretation may help in understanding these
motifs when they appear as isolates on Safety Harbor pottery or
other decorated bone artifacts.


Figure 11. Zoned-hatched motif: a) pin fragment, 1.4 cm, Dade County, HMSF 2342.4; b)
pin fragment, 2.5 cm, Dade County, HMSF 2342.5; c) pin fragment, 1.6 cm, Granada,
Glades III, FBAR 78-101-425-7.




^ ?




Figure 12. Engraved antler from Margate-Blount (8BD41): a) fragmentary carving with concentric-
arc motif, probably depicting a rattlesnake rattle, 3.5 cm, Glades IIc; b) Mississippian rattlesnake
motif, cross hatching, pendent-loop, and additional zoned-punctated motifs, 14.8 cm, Glades IIIc;
c) stylized vulture carving with cross-in-circle motif, 6 cm, Glades fIc, BCAS.

The artifact illustrated in Figure 12c represents a rather
stylized vulture, with large round eyes, down-curving beak, and
bald, wrinkled head. The shaft of the artifact is adorned with
pendent-loop motifs and a modified cross-in-circle motif. Like
its rattlesnake counterpart, this image is highly abstracted and
combines geometric designs and zoomorphic imagery, an
extremely rare occurrence in Glades tradition art.
The Margate-Blount artifacts display a rare and interesting
merger of Safety Harbor and Mississippian designs with animal
forms that clearly are related to older patterns within Weeden
Island and Glades arts. These objects are rather anomalous,
since all other artifacts of southeastern Florida are either
naturalistic zoomorphic carvings or the decorated geometric
feather holders. The Margate-Blount artifacts exhibit the same

pattern described for Safety Harbor ceramics, where earlier
designs and forms are merged with introduced Mississippian
ones. The antler artifacts considered here, along with their
context in a ceremonial precinct with attendant animal offerings,
suggest that earlier patterns were being preserved and combined
with extra-local Mississippian designs.


The meaning of the designs discussed above may always
remain a mystery; however, we can make some observations
regarding the dating of the various motifs involved and the
relationships of the motifs with those of surrounding style areas.
The notion that some of these artifacts are local manifestations

1996 VOL. 49(2)



b I:~;--""'

Figure 13. Safety Harbor Incised vessels: a) bottle with applique hands-and-baton motif, Tierra
Verde (8PI1692) (after Sears 1967:Figure 8); b) bottle with herring-bone and zig-zag motifs, Arcadia
(8DE1) (after Willey 1949a:Figure 63); c) bottle with volute and running-scroll motifs, Arcadia (after
Willey 1949a:Figure 63); d) bottle with pendent-loop motif, Tierra Verde (after Sears 1967:Figure 9);
e) conical jar with feather or serpent motif, Parrish Mound 3 (8MA3) (after Willey 1949a:Figure 64).




Figure 14. Citico-style rattlesnake gorgets, marine shell, Tennessee (from Holmes 1883:293).

of Mississippian-related styles is an important step in under-
standing and organizing the art styles of the late precontact and
early European contact periods in southern Florida.
The use of incising, punctations, and zoned punctations on
decorated bone from southeastern Florida lends itself to
comparison with the decorated ceramics of the Safety Harbor
culture (A.D. 900-1725), which was centered on the central
Gulf Coast (see Figure 13). The ceramics of Safety Harbor,

related in many ways to the Mississippian cultures of the
southeastern United States, also are directed with incised,
zoned-punctated, and pendent-loop motifs (see Willey
1949b:479-482). The use of punctations in Safety Harbor times
was probably an outgrowth of the earlier Weeden Island
complex, in which punctations were a major decorative element.
Temporally, we have demonstrated that incised and punctated
bone pre-date Safety Harbor. There is, however, a florescence


1996 VOL. 49(2)


of decorated bone during Glades III, coincident with the Safety
Harbor culture and other Mississippian manifestations in
Florida. The decorated antler from Margate-Blount is clearly
associated with Safety Harbor and Mississippian design and
imagery, including the use of scroll, pendent-loop, zoned-
punctated, and cross-hatched motifs (cf. Figures 12 and 14).
The presence of the baton-shaped bone pins and examples of the
peninsular geometric style in Safety Harbor and Glades sites
suggests a further connection.
We have also noted the influence of the bone-carving style
associated with the St. Johns River and Indian River areas. The
combination of the rectilinear guilloche of the east coast with
the interlocking pattern of southeastern Florida, as well as the
reinterpretation of the curvilinear designs of the former area,
suggest some relationships between the Everglades and peninsu-
lar geometric styles. However, the use of punctations is
conservative at best in the peninsular geometric style, and the
designs of each area, when combined, remain distinct.
The relationship of the decorative traditions mentioned above
may be more complex than originally suspected. Richardson and
Pohl (1982:138) note a general increase in decorated bone
during the Grades III period at the Granada site. Most decorated
bone artifacts examined for this study date to the Glades II and
III periods. This coincides with the development and appearance
of Safety Harbor and other Mississippian-related cultures, and
Glades contacts with them. It seems likely that the older
decorative tradition of the Everglades area, already relying on
incised and punctated motifs, was renewed by an infusion of
designs from adjacent style areas.


The cultures of southeastern Florida have rarely been consid-
ered as participants in the decorative aspects of the Mississippi-
an horizon or Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Closer
scrutiny has revealed that there are several local art styles
related to broader Mississippian patterns, and these probably are
elaborations of earlier styles. The bone carvings of southern
Florida have an analog in the Safety Harbor ceramics of Tampa
Bay and the lower Gulf Coast. Safety Harbor ceramics exhibit
a merging of earlier forms (Weeden Island) with the designs and
motifs of the Mississippian horizon, indicating that the reinter-
pretation of local forms, when confronted with exotic imagery,
is a characteristic of southern Florida.
Local and regional manifestations of Mississippian-related
decorative work have been identified here in at least three bone-
carving styles. These include specimens that are found in Safety
Harbor and Fort Walton culture burial mounds, as well as in
southeastern Florida, best characterized by the baton-shaped,
bone hair pins. Another bone-carving style is found throughout
the peninsula and is characterized by rectilinear and curvilinear
designs derived from technical crafts like weaving and feather-
work. A third style, the specific focus of this paper, is localized
in the Everglades area and is characterized by the use of
punctations, zoned punctations, pendent loops, and other motifs
possibly derived from the Mississippian-era pottery of Florida's
Gulf Coast. The antler carvings from Margate-Blount would

appear to represent a merging of traditional Glades zo6morphic
forms with late Mississippian designs. These carving styles
overlap, in terms of motifs, geographic dispersal, and temporal
assignment. Each of the three is associated with Mississippian
decorative work in a different way. The baton-shaped pins are
found in Mississippian contexts, suggesting that they are the
most closely associated with the material culture of the South-
eastern Ceremonial Complex. The peninsular geometric style
appears most distinct stylistically from Mississippian-era art,
although its temporal assignment and distribution throughout
southern and eastern Florida suggest it is a more local out-
growth of the Glades tradition, perhaps related to emblems or
insignia of a newly emergent elite class. The Everglades style
is more closely allied with other Florida Mississippian horizon
manifestations (e.g., Safety Harbor) in its extensive use of
punctations and other motifs, but it has a very limited geograph-
ic dispersal when compared to the other bone-carving styles of
this area.
The identification of this last style is important for several
reasons. First, the widely diverse, yet related styles that were
in use in southern and eastern Florida point to a complicated
artistic tradition within this region, which includes several
design systems that seem to have coexisted. Second, the
manifestation within the Everglades area of a local Mississippi-
an-related carving tradition links this area to the rest of Florida
and the Southeast during the Mississippian era. This last point
is particularly significant since these items were not simply
imported from elsewhere, but represent a local reinterpretation
of extra-local designs in traditional media and a participation in
the Mississippian artistic horizon.


SArtifacts illustrated and discussed in this paper are curated at the following
institutions: Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Division of
Historical Resources (FBAR); Historical Museum of Southern Florida (HMSF);
Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History, Broward County
Archaeological Society (BCAS); University Museum, University of Pennsylva-
nia (UM); Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH); National Museum of
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum
(NMNH-SI); National Park Service, Tallahassee (NPS); Yale Peabody Museum
(YPM); Florida Atlantic University (FAU); and Rollins College. Artifacts are
identified by the above institutional abbreviations and catalog numbers.
2 We have recently learned of several decorated bone artifacts with T-shaped
heads from the Yat Kitischee site in Pinellas County (Mitchell 1995:Figures 8.2-
8.3). Bone pins with T-shaped or flanged heads occur at a number of sites
throughout the Florida peninsula, including Key Marco (Gilliland 1975:210-
211), Granada (Richardson and Pohl 1982:Plate 31q-r), at least one site in
Broward County (Gypsy Graves, personal communication, 1992), and possibly
Tick Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figures 29, 30). We consider these artifacts
to be related to the peninsular geometric style, although further research is
required to identify the various forms, designs, and distributions.


We would like to thank the following individuals and their respective
institutions for allowing us to study their collections of decorated bone artifacts
and for granting us permission to illustrate these objects. These people include
Elise LeCompte-Baer, Anthropology Department, Florida Museum of Natural
History; Remko Jansonius, Historical Museum of Southern Florida; Marilyn
Stewart, Rollins College; Lucy Fowler Williams and Gabrielle Vail, University




Museum, University of Pennsylvania; Jim Miller and David Dickel, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research; and Gypsy Graves, Graves Museum of
Archaeology and Natural History. Some of the information on the proveniences
of Granada site artifacts comes from an examination of field notes on file at the
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division of Historical Resources. We also
would like to thank George Luer, Dr. Joe Feist, and Jim Lord for their help and
advice. The comments of the reviewers, as well as Bob Austin's patience, are
greatly appreciated.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County, Florida. Florida
Geological Survey, Report of Investigations 8, Tallahassee.
Coleman, Wesley F.
1971 Carved Bone Artifacts from Dade County. The Florida Anthropologist
Cook, Fred C., and Charles E. Pearson
1989 The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex on the Georgia Coast. In The
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis, edited by
Patricia Galloway, pp. 147-165. University of Nebraska Press,
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1951 Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida. Yale University Publica-
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Gamble, Roger, and Lyman Warren
1966 Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone, Narvaez Midden,
Safety Harbor Period, Saint Petersburg. The Florida Anthropologist
Ganier, Albert F.
1954 The "Baton" or "Mace" Design Among Aboriginal Artifacts. In Ten
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M. N. Lewis, pp. 53-65. Tennessee Archaeological Society, Knoxville.
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1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. University Presses of
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Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer, III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale University
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1988 The Archeology of Everglades National Park: A Synthesis. National
Park Service, Southeastern Archeological Center, Tallahassee.
Holmes, William Henry
1883 Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans. Second Annual Report of the
Bureau ofAmerican Ethnology, 1880-1881, pp. 179-305, Washington,
Howard, James H.
1968 The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex and Its Interpretation. Memoir
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1981 Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a Native Indian Tribe and Its Cultural
Background. Ohio University Press, Athens.
1984 Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic and Religion. University of
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Hulton, Paul
1977 The Work of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues: A Huguenot Artist in
France, Florida and England, 2 Vols. British Museum of Natural
History, London.
Jahn, Otto L., and Ripley P. Bullen
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida Anthropological
Society Publications 10, Gainesville.
Jones, B. Calvin
1994 The Lake Jackson Mound Complex (8LE1): Stability and Change in
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Jordan, Douglas F.
1963 The Goodman Mound. In Papers on the Jungerman and Goodman
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Kneberg, Madeline
1959 Engraved Shell Gorgets and Their Associations. Tennessee Archaeolo-
gist 15:1-39.
Larson, Lewis H., Jr.
1955 Unusual Figurine from the Georgia Coast. The Florida Anthropologist
1958 Southern Cult Manifestations on the Georgia Coast. American Antiquity
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1962 Excavations in Dade, Broward Counties, 1959-1961. The Florida
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Lee, Art
1990 Pendant Found in Gait Island Spoil Pile. The Florida Anthropologist
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129-157. Report prepared for the Board of County Commissioners of
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1989 Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/Protohistoric Archaeology
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1967 The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. The Florida Anthropologist 20:25-73.
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1996 VOL. 49(2)



Willey, Gordon R.
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Archaeologists working in south Florida have long recognized
a relationship between the prehistoric cultures that occupied the
Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee basins. As early as
1941, John Goggin included the river valley in his Kissimmee-
Eastern Okeechobee subarea of the larger Glades culture area
(Goggin 1941:25). At the same time he observed that this
portion of the Glades area was the least known archaeologically
of any in the state. Over the next several decades this situation
changed very little. Except for Griffin and Smith's (1948)
excavation at the Goodnow Mound near Sebring, little in the
way of substantive research was accomplished in the Kissimmee
region. As late as 1980, Milanich and Fairbanks (1980:26) still
considered the region to be "poorly known" archaeologically.
Since 1985, cultural resource management projects and prob-
lem-oriented research (e.g., Austin 1987, 1993; Austin et al.
1994; Janus Research 1995; Johnson 1991, 1994; Mitchell
1996) have added considerably to the region's archaeological
data base. In this paper, I review data from several of these
projects which confirm conclusively Goggin's original assertion.
The bulk of these data come from recent test excavations at six
prehistoric sites located on the Avon Park Air Force Range
(APAFR) in Polk and Highlands Counties (Austin et al. 1994).
A ceramic seriation in conjunction with radiocarbon dates from
these sites document a substantial post-Archaic occupation
beginning at approximately 1000 B.C. and continuing through
the seventeenth century A.D. The ceramic, settlement, and
subsistence data all indicate close affinities with the Belle Glade
culture of the Lake Okeechobee basin. Test excavations at three
other sites the Fischer site and River Ranch Midden in Polk
County, and Bluff Hammock in Highlands County illustrate
the geographic extent of Belle Glade occupation within the

Environmental Setting

The Kissimmee River basin extends from Orlando south to
Lake Okeechobee, encompassing over 7800 km2 (Conover and
Leach 1975; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USA COE]
1991:2; VanArman et al. 1984:154). The upper basin consists
of the many lakes in southern Orange, western Osceola, and
eastern Polk Counties that form the headwaters of the river.
The lakes are connected by a series of streams and shallow
sloughs, most of which were channelized by Hamilton Disston
in the 1880s. The lower basin (Figure 1) begins at Lake Kissim-

mee. From here the Kissimmee River winds its way south to
Lake Okeechobee, a distance of about 165 river km. The river
flows across the low-lying Osceola and Okeechobee Plains,
former marine terraces that formed during the Pleistocene
(Brooks 1974:266; Healy 1975). The eastern divide between the
Kissimmee and St. Johns Rivers is a slightly elevated (maxi-
mum of 23 m in elevation) upland area of pine flatwoods. To
the west is the Lake Wales Ridge, an extension of the Central
Highlands which separates the Kissimmee River valley from that
of the Peace River. Included in the lower basin is Lake Istok-
poga and its associated outflow, Indian Prairie. Another
important drainage is Arbuckle Creek which flows southward
from Lake Arbuckle to Lake Istokpoga.
In its natural state, the Kissimmee was originally a slow-
moving, meandering river with a floodplain that varied from
1.5-3 km in width (Florida Department of Natural Resources
[FDNR] 1974:89; USA COE 1991:7). Runoff from the sur-
rounding poorly drained flatlands, and the rise of lake levels in
the upper basin at the end of the summer rainy season, caused
the river to overflow its banks regularly. Indeed, early accounts
of the region's natural environment are nearly unanimous in
commenting on the overwhelming presence of water throughout
the valley (Davis 1943:34; McCaffrey et al. 1976; Parker et al.
1955:301; Will 1977:9-10). In some years the flooding was so
severe that the river resembled a wide lake, and low-lying areas
were often under water for several months at a time (USA COE
1991:A-6, 15). As a result, the river has experienced numerous
attempts to control it (cf. McCaffrey et al. 1976; Tebeau 1974;
VanArman et al. 1984:138-139). The most recent, in the 1960s,
was a massive flood control project by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers which involved channelizing the river and construct-
ing a series of levees and water control structures along its
course. While successful in controlling flood waters, the
negative effect of this project on the natural ecosystem has been
dramatic. Seasonally fluctuating water levels in conjunction with
undulating floodplain topography, a meandering river channel,
oxbows, and natural, discontinuous levees, were essential
components for maintaining the river's diverse mosaic of natural
wetland habitats. By eliminating seasonal inundation, channel-
ization has caused many marshes to dry up allowing terrestrial
vegetation to invade (VanArman et al. 1984:154). Of an
estimated 14,000 hectares of wetlands that once existed in the
floodplain, only about 5,700 remain today (USA COE 1991:26).
Most of the drained land is used for cattle ranching.


JUNE 1996

VOL. 49 NO. 2

THE FLORIDA ANrmioPoLoGIsT 1996 VoL. 49(2)


S 0 i 6 Mes
6 0 a K.-..

S- Mound. Erthwork
* Midden. Artitact Scatter


Lake Okeechob

Figure 1. Map of the lower Kissimmee River valley showing the locations of some Belle Glade sites and sites with Belle Glade



1996 VOL. 49(2)




Paleoenvironmental Conditions and the Origin of the Kissimmee

The modern Kissimmee River probably originated sometime
around 5000 B.P. Using geological data and associated radiocar-
bon dates, Gleason et al. (1974:311) and Brooks (1974) infer
that south Florida was extremely arid prior to this time and that
the Kissimmee River may not have flowed. The deposition of
calcitic mud in depressions within the Lake Okeechobee basin
at around 6400 B.P., and the subsequent formation of peat
deposits in the Everglades beginning around 5000 B.P., are
believed to have occurred as a result of increased precipitation
and runoff during the warm, moist, Atlantic climatic interval
(Gleason et al. 1974:310; McDowell et al. 1969). This recon-
struction agrees well with pollen data from several lakes in
central and south-central Florida which indicate that a modern
climate and biota dominated by pine and cypress replaced a
more xeric sclerophyllous oak scrub and open prairie sometime
after 5000 B.P. (Watts 1971, 1975; Watts and Hansen 1988).
At Lake Annie, near the southern terminus of the Lake Wales
Ridge, Watts (1975:345) reports that pine dominates the pollen
assemblage at 4715 B.P., and at 2630 B.P. bald cypress
increases in abundance indicating an expansion of cypress
swamps. At Little Salt Spring, analysis of peat deposits indi-
cates that dry conditions prevailed from 7000-5200 B.P.
followed by a wetter climate that reached its maximum at about
3200 B.P. (Brown and Cohen 1985:21-31). Gleason et al.
(1974:311) also indicate that precipitation gradually increased
after about 2900 B-.P.
While the general trend throughout the Holocene appears to
have been one of increasing precipitation, climatic fluctuations
did occur resulting in conditions that were both wetter and drier
than today. For example, Gleason et al. (1974:311) report
evidence of ancient fires in a peat bog in Marion County, and
from this infer four separate periods of severe drought between
4030 and 2900 B.P. During these periods it is reasonable to
infer that the flow of water in the Kissimmee River would have
been reduced, perhaps substantially, as a result of a decrease in
both surface runoff and base flow. The effect of reduced
precipitation on stream flow in south Florida has been demon-
strated by Coleman (1980) who provides data that indicate a
reduction in annual flow of over 30% in both the Kissimmee
and Peace Rivers from 1960 to 1977. This reduction in flow is
correlated with a concomitant decrease in average annual
precipitation over the same period. Streams and ponds that
occupy shallow channels or depressions that do not intercept the
water table, and are not recharged by the artesian aquifer,
would probably have dried up altogether, as they do today
during even short periods of drought (cf. Hughes 1974; Lichtler
1972:5, 17; Parker et al. 1955:315, 319). On the other hand,
approximately 750-1000 years ago, a period of extremely warm
climate with increased hurricane activity is believed to have
occurred (Gleason et al. 1974:311; Gribbin and Lamb 1978:70),
and this would have increased river flow and contributed to
widespread flooding. These periodic fluctuations in climate and
precipitation during the late Holocene no doubt had an effect on
the adaptive strategies of the people who occupied the valley

prehistorically at both the long- and short-term temporal scales.

The Sites

Figure 1 shows the locations of major sites in the lower
Kissimmee River valley including the nine sites from which the
data for this paper were derived. In the interest of space, only
brief descriptions of these sites are presented. More detailed
information is provided in the referenced technical reports
(Austin and Fuhrmeister 1990; Austin and Hansen 1988; Austin
and Piper 1986; Austin et al. 1994). Field methods were similar
at all sites. Except where noted, test units measured 1 x 2 m or
1 x 1 m. Excavation was conducted using arbitrary 10 cm
levels, and all excavated soil was sifted through 6.4 mm
hardware cloth. All artifacts, faunal material, and charcoal were
saved from each level of each unit. Column samples, measuring
50 x 50 cm, were obtained from three sites on the APAFR.
These were also removed in 10 cm levels, then dry-screened
through 6.4 mm, 3.2 mm, and 1.6 mm hardware cloth. To
avoid redundancy, details regarding the definitions of ceramic
types, radiocarbon dates, and faunal remains are presented in
the appropriate sections following the site descriptions.

Bluff Hammock, 8HG665

This is a large midden located in a hardwood hammock on a
natural levee overlooking a drained marsh associated with the
Kissimmee River. The actual river channel is located about 150
m to the east. Testing at this site was conducted in the fall of
1987 by the author assisted by members of the Kissimmee
Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy. In addition
to several shovel tests, two controlled test units measuring 1 x
1 m and .5 x 1 m were excavated near the crest of the midden.
Maximum depth of the test units was 90 cm.
The site contains abundant faunal remains, ceramics, and
charcoal. The ceramic assemblage is dominated by Belle Glade
Plain which comprises 77.8% of the total. Only two test unit
levels penetrated submidden soils. These contained several lithic
waste flakes, a biface fragment, and no ceramics. A Hernando
projectile point (Figure 2a) was also recovered from a shovel
test at a depth of 70 cm, immediately below the organic-stained
midden soil.

Gaging Station, 8HG18

Located on the APAFR and originally recorded by Sonny
Cockrell in 1968, the Gaging Station site is a very large midden
located within a few meters of the original river channel. The
site extends for approximately .8 km and encompasses about 20
hectares, making it the largest midden so far reported along the
river. The vegetation is typical hardwood hammock with live
oak, hickory, cabbage palm, and saw palmetto. The undulating
topography exhibits many mound-like features. These are
typically arranged in a roughly circular pattern surrounding a
central depression. Several of these configurations are present
and I believe they may be the locations of prehistoric house-
holds, perhaps elevated to protect them from periodic floods,



THE FLORIDA AwrImoPouxIsr 1996 Vo.. 49(2)

/ %

I \


0 cm 5

Figure 2. Nonceramic artifacts from Belle Glade sites: a) Hernando point, 8HG665; b) basal portion of Clay or heavily
reworked Citrus point, 8HG20; c) fragment of Hernando point, 8HG27; d) reworked Newnan or Marion point, 8HG34; e)
large, perforated, fossil shark tooth, 8P01685. Note that the tooth has been ground to a bevel to facilitate hating.

with the "mounds" representing the accumulation of debris and
discarded artifacts around the perimeters of the structures.
Shovel testing in the depressions produced lithic debitage, but
no ceramics, faunal material, or midden-stained soil.
Two 1 x 2 m test units were excavated by Janus Research
personnel in early 1994. One of these (Test Unit A) was located
at the south end of the site in what is presumed to have been a
living area. Artifacts and faunal material were present but not
overly abundant. Belle Glade Plain was restricted to the upper
three levels; St. Johns Plain and sand- and fiber-tempered plain
were recovered in the lower levels near the base of the midden
in association with lithic waste flakes, four microliths, and a
circular charcoal concentration (designated as Feature 1).
A second test unit (Test Unit B) was excavated in a low

mound at the north end of the site where shovel testing in 1985
indicated a very dense deposit of faunal material and ceramics.
The 1994 test unit indicated that midden deposits here extend to
a depth of 160 cm below ground surface with lithic artifacts
recovered to a depth of 210 cm. Belle Glade Plain is the
dominant ceramic type throughout this unit. A broken Belle
Glade Plain bowl was recovered from level eight and subse-
quently reconstructed (Figure 3). Other artifacts include a
drilled shark's tooth, a fragment of possible red ochre, and a
Busycon columella fragment.
A 50 x 50 cm column sample from Test Unit B recovered
nearly 5000 gm of animal bone and charcoal. Analysis of
charred botanical material from a possible feature (Feature 3)
identified hickory nut, bay seed, and palm berry as well as


~ S


19 VOL. 49(2)


::.t:;:- '-

.-. .:
''' :~
*.~.$:;~S~T: :'' '
~: ;r
~- ;5~i~:7~7~

S '

Figure 3. Hypothetical reconstruction of Belle Glade Plain

pine, oak, maple, and blueberry wood (Ruhl 1994). The high
density of bone and charcoal in such a concentrated area
suggests that the mound may have been a secondary trash-
disposal area. This is supported by its location at the northern
periphery of the site, away from the primary living area.

Orange Hammock, 8HG20

Also on the APAFR, this site is located just south of the Polk
and Highlands County line in a hardwood hammock on an
elevated bluff overlooking a bend in the natural channel of the
river. A drained marsh is located immediately to the south of
the site. At only two hectares, this midden is much smaller than
the Gaging Station site. A single 1 x 2 m test (Test Unit E) was
excavated in a clearing near the highest spot on the midden.
This unit encountered a dense concentration of faunal material,
ceramics, and charcoal that continued for approximately 90 cm.
Ceramics include Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, sand-
tempered plain, spiculite sand-tempered plain, and sand- and
fiber-tempered plain. Other artifacts include lithic waste flakes,
several biface fragments (including part of a Citrus or Clay
projectile point [Figure 2b]), flake tools, bone pin fragments,
drilled shark teeth, and several Busycon shell tool fragments. A
50 x 50 cm column sample recovered over 10,000 gm of bone
and charcoal. Below the midden is a preceramic lithic compo-
nent that extends to a depth of 170 cm.

Dead Cow, 8HG27

At the north end of Orange Hammock, only a few hundred

0 cm S

bowl recovered from

meters north of the Orange Hammock
site, is the Dead Cow site. The two are
separated by a low area that contains
no artifacts or midden-stained soil. The
midden is located on a bluff overlook-
ing a drained marsh. Two 1 x 2 m test
units were placed near the north end of
the site. The first (Test Unit C) en-
countered fragmentary human remains
at 35 cm and was terminated after
notification of the APAFR Natural
Resources Manager. The second (Test
Unit D) was excavated to a depth of
150 cm with a 50 x 50 cm shovel test
extending to 250 cm. The major con-
centration of midden material is con-
tained within the first 70 cm and lithic
artifacts are sparsely represented below
this depth. A basal fragment of a Her-
nando projectile point (Figure 2c) was
recovered from Level 10. No cultural
material was recovered below 140 cm.
Belle Glade Plain is restricted to the
upper levels; sand-tempered plain and
spiculite paste, sand-tempered plain are
the dominant ceramic types in the
middle levels; and sand- and fiber-

tempered sherds and St. Johns Plain dominate the lowest levels
of the midden.

Air Force Mound, 8HG34

Immediately to the west of Orange Hammock and the Dead
Cow site, in an area of scrubby pine flatwoods, is a small sand
mound measuring about 40 m north-south by 32 m east-west.
Shovel testing in 1985 failed to recover any artifacts in the
mound; however, examination of the shovel-test profiles
suggested that the upper part of the mound was artificial and
had been built on a natural topographic rise (Austin and Piper
1986:93-94). Subsequently, in 1994, a 3 x 3 m test (Test Unit
F) was excavated by Janus Research personnel in the top of the
rise. The size of the unit was partially to allow for a stair-
stepped excavation to protect against anticipated collapse of the
loose, sandy soil. It was also a way to maximize artifact
recovery in what appeared to be a low-density situation, and it
enabled the exposure of a large stratigraphic profile to examine
possible mound construction.
As shown in Figure 4, the strata within the mound are
distinct. Underneath the surficial humic zone are three layers of
gray sand of varying shades containing ceramics (almost
exclusively Belle Glade Plain) and abundant charcoal. These
gray sand layers overlie what appears to be the original ground
surface a very light gray sand with long, narrow, sand-filled
root casts penetrating the underlying dark brown spodic horizon.
Below a depth of 60 cm only lithic artifacts were recovered,
including a heavily reworked Newnan or Marion point (Figure
2d) recovered from level 7. Lithic waste flakes continued to be




recovered in small but consistent amounts to a depth of 180 cm.
Excavation of the 3 x 3 m unit ceased at 190 cm but a 50 x 50
cm test pit was excavated in the floor to a depth of 305 cm. A
single lithic waste flake was recovered between 220-230 cm. No
human remains were encountered in the mound.

Barker Site, 8P01007

The next two sites are lakeside middens, and so represent a
different aspect of the Belle Glade settlement and subsistence
pattern within the valley. Both are located on the APAFR near
Lake Arbuckle about 21.5 km west of the Kissimmee River.
The Barker site is the southernmost of the two, situated on a
natural lake levee about midway down the east side of the lake.
It is small in comparison to the riverine middens, only 250 m2
(.025 ha) in size. Dense cypress swamp surrounds the site
which is covered with saw palmetto, live oak, and sweet gum.
A single 1 x 2 m test (Test Unit G) was excavated near the
crest of the midden and penetrated just over 100 cm of cultural
deposits with several distinct strata evident (Figure 5). The base
of the midden rests on a very dark gray to black, silty muck
that is culturally sterile. Excavation continued for three levels
into the light colored sand lying below the muck and ended at
a depth of 140 cm. A 50 x 50 cm shovel test was excavated in

the bottom of the unit to a depth of 215 cm. This smaller test
encountered a second black muck layer between 143 and 155
cm. The two silty muck layers separated by light-colored sand
may indicate possible variation in lake levels through time.
Belle Glade Plain was restricted to the upper four levels of the
midden with spiculite sand-tempered plain the dominant pottery
in lower levels. Nonceramic artifacts were sparse and consisted
of a single lithic waste flake in Level 1 and several fragments
of red ochre in Levels 3 and 4. Faunal material is dominated by
aquatic species, especially fish and freshwater mollusks, with
terrestrial species such as deer and gopher tortoise contributing
only a minor proportion to the faunal assemblage.

Ebersbach Midden, 8P01008

Approximately 1.5 km northwest of the Barker site is the
Ebersbach Midden. It is slightly larger at about 675 m2 (.07
ha), and is also situated on a natural levee surrounded by
cypress swamp. A single 1 x 2 m test (Test Unit H) in the top
of the midden encountered a series of thin strata containing
varying amounts of freshwater gastropod (Viviparus georgiana)
and mussel (Elliptio sp.) shells along with ceramics and faunal
material. Midden deposits did not extend below 60 cm although
excavation continued to 160 cm, at which point a 50 x 50 cm

Figure 4. Excavation of 3 x 3 m unit at 8HG34. Archaeologist Fred Steube is taking notes. Note the distinctive strata and
the development of a spodic horizon (i.e., the dark zone underlying the light-colored stratum).


1996 VOL. 49(2)


Ground Surface

Very dark gray humic
soil with small amount
of scattered shell.

Very dark gray sand
and humus with an
increase in shell content.

Mottled gray/dark gray,
dense shell.

\CJ Mottled gray/light gray,
compact shell

Very dark gray to black,
silty "muck" with very
small shell fragments.

Light grayish-brown sand.

0 10 20 40
S-c. In rm

Figure 5. Stratigraphic profile at 8P01007. Note the zone
underlying the midden.

test unit was excavated to a depth of 195 cm. The soil beneath
the midden consisted of alternating layers of sand of varying
shades of gray and brown, but no dark silty muck. The only
cultural materials recovered from these lower levels were two
lithic waste flakes in Levels 11 and 13. Belle Glade Plain is the
dominant ceramic type throughout the midden. A 50 x 50 cm
column sample recovered nearly 17,000 gm of bone, shell, and
charcoal. Although aquatic species dominate the faunal assem-
blage, terrestrial species such as deer and gopher tortoise are
more common here than at the Barker site. Analysis of charred
botanical remains from the column sample identified charred
pine and oak wood, a wax myrtle seed, and a seed fragment
identified as hackberry or sugarberry (Ruhl 1994).

River Ranch Midden, 8P01685

About 4 km south of Lake Kissimmee is the River Ranch
Midden. This large site is located in a hardwood hammock
adjacent to a drained marsh associated with the Kissimmee
River. The midden extends for approximately .4 km, and the
surface exhibits depressions and mound-like features similar to
those described for the Gaging Station site. Testing at the site
was conducted by Janus Research in 1990. In addition to several
shovel tests, a single 1 x 1 m test unit was excavated near the
top of one of the higher mound-like features. The test encoun-

of light-colored sand separating two strata of dark, silty muck

tered 120 cm of dark midden soil containing abundant faunal
remains and ceramics. Belle Glade Plain and sandy St. Johns
Plain were the most common types particularly in the upper five
levels. In the lowest level (Level 12), seven sherds of sand- and
fiber-tempered pottery were recovered. In addition to the usual
aquatic and terrestrial fauna, several shark teeth, including a
large, perforated fossil tooth (Figure 2e), and a horse conch
(Pleuroploca gigantea) shell were recovered.

Fischer Site, 8P01044

This large midden is located on the north side of Lake Hatch-
inea in northern Polk County. The site is adjacent to a freshwa-
ter marsh (now drained) associated with the lake. The physical
appearance of the site is reminiscent of the Gaging Station and
River Ranch middens undulating topography with depressions
encircled by low midden mounds. A single 1 x 1 m test unit
was excavated at the site by Janus Research personnel in 1989.
About 60 cm of midden material was encountered. In some
portions of the site a 30 cm lens of dense freshwater shell
separates the upper and lower midden zones. St. Johns Plain is
the dominant pottery throughout the midden; however, in the
upper 40 cm of the test unit, Belle Glade Plain appears in
association with the freshwater shell lens. Below this stratum,
Belle Glade Plain is absent.



THE FLORIDA AX'mniopoLoGlsr 1996 VOL 0(2)

Other Sites

Numerous other sites have been recorded along the river, and
most appear to be associated with the Belle Glade culture.
Johnson (1991, 1994) has documented several earthwork sites
in the lower basin, and has commented on their similarity to the
earthworks of the Lake Okeechobee Basin. While most of these
are isolated earthworks, a more complex arrangement of
circular and linear features is present at Lake Kissimmee (Hale
1984). Another possible earthworks site has recently been
identified near Reedy Creek on the Polk and Osceola County
line (Janus Research 1994a:12-13). The Candler Mound and
Earthworks site consists of a linear mound measuring about 40
m long, 15 m wide, and 1.25 m high. A 1941 aerial photograph
appears to show two linear ridges and a semi-circular embank-
ment to the southwest and west of the hammock containing the
mound (Figure 6). One of the linear ridges appears to lead
directly to the south side of the mound. Unfortunately, recent
land modification and erosion have erased all traces of the
ridges. Limited shovel testing in the mound failed to recover
any cultural material although previous landowners have
reported finding artifacts on the mound as well as in the
surrounding field.
Other mounds along the river include a large, unrecorded sand
mound just south of the River Ranch site; a large, rectangular
mound, 58 x 150 m in size, and an associated midden contain-
ing Belle Glade pottery located near Fort Bassinger in Highlands
County (Austin 1992a); and the Daughtry site, a large mound,
midden, and earthworks complex just north of Fort Bassinger
(Carr 1974; Conklin 1875:331; Johnson 1991:140). Sand
mounds also are recorded in the Florida Site File (FSF) on the
west side of Lake Arbuckle and near the south end of Lake
Several small sites are located between Lake Hatchinea and
Lake Russell (Austin and Hansen 1988:28-32, 35-37, 39-40;
Janus Research 1994a, 1994b). These include lakeside middens
and mounds as well as small extractive sites located on scrub-
covered knolls in the flatwoods. Many of the sites contain St.
Johns Plain, sand-tempered plain, and Belle Glade Plain
ceramics. Other small Belle Glade middens are located at Lake
Weohyakapka (Bullen and Beilman 1973:2), on the north and
west shores of Lake Kissimmee (Gustafson 1963; FSF), near
Lake Rosalie (Simpson 1994), and at the south end of Lake
Arbuckle (FSF). On the APAFR, small middens and artifact
scatters have been found along the river, along Morgan Hole
and Arbuckle Creeks, on scrub-covered knolls in the flatwoods,
and on Bombing Range Ridge (Austin 1994; Austin and Piper
1986). Belle Glade sites also have been recorded along Ar-
buckle Creek south of the APAFR (Austin and Ballo 1987;
Janus Research 1995), and Johnson (1991:104-121) recorded
several Belle Glade middens on what were formerly tree islands
in the Indian Prairie marsh south of Lake Istokpoga.

Radiocarbon Dates

Thirteen radiocarbon dates were obtained from five of the six
APAFR sites (Table 1). The range of dates represented, ca.

1000 B.C. to the mid-seventeenth century A.D., documents use
of the region throughout the entire Belle Glade sequence as
defined by Sears (1982) at Fort Center. The earliest date (2870
50 B.P., cal. 1170-910 B.C.) comes from Level 7 in Unit E
at Orange Hammock. The charcoal sample was recovered in
association with sand- and fiber-tempered ceramics. This is
approximately 500 years earlier than Sears' date of 450 B.C.
for the presence of this ceramic ware at Fort Center, although
he speculates that an earlier date of 1000 B.C. would not be out
of the question (Sears 1982:185).
Charcoal collected from the light-colored sand zone sand-
wiched between two black muck deposits at the Barker site near
Lake Arbuckle returned a date of 2430 60 B.P. This would
place it during the warm Sub-Atlantic climatic interval (Gleason
et al. 1974:311). As suggested above, the sand zone may
represent an absence of organic accumulation associated with
lower water levels and perhaps increased aridity. A date of 910
70 B.P. (cal. A.D. 1000-1270) was obtained on charcoal
from Level 3 of Unit E at Orange Hammock indicating an early
Period III, or possibly a very late Period H, time frame (cf.
Sears 1982:Figure 7.1). This correlates reasonably well with the
ceramics from this level (Figure 7) which include Belle Glade
Plain, sand-tempered plain, and spiculite sand-tempered plain.
Three samples returned dates that can be firmly assigned to
Sears' Period III. These range from 850 90 B.P. to 630
50 B.P. (or from about cal. A.D. 1045-1400). Four samples
returned dates that suggest a very late Period III or early Period
IV time frame. All are tightly clustered around 550-500 B.P.
(or about cal. A.D. 1310-1450). These seven dates are from
five different sites (Gaging Station, Orange Hammock, Air
Force Mound, Barker Site, and Ebersbach Midden). One of
these samples (Beta 73197, 560 60 B.P.) came from the
soot-encrusted exterior of the Belle Glade Plain bowl from the
Gaging Station site. The large number of proveniences assign-
able to an A.D. 1000-1400 time frame suggests a possible
increase in population or site-occupation span after A.D. 1000.
The dense midden deposit tested by Unit B at the Gaging
Station site appears to have been deposited almost entirely after
A.D. 1000.
The latest date is from the Air Force Mound (250 50 B.P.).
Another, nearly contemporaneous, date of 310 90 B.P.
comes from the Barker site; however, this date is stratigraph-
ically out of place approximately 30 cm below an earlier date of
850 90 B.P. The ceramic seriation indicates that a Period H
time frame for this lower level is probably more correct (see
Figure 7).
One other date appears to be out of context. Charcoal from a
small feature in Unit A at the Gaging Station site returned a
radiocarbon date of 570 50 B.P. (cal. A.D. 1320-1420), far
too late to be associated with the sand- and fiber-tempered
pottery in the same level. The feature is probably intrusive into
the level from a later occupation.

Ceramic Seriation

Seriation, or the ordering of artifacts in a series, is a basic
analytical tool of archaeologists. The purpose of the technique


1996 VOL. 492)


Figure 6. The Candler Mound and Earthworks site as shown in a 1941 aerial photograph.

is to "arrange comparable units in a single dimension (that is,
along a line) such that the position of each unit reflects its
similarity to other units" (Marquardt 1978:258). It is most
commonly used as a relative dating technique whereby artifact
assemblages from different sites, or from components within a
single site, are arranged in a temporal sequence (cf. Ford
1962). The underlying principle of temporal seriation is that
material items have use lives that begin with the invention and
introduction of the items, and progress through periods of
increasing acceptance and use, peak popularity, a gradual

decline in popularity, and finally, abandonment or replacement
by other styles or types. This use-life history is illustrated by
the classic "battleship curve" of type frequencies or percentages
through time (Dethlefsen and Deetz 1966; Ford 1962).
The seriation in Figure 7 was constructed by interdigitating the
ceramic frequencies from excavated levels from six sites on the
APAFR. Only those levels containing a minimum of 10
analyzable sherds (i.e., sherds > 2 cm in maximum dimension)
are included (N = 1521). Only two levels contained the
minimum of 10 sherds; the average number of sherds per level



Table 1. Radiocarbon dates from six Belle Glade sites on the Avon Park Air Force Range.

Sample # Material Provenience "C Age" Adjusted Ageb Calendrical Datec

Beta 76957 charred wood 8HG35, Unit F, 270 50 B.P. 250 50 B.P. A.D. 1640 (1655) 1795
20-30 cm
Beta 73200 charred wood 8P01007, Unit G, 370 90 B.P. 310 90 B.P. A.D. 1470 (1640) 1670
60-70 cm
Beta 76958 charred wood 8HG35, Unit F, 580 100 B.P. 540 100 B.P. A.D. 1310 (1415) 1450
60-70 cm
Beta 73197 organic material 8HG18, Unit B, 580 60 B.P. 560 60 B.P. A.D. 1320 (1410) 1430
on exterior of Fea. 2, 79-88 cm
BGP pot
Beta 73195 charred wood 8HG18, Unit A, 600 50 B.P. 570 50 B.P. A.D. 1320 (1410) 1420
Fea. 1, 57-70 cm
Beta 76961 charred wood 8P01008, Unit H, 630 50 B.P. 630 50 B.P. A.D. 1295 (1310, 1355, 1385) 1400
20-30 cm
Beta 73196 charred wood 8HG18, Unit B, 590 50 B.P. 520 50 B.P. A.D. 1410 (1420) 1440
Fea. 3, 90-100 cm
Beta 76956 charred wood 8HG18, Unit B, 690 60 B.P. 690 60 B.P. A.D. 1275 (1295) 1385
120-130 cm
Beta 76959 charred wood 8P01007, Unit G, 870 90 B.P. 850 90 B.P. A.D. 1045 (1215) 1275
20-30 cm
Beta 73198 charred wood 8HG20, Unit E, 930 70 B.P. 910 70 B.P. A.D. 1030 (1160) 1220
20-30 cm
Beta 73201 charred wood 8P01008, Unit H, 1920 80 B.P. 1940 80 B.P. 10 B.C. (A.D. 80)
40-50 cm A.D. 140
Beta 76960 charred wood 8P01007, Unit G, 2440 60 B.P. 2430 60 B.P. 760 (485, 465, 425) 400 B.C.
white sand below
black muck
130-140 cm
Beta 73199 charred wood 8HG20, Unit E, 2870 50 B.P. 2870 50 B.P. 1110 (1010) 940 B.C.
60-70 cm

'Radiocarbon years before A.D. 1950 1 standard deviation.
b Correction for 6 1"3C resulting from isotopic fractionation.
c Dendrocalibrated calendrical dates. Calibrations performed by Beta Analytic, Inc. using the Pretoria Calibration Procedure. Dates in parentheses represent the intercept of the
13C/I"C adjusted age with the calibration curve. Since the curve is not a straight line, there may be more than one intercept, and so, more than one "mean" calibrated calendrical
date. Numbers before and after the parentheses represent 1 standard deviation intercepts with the calibration curve.


was 38 and the maximum was 79 in one level. The only
limitation in arranging the various levels was that stratigraphic
relationships between levels within a single excavation unit
could not be violated. In others words, Level 2 from a single
unit could not precede Level 1 from the same unit in the

Sorting Criteria

While the ceramic types used in the seriation are familiar to
archaeologists working in south Florida, the criteria used to
identify them tend to vary among analysts. This is because most
of the pottery is undecorated. Thus, secondary attributes such
as surface treatment, paste characteristics, and aplastic inclu-
sions become the principal sorting criteria. Unfortunately, these
attributes often overlap between types, and so their use in
isolation does not provide an unambiguous means of distinguish-
ing between types. For example, sponge spicules are a common
inclusion in the clays used to make nearly all of the ceramics
that occur at sites in the Kissimmee region, and so spicules
alone are an inadequate sorting criterion. For this reason it was
necessary to develop an unambiguous set of criteria that could
be identified consistently and, at the same time, produce a
typology that could be compared to existing typologies. In this
study I was interested specifically in comparing the Kissimmee
River seriation with the seriation developed by Sears at Fort
My criteria for identifying Belle Glade Plain are based on type
descriptions by Cordell (1992:111), Goggin and Sommer
(1949:46-47), Griffin and Smith (1948:19-20), Luer and Almy
(1980:212), Milanich and Fairbanks (1980:186-187), Mitchem
(1986:86-87), Rouse (1951:22), Sears (1982:20-22), and Willey
(1949a:25-26). While some of these descriptions differ in
interesting ways, most are in agreement that a primary attribute
of the type is the distinctive surface treatment caused by
dragging a tool across a nearly dry surface. This resulted in
drag marks, facets, and extruded sand grains which produced a
surface the true nature of which is not easily described, but is
usually identifiable once one becomes familiar with it. The best
example I can give of what this surface looks like is to refer the
reader to Anna Shepard's photograph of a similarly scraped
surface on page 189, Figure 13d, of her volume Ceramics for
the Archaeologist (1954). While small sherds of Belle Glade
Plain often fail to exhibit facets, they generally will display the
extruded sand grains and drag marks.
A second major criterion for the identification of Belle Glade
Plain is the use of a spiculite paste with quartz sand inclusions.
Often this is not explicit in the referenced definitions, but is
implied by describing the sherds as having a "chalky" feel (e.g.,
Goggin and Sommer 1949:46), or as being "intermediate"
between sand-tempered plain (Glades Plain) and Biscayne or St.
Johns Plain (e.g., Rouse 1951:22; Willey 1949a:25). The type
descriptions of Griffin and Smith (1948:19-20), Milanich and
Fairbanks (1980:186-187), and Sears (1982:20-22) are conspicu-
ous in not mentioning the inclusion of sponge spicules (either by
feel or visual observation) explicitly as an identifying criterion.
Sears (1982:22) makes a point of discounting Goggin and

Sommer's description of Belle Glade Plain saying that it is not
the same as the pottery described by Willey at Belle Glade. My
reading of both Willey and Goggin and Sommer could find only
one difference between them the explicit mention of a chalky
feel by the latter authors. Since Sears does not mention this in
his type definition, and dismisses Goggin and Sommer's
definition as inaccurate, I conclude that a chalky feel, and
therefore the presence of sponge spicules, was not an important
criterion for Sears.
Based on my own examination (and reexamination) of many
Belle Glade Plain sherds from the Kissimmee region, I would
agree with Sears that a chalky feel is an inadequate sorting
criterion for the type. Many sherds with the characteristic
surface treatment fail to possess this tactile quality, while many
others do. Thus, the criterion is ambiguous and should not be
used. However, I have also found few Belle Glade sherds that
do not, on inspection of a freshly broken surface under a
microscope, possess sponge spicules in their paste. Thus, in my
classification scheme, sherds must posses both the characteristic
surface treatment and a sand-tempered, spiculite paste (with or
without a chalky surface) to be classified as Belle Glade Plain.
Sherds with abundant sponge spicules, common quartz sand
inclusions, and no surface facets, scratches, extruded sand
grains, etc. were classified as sandy St. Johns Plain. Spiculite-
paste sherds with rare quartz sand or no sand at all were
classified as St. Johns Plain.
Spiculite sand-tempered plain is a type originally defined by
Mitchem (1986:86; see also Cordell 1992). Sponge spicules are
observable in the paste, but quartz sand inclusions are common
to abundant, and there are no surface marks indicative of Belle
Glade Plain. These sherds fail to exhibit the chalky feel of St.
Johns Plain, and without breaking the sherd and observing the
paste under a microscope, they would probably be classified by
most archaeologists as sand-tempered plain.

Seriation Results

My initial seriation of ceramic types used the distinction made
above between sand-tempered plain and spiculite sand-tempered
plain. It showed both types increasing in lower, earlier levels.
Therefore, I combined both types into a single category "sand-
tempered plain" to enable comparison to the Fort Center
seriation which does not make this distinction. The results are
shown in Figure 7 and they are generally consistent with Sears'
findings at Fort Center (cf. Sears 1982:Figure 7.1). While the
exact timing of the appearance of Belle Glade Plain in the
Kissimmee River valley is unclear, it was present in significant
amounts by A.D. 1000 and soon became the dominant ware.
Sandy St. Johns Plain also increases in later levels, although the
pattern is not as dramatic. This temporal trend also has been
observed by Goggin (1952:100) and Cordell (1985; Russo et al.
1989) at sites in the St. Johns and Indian River regions. Sand-
tempered plain increases in frequency with depth and is most
common at about the time that Belle Glade Plain first begins to
appear. Sand- and fiber-tempered pottery is restricted to the
lower levels of most units and tends to be associated with a
thick-walled St. Johns Plain. Again, this pattern is similar to the




bZ I I
b3 I
b4 I I
b5 I I
b 6 I
b8 I -I
f3 AD 1655
b9 AD 1410
gz I
h2 AD 1355
3 I
h4 I I
h5 AD BO D--
f5 t
g3 AD 1215 I ~
eZ 2
bID AD 1420
b I Z

b13 AD 1295
e3 AD 1160

d5 8
d7 E
d9 I I
e7 1010 BC 0
85 0
a7 AD 1410

Figure 7. Ceramic seriation from six sites on the Avon Park Air Force Range. BGP = Belle Glade Plain; STP = sand-
tempered plain; STJP = St. Johns Plain; SASTJP = sandy St. Johns Plain; SA&FIB = sand- and fiber-tempered plain; MISC
= miscellaneous types. Proveniences (unit, level) on far left, period sequence on far right.

one reported by Sears at Fort Center.
The miscellaneous sherds were too few in number to seriate
by individual types but their presence provides some additional
chronological information. A sample of these sherds is illustrat-
ed in Figure 8. St. Johns Check Stamped sherds (Figure 8a)
were recovered from Levels 4 and 5 in Test Unit B at the
Gaging Station site and Level 1, Test Unit D, at the Dead Cow
site. A thick, spiculite-paste sherd from Level 8 of Test Unit E
at Orange Hammock displays four parallel rows of what may be
a check-stamped design (Figure 8b). A small sherd from Level
5, Test Unit B, at the Gaging Station site displays what appears
to be a bold, linear-stamped design (Figure 8c). The paste
contains abundant sand but only a few sponge spicules were
Several spiculite-paste, cord-marked sherds were recovered
from Test Unit D at the Dead Cow site. In Level 4, 12 sherds
displaying a series of shallow, diagonal impressions of twisted
cordage were recovered. The largest of these is illustrated in
Figure 8h. The pattern resembles that produced by rolling a
stick wrapped with cordage across soft clay leaving a series of
parallel rows (cf. Hurley 1979:87 [bottom], 88). Another
possible cord-marked sherd was recovered from Level 7 of this
unit (Figure 8i). Ashley (1995) recently has compiled the extant
radiocarbon dates associated with cord-marked pottery in

northeast Florida; most fall between A.D. 1100-1500, although
one date is as early A.D. 770. The stratigraphic position of the
cord-marked sherds at the Dead Cow site would seem to
indicate a relatively early (i.e., Period II) introduction of this
surface treatment in the Kissimmee region (cf. Figure 7).
Several incised sherds also were recovered. The most identifi-
able is a rim sherd that displays incisions and punctations
similar to Englewood Incised (Figure 8k; cf. Willey 1949b:Plate
47f, g)'. This sherd is from Level 6, Test Unit B, at the Gaging
Station site in what is probably a Period IV or possibly late
Period III context. In Test Unit D at the Dead Cow site, a small
sherd with bold, incised lines came from Level 6 (Figure 8f).
A Belle Glade series sherd from Level 3, Test Unit G, at the
Barker site displays a bold incised line beneath its rim (Figure
8j); a spiculite-paste, sand-tempered plain sherd with three
parallel, bold incisions beneath the rim was recovered from
Level 4, Test Unit H, at the Ebersbach site; and a sand-
tempered sherd with cross-hatched incisions (Figure 81) was
recovered from Level 5 of Test Unit F at the Air Force Mound.
Finally, a small sherd with stamped or possibly impressed
markings was recovered from Level 4, Test Unit E, at Orange
Hammock (Figure 8e).
The radiocarbon dates associated with the seriation are, for the
most part, acceptable and consistent with Sears' data from Fort

o o



o 0
0 0





I I _






0I I



1996 VOL. 49(2)

P -el t
A C7 v








", I

0 cm 5

Figure 8. Sample of decorated sherds: a-b) St. Johns Check Stamped; c) bold, linear-stamped; d) unidentified
stamped; e) possible thumb impressed; J) linear incised on spiculite paste; g) possible fingernail incised; h-i) cord
marked; j) Belle Glade sherd with bold incised line; k) possible Englewood Incised; i) cross-hatched incised; m)
diamond-shaped incised; n) possible Surfside Incised. Proveniences: a, c, k) 8HG18; b, e) 8HG20; d, g) 8P01685; f,
h, i) 8HG27; j) 8P01007; 1) 8HG34; m-n) 8HG665.



ThE FLORIDA Ai'mnioPoLoGIsT 199w Vo.. .cz)

Center. A few dates appear to be out of sequence. The A.D.
1420 date for Level 10 of Unit B, for example, seems too late
for its position based on ceramic frequencies. Although this
level seems to fit best at its current position, it could just as
easily be moved below Level 9 of Unit B without too much
disruption to the seriation. On the other hand, the A.D. 80 date
for Level 5 of Unit H seems too early for its position in the
seriation, and the date may be in error. The late date for Level
7 of Unit E in association with sand- and fiber-tempered
ceramics has been discussed previously and is probably a
sampling error.
Table 2 provides ceramic frequency data from Bluff Ham-
mock, River Ranch, and the Fischer site. At River Ranch, sand-
and fiber-tempered ceramics are present in the lowest level
followed by two levels in which spiculite sand-tempered plain
sherds are present in comparatively high frequencies. The upper
nine levels are dominated by Belle Glade Plain with St. Johns
Plain and sandy St. Johns Plain also present. Comparing these
data to Figure 7 indicates that the River Ranch Midden probably
had relatively brief occupations during Periods I and II, with
most of the site deposits related to a fairly late Period III or
early Period IV occupation. Bluff Hammock also appears to
have been occupied primarily during Periods III-IV.
The Fischer site differs in that St. Johns Plain is the dominant
pottery in most levels. Belle Glade Plain first appears in Zone
C (the freshwater shell stratum) and increases in abundance
thereafter. Since no radiocarbon dates are associated with this
site it is difficult to know whether the Kissimmee River/Lake
Okeechobee seriation applies this far north. If it does, then the
upper three zones probably date to Periods III or IV because of
the association with sandy St. Johns Plain, while the lower
zones are probably the equivalent of Period II. The four Belle
Glade Plain rim sherds from these upper levels all display flat,
cut lips on outward-curving vessel walls suggesting a relatively
late time frame (ca. A.D. 1200-1600) for the upper part of the
midden (cf. Porter 1951; Sears 1982:Figure 7.1).
Decorated sherds from these sites include a sherd displaying
a faint, diamond-shaped incision below the rim (Figure 8m) and
a spiculite-paste sherd with a red-filmed surface, possibly Dunns
Creek Red, that were recovered from Level 4 of Test Unit A at
Bluff Hammock. A sandy, spiculite-paste sherd with four
incised lines paralleling the rim is similar to Surfside Incised
(Figure 8n). This sherd came from a shovel test at Bluff
Hammock. Two St. Johns Check Stamped sherds were recov-
.ered from Levels 2 and 4, Test Unit A, at the River Ranch
Midden, and three small, incised sherds were recovered from
shovel tests. One of these displays a series of curved, possibly
fingernail, incisions that overlap to form a series of parallel
lines (Figure 8g). Also recovered from a shovel test at this site
is a small sherd with a large, deep, stamped impression (Figure
8d), possibly part of a bold check-stamped design. At the
Fischer site, three possible incised, spiculite-paste sherds were
recovered from Zones B and C in Test Unit A.


Table 3 provides an inventory of identified animal species at

five middens.2 Despite the fact that only two of these sites
include faunal material recovered from screens smaller than 6.4
mm (Orange Hammock and Ebersbach Midden), there is a great
deal of similarity in species composition between the three
riverside middens (Bluff Hammock, Orange Hammock, and
River Ranch) and the Fischer site on Lake Hatchinea. All four
of these sites include a wide variety of both aquatic and
terrestrial species. At the Ebersbach Midden, aquatic species
clearly dominate. Oddities in the Kissimmee River assemblages
include the presence of feral hog and domestic cow at Orange
Hammock; however, the area has been used since the mid-19th
century for running cattle (DeVane 1983; Johnston 1976), and
hogs are a common sight today. Thus, these remains probably
represent historic intrusions into the prehistoric midden. The
domestic dog remains from this site may be prehistoric,
however, as they were recovered from a level with no apparent
modern intrusions. The various sharks were all represented by
unmodified teeth that could have been intended for use as tools,
and so they may not reflect subsistence items.
Quantitative data from two column samples one each from
Orange Hammock and the Ebersbach Midden highlight the
importance of aquatic resources to the Belle Glade diet with fish
and turtle contributing the greatest number of MNIs at both
sites. Garfish (Lepiosteus sp.), bowfin (Amia calva), freshwater
catfish (Ictalurus sp.), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus),
and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are the most
common fish species, as they are at nearly all of the other sites
(Table 3). Turtle species at most of these sites include softshell
turtle (Apaloneferox), cooter (Pseudemysfloridana), mud turtles
(Kinosteron sp.), and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).
When proportional biomass3 is compared through time there
are a few interesting trends (Figure 9). At Orange Hammock,
for example, there is a slight reduction in the importance of fish
from earlier to later periods. There is also an increase in the
importance of mammals in Levels 11 and 8. At the Ebersbach
Midden only two of the three analyzed levels contained enough
faunal material for a temporal comparison. Both of these are
believed to date to late Period III based on the ceramic seriation
and radiocarbon dates. There is a dramatic change in the
proportion of bony fish and mollusks, with the latter contribut-
ing much more to the proportional biomass in the upper (later)
level of the site.
The subsistence pattern suggested by these data is one that
focused on the exploitation of a variety of habitats in close
proximity to the Kissimmee River including terrestrial flatwoods
and hardwood hammocks, the river and its marsh, and nearby
lakes and ponds. Clearly, however, the aquatic habitat was a
primary source of food. This pattern is similar to that of Belle
Glade groups living in the Lake Okeechobee Basin. Hale's
(1984:Tables 1 and 2) species lists and MNIs for faunal remains
from Fort Center and Big Circle (Tony's) Mound are very
comparable to those from the Kissimmee River sites (Table 4).
I have combined his data from Fort Center into a single column
to indicate the general subsistence pattern at the site, although
it should be noted that his data as originally presented indicate
intrasite differences in the proportion of certain animals (spe-

1996 VOL. 492)


Table 2. Vertical distribution of pottery types at Bluff Hammock, River Ranch, and Fischer sites.


Bluff Hammock'
Test Unit A
Lvl. 1 1 1
Lvl. 2 12 1 5 18
Lvl. 3 27 4 4 35
Lvl. 4 15 1 2 2 b 20
Lvl. 6 2 2

Totals 57 0 6 0 11 0 2 76

Test Unit B
Lvl. 1 1 1
Lvl. 2 5 5
Lvl. 3 16 2 2 20
Lvl. 4 14 1 1 16
Lvl. 5 4 4

Totals 40 0 3 0 3 0 0 46

River Ranch
Test Unit A
Lvl. 1 2 1 1 4
Lvl. 2 43 5 1 2 11 1 c 62
Lvl. 3 39 1 20 60
Lvl. 4 45 3 6 12 1 c 67
Lvl. 5 44 1 16 6 67
Lvl. 6 8 3 9 20
Lvl. 7 16 1 1 3 21
Lvl. 8 3 1 2 6
Lvl. 9 3 3 6
Lvl. 10 6 1 2 3 12
Lvl. 11 1 1
Lvl. 12 1 7 8

Totals 214 8 10 30 70 7 2 341

Test Unit A
Zone A 5 10 2 17
Zone B 14 5 16 18 8 2 d 63
Zone C 3 12 11 18 1 14 e 59
Zone D 7 2 24 33
Zone E 2 2

Totals 22 24 29 72 11 0 16 174

KEY: BGP=Belle Glade Plain, STP = sand-tempered plain, STP/SP = spiculite sand-tempered plain, STJP = St. Johns Plain,
SASTJP = sandy St. Johns Plain, SA&FIB = sand- and fiber-tempered plain, MISC = Miscellaneous

a Includes only those sherds larger than 2 cm in maximum dimension.
b 1 Belle Glade Plain with diamond-shaped incision below rim; 1 Dunns Creek Red.
c St. Johns Check Stamped.
d 1 spiculite-paste, possible incised sherd; 1 thin, compact, "temperless" sherd, no spicules.
2 spiculite-paste, possible incised sherds; 12 thin, compact, "temperless" sherds, no spicules.



Table 3: Between-site comparison of faunal species.

Orange Bluff Ebersbach River
Species Hammock* Hammockb Midden* Ranchc Fischerb

Sylvilagus spp. (Rabbits) X X X X
Procyon lotor (Raccoon) X X
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Oppossum) X X X
Sciurus spp. (Squirrels) X
Sciurus carolinensis (Gray Squirrel) X
Sigmodon hispidus (Hispid Cotton Rat) X
Neofiber alleni (Round-tailed Muskrat) X X X X
Canis spp. (Wolves & Dogs) X
Canisfamiliaris (Domestic Dog) X
Odocoileus virgniana (White-tailed Deer) X X X X X
Sus scrofa (Hog) X
Bos taurus (Domestic Cow) X
Unidentified Mammals X X X X
Anatidae (Ducks) X
Possible Aythya spp. (Ducks) X
Unidentified Birds X X X
Testudines X X X
Kinosternidae (Mud Turtles) X X X
Kinosternon spp. (Mud Turtles) X X
Sternotherus spp. (Musk Turtles) X
Chelydridae (Snapping Turtles) X
Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) X X X
Pseudemys spp. (Freshwater & Marsh Turtles) X X X X
Pseudemysfloridana (Cooter) X X X
Terrapene spp. (Box Turtles) X X
Terrapene carolina (Box Turtle) X X X
Apalone ferox (Florida Softshell Turtle) X X X X X
Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) X X
Serpentes (Snakes) X X
Colubridae (Typical Harmless Snakes) X X X X X
Nerodia spp. (Water & Salt Marsh Snakes) X
Crotalidae (Poisonous Snakes) X X X X
Agkistrodon piscavorus (Cottonmouth Moccasin) X
Crotalus adamanteus (Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake) X
Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator) X X X X
Unidentified Reptiles X X

Siren spp. (Sirens) X X
Siren lacertina (Greater Siren) X X X
Amphiuma spp. (Amphiumas) X
Rana spp. (Frogs) X X
Unidentified Amphibians X
Lepiosteus spp. (Garfish) X X X X X
Amia calva (Bowfin) X X X X X
Anguillidae (Freshwater Eels) X
Esox spp. (Pickerels) X
Esox niger (Chain Pickerel) X
Ictaluridae (Freshwater Catfish) X X X X
Ictalurus spp. (Freshwater Catfish) X
Ictalurus natalis X
Ictalurus nebulosus X
Centrarchidae (Sunfish) X X
Lepomis microlophus (Redear Sunfish) X X X X X
Micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass) X X X X
Pomoxis spp. (Crappies) X X
Pomoxis nigro maculatus (Black Crappie) X
Unidentified Bony Fishes X X X X
Galeocerdo cuvieri (Tiger Sharks) X X
Odontaspis taurus (Sand Sharks) X
Carcharhinus spp. (Requiem Sharks) X
Viviparus georgiana (Eastern Mystery Snail) X X
Polygyra spp. (Flat-coiled Land Snail) X
Unidentified Gastropods X
Elliptio spp. (Freshwater Mussels) X X X

a Species list based on analysis of selected levels (10 cm) from a single 50 x 50 cm column sample, 6.4 mm, 3.2 mm, and 1.6 mm fractions combined, plus visual scanning of
faunal material recovered from 6.4 mm general excavation levels.
b Species list based on analysis of all faunal material recovered from 6.4 mm general excavation levels.
c Species list based on analysis of all faunal material recovered from a sample (four 10 cm levels) of material recovered from 6.4 mm general excavation levels and visual scanning
of remaining general levels and shovel tests.


Orange Hammock, 8HG20
Percent Blomass

Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Bony Fishes
Faunal Taxa

Lvl. 4 M LvI. 8 ILvl. 11 i Lvl. 13

Ebersbach Midden, 8P01008

Percent Biomass

Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Bony Fishes Mollusks
Faunal Taxa
Lvl. 2 E LVI. 5

Figure 9. Temporal comparison of the proportional biomass
of major faunal taxa at 8HG20 and 8P01008.

cifically mammals and birds) which Hale suggests could
represent seasonal or social differences.
The proportional representation of mammals at Orange Ham-
mock, Fort Center, and Tony's Mound are virtually identical,
but fish appear to have been more important at Orange Ham-
mock while reptiles are more numerous at Fort Center and
Tony's Mound. Hale also identifies bear, fox, and bobcat at
Fort Center, large mammals that do not appear at any of the
Kissimmee River sites nor at Tony's Mound (although this may
be due to sample-size differences between these sites).
The faunal assemblage at the Ebersbach Midden is quite unlike
those at Fort Center or Tony's Mound and, in fact, is more
similar to the Taylor Creek Midden fauna reported by Hale et
al. (1991). Both sites have inflated MNI values for freshwater
mollusks and very reduced values for mammals, birds, reptiles,
and amphibians. Freshwater fish are the most abundant verte-
brate fauna, and the assemblage depicts an even greater
dependence on aquatic resources than do the riverine middens
and Fort Center.
Hale et al. (1991) discuss the relative absence of freshwater

mussel and snails at sites around the Lake Okeechobee basin
and suggest that a lack of availability or cultural selectivity may
have been a factor. However, several sites in the Kissimmee
River valley, particularly those located near lakes, contain
freshwater shell (e.g., Bullen and Beilman 1973:2; Plowden and
Goggin 1952; and the Fischer, Ebersbach, and Barker sites
reported here). These data indicate that freshwater mussels and
snails were exploited by Belle Glade groups in the valley,
although they do not appear to have been relied on to the extent
that they were in the St. Johns River region. The similarity
between the Ebersbach Midden and the Taylor Creek Midden
in terms of species composition, and especially the narrow
range of faunal species represented, suggests that these sites
may reflect a more specialized extractive strategy focusing
almost exclusively on freshwater aquatic habitats with perhaps
an emphasis on the collection of mollusks. The more even
distribution between major taxa at Orange Hammock, Fort
Center, and Tony's Mound are reflective of a more generalized
subsistence pattern in keeping with their presumed function as
habitation sites.


Cultural Affiliations

In his 1947 paper defining archaeological areas in Florida,
John Goggin revised his earlier (1941) geographic division of
south Florida and identified the Kissimmee region as a separate
culture area, placing the northern boundary near Lake Tohope-
kaliga (Goggin 1947:121; see also Goggin 1948:131). Despite
this separation, he continued to recognize similarities with the
Glades area and he argued for a relatively late extension of the
Glades cultural tradition into the Kissimmee region during
Glades III times (Goggin 1948:136-137, 1949a:28-29). Goggin
(1949a:28) defined the Glades tradition as an adaptation to a
tropical coastal existence with a complex ceremonial life
characterized by the presence of burial mounds and large earth
and shellworks.
William Sears (1967:102) recognized that the Glades area as
originally defined by Goggin was not a workable concept since
it assumed a degree of cultural uniformity that was difficult to
reconcile with the archaeological record. He elevated Goggin's
subdivisions of the Glades to area status and renamed them the
Caloosahatchee, Glades, and Okeechobee Basin areas. Although
Willey (1949a) was the first to use the term "Belle Glade" to
distinguish between chronological periods at the Belle Glade
site, its use was extended by Goggin (1949b) and later by Sears
(1967, 1974), to refer to the prehistoric culture that inhabited
the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
According to Sears (1974:347, 1982:1-3, 191), the Belle
Glade culture was defined primarily by its adaptation to a
savannah/marsh environment. Although he believed that the
river valley was exploited by Belle Glade groups (Sears
1974:347, 348; 1982:2-3), Sears was never clear exactly how
far north the Belle Glade culture extended. He provides a clue
in his statement that the area ascribed by Goggin (1947, 1948)
as the Kissimmee region is usually included by archaeologists


1996 VOL. 49(2)

Table 4. Comparison of minimum numbers of individuals of faunal taxa identified at selected Belle Glade sites in the Kissimmee
River-Lake Okeechobee basins.




Ft. Center"



Pct, MNI Pet. MNI Pet. MNI Pct. MNI Pet.


1.35 0 0.00
1.35 171 86.36






3.64 0 0.00
5.46 283 76.08

74 100.00 198 100.00 6663 100.00 110 100.00 372 100.00

1 .52
192 99.48
0 0.00

1699 26.56
4695 73.38
4 0.06


10 2.73
356 97.27
0 0.00


59 100.00 193 100.00 6398 100.00 89 100.00 366 100.00

a Data from Hale (1984:Table 1).
b Data from Hale (1984:Table 2).
c Data from Hale et al. (1991:Tables 1-4).

in the Okeechobee area (Sears 1982:2). This would indicate that
he meant to include all of the river valley at least as far north
as Lake Kissimmee, since this was the approximate boundary of
Goggin's culture area. However, Sears' definition of the
Kissimmee area may have been more expansive than Goggin
intended. "The Kissimmee area, one of low-lying savannah and
saw-grass marsh, surrounds Lake Okeechobee and extends up
such stream valleys as the Kissimmee, the Caloosahatchee, and
Fisheating Creek" (Sears 1982:3).
The ambiguous status of the region has persisted in more
recent discussions of south Florida prehistory. Some include all
or most of the river valley with the Okeechobee Basin (e.g.,
Griffin 1988:115, 117; Johnson 1991:28; Milanich 1994:280-
281; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:26, 147, 180) while others
include only the southern portion (e.g., Carr and Beriault
1984:6-7; Widmer 1988:Figure 2). Distributional studies of
ceramics (Luer 1989), ceremonial tablets (Allerton et al. 1984),
and earthworks (Johnson 1991, 1994) all suggest close ties to
the Belle Glade culture, yet the nature, geographic extent, and
timing of the association has, until now, been unclear.
From the site data presented above, it is clear that Goggin's
original assessment of Lake Tohopekaliga as the northern
boundary of the Kissimmee archaeological culture area was
reasonably correct. Sites with Belle Glade features (ceramics,
earthworks, overall settlement pattern) extend as far north as

Lake Russell, just to the south of Lake Tohopekaliga. Further-
more, recent research indicates a substantial Belle Glade
occupation to the west along the Lake Wales Ridge (Austin
1992b; Austin et al. n.d.; Janus Research 1995).
The settlement pattern in the valley appears to be one that
focused on the riverine-marsh habitat with nearly all of the
large, habitation sites located near former marshes. Smaller,
presumably extractive, sites are located throughout the surroun-
ding upland environments and along lake margins where fresh-
water mussels were the primary focus.
The ceramic seriation and associated radiocarbon dates indi-
cate that the region's post-Archaic culture history is similar to
that of the Lake Okeechobee Basin. These data would seem to
disconfirm the hypothesis of a late expansion of Belle Glade
culture into the river valley as suggested by Goggin (1948,
1949a, 1949b) and Griffin and Smith (1948:34). The ceramic
data also call into question Mitchem's (1989:576-577, 603)
assertion that the Kissimmee River formed a boundary for an
inland manifestation of the Safety Harbor culture. While the
Englewood Incised sherd from the Gaging Station site, and the
presence of lithic raw materials from Tampa Bay and Hills-
borough River chert outcrops, indicate some form of interaction
with the native peoples inhabiting the central Gulf coast, there
is no evidence for a significant Safety Harbor influence in the

Bony Fishes









THE FLORIDA ANrRIIoPoLoGisT 1996 VoL. 49(2)

Adaptive Strategies
Belle Glade populations in the Kissimmee River and Lake
Okeechobee basins were both dependent on aquatic resources
for a substantial part of their subsistence base. This should
come as no surprise. From an ecological perspective, the
importance of wetland environments is in the stored energy, or
net primary productivity, that they contain. Net productivity
represents food, or more precisely energy, that is potentially
available for consumption by organisms at higher trophic levels,
such as humans (Odum 1975:65). In effect it is a measure of
the resource potential of an ecosystem. In a study of world-wide
habitat productivity, Whitaker (1975:Table 5.2) has estimated
that the net productivity of swamp and marsh habitats is
approximately three times that of forested woodlands. Conse-
quently, biomass production, or the total energy content of an
ecosystem at a single point in time (McNaughton and Wolf
1973:90), is especially high in wetland environments.
In a comparative study of subsistence and settlement strategies
among foraging groups world-wide, Kelly (1995:121-122) has
demonstrated that in areas of high primary productivity, a
strategy of high residential mobility is most common. This is
because in areas of high primary biomass, plants tend to expend
more energy in structural maintenance than in reproduction
(seeds, tubers) resulting in plant matter than is largely inedible
to humans and other animals. Animals tend to be small in size
or, if large, then widely dispersed in the environment, thus
making a mobile settlement strategy more efficient. This
relationship holds, however, only for those populations that are
heavily dependent on terrestrial resources for food. Kelly's data
also show that, for those groups dependent on aquatic resources,
the number of residential moves is inversely related to primary
productivity (1995:125). His data suggest further that fishing
(which includes shellfish collecting) is a cost-efficient substitute
for hunting, particularly when large game are less abundant and
widely dispersed (1995:125; see also Binford 1990:137). These
data agree well with those of Yesner (1980) who argues that
low residential mobility among hunter-gatherers is nearly always
associated with a dependence on aquatic (either marine or
freshwater) resources since fish and shellfish provide abundant,
dependable sources of food that are high in protein and relative-
ly inexpensive to exploit in terms of time and energy.
From an evolutionary perspective, it is significant that paleo-
environmental data indicate that a fully modem climate and
biota began to appear only 3500 years ago in peninsular Florida.
This suggests that productive wetland habitats may not have
been consistently available in the interior of Florida prior to that
time. The evidence from the Kissimmee River, Lake Okee-
chobee, and nearby Upper St. Johns River basins (Sigler-
Eisenberg 1985) indicates that intensive exploitation of these
areas began sometime around 3000 B.P., with relatively
permanent habitation occurring shortly thereafter. The inference
is that modem environmental features, i.e., productive wetland
marshes, were important factors in the emergence of sedentism
in south Florida.


Data from test excavations at nine sites document Belle Glade
occupation of the Kissimmee River valley beginning as early as
1000 B.C. and extending through the early seventeenth century
A.D. Based on an increase in midden and artifact density after
A.D. 1000, it has been speculated that population increased or
people began spending longer periods of time (i.e., practiced
more permanent habitation) at specific site locations after this
time. The small, sparse assemblages of lithic artifacts in
submidden deposits suggest limited occupation of the valley
prior to ca. 1000 B.C. These occupations were probably limited
to short-term campsites by mobile foragers. Settlement and
subsistence strategies appear to be similar to those of Belle
Glade groups occupying the Lake Okeechobee basin with an
emphasis on settlement location near productive riverine-marsh
habitats. The shift from a mobile to a more sedentary settlement
strategy is hypothesized to have occurred as a result of the
emergence of the modern riverine-marsh environment after 3500
B.P., with a dependence on aquatic resources representing a
more efficient subsistence strategy within a semi-tropical


1 George Luer (personal communication, 1996) has suggested that this sherd
may instead be Sarasota Incised. According to Willey (1949b:474), this ceramic
type is distinguished from Englewood Incised by the presence of "pointed
triangles" as a major design motif and by a "Biscayne or St. Johns type paste,
soft and temperless," i.e., a spiculite paste. Luer adds that the predominantly
rectilinear design elements of Englewood Incised are executed with broad,
shallow incisions and large punctations while Sarasota Incised displays thin,
deep incisions and small punctations. In my opinion, the sherd from the Gaging
Station site is too small to identify the geometric shape of the design motif, but
the paste is hard and contains quartz sand, which is more in keeping with
Willey's description of Englewood Incised (cf. Willey 1949b:473).
2 All faunal material from the 6.4 mm general excavation levels, and the 6.4
mm and 3.2 mm fractions of selected column-sample levels, were analyzed in
their entirety. Analysis of the 1.6 mm fraction of the selected column-sample
levels was conducted on a 10-percent-by-volume subsample.
3 Biomass estimates were computed using skeletal mass allometry. The
allometric values used to estimate body weight are from the following sources:
Quitmyer (1988), Reitz and Quitmyer (1988), and Reitz et al. (1987).


The projects that form the basis for this paper were conducted over a period
of several years and many individuals assisted me along the way. I am particu-
larly grateful to Creighton and Bette Northrop who have continually shared with
me their enthusiasm for south Florida prehistory as well as their friendship and
home. Gary Montsdeoca kindly allowed me, Creighton, Bette, and my wife
Karen, to spend a day testing on his property at Bluff Hammock. Steve
Gatewood, of the Disney Wilderness Preserve, identified the Candler Mound
and Earthworks site on aerial photographs, notified Rich Estabrook of Jams
Research of their location, and accompanied Rich and me during an attempt to
verify the locations of the earthworks in the field. The excavations on the Avon
Park Air Force Range were conducted under a contract with the U.S. Depart-
ment of the Air Force. Paul Ebersbach, APAFR Natural Resources Manager,
has been instrumental in preserving and managing the many archaeological and
historical sites on the Range. Identification of the fauna from Bluff Hammock
and the Fischer site was conducted by Laura Kozuch of the Florida Museum of

1996 VOL. 492)



Natural History. Analysis of the Avon Park and River Ranch fauna was
conducted by Pam Vojnovski and Scott Mitchell of Janus Research. Scott
Mitchell also drew the artifact illustrations. Bill Marquardt provided helpful
information and advice. Bill Johnson, George Luer, Jerry Milanich, Scott
Mitchell, and Nancy White read earlier drafts of this paper and provided many
useful comments that helped to improve the final product.

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The Withlacoochee River basin and bay area of Levy and
Citrus Counties contains many interesting and significant
archaeological sites. Unfortunately, archaeological research on
the Lower Withlacoochee beyond the reconnaissance survey
level of investigations is virtually nil. Two important sites were
recently brought to my attention by a local resident and
collector. The Bird Creek Fishing Station (8LV501) and the
Covas Creek site (8LV502) have produced surface-collected
materials that not only provide important information on the late
Paleoindian-Early Archaic periods, they are indicative of the
wealth of sites that have somehow largely escaped the attention
of professional archaeologists.

The Bird Creek Fishing Station Site

The Bird Creek Fishing Station site (8LV501) is a small
limestone "cap" island located on an upper branch of Bird
Creek. The island currently rises less than 1 m above mean sea
level (amsl). The upper branch of Bird Creek is a cutoff
drainage within the Withlacoochee River delta that flows from
the channel of the river to Withlacoochee Bay. Site 8LV501
(Figures 1 and 2) is located approximately 250 m from the
confluence of upper Bird Creek and the Withlacoochee. The
island is roughly circular, measuring about 60 m2 in area, and
is surrounded by a brackish-water marsh. Where the island
fronts the creek channel, the creek runs shallow over limestone
for about 60 m, and narrows from 30 to 40 m to about 15 m.
Although there are several other small islands that lie along
Bird Creek and other creeks in the Withlacoochee delta, the
shallow narrows that front 8LV501 set it apart from similar
islands. It was in these shallows that 11 whole and 4 fragmented
Santa Fe projectile points were recovered (Figure 3). It has
been rumored around Yankeetown, Florida for several years
that numerous projectile points had been found on the island and
in the narrows where the site is located. Following the "no-
name" storm of March 1993 that flooded the delta area and
Yankeetown with a 2.5-3 m storm surge, many archaeological
sites were partially laid bare due to vegetation loss and erosion.
Site 8LV501 was also affected. In an effort to document the
impact of the storm on Withlacoochee sites, I visited sites along
Bird Creek. I found two complete Santa Fe points at 8LV501,
one on the island and one in the shallows. Both were within
fissures in limestone rock and had been exposed, but not
washed away by, the "no-name" storm. The finds prompted a
search for and an interview with a local resident who was

rumored to have found several similar points at a site on Bird
Creek. My search and interview were successful; the person
rumored to have collected points from the site allowed me to
document 14 whole or fragmented Santa Fe points that are
reported to have come from the shallow narrows at the site. The
collector, who wishes to remain anonymous, accompanied me
to the site and confirmed that 8LV501 was the source of the
points. To my knowledge, other than two distal biface frag-
ments (point tips), there are no.other artifacts that have been
recovered from 8LV501. Perhaps my friend from Yankeetown
put it in perspective when she asked me, "Are these fishing
spears," as I pondered the association of the Santa Fe points and
the type of area where they were found.
Unfortunately, there is nothing about 8LV501 and the points
found there that overtly suggests anything about the age of this
collection of Santa Fe points, and the available literature is both
limited and inconclusive. Bullen (1975, 1976), Ferguson and
Neill (1977), Milanich (1994), Milanich and Fairbanks (1980),
and Purdy (1981) identify Santa Fe points as late Paleoindian or
early Archaic types related to the Dalton tradition or period,
whereas Powell (1990) questions the Paleoindian-early Archaic
temporal association and suggests a later time frame. According
to the available literature, few Santa Fe points have been
recovered from secure contexts and those that have raise more
questions about the temporality of the type (cf. Jones 1990).
Basal and lateral grinding, and transverse parallel or collateral
flaking, are characteristics of some Santa Fe points, particularly
those found in early Archaic contexts (Bullen 1958, 1975;
Ferguson and Neill 1977; Neill 1963), but several specimens
exist that do not have these distinctive characteristics. It appears
that we are dealing with two point types, or at least varieties,
that have been mistakenly grouped into a single type. Perhaps
Powell (1990:36) is correct in attempting to distinguish Santa Fe
and Tallahassee points from Daltons, pointing out that Bullen
(1958, 1975) tentatively assigned them "... to a Dalton time
frame due to their physical resemblances ..." and "... certain
coincidental similarities with some Dalton examples." I would
go further and suggest that we are probably dealing with two
types: a Santa Fe Dalton or Dalton var. Santa Fe and a Santa
Fe. The first type is the previously described set of Dalton-like,
Paleoindian-early Archaic points that exhibit basal and lateral
grinding, and transverse-parallel or collateral flaking. A
potentially later type may appear to be Dalton-like, but it
exhibits little or no basal or lateral grinding, and usually does
not exhibit distinctive transverse-parallel or collateral flaking.


JUNE 1996

VOL. 49 NO. 2


THE FLORIDA ANrmiopoLooisr 1~6 VoL. 49(2)

Figure 1. View of 8LV501 and Bird Creek looking norti

Perhaps the later Santa Fe points should be considered a basic
form of hafted biface that was used over a broader time frame
than they are typically assigned.
The Bird Creek assemblage of points is of interest because a
specific function and time frame is implied by a concentration
of Santa Fe points on a site within a specific environmental
setting. Of the 16 Santa Fe points found on the site, the 12 that
are complete enough to allow for meaningful analysis are
illustrated in Figure 4. The remaining four fragments identified
as Santa Fes are small basal segments with one auricle present.
Two distal biface fragments that may be
Santa Fe point tips also were found in the
shallow narrows at the site, but they can
not be firmly identified as Santa Fe point
The Bird Creek assemblage can be
divided into two groups based on basal .- ..
morphology. The division is clearly
recognizable in Figure 4 where the top -, ,
row of points has longer (1 to 4 mm) and
more pointed auricles, as well as evi-
dence of limited grinding along the con-
cave edge of each base. None of the
points on the bottom row of Figure 4
exhibit any basal grinding. The top row
of points also has narrower and more
pointed blades compared to those in the
bottom row. Both groups, however, fall
within the range of variation believed to
be common to the type (Powell 1990:38). .
Although the group of Bird Creek Santa
Fes with longer, more pointed auricles
are the only specimens with any basal Fieure 2.

grinding, I do not believe that the pres-
ence of limited basal grinding is a valid
criterion for assuming that the two groups
can be temporally divided into late Paleo-
indian-early Archaic and later forms. As
both Powell (1990) and Justice (1987)
indicate, basal grinding is not "an exclu-
sively early trait; numerous Woodland
and even Mississippian types are encoun-
tered with lightly abraded basal or hafting
area edges, presumably to smooth out
protrusions left by flaking or to prevent
post-hafting damage to shafts and lash-
ings" (Powell 1990:36). A few of the
specimens that have not been basally
ground exhibit small protrusions and
sharp edges left by flaking. If, based on
their environmental context, the Bird
Creek Santa Fes are assumed to be fish-
ing-spear points, perhaps the basal varia-
i tions are attributable to specific functions.
For example, points with basal grinding
i-northeast. may have been used in socketed fore-
shafts (harpoon-like) where haft-area
damage could not be tolerated, whereas hafting to a simple shaft
of a larger diameter may have had no such requirements.
Aside from basal variations, the Bird Creek Santa Fe projec-
tile point assemblage is a fairly homogeneous group of thin,
narrow, medium to fairly long points with straight, slightly
excurvate, or slightly recurvate lateral edges, and rounded to
sharply pointed auricles. Basal-width measurements range
between 27 and 18 mm with an average of 21 mm; mid-blade
widths range between 20 and 17 mm with an average of 19
mm; blade lengths range between 77 mm and 47 mm with an


Close-up view of 8LV501 from Bird Creek, looking west.

1996 VOL. 49(2)



Figure 3. Map showing the location of 8LV501 on Bird Creek.

average of 58 mm on complete specimens; and auricle lengths
range between 15 and 8 mm with an average of 10 mm. The
Bird Creek assemblage tends to substantiate Powell's (1990:36)
statement that Santa Fes appear to have been used
exclusively as projectile points as they exhibit no
wear indicative of their use as knives. Thirteen
of the 16 Santa Fes are made of grayish-white
and dark gray chert. The remaining four are gray
to white silicified coral. The more complete
examples exhibit evidence of manufacture from
blades or flakes where one side of the resulting
biface is flatter and contains fewer flake scars.
In summary, the Bird Creek Fishing Station site
has produced an assemblage of Santa Fe points
that do not appear to be Dalton-like in terms of
basal and lateral grinding, and flaking characteris-
tics. These Santa Fe points, by their context, are
assumed to have been used as fishing implements,
either on spears or harpoons, or perhaps (but less
likely) large arrows. The shallow narrows on Bird
Creek would have been an ideal location for
spearing passing fish during certain times. My
grandfather has imparted to me the now ancient
wisdom of netting mullet and drum in the shallows
on Bird Creek in the area of the site, and I have
cast lures at large redfish visible in the narrows
when they were not visible elsewhere. Any further

discussion of how the Bird Creek Santa Fes were hafted and
used is speculative. There is, however, a range of variation in
basal morphology present in the assemblage that, even though

Figure 4. 8LV501 Santa Fe points.




statistically negligible, may be related to specific use of the
points. There is no implication here that all Santa Fe points
were used for fishing; the numerous Santa Fes found on
terrestrial sites eliminates that assumption.
The Bird Creek assemblage does nothing to settle the question
of whether the point type is a late Paleoindian-early Archaic or
Gulf Formational-Woodland diagnostic. However, the assemb-
lage's modem environmental context fits best with a Gulf
Formational-Woodland time period and is inconsistent with
existing models of Paleoindian site location (Dunbar 1991;
Dunbar and Waller 1983; Waller and Dunbar 1977). The Bird
Creek assemblage also places the recognized range of basal
morphology associated with Santa Fe points within a single set
of specimens that are assumed to be temporally related, thus
eliminating the presence or absence of basal grinding as a
diagnostic criterion for assigning an earlier time frame.

The Covas Creek Site

The Covas Creek site (8LV502) is situated on a marshy island
near the present mouth of Covas Creek where it enters With-
lacoochee Bay. Covas Creek is one of many creeks that
presently drain the marshy coastal wetlands situated north of the
Withlacoochee delta. The site currently is situated on an area
that reaches 1.5 m amsl, but in the distant past it may have been
a small rise within the relatively flat terrain along Covas Creek.
The site area is partially covered with shell, covering roughly
2000 m2. I mention the distant past because although 8LV502
is covered by a thin layer of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and
conch (Melongena corona) shell, the site has produced only a
few lithic artifacts including a Simpson point (Figure 5).
As with the Bird Creek site, the surge from the "no-name"
storm of 1993 damaged the site, "blowing back" and exposing
much of the shell along the edges of the site (Figure 6). During
my search for the Santa Fe points de-
scribed above, I came across the Simpson
point and a few other lithic tools in a
collection. Thank goodness my friend
from Yankeetown keeps her collection
segregated by site and is willing to take
me to "her" sites. We relocated the site
and collected three additional lithic arti-
facts from the eroded shell. An exhaus-
tive search of the exposed shell and
ground surface areas failed to locate even
the smallest potsherd or piece of animal
bone. It began to appear that the site did
not contain a shell midden, even though
I was initially excited and bemused by the
potential of a late Paleoindian shell mid-
Five 50 x 50 cm shovel tests were
placed in the shell-covered area in order
to sample it and test its intactness. The
shovel tests indicated that if there was a
shell midden present, it had been deflated
by water erosion even where vegetation is Figure 6

Figure 5. Simpson projectile point from 8LV502.

present. Other than oyster shell, no additional artifacts were
recovered from the shovel tests. The shell consists mainly of
small oysters and is on top of a dark brown, organically rich
sand. The shell is no more than 8 to 10 cm thick, covers no
more than 100 m2, and rarely intrudes into the underlying soil.
While 11 of the 13 lithic artifacts found at the site were
recovered from eroded and exposed surfaces, two were found
in the shallow waters surrounding the site. Because the shovel
tests recovered no additional artifacts, it is uncertain whether or
not the shell is the remains of a shell midden. An absence of
artifacts does not preclude the possibility that the shell is the re-
mains of one of the many Woodland-era shellfish extraction
sites and camps which are so common to the Withlacoochee Bay
area. One fact remains certain, however; an impressive

.. View of 8LV502 from Covas Creek, looking south.


1996 VOL. 4(2)


assemblage of lithic artifacts was recov-
ered from a small area.
Figure 7 illustrates the stone tools re-
covered from the Covas Creek site. In
addition to the nine tools, four small to
medium-size (> 6mm2 to > 14mm2) thin-
ning/retouch flakes (one secondary re-
duction, three tertiary flakes) were found
on the site. The tools in Figure 7 are
described as follows: a Simpson point (98
mm maximum length, 36 mm maximum
width, 6 mm maximum thickness, heavily
patinated chert); a large, unifacial, point-
ed blade-flake, knife/scraper (107 mm
maximum length, 46 mm maximum
width, 32 mm maximum thickness, patin-
ated chert); a bifacial, pointed, blade
knife (82 mm maximum length, 32 mm
maximum width, 6 mm maximum thick-
ness, patinated coral); a unifacial, blade-
flake, knife or gouge/perforator (87 mm
maximum length, 32 mm maximum
width, 9 mm maximum thickness, lightly
patinated chert); a unifacial, blade-flake,
side scraper (84 mm maximum length, 33
mm maximum width, 9 mm maximum
thickness, heavily patinated chert); a
unifacial, flake or broken blade, oblong
end scraper/knife (84 mm maximum
length, 47 mm maximum width, 7 mm
maximum thickness, patinated coral); a

Figure 7. Stone tools from 8LV502. Top row (left to right): Simpson point;
unifacial, pointed knife/scraper; bifacial, pointed knife; unifacial knife or
perforator; unifacial side scraper. Bottom row (left to right): unifacial, oblong
end scraper/knife; pointed, core-tool gouge or pick; core-tool adze; large end

pointed, core-tool,

gouge or pick (76 mm maximum length, 34 mm maximum
width, 28 mm maximum thickness, patinated chert); a core-tool
adze (72 mm maximum length, 62 maximum width, 47 mm
maximum thickness, heavily patinated chert); and a large flake
or broken blade endscraper (71 mm maximum thickness, 42 mm
maximum width, 28 mm maximum thickness, heavily patinated
The Covas Creek lithic assemblage is small and consists of
surface-collected artifacts that may represent a Paleoindian tool
kit. The stone tools recovered from the site are typical of
Paleoindian and early Archaic tool kits (cf. Milanich 1994:48-
59; Purdy 1981). The Covas Creek assemblage consists of
finished tools, flake tools, and a limited amount of debitage.
This type of lithic assemblage tends to suggest that the site func-
tioned as a small camp and work area for a short period of


The Bird Creek and Covas Creek sites have each produced
materials that provide important information related to two
types of lithic assemblage. The context and physical charac-
teristics of the Bird Creek Santa Fe projectile point assemblage
may shed light on a functional aspect of this point type as well
as providing evidence that the type may not be a late Paleo-
indian-early Archaic diagnostic. The Covas Creek site provides

an example of what appears to be part of a Paleoindian tool kit
left at a small camp site. The sites are indicative of the types of
archaeological resources that are yet to be documented along the
lower Withlacoochee River and Withlacoochee Bay.


To my friend from Yankeetown (you know who you are, but no one else
will), thanks. To my wife, Jenny, and my father, thanks for going investigating
and fishing with me on the Withlacoochee.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida. Contributions of the
Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 4. University of Florida,
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points (Revised
Edition). Kendall Books, Gainesville.
1976 Some Thoughts on Florida Projectile Points. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 29(1):33-37.
Dunbar, James S.
1991 Resource Orientation of Clovis and Suwannee Paleo-Indian Sites in
Florida. In Clovis: Origins and Adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen
and K. Turnmier, pp. 185-213. Center for the First Americans, Oregon
State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
Dunbar, James S., and Ben I. Waller
1983 A Distribution Analysis of the Clovis-Suwannee Paleo-Indian Sites of
Florida, A Geographic Approach. The Florida Anthropologist 36(1-




Ferguson, George R., and Wilfred T. Neill
1977 The Age of the Santa Fe Projectile Point Type. The Florida Anthropol-
ogist 30(2):18-21.
Jones, B. Calvin
1990 A Late Mississippian Collector. The Soto States Anthropologist 90:83-
Justice, Noel D.
1987 Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern
United States, Modern Survey and Reference. Indiana University Press.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University Press of Florida,
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Powell, John
1990 Points and Blades of the Coastal Plain: A Guide to the Classification
ofNorth American Hafted Implements in the Southeastern Coastal Plain
Region. American Systems of the Carolinas, Inc., Columbia, S.C.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1981 Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology. University Presses of Florida,
Waller, Ben I. and James Dunbar
1977 Distribution of Paleo-Indian Projectiles in Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 30(2):79-80.

1996 VOL. 49(2)




Department of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712-1086

At Christmas time, 1940, I was fortunate to be among a group
of students, calling themselves The Excavators' Club, who
carried out a brief excavation at the Palmer-Taylor Mound (now
designated 8SE18) near Geneva, Florida, in collaboration with
the Baker Museum of Rollins College. We planned to complete
the work the next year, but World War II intervened. After the
war, Irving Rouse at Yale University analyzed the data from the
1940 excavation and published it (Rouse 1951:116-126) as part
of a larger study. This article is a brief, first-hand chronicle of
the 1940 field project, presented as an episode in the history of
Florida archaeology.
The Excavators' Club, organized in 1940 with John H. Rowe
as President, was made up mostly of undergraduate and
graduate students in anthropology at Harvard and Radcliffe. The
aims declared on its mimeographed information handout were
"to provide field training for future professional archaeologists,
and to serve as a learned society for sponsoring lectures and
publishing research." Under Rowe's leadership several weekend
excavations were undertaken in the Boston area and three longer
projects were carried out, one of them being the Palmer-Taylor
project that is described here. The publication program was in
the hands of the Editor of the club, Chester S. Chard. Manu-
scripts were solicited, and eventually the club published six
As the Fall semester of 1940 got under way, we were looking
for an opportunity for field work during Christmas vacation,
though obviously not in New England at that time of year.
Fortunately, a family connection produced the opportunity.
Edward M. Davis, Director of the Baker Museum at Rollins
College in Winter Park, Florida, was the father of two Excava-
tors' Club members, Penny and Mott Davis. As part of the
museum program, he was assembling information on the
archaeology of Central Florida and knew of a shell midden that
he thought would fit our needs: the Palmer-Taylor Mound, 40
km (25 mi) northeast of Winter Park in the palm barrens of the
St. Johns River. Accordingly, he arranged with the owner of the
site, Mr. John Bills, and the owner of the surrounding land,
Mr. Charles Lee (to both of whom we will always be indebted)
for us to camp and excavate there.
Since that was before World War II, more than half-a-century
before this writing, it is tempting now to call the Palmer-Taylor
project a pioneering episode in the early history of Florida
archaeology. But in fact we were following in the footsteps of
several earlier workers (reviewed by Rouse 1951:63-65 and
Milanich 1994:4-6). For instance, more than 70 years before us,

in the 1860s and 1870s, Jeffries Wyman (1867, 1868, 1875) had
excavated in the area for Harvard, and in the 1890s the
ubiquitous Clarence B. Moore, with his shallow-draft steam-
boat, The Gopher, and his digging crew, worked his way up the
St. Johns River from site to site (Moore 1892, 1893a, 1893b,
1893c, 1983d, 1894). One of the sites he tested was almost
certainly the Palmer-Taylor Mound, to judge from his maps and
description (Moore 1892:918, site no. 25, and map, Plate
XXIV; see also Rouse 1951:116, Figure 10, site SE18). Moore
dug a hole more than 2 m (6 ft) deep in the Palmer-Taylor
midden and distinguished four layers (summarized by Rouse
1951:118). He found shell fragments throughout the layers,
pottery only in the top layer, animal bones throughout the top
two layers, and scattered fragments of human bones in the
second layer. Evidences of Moore's pit were still present at the
time of our work, as will be further mentioned below, although
we did not know of his activities until after our excavation.
Thanks to these and a few other field workers, a broad ceramic
sequence in that area had been established by the time we
appeared on the scene (Milanich 1994:246; Mitchem 1990).
The Palmer-Taylor site, where we intended to make our
modest contribution to Florida archaeology, is on a rise, locally
called a hammock, a common feature on the St. Johns River
floodplain (Figure 1). Archaeological sites, usually in the form
of shell middens, are to be found on most of the hammocks in
that area. Our aim was to carry out a careful, well-documented
dig at one such site, in order to gain experience and to contrib-
ute whatever new information we might find. The St. Johns area
was certainly ripe for carefully executed, well-recorded excava-
tions, and that was the sort of work we believed we could do.
Our ultimate aim, in keeping with the dominant archaeological
approach at the time, was to produce evidence of stylistic
sequences and relationships.
A few of us had previous field experience. In particular,
John Rowe, our leader, had worked in 1938 at the Riverside
Shell Heap in Blue Hill, Maine, under Douglas Byers and
Frederick Johnson, and had applied their field techniques to
another shell-heap excavation in Maine (Byers and Johnson
1939; Rowe 1940). He also had taken an undergraduate course
in introductory surveying in the Engineering Department at
Brown University, on the strength of which he was able to
make minor improvements to the Byers-Johnson system and
apply them at Palmer-Taylor (John H. Rowe, personal commu-
nication, 1995). Harold Winchester and I had been student
assistants at the Harvard Awatovi Project in northern Arizona,


JUNE 1996

VOL. 49 NO. 2


Figure 1. Vehicle mired in the mud on the way to the Palmer
Hammock vegetation in the background. Penny Pattee and Ed
left, Gene Worman and Bert Ogden on the right, others unid

apprenticed some of the time to the great Al Lancaster, and I
had taken J. O. Brew's course in field techniques at Harvard.
Most of the rest of our Palmer-Taylor crew had the brief
experience provided by participation in the earlier field work of
the Excavators' Club in the Boston area and on Nantucket
Island. A few members of the group were raw archaeological
In three cars, fifteen of us drove
straight through from Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts, to central Florida about 2250
km (1400 mi) carried out a systematic
and careful dig for a week, December
24, 1940 to January 3, 1941, and drove
back to Cambridge. Although winter is
not the rainy season in Central Florida,
we were treated to several spectacular
downpours while there. But the site
drained quickly, and between inundations
we were able to accomplish a great deal.
We mapped the mound (our map is
reproduced in Rouse 1951:Figure 12) and
laid out a L-shaped trench in its highest
part, consisting of eight 2 x 2 m squares
(Figure 2). This is where nearly all of
our work took place, but we also put in
three small tests in the north, northeast,
and southeast parts of the site (Rouse
1951:125, Figure 12). In addition, we
documented and made surface collections
at three other nearby shell midden sites figure

and dug a small test in one of them
(Rouse 1951:126-127).
Our principal effort, then, was in the L-
shaped excavation in the center of the
mound (Figures 3-5). Applying John
Rowe's system of horizontal and vertical
control, we dug the eight squares of this
trench in 10 cm levels and bagged the
specimens accordingly. We screened. We
drew profiles. We took notes.
The western end of the trench intersect-
ed a large depression. Rouse
(1951:116,118-119) presents the evidence
we gathered from this depression, includ-
ing fragmentary human bones, a piece of
oilcloth, and a stake with a nail, which
strongly suggested that it was C. B.
Moore's deep test.
As the work progressed, we found that
we had to keep close watch over our
camp, which was near the dig, since it
was continually threatened by marauding
-Taylor Mound herds of half-wild pigs that (together with
r-Taylor Mound.
ie Mueser on the cattle and horses) roamed the river flats.
entified. Pigs are arrogantly intrusive and remark-
ably agile creatures, but we too were
young and agile, and in one pursuit we
actually caught a piglet. Otherwise, our ambition as hunters was
merely to fling harmless palmetto-frond spears and bounce them
off fast-moving dark backs (Figure 6). By the end of our stay,
our scores were fair but the pigs were pot noticeably chastened.
In any case, our efforts did keep the camp from invasion and

t Chard (left) and Bert Ogden (right) laying out the grid.


1996 VOL. 49(2)


At the site, our excavation plan was to
take every 2 x 2 m square down to sterile
soil, but time ran out before that was
possible. Our finds are summarized later
in this paper. By the end of the dig we
had determined that the site was strati-
fied, and it was clear that we should
return the next year to complete the job.
But World War II was soon upon us, and
it was to be 25 years before Palmer-Tay-
lor was to see further field work.
Back in Cambridge, before the war
engulfed us all, we set up a processing
lab in the basement of a cooperative
rooming house where several of us lived,
just north of the Peabody Museum. I
recall drafting maps and profiles, washing
sherds, sorting them into categories (I
remember becoming acquainted with fiber
tempering, strange stuff to one trained on
southwestern ceramics), and preparing Figure 3. Exca,
tables of artifact proveniences by depth, the edge of the e
The work faltered, though, as the grow- identified.
ing threat of the military draft was added ?" *
to the pressure of graduate studies. Even-
tually, the war plucked us away one by
one, and the Palmer-Taylor material was
stored on the shelves of the Peabody
Fortunately, the story does not end
there. In 1947, after the war, a new
student group formed at Harvard the
Anthropology Society of the Harvard
Peabody Museum (Rouse 1951:64). They
worked over the Palmer-Taylor data and
put together a report (Dyson and Tooker
1949). That report was not published, but
was, in any case, soon superseded by a
more definitive work.
From 1944 to 1949 Irving Rouse of
Yale University undertook an extensive
field survey and a review of existing data
in eastern Florida, including some exca-
vation in the field (Rouse 1951). He was
seeking (in vain, as it turned out) signs of Figure 4. Exca
aboriginal connections between Florida below him, Mot
and the Antilles. Included in his mono- Mueser sitting
graph is an extensive analysis and synthe-
sis of the information from Palmer-Taylor (Rouse 1951:116-
125), based partly on C. B. Moore's description of his testing
in the 1890s, partly on the Excavators' Club field data, which
had been transferred from Harvard to Rouse's lab at Yale, and
partly on the Dyson and Tooker report.
Rouse's appraisal of our enterprise was charitable, although in
places he was, understandably, unsparing. "The excavation," he
wrote, "seems to have been exceptionally thorough, careful, and
well documented, with one exception an apparent lack of

ovation in progress, looking northeast. Bert Ogden is seated on
excavation square, Jay Carlton is in the foreground, others not

ovation area looking north. Gene Worman at left, Jay Carleton
t Davis facing the camera, Chet Chard in the background, Edie
in the excavation square, Jud Shaplin at right.

coordination among the participants in recording the stratigraphy
of the midden. The layers are numbered differently in the field
notes for the various sections [the 2 x 2 m squares], and none
of the numbering systems corresponds exactly to the ones used
in the cross sections [our profiles]. The latter are not consistent
among themselves and do not fit where they come together at
the same stake" (Rouse 1951:119).
Fifty-five years later, John Rowe (letter to E. M. Davis,
November 8, 1995) remembers setting up vertical control in




Figure 5. Excavation is getting deep. Jud Shaplin on the rigl
not identified.

terms of his modified Byers-Johnson system, which involved
establishing a vertical reference datum for each 2 x 2 m square,
each datum then being tied to a single, overall site datum. This
should have permitted a reasonably accurate and coherent
reconstruction of the stratification, but the inconsistencies Rouse
found in the records of the stratification in the different squares
appear to have made such a reconstruction difficult.
Nevertheless, Rouse (1951:120-124)
was able to construct a stratigraphic
sequence of seven "Layers" for the site
as a whole, which he numbered and de-
scribed layer by layer, from Layer 1,
highest, through 7, which was culturally
sterile. For each 2 x 2 m square he listed
the specimens from each layer. However,
he found that we had documented and F *
cataloged most of the sherds not by layer
but according to our 10 cm levels, and he
found it impossible to give an exact
inventory of the sherds from each of his
stratigraphic layers. Nevertheless, his
sherd inventory is fairly complete. By
contrast, most of the nonceramic artifacts
had been documented and cataloged with
exact horizontal and vertical measure-
ments, enabling Rouse to assign them to
his layers.
Rouse presents all this information in
detail. He was able to create meaningful
tables of pottery types by depth and to
make a strong case for a sequence, begin- Figure 6. Prot
ning with preceramic, followed by Or- identified.
ange, and finishing with what he called

Malabar, now St. Johns. That being
accomplished, he was able to combine the
b HPalmer-Taylor stratigraphic information
with similar information from other sites
(Rouse 1951:238-252) to create a se-
quence for the broader area. If we look
back on our brief investigation as a
whole, then, we may take satisfaction in
realizing that our data stood up reason-
ably well, despite deficiencies, and our
efforts were of some value.
Ours was not the last work at Palmer-
Taylor. A quarter-century later, in 1964
and 1965, undergraduate students from
Rollins College excavated at the site as
part of course projects under Dudley
DeGroot. Brief course papers resulted
(Robert J. Austin, personal communica-
tion, 1996). Ten years later, in 1975 and
1976, controlled tests were carried out at
it, in hat, others the site by Rollins College archaeologists,
the first year by Burton Williams and the
second by Marilyn Stewart, both of them
aiming to obtain information on ecology
and subsistence. Stewart presented a preliminary report at the
1976 meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (Stewart
and Zeph 1976).
From our now-distant perspective it appears that further work
at Palmer-Taylor could well produce significant information on
ecology and subsistence, if the mound has not been damaged too
severely by recent bulldozing and vandalism.

action of camp by pursuit of predatory pigs. Spearman not

1996 VOL. 49(2)



It should be gratifying to the alumni of
the Excavators' Club that our dig at
Palmer-Taylor turned out to be more than
a mere Christmas outing of student enthu-
siasts, and did make a contribution to the
archaeology of the St. Johns region. We
can, furthermore, recall with warmth and
pleasure not only the challenges and
rewards of the archaeological work and
the companionship of the group, but also
the pig-chases, the baleful blasts on the
battered bugle at daybreak, the glorious
sunrises and sunsets, the swims in the
nearby Econlockhatchee River, the juicy
grapefruit asking to be plucked from the
trees on the mound (to the northerners
among us it was a veritable Garden of
Eden), and the New Year's Eve party
featuring Palmer-Taylor Punch, a concoc-
tion of grapefruit juice and vodka that
even today can bring back fine recollec-
tions of a memorable archaeological
Figure 7. The ii

Acknowledgments Davis, Bert Ogdel
Gene Worman,
This paper was originally given.as an illustrated Carleton, John
presentation in a symposium on The History of Shaplin, Steve Ba
Southeastern Archaeology at the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference in Raleigh in November
1993, at the urging of Hester A. Davis of the
Arkansas Archeological Survey, who organized and chaired the symposium and
who remembered from her childhood the coming of the Palmer-Taylor crew to
the Davis establishment in Winter Park. Jeffrey Mitchem of the Arkansas
Archaeological Survey urged that the account be put in written form, and Brent
Weisman offered encouragement. I am grateful to Palmer-Taylor veterans
Chester Chard, Beth Ogden Davis, Eugene Worman, Penny Davis Worman,
and especially John Rowe, and also to Marilyn Stewart of Rollins College and
Jeffrey Mitchem, all of whom read early drafts of the narrative and offered their
comments. Any errors, however, are my responsibility. The photographs were
copied from prints in Beth Davis's album. We do not know, now, which
persons took which original photographs, since after the trip many participants
duplicated their best prints and distributed them to others. Gratitude is herewith
expressed to the original photographers, whoever they may be.

References Cited

Byers, Douglas S., and Frederick Johnson
1939 Some Methods Used in Excavating Eastern Shell Heaps. American
Antiquity 4:189-212.
Dyson, Robert H., Jr., and Elizabeth Tooker
1949 The Palmer-Taylor Mound, Geneva, Florida. Unpublished manu-
script. Cambridge, Mass.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University Press of Florida,
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1990 The Contribution of Nels C. Nelson to Florida Archaeology. The
Florida Anthropologist 43:156-163.
Moore, Clarence B.
1892 Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto Unex-
plored. American Naturalist 26:912-22.

itrepid crew. Front row: Edie Mueser, Betty Chard, Penny
i, Penny Pattee. Middle row: Bob Kornfeld (holding pig spear),
Mott Davis, Hal Winchester. Back row: Dick May, Jay
Rowe (project leader), Chet Chard (with pig spear), Jud

1893a Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto
Unexplored (Second paper, first half). American Naturalist 27:8-13.
1893b Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto
Unexplored (Second paper, second half). American Naturalist27:113-
1893c Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto
Unexplored (Third paper). American Naturalist 27:605-24.
1893d Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto
Unexplored (Fourth Paper). American Naturalist 27:708-723.
1894 Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River, Florida, Hitherto
Unexplored (Fifth Paper). American Naturalist 27:15-26.
Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology No. 44, New Haven.
Rowe, John Howland
1940 Excavations in the Waterside Shell Heap, Frenchman's Bay,
Maine. Papers of the Excavators' Club No. 3. Cambridge, Mass.
Stewart, Marilyn C., and Paul Zeph
1976 A Model for Subsistence Change in a Central Florida Shell Mound
(abstract). Program and Abstracts, 41st Annual Meeting, Society for
American Archaeology, St. Louis.
Wyman, Jeffries
1867 Florida Shell Mounds. Boston Society ofNatural History, Proceedings
1868 An Account of the Fresh-water Shell Heaps of the St.John's River,
East Florida. American Naturalist 2:393-403, 449-463.
1875 Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the St.Johns River, Florida. Peabody
Academy of Science, Memoir 4:3-94. Salem, Mass.



You and

Florida's Past

Florida's history is long: it goes back 10,000
years to people who hunted mammoth with
stone-tipped spears.
It is colorful: 7,000 years ago, Florida's Native
Americans wove cloth as fine as a T-shirt.
It is unique in the world: around 800 years
ago, some Floridians had a civilization so
complex that they built long canoe-canals and
huge pyramid-shaped mounds of shells and
You can be part of it! New pages of this story
are being written every week. Teams of
amateur and professional archaeologists
together are making fascinating discoveries in
the field and in the lab.
You can help save it! Florida's rapid develop-
ment puts many valuable sites in jeopardy.
Amateur and professional archaeologists,
elected officials and planners, and just plain
concerned citizens are working together to
save this history in the soil.
How do you put yourself into this picture? By
joining the Florida Anthropological Society
(FAS) or one of its chapters, or both, as many
interested citizens do!


Each spring, an FAS chapter hosts a state-
wide meeting attended by members of FAS
and its chapters, and the public. Both pro-
fessionals and amateurs deliver papers about
their activities and investigations. A banquet
features a guest speaker who is usually
nationally-known in the field of archaeology
or anthropology. FAS elected officers are
instated at a business session.
During the year, the FAS Executive Board
holds several meetings. FAS chapters have
monthly meetings, field trips, and other


1. FAS publishes a scientific journal, THE
year. Both professionals and amateurs con-
tribute articles about investigations in Florida
and nearby areas. These articles keep FAS
members up-to-date on many aspects of
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and pre-
servation. Many libraries around the nation
and world subscribe to the journal.

2. FAS publishes a newsletter four times a
year which keeps FAS members abreast of
FAS chapter activities and of pertinent events
and news around the state and wider region.

,IIYI ,- % ~ B~


FAS has chapters throughout Florida
which are open to the interested public. By
joining FAS and one of its chapters, citizens
can take an active part in helping to study and
preserve Florida's heritage. Activities include
meetings, field trips, and archaeological digs
supervised by professionals.

FAS Chapters.
Write your area's chapter for membership informa-
tion today!
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142
Broward County Archaeological Society
481 S. Federal Hwy., Dania, FL 33004
Central Florida Anthropological Society
810 East Rollins Street, Orlando, FL 32803
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682
Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons.
P.O. Box 970, Sebring, FL 33871
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
10415 Skycrest Dr., Jacksonville, FL 32216
Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32085
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 33941
Time Sifters Archaeology Society
P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277
Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 504, New Smyrna, FL 32170




The Ripley P. Bullen Award is presented in recognition of
outstanding accomplishment in the area of improving and
fostering good working relationships among professional and
avocational archaeologists. The 1996 award was presented by
Art Lee to Brent R. Weisman.
Through his active participation in the Florida Anthropologi-
cal Society, as former Director of the State of Florida's
Conservation and Recreation Lands (CARL) Acquisition
Archaeology Program, and currently as an Assistant Professor
of Anthropology at the University of South Florida, Dr.
Weisman has made cooperation with avocational archaeologists
and the interested public a basic tenet of his work. He has long
been an advocate of providing educational opportunities for non-
professionals, and has backed up this philosophy by frequently
inviting the public to assist in the field on his projects. Through
appearances before FAS chapters, and in personal contacts with
those interested in archaeology, Dr. Weisman continually
stresses the importance of protecting Florida's threatened
cultural resources. From 1992-1995, as Editor of The
Florida Anthropologist, Dr. Weisman encouraged non-profes- '
sionals to submit articles to the journal, and often commented
in writing about the important contributions to Florida archaeol-
ogy made by members of the avocational community.



The William C. Lazarus Award is presented to a member of
the Florida Anthropological Society in recognition of outstand-
ing contributions in the areas of research, site reporting,
assistance to professional archaeologists, community education,
or preservation. The 1996 award was presented by Loren
Blakeley to Lyman O. Warren. Accepting for Dr. Warren, who
was unable to attend the annual meeting, was his son, John
Dr. Warren is an exemplary "avocational" archaeologist. He
has made significant contributions to the understanding of Gulf
Coast prehistory with his many articles published in The Florida
Anthropologist during the 1960s and 1970s. He was one of the
first to recognize and discuss the importance of submerged sites
in Tampa Bay, and the pioneering series of papers he wrote
documenting these sites continue to be cited by archaeologists
and other scientists today. His contributions also include
important work at the Bay Pines site and the subsequent paper
he coauthored with John Gallagher, as well as papers on the

THE FLORIDA AI'mIRoPoLoGiSr 1996 VoL. 49(2)

Culbreath Bayou, Apollo Beach, and Fletcher Davis sites. He
lectured widely, worked with local museums and archaeological
societies, and was a well-respected contact for university-based
archaeologists throughout the state. Dr. Warren continues to
maintain an interest in Florida archaeology and has assisted
professional archaeologists conducting research in the Tampa
Bay area by willingly providing them with information about
sites in the region.
Dr. Warren was most active at a time when there were
relatively few practicing archaeologists in Florida. Because he
was well respected within the professional community, he was
able to facilitate interaction among professional and avocational
archaeologists. His medical background provided him with an
appreciation for the value of careful, scientific inquiry and he
passed this on to the many young enthusiasts who looked to him
as a mentor. Some became professional archaeologists them-
selves while others have continued Dr. Warren's legacy as
active supporters of archaeology, educating the public and
helping to preserve the past.


The President's Award is presented to individuals who have
provided exemplary service to the Florida Anthropological
Society by advancing the Society's goals of public education,
archaeological preservation, and stewardship. The 1996 awards
were presented by President Jackie Piper.


Betty Riggan served two terms as FAS President (1993-94 and
1994-95), working tirelessly to guide the Society as it took on
the task of sponsoring Florida Archaeology Week. She contin-
ues to serve the Society as a member of the Planning Committee
for the Society's 50th anniversary video project. She also is
active in the St. Augustine Archaeological Society and serves on
the St. Augustine Preservation Board.


Jack Thompson has served as FAS Treasurer since 1990,
keeping the Society solvent and allowing it to continue its
traditional activities, while also finding ways to enable the
organization to take on new and exciting tasks. He also has
served as President and Treasurer of the Southwest Florida
Archaeological Society, and spends much of his spare time
working in the Chapter's Craighead Laboratory in Naples.


Terry Simpson has served as the FAS Membership Secretary
since 1991. He also served as Chair of the 1996 Florida
Archaeology Week Steering Committee. As an FAS Board
member, he has always been quick to volunteer his services for
whatever needs to be done.


Individual FAS chapters honor their members for outstanding
service in furthering the interests of archaeology and preserva-
tion. George Luer, Second Vice President of FAS, presented
the certificates.

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society


Lillian O'Haver was presented a Certificate of Achievement
for her outstanding contribution and team leadership role on the
CGCAS educational exhibit that was developed for the Tampa
Bay History Center. The exhibit, entitled "The Science of
Archaeology," emphasized public archaeology and preservation
awareness, and resulted in a founding year donation of $12,500
to the Tampa Bay History Center by a Florida archaeology
Mark Winterbottom received a Certificate of Achievement for
his continuous dedication to the CGCAS's Narvaez project.
Mark has spent many long hours, including weekends and
evenings, analyzing marine shell collected from the site. His
devotion serves as an inspiration to all who are involved with
this project.

Archaeological Society of Southern Florida


A Certificate of Achievement was presented to Elizabeth Read
for her years of service to the ASSF. She is past President of
the Chapter and currently is Chair of the 1997 FAS Annual
Meeting Committee. She also is President of the Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy, Inc. As an attorney she has given
freely of her ,services many times to help save historical
structures and archaeological sites.
Annabella Flores received a Certificate of Achievement for
her hard work and achievements on behalf of the ASSF. A
graduate of Valdosta State University with a degree in Anthro-
pology and Sociology, she supervised the ASSF excavation at
the Monkey Jungle site. She is currently ASSF Secretary and
also Secretary for the Archaeological and Historical Conser-
vancy, Inc.

Southwest Florida Archaeological Society


Wayne "Bud" House received a Certificate of Achievement
for his dedication and drive in supporting the actions and
achievements of SWFAS and the Florida Anthropological
Society. Since joining SWFAS in 1987, he has participated in

1996 VOL. 42)



nearly every Chapter event, and from 1991-1993 he served as
SWFAS President. He was one of the few experienced volun-
teers during the 1995 salvage excavations at Key Marco, and he
and another SWFAS member drove a rental truck to Texas to
deliver artifacts recovered from the excavation for analysis at
the University of Houston. He also is active in other historic
and environmental conservation efforts in southwest Florida.
Shirley House also received a Certificate of Achievement.
Since joining SWFAS in 1987 she has contributed hundreds of
hours to salvage excavations as well as working with the
University of Florida's Southwest Florida Project at Pineland,
Useppa Island, and elsewhere. She has been a faithful backup
to her husband, Wayne, during his terms as SWFAS President
and as member of the advisory board for the Randell Research
Center at Pineland.

Pensacola Archaeological Society


Certificates of Achievement were presented to Dr. Judith
Bense and E. L. "Connie" Franklin for their participation in the
development of an Archaeological Institute at Booker T.
Washington High School in Pensacola, Florida. The FAS Board
of Directors also awarded Certificates of Achievement to Cyndi
Sims, Mike Davis, and Glenda Marshman. The Institute
provides an interdisciplinary, intergenerational curriculum that
supports a learning partnership between the high school and its
partners the University of West Florida Archaeological
Institute, the Pensacola Archaeological Society, and the School
of Science and Advanced Technology at Pensacola Junior
Students participated in an excavation of a historic archaeolog-
ical site directed by Dr. Bense and have assisted in the reanaly-
sis of artifacts excavated many years ago from a British well in
the Seville Historic District. Cyndi Sims, an archaeology student
at the University of West Florida, served as a link between the
University and the high school. She also provided training and
expertise to the students. History teacher Mike Davis and
Science Department Head Glenda Marshman have developed the
Institute's curriculum, written grant proposals, and helped to
incorporate students in community service activities. As Presi-
dent of PAS, E. L. "Connie" Franklin was the first to contact
Dr. Bense about the possibility of allowing the high school
students to observe one of her excavations. From this humble
beginning, and after many long hours on the phone and in the
field, the Archaeological Institute became a reality.

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
Featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

r ---- ------ -------------------- um)
lorida Indian | O YES! I want to join FAS!
Dster I Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
his Bird-man I Other rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
lancer is the
ain illustration patron $100, and life $500.
f an attractive
ad informative I 0 YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
foster depicting A and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).
ie major tribes
tat once in-
abited Florida. _l I Name:
availablee for a
5.50 donation Address:
FAS, this 18 by
5-inch poster isC
printed maroon City: State: Zip:
ad purple on a
eam-colored Telephone:
eavy paper.
FAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255,
I Tampa, FL 33682

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Florida Indian (
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a
$6.50 donation
to FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon
and purple on a
heavy paper.

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

,---,--------------- ---- >
OYES! I want to join FAS!
SMembership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
SOther rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
patron $100, and life $500.
IO YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).

I Name:


City: State: Zip:

Telephone: (

SFAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255,
I Tampa, FL 33682


YatKitischee: The Archaeology ofa Prehistoric Coastal Hamlet.
Robert Austin and James Pochurek. Pinellas County Planning
Department, Clearwater, 1996. 28 pp., softbound, many
illustrations, bibliography, glossary, free of charge.

Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620

During 1994, the Pinellas County Board of County Commis-
sioners sponsored an archaeological excavation at Yat Kitischee,
a prehistoric habitation site dating from approximately 100 B.C.
to A.D. 1200. This work was conducted by Janus Research of
St. Petersburg. Throughout the actual excavation, extensive and
successful efforts were made to involve community volunteers
in the field work. This fine booklet insures that the work at Yat
Kitischee will make a continuing contribution to the appreciation
of archaeology by the general public.
Occupation of Yat Kitischee from ca. 100 B.C. through ca.
A.D. 700 was associated with the Manasota culture, a regional
expression of the widespread Weeden Island culture. After A.D.
700, and up to its abandonment around A.D. 1200, the inhabit-
ants of Yat Kitischee participated in the general Central Gulf
Coast transition to the Safety Harbor culture. Although both the
Weeden Island and Safety Harbor cultures are associated with
burial mound ceremonialism and impressive ceramic achieve-
ments, the contribution of the Yat Kitischee excavation is on a
different, but no less important, level.
As the name of the booklet implies, Yat Kitischee provides
insight into the often overlooked, but equally interesting, details
of everyday life of everyday people. The site covers some 2.8
hectares (7 acres) and probably had a maximum population of
some 30-60 people distributed among 8-10 households. The
artifacts and ecofacts recovered through excavation have
revealed many details of Yat Kitischee lifeways including diet,
subsistence technology, utilitarian pottery, and dwellings.
The booklet presents this information in a manner that should
be highly effective with general readers. The initial pages
introduce the reader to a snapshot of daily life at Yat Kitischee,
demonstrating that these were real people, engaged in activities
that were a plausible adaptation to their environment, in a way
that is understandable to modern readers.
In addition to specifics of Yat Kitischee life, the booklet
introduces a range of related topics and concepts, such as the
nature and value of archaeology, processes of cultural change,
and specific techniques associated with field work and laborato-
ry analysis. A simplified time line, supported by appropriate
text, portrays cultural transitions in the Central Gulf Coast area.
A bibliography and excellent glossary conclude the booklet.

The liberal use of photographs and drawings, together with
text aimed at the general reader, makes this booklet an outstand-
ing example of effective communication between professional
archaeologists and the public. A remarkable amount of informa-
tion is included and presented in an interesting, accessible
manner. The modest size of the booklet enhances the probability
that it will be read, rather than simply collected.
Copies of this publication are available, free of charge, from
the Pinellas County Planning Department, 14 South Ft. Harrison
Avenue, Clearwater, Florida 34616. For those desiring more
detailed information on the Yat Kitischee site, a complete report
of the field work and analysis is available for a fee from the
same source. This latter publication is Yat Kitischee: A Prehis-
toric Coastal Hamlet, 100 B. C.-A.D. 1200, edited by Robert J.
Austin of Janus Research.

South Carolina Antiquities Special Anniversary Issue: 25 Years
of the ASSC and South Carolina Archaeology. Edited by
Kenneth W. Sassaman and Carl O. Steen. Archaeological
Society of South Carolina, Columbia, 1993. ii + 114 pp.,
figures, references. $10.00 softboundd).

Florida Museum of Natural History
Gainesville, Florida 32611

The Archaeological Society of South Carolina (ASSC)
celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1993. The ASSC was founded
in 1968 by the late Robert L. Stephenson, perhaps his most
profound and lasting professional achievement. In the interven-
ing 25 + years, professional, student, and avocational archaeolo-
gists have ably demonstrated that South Carolina has many
important stories to tell. Its physiographic diversity and rich
natural resources made it an important arena for most of the
cultural changes that interest southeastern archaeologists.
The 100-page commemorative publication offers some
reminiscences, a history of the ASSC itself, topical summaries
of archaeological knowledge by time period precolumbian as
well as post-contact and even some predictions for the next
quarter-century. For the most part, the volume is written in a
clear and non-technical style, but readers new to South Carolina
archaeology might have appreciated inclusion of a chronological
chart and a simple physiographic map of the state.
The book is to be recommended as a readable and useful
primer, however there is a certain unevenness in the treatment
of various subjects. For example, Zierden's and South's
chapters on historical archaeology occupy barely three pages
each, leaving the reader wanting more. Three chapters stand out

SVOL. 49(2

as particularly instructive. David Anderson gives a comprehen-
sive summary of the "high points" of the past twenty-five years
in his chapter, "Twenty-five Years of Prehistoric Archaeology."
Kenneth Sassaman's chapter, "Twenty-five Lessons in Twenty-
five Years of Middle and Late Archaic Archaeology," offers
convincing proof that South Carolina archaeologists have
contributed important new data of relevance to the entire
southeastern U.S. J.W. Joseph's chapter on the "Early Ameri-
can Period and Nineteenth Century" is a superb summary that
points out the important contributions that South Carolina has
made to the study of southern history.
This is a useful, readable, and concise summary of South
Carolina archaeology and of its formative years. The 348-entry
bibliography will serve as a valuable guide for scholars new to
the area.

New from the Archaeological Society of South Carolina

A Special Anniversary Issue of

South Carolina South Carolina Antiquities
Antiquities 25 Years of the ASSC and

SPECIALANV ISSUE South Carolina Archaeology

A collection of 14 essays examining the first 25 years of the society
"' 25 Years and what has been learned from archaeological investigations of
of the ASSC and
South Carolina Archaeology South Carolina's prehistory and history. Abundantly illustrated and
with a special silver cover, this commemorative issue of South
Vol 5 13 N. 1 Carolina Antiquities is an excellent introduction to the archaeology
Volume 25 1993 Nos. and archaeologists of the Palmetto state.

Contributions by: David G. Anderson, Tommy Charles, Chester B. DePratter, Albert C. Goodyear, J. W.
Joseph, George S. Lewis, James L. Michie, Bruce E. Rippeteau, Kenneth E. Sassaman, Stanley South, Carl
Steen, and Martha Zierden.

To order send check for $10.00, payable to ASSC, Inc. to Nena Rice, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and
Anthropology, 1321 Pendleton St., Columbia, SC 29208


6 991 VoL 49(2)

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is the quarterly journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.,
and is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. The journal is owned and
managed by the Officers and Executive Committee of the Society (see inside front cover).


June 1996
Average Vol. 49 (2)

Total Copies Printed 900 900
Sold, UF Library Exchange 115 115
To Back Issue Dealer 108 111
Mail Subscriptions 640 620
Total Paid Circulation 863 846
Author Reprints 27 29
Free Distribution 5 15
Office Use, Left Over 5 10
Total 900 900


About the Authors:

Ryan J. Wheeler is Project Archaeologist with the Conservation and Recreation Lands Archaeological
Survey, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research. He recently completed his dissertation on native
Florida art at the University of Florida.

Wesley F. Coleman is a life member of the Florida Anthropological Society and former Director-at-Large
(1974-1976). Mr. Coleman is a Director of the Board, Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc.,
and has for many years been involved in archaeological preservation in Dade County and the Florida Keys.
He is active in living history reenactments, particularly at: the Battle of Okeechobee, where members of the
Seminole Tribe reenact the Indian side of the battle.

Robert J. Austin is Executive Vice President of Janus Research. He received his M.A. in anthropology from
the University of South Florida in 1983 and is currently pursuing his Ph.D. at the University of Florida
where his research focuses on lithic resource use in south Florida.

Gregory A. Mikell is a professional archaeologist now residing in Pensacola. Although Greg's primary area
of interest and investigation has been the Choctawhatchee Bay region, he obviously has interest in other
areas of Florida. He is a graduate of Florida State University (B.A. 1983) and Wake Forest University
(M.A. 1986), and is continuing his work in northwest Florida.

E. Mott Davis is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin where he retired
from teaching in 1989 but continues to conduct research. A 1935 graduate of Winter Park High School in
Florida, he received his Ph.D. in anthropology at Harvard University in 1954. His principal archaeological
field research has been concerned with the Paleoindian horizon in the central Great Plains and the prehistory
of the Caddo Indians in east Texas.

Keith D. Ryder is a graduate student in anthropology at the University of South Florida.

William H. Marquardt is Curator of Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

About the Cover:

Ancient Contract by Jeanie Fitzpatrick is the illustration on this issue's cover. The background is a map
showing marsh, river, and high ground. Lines representing paths or territorial boundaries overlay the land
and connect to the line work on the tablet as though the tablet is a symbol that identifies the wearer with
the land. Fitzpatrick suggests that these tablets may have been displayed to mark specific territories or worn
by individual leaders to identify themselves to others as the center and connection to all within proscribed
territories. The tablet may represent a claim to the land as established by war, treaty, or collaboration, a
visible symbol of the acceptance of this agreement, an ancient contract.

About the Artist:

Jeanie Fitzpatrick is a painter and graphic artist who lives in St. Augustine. Her artwork reflects a love of
her native Florida, with themes that show the wide array of Florida's unique environments, from river palm
hammocks to historic structures and vanishing landscapes, and the moods these scenes inspire. Her
paintings, illustrations, and graphic designs have appeared in numerous publications. Most recently her
watercolors were featured in The Houses of St. Augustine published by Pineapple Press.


1996 VOL. 49(2)

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