Table of Contents
 Editor's page
 How the Pine Island Canal worked:...
 Excavation of a late Archaic Everglades...
 The newlyweds at Cushing's Court...
 President's message
 Agreement letter from Lawton Chiles,...
 FAS anniversary notes
 The origin and use of the Florida...
 The Florida Anthropological Society...
 The Florida Anthropological Society...
 FAS 50 Year Photographic Celeb...
 Book reviews
 About the authors

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00095
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00095
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
notis - AAA9403

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's page
        Page i
    How the Pine Island Canal worked: Topography, hydraulics, and engineering
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Excavation of a late Archaic Everglades Site, 8DA141, Dade County, Florida
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    The newlyweds at Cushing's Court of the Pile Dwellers: A historical reminiscence of the Van Beck's excavation at Key Marco
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    President's message
        Page 143
    Agreement letter from Lawton Chiles, Governor
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    FAS anniversary notes
        Page 147
        Page 148
    The origin and use of the Florida Anthropological Society logo
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    The Florida Anthropological Society chapter histories
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    The Florida Anthropological Society chapters
        Page 165
    FAS 50 Year Photographic Celebration
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Book reviews
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    About the authors
        Page 176
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Volume 50 Number 3
September 1997

a Anti

SYears -

1947 -99


Editor's Page. Robert J. Austin

How the Pine Island Canal Worked: Topography, Hydraulics, and Engineering. George M. Luer and Ryan J. Wheeler 115
Excavation of a Late Archaic Everglades Site, 8DA141, Dade County, Florida. Wesley F. Coleman 133
The Newlyweds at Cushing's Court of the Pile Dwellers: A Historical Reminiscence of the Van Becks'
Excavation at Key Marco. Arthur R. Lee 139

President's Message. Loren R. Blakeley
F.A.S. Anniversary Notes. John W. Griffin
The Origin and Use of the Florida Anthropological Society Logo. Louis D. Tesar
Florida Anthropological Society Chapter Histories
Featured Photographs: 50 Years, The Florida Anthropological Society
McNutt (Editor): Prehistory of the Central Mississippi Valley. Jeffrey M. Mitchem
Ste. Claire (Editor): A History of Florida through New World Maps: Borders of Paradise. John H. Hann
Wetherbee: White Ironstone: A Collector's Guide. Greg C. Smith
About the Authors
Cover: Calusa Secrets by Dean Quigley

Copyright 1997 by the
ISSN 0015-3893


This issue of The Florida Anthropologist is a special one
as it commemorates the Society's 50th anniversary with a
series of articles and features that illustrate the significant
contribution that avocational archaeologists have made to
the study of Florida prehistory and history.
Leading off the issue is an article by George Luer and
Ryan Wheeler that utilizes engineering and hydrological
concepts in an attempt to understand how the Pine Island
Canal worked. This paper is a continuation of both authors'
interest in prehistoric canals and it represents an important
contribution to the archaeology of these significant features.
It also demonstrates that important archaeological research
can be accomplished with a minimum of digging.
The second article is by Wes Coleman, a frequent
contributor to the journal. Wes summarizes the results of
excavations at the Coleman site, 8DA141, which were
conducted by the Archaeological Society of Southern
Florida in 1983. This is yet another site in southeast
Florida where human remains have been encountered with
associated radiocarbon dates that suggest a late Archaic
time period.
Art Lee's contribution is based on a series of letters
between Art and John and Linda Van Beck. The personal
insights by the Van Becks regarding their test excavation at
Key Marco during the 1960s provide an interesting histori-
cal footnote to the archaeology that has been done at this
fascinating site.
Following these articles is a special section highlighting
the past 50 years of the Florida Anthropological Society.
The section begins with a message from FAS President
Loren Blakeley and this is followed by a brief history of
the FAS that was written by one of its founding members,
John Griffin, in 1983 and published in FA 36 No. 3-4. An
excerpt from Louis Tesar's 1984 introduction to the Index
for Volumes 37-45 is also reprinted. The excerpt details the
origin of the Society's ceremonial tablet logo and docu-
ments the changes it has gone through over the years.
Histories of all the FAS chapters, present and past, are
featured next. The chapter histories prepared by the 13
active chapters for distribution at the Society's annual
meeting in Miami this past spring form the basis for this
article. Additional information on chapters that are no
longer active was obtained by researching old newsletters
and minutes of meetings. The result is a comprehensive
history of one of the Society's most important assets, the
local chapters. An important feature of this history is the
references which document over 80 articles, most published

in The Florida Anthropologist, that were written by chapter
members or describe projects conducted by or participated
in by FAS chapters. This listing is only a sample of all the
articles that discuss projects that have involved FAS mem-
bers, many of whom are not associated with a chapter. A
photographic montage of professional and avocational
archaeologists at work and play puts a collective "face" on
the Society. The histories, references, and photos are
graphic reminders of the enormous debt that the discipline
of archaeology owes the Society's avocational members.
Our understanding of the history and prehistory of the state
would suffer immeasurably if it were not for the hard work
of these dedicated individuals.
Book reviews by Jeff Mitchem, John Hann, and Greg
Smith round out the issue. I hope you enjoy it.


President Loren Blakeley recently received the following
letter from the Fort Mose Historical Society. He wished it
to be shared with the rest of the Society's members.

August 29, 1997

Mr. Loren Blakeley, President
Florida Anthropological Society
6505 Gulfport Blvd. South
St. Petersburg, FL 33707

Dear Loren;

On behalf of the Fort Mose Historical Society, this letter
conveys our thanks and appreciation to the Florida Anthropologi-
cal Society for your generous loan of the Fort Mose oil painting
by Elizabeth Neily. Although we do not at this time have a visitor
center at the site, we have it displayed prominently at the
Anastasia State Recreation Area offices.
The State of Florida is currently negotiating for the purchase of
property adjacent to the Fort Mose site. Negotiations have been
completed for one parcel already. When the State is in possession
of the property needed to build a visitors' center and parking
area, we will proudly display the beautiful painting of the
militiaman and his family where all visitors may enjoy it.
Again, Loren, please convey our thanks to the membership of

Betty Riggan
Secretary, Fort Mose Historical Society


VOL. 50 No. 3




13222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, Florida 34239
Email: gluer@grove.ufl.edu
2Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, 5932 NW28th Terrace, Gainesville, Florida
Email: rwheeler@mail.dos.state.fl.us

The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical
functioning and engineering of the aboriginal Pine Island
Canal (8LL34). We adopt a theoretical approach that
employs basic topographic, hydraulic, and engineering
principles that are familiar to geologists, soils scientists,
and engineers who work with surface hydraulics.
Our analyses of aerial photographs and surface contours
reveal that the canal was sensitive to minute changes in
topography. Thus, portions of the canal were constructed
to be as level as possible, avoiding even slight depressions.
One stretch was oriented diagonal to contours to minimize
its slope as much as possible. These and other findings
suggest that the Indians who built and maintained the canal
were intimately familiar with the landscape, and had a good
practical knowledge of ground water and how to manipulate
and control it for their use.


The Pine Island Canal was an aboriginal canoe canal
located in Lee County on the coast of southwestern Florida
(Figure 1). It was approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) long. The
canal was dug by Florida Indians, probably between 500 to
1000 years ago, although earlier dates of construction are
possible, perhaps as much as 2000 years ago. This age
range is indicated by artifacts and radiocarbon dates from
mounds and middens at both ends of the Pine Island Canal,
such as at the Pineland site (8LL33) and Indian Field
(8LL39) (Luer 1989a, 1989b, 1991; Marquardt 1992:48-54,
Table 1). Luer (1989a:112-113, 124, 1991:71) has viewed
the construction of the Pine Island Canal and associated
mounds as a consequence of complex sociopolitical devel-
opment. He has hypothesized that the canal played a vital
role in centralization, communication, tribute, and exchange
(Luer 1989a: 114-121).
In this paper, we refer to the canal's builders as "Florida
Indians" or "Indians." While the Pine Island Canal appar-
ently was built by the Calusa or their ancestors (Luer
1989a: 124-125), its construction could have involved the
labor and knowledge of local as well as neighboring
peoples. Indeed, a number of Indian canoe canals were

constructed in various regions of Florida (such as Walker's
Canal [8WL344] in the Florida panhandle and the Ortona
canals [8GL4] near Lake Okeechobee see Wheeler
1995:277, Table 3, 1997), and these regions were inhabited
by different Indian tribes. Thus, canoe canals were parts of
a technology that was shared by many Florida Indians.
Here, we want to acknowledge the widespread occurrence
of canoe canals in Florida, and so we will use the broad
terms "Florida Indians" and "Indians" in referring to their
builders, including the builders of the Pine Island Canal.
We should note that the narrow, shallow channels of
Florida Indian canoe canals reflect the character of Florida
Indian watercraft. Studies of Florida wooden dugout canoes
show that they are narrow, keel-less, shallow-draft boats.
Newsom and Purdy (1990:170) state that their average
width was approximately 40 cm (16 in). This suggests that
Florida Indian canoes averaged approximately 20 cm (8 in)
or less from the gunwale to the outside bottom. Since some
allowance needed to be made for freeboard, the draft of
such canoes was apparently around 15 cm (6 in) or less.
Thus, the character of Florida Indian canoes meant that the
channels of canoe canals could be narrow and shallow.
The Pine Island Canal crossed the width of Pine Island
and is believed to have facilitated canoe travel between Pine
Island Sound and Matlacha Pass (Figure 2, top). The
canal's location near the northern end of Pine Island (rather
than in the island's mid-section) is believed to reflect its
orientation to destination points beyond the canal itself,
namely Useppa Island (8LL51) and other sites to the west
and the Cape Coral Canal (8LL756) to the east (see Luer
1989a: 105-106, 121-122). When combined, the Pine Island
and Cape Coral canals would have provided a direct route
between Pine Island Sound and the middle and upper
reaches of the Caloosahatchee River. This course would
have been much shorter and more protected than alternative
routes via natural open water, such as through Matlacha
Pass, Pine Island Sound, and the wide mouth of the lower
Caloosahatchee River (Figure 2, top).
Each end of the Pine Island Canal was at sea level. In
between, the canal traversed land reaching a maximum
elevation of 3.7-4.0 m (12-13 ft) above mean sea level near


VOL. 50 No. 3



Figure 1. Locations of Lee County and Pine Island in southwestern Florida and the route of the Pine Island
Canal (8LL34) across Pine Island.

the center of the island. Aerial photographs show that the
canal was no wider in the center of Pine Island than
elsewhere along its course (Luer 1989a:93). This has been
confirmed by field observations and profiling. Indeed,
surface profiles across the Pine Island Canal reveal similar
widths at different locations. In these cases, the canal's
channel measures from 5.5 to 7.1 m (18 to 23 ft) in
maximum width, and the distance between the crests of the
canal's embankments ranges from 9 to 10.4 m (30 to 34 ft)

(see Figure 2, bottom and Figure 3). Similar dimensions
are recorded for a fifth location that was profiled in 1981
(Figure 4).
This evidence demonstrates that the Pine Island Canal was
not a sea-level canal. If it had been, the Indians would have
had to make it much wider and deeper, especially in the
center of the island. Nor does it appear that the Pine Island
Canal could have been an open channel or sluiceway that
was fed by a feeder stream or pond, such as in the case of


1997 VOL. 50(3)


the aboriginal canoe canals at Ortona near Lake Okee-
chobee (Wheeler 1995). Besides the lack of a source of
flowing water, such as a stream, an open channel seems
unlikely because of other difficulties. These include not
being able to control variable inflow and outflow in a
sloping open channel. Instead, the evidence supports the
interpretation that the Pine Island Canal functioned by using
ground water in a controlled channel. It is hypothesized that
the canal held a series of stepped impoundments by taking
advantage of Pine Island's poorly drained soils and shallow,
fluctuating water table. The water in each impoundment
would have been plugged by a control structure (see

Finally, it is important to note that the Pine Island Canal
was not completely straight. While some stretches did run
in a straight line, other stretches curved or angled from one
side to another. As shown below, these irregularities were
made in response to topographic features and allowed the
canal to remain level or to have a very gentle slope, thus
helping the canal to hold water.

Landforms and Ground Water

In this section, we examine the natural conditions of
topography, soils, and water table that characterize the area
traversed by the Pine Island Canal. Some of these condi-

Figure 2. Top) The Pine Island and Cape Coral canals would have provided a direct route between Pine Island Sound
and the middle and upper reaches of the Caloosahatchee River. Bottom) Diagram showing some terms used to describe
canoe canals.




9 m

f--. H- 5.5 m --

+25 cm


-25 cm

+25 cm


-25 cm

<- 10.4 m

-- 5.6 m -

-**^^ |< --- 5.6 m -- > ^

Figure 3. Four surface profiles across the Pine Island Canal. These were measured with an autolevel and rod in
February 1997 (for locations, see Figure 7). Profiles #1 and #2 are at approximately 1 m (3 ft) above mean sea level;
Profiles #3 and #4 are at approximately 3 m (10 ft) above mean sea level. Views are toward the west, with north on
the right.







i g g i I- - -- - g e I I - g -
0 Im 5 10 15

Figure 4. Profile showing soil layers in the now-filled canal channel. This 1981 cross-section through the Pine
Island Canal is in an area of Myakka soil with a shallow hardpan and frequent high water table (for location,
see Figure 7). The ground surface is approximately 3.4 m (11 ft) above mean sea level. The stippled area
represents the portion of the filled canal channel that is still visible below the topsoil and above the hardpan.
The black, wavy layer is the top of the hardpan. In this 1981 profile, the water table (0 cm level) is low due
to a drought. The view is toward the east, with north to the left (adapted from Luer 1989a:Figure 3).

S10.2 m
--- 6m ---

+25 cm


-25 cm .





-25 cm

1997 VOL. 50(3)



tions were favorable for a canal, while others posed
problems for the aboriginal canal builders. In order to dig
and maintain a functional canal, the Indians had to have a
good understanding of the topographic and hydraulic
properties of the landscape, as well as their potential effects
on a canal. They had to be familiar with ground water, the
fluctuating water table, rainfall runoff, and the boundaries
and extent of flat and sloping terrain. Here, some of the
problems posed by these factors are mentioned, while
engineering solutions are explained later.


Pine Island has a surface that is either flat or gently
sloping. Its surface rises from a low-lying rim of tidal
mangrove forest to reach a rather flat mid-portion, lying
from 3 to 4 m (10-13 ft) above mean sea level. Before
recent agricultural and residential land development, most
of the island supported slash pine and longleaf pine trees as
well as low-growing saw palmettos. The following descrip-
tion of Pine Island's surface is based on first-hand inspec-
tion and on interpretation of aerial photographs (Hamrick
Aerial Surveys 1981; United States Department of Agricul-
ture [U.S.D.A.] 1953a, 1953b).
Examination of the island's surface in cross-section
reveals that, prior to modern land alterations, it consisted
of a series of very slight terraces' running in a generally
north-south direction (Figure 5). The edges of some
terraces were distinct enough that the Indian builders of the
canal had to contend with them. This was because some
terrace edges correspond to a comparatively abrupt change
in the slope of the land.
These terraces also affected surface runoff and ground-
water percolation. The sloping areas were better drained
and rainfall tended to run off of them so that water concen-
trated on flat areas. In contrast, flat areas were poorly
drained and tended to collect runoff and to retain water.
After high-magnitude rainfall events, some flat areas
carried runoff in the form of thin sheet flow. Some flat
areas had slight depressions that held standing water after
heavy rains or when the water table was high.
Finally, as noted above, the general slope of Pine Island's
surface is slight. However, near the eastern shore of the
island, the surface slope is relatively steep. This steep slope
posed a challenge for the canal builders.

Ground Water

The sandy soils traversed by the Pine Island Canal have
a shallow water table during much of the year. The water
table is at or near the surface during the rainy season (June
through September), dropping to deeper depths during the
dry season or prolonged droughts.
The soils crossed by most of the canal are classified as
Immokalee and Myakka soils (U.S.D.A. 1984:Sheet 18).
Both soils have water tables of the same character:

In most years, under natural conditions, the water table is
within 10 inches [25 cm] of the surface from 1 to 3 months
and 10 to 40 inches [25-102 cm] below the surface for 2 to 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
dry periods [U.S.D.A. 1984:84, 87].

It is important to emphasize this fluctuating water table.
The Indians would have had to contend with it and its
effects on the canal, such as sometimes having too much or
too little water. It also is important to emphasize the
shallow nature of the water table. This offered advantages,
especially the nearness of ground water to the surface.
In addition to a shallow water table, both Immokalee and
Myakka soils have a shallow "hardpan." This means that
they have a relatively thin, upper layer or "A" horizon (60-
90 cm [26 to 36 in] in thickness) above a'black, organic,
relatively dense "B" horizon (U.S.D.A. 1984:84, 87). In
the A horizon, the vertical percolation rate is moderate,
whereas in the underlying B horizon it is much less. Thus,
the underlying hardpan is much less permeable and so it
slows the downward percolation of ground water
(U.S.D.A. 1984:Table 18).
The canal also traversed an area of Daytona soil as it ran
tangentially across the relatively steep eastern slope of Pine
Island (U.S.D.A. 1984:Sheet 18). Daytona soil is similar
to Immokalee and Myakka soils, but it is better drained and
has a slightly deeper water table and hardpan (U.S.D.A.
1984:77-78, Table 18).
At its eastern end the canal crossed a small area of
Pompano soil (U.S.D.A. 1984:Sheet 18). Here, this poorly
drained, low-lying soil is salty due to occasional inundation
by storm tides, with subsequent evaporation leaving salt. It
lacks a hardpan and its shallow water table is tidally
influenced. Even farther east, the canal would have crossed
Peckish soil in the tidal mangrove forest between Pine
Island and Indian Field (U.S.D.A. 1984:Sheet 18). When
the canal originally was in use, tidal water would have
filled the canal here. Since the canal was abandoned,
however, sedimentation and tidal action have obscured all
surface traces of the canal in this area.
Finally, it should be noted that artificial drainage in the
twentieth century has lowered the water table across most
of Pine Island. At Pineland, for example, extensive ditching
and land filling has resulted in much of the soil being
classified as Matlacha soil, which has more drought
characteristics and a deeper water table than it would have
had under natural conditions (U.S.D.A. 1984:86, Sheet


Tides would have fluctuated daily in a limited stretch at
each end of the Pine Island Canal. The normal, diurnal
tidal range at Pineland and Matlacha is approximately .58
m (1.9 ft) (United States Department of Commerce
[U.S.D.C.] 1978). However, tidal fluctuations are slightly
greater at new and full moon ("spring tides") and less




Figure 5. Landforms: top) plan view; bottom) topographic cross-section (with vertical exaggeration) of the area
slope near eastern edge of Pine Island (based on interpretation of Hamrick Aerial Surveys 1981).

during intermediate lunar phases ("neap tides"), although
strong winds can alter them. Tides have a minor effect on
ground water, making the water table fluctuate slightly (for
example, see Carter et al. 1973; Duever et al. 1979:102-
103, Figure 4.5). However, this effect is so slight that it
would have had negligible influence on the functioning of
the Pine Island Canal.

Sea Level

There have been some questions raised about how
hypothetical sea-level changes might have affected the Pine
Island Canal (Walker 1992:3). Because the Pine Island
Canal functioned by using ground water, it should not have
been affected dramatically by the slight, long-term changes
in Holocene sea level that are hypothesized by some
geologists. If such changes in sea level did occur, they
would have affected primarily the tidal ends of the canal.
The Indians easily could have accommodated a drop in sea
level by deepening the ends of the canal. Conversely, the
Indians could have adjusted to a rise in sea level by simply
raising or relocating the canal's lowest control structures.
Such adjustments could have been made during the Indians'

normal maintenance of the canal.
It should be noted, however, that neither the topography
of Pine Island nor the canal itself indicate that a major
change in sea level occurred during the time when the canal
appears to have been used (approximately 500-1000 years
ago). This indication is in keeping with a number of varied
and controversial Florida sea-level curves, all suggesting
that sea level has been very near that of the present during
the last 1000 years (e.g., Fairbridge 1974; Missimer 1980;
Scholl et al. 1969; Scholl and Stuiver 1967; Stapor et al.
1987). If the canal is older, say as much as 2000 years of
age, then these curves suggest slightly greater sea-level
change since that time. However, as noted above, these
curves are debated. In the authors' view, there is evidence
for only slight changes in sea level along the peninsular
Florida Gulf coast during the last 2000 years, and claims of
large changes (as much as 1.2 to 2.1 m [4 to 7 ft] above or
below present-day mean sea level) are overestimated.
Finally, it should be noted that rates of sea-level change
are very slow compared to a human lifetime. Thus, there
would have been ample time for canal users to accommo-
date any sea-level changes. Indeed, such accommodations
would have been overshadowed by adjustments to more


1997 VOL. 50(3)


traversed by the Pine Island Canal. Note terrace edges, flat areas, and slight depressions. Also note relatively steep

threatening short-term events, such as heavy rainfall.


Topography, soils, and ground water were the major
natural factors involved in the functioning of the Pine
Island Canal. Tides were a minor factor affecting the
canal's ends. Long-term sea-level change was slow and
slight, and also would have been a comparatively minor
factor for the canal. In contrast, short-term events, such as
heavy rainfall and drought, would have had a more imme-
diate effect on the canal's functioning. The engineering
solutions to these problems are discussed below.

Generating Data About the Canal

In our investigation of how the Pine Island Canal func-
tioned, we began by following two lines of evidence and
then combined them. First, we characterized the physical
plan-view appearance of the human-made canal, such as
straight and curved stretches. Second, we mapped in profile
the natural land elevations traversed by the canal. Third,
we combined our results and found close correspondences

between topographic features and the route of the canal.

Characterizing the Canal

By enlarging and inspecting old aerial photographs
showing the Pine Island Canal (U.S.D.A. 1953a, 1953b),
we were able to observe the canal's plan-view appearance
along its entire course. We discovered that the canal had
different stretches or "segments." In order to study these
segments, we drew the route of the canal onto topographic
maps produced by Hamrick Aerial Surveys (1981). These
detailed maps show this portion of Pine Island with one-
foot contour lines (above present-day mean sea level) and
numerous spot elevations. By enlarging the 1953 aerial
photographs to the same scale as the topographic maps, we
were able to draw accurately, in plan-view, the canal's
channel and embankments on these topographic maps.
We found that most of the canal was comprised of four
long, curved segments, three long, straight segments, and
four short, anomalous segments or "anomalies." In addi-
tion, there were segments at each end of the canal that were
associated with other aboriginal earthworks, including
mounds and lateral canals. In order to identify the segments




Figure 6. Pine Island Canal showing canal segments and selected contour lines (in feet) along the course of the canal:
Hamrick Aerial Surveys (1981).

of the Pine Island Canal, we began at the eastern end of the
canal and moved westward, starting and stopping at
apparent "inflection points" or anomalies that appeared to
divide the various segments. We labelled the segments as
"Segment 1" through "Segment 14" (Figure 6).
We discovered that segment type is associated with
topographic setting (Table 1). Straight segments ran across
ground that was of extremely slight slope or essentially
level land. Curved segments avoided low areas or depres-
sions by bending away from them, thus keeping the canal
as level as possible. In contrast, most of the anomalies
corresponded to relatively abrupt changes in elevation, such
as along the edge of a terrace.

Topographic Data

Our next step was to quantify these observations. Since
the Hamrick topographic maps used English rather than
metric units, we found it most accurate to generate data
using feet instead of meters (Tables 2 and 3). Thus, with
the canal already drawn on the topographic maps, we
proceeded to mark 100 ft intervals along the course of the
canal. Then, we recorded elevations at these intervals and

drew a profile map of the land surface traversed by the
Pine Island Canal (Figure 6).
On this topographic profile map, we then marked where
each canal segment started and stopped, and determined the
elevation at each point. This allowed us to assess the
lengths and elevational ranges of each canal segment. We
then computed changes in elevation as well as slope (the
change in elevation divided by the length) for each canal
segment (Table 2).
These steps provided the quantitative data we needed to
verify our qualitative observations and to derive further
insights about the canal. The data show that straight
segments indeed do cross essentially level land (.001 slope
or less), and that curved segments also cross land of very
slight slope (between .0016 to .0031). Furthermore, the
data show that three of the four canal anomalies (Segments
7, 10, and 12) occur where there is a relatively abrupt
change in elevation. Two of these (Segments 7 and 10), if
not all three, clearly correspond with the edge of a terrace.
The data also demonstrate that Segments 2, 3, and 4 make
another accommodation to the terrain. That is, they diverge
from the alignment of the mid-portion of the canal and take
a tangential course (diagonal to contours) that serves to de-


1997 VOL. 50(3)


top) plan view; bottom) topographic cross-section (with vertical exaggeration). Based on U.S.D.A. (1953a, 1953b) and

Table 1. Characterization of Pine Island Canal segments,
based on interpretation of old aerial photographs (U.S.D.A.
1953a, 1953b).

Segment Characterization

1 tidal, east end, associated with lateral canals and
Pine Island 8 Mound and pond
2 curves southward to avoid low-lying areas to the
3 curves southward to avoid low-lying areas to the
4 angles northward to cross terrace and avoid low-
lying area to the south; west half appears straight
and is aligned with segment 6
5 anomaly
6 flat, straight, central segment of canal
7 anomaly
8 flat, curves southward to avoid pond to the north
9 flat, straight segment
10 anomaly
11 straight, runs due east-west from east side of Pine-

12 anomaly, probably situated west of lateral canal to
Adams Mound
13 west end of segment near lateral canal to Smith
14 tidal, west end, crosses saltern and passes between
Randell and Brown's mounds, opens into Pine Island

crease their slopes, bringing them within a functional range
for the canal (.0016 for Segment 4, .0031 for Segment 3,
and .0020 for Segment 2). If these segments had not run at
an angle, they would have had to cross uneven land where
slopes were too steep2.

Aboriginal Engineering

Here, we interpret how the Indians who built the canal
dealt with topographic and hydraulic conditions in a
pragmatic or engineering sense. We explore how the
canal's segments and channel interacted with topography
and ground water, and we suggest that the canal functioned
through a series of seven stepped impoundments. We also




Table 2. Data for Pine Island Canal segments. All measurement
Elevations above mean sea level based on Hamrick Aerial Surve



east end, tidal
west end, tidal

Elevation Change in
Length Range Elevation




suggest that lateral canals, near each end of the Pine Island
Canal, helped to divert excess water from the main canal.
Diverting water might have aided the function and mainte-
nance of the main canal and, as a fringe benefit, might
have provided water to lateral canals and ponds associated
with mounds and other earthworks.

Canal Impoundments

As described above, the Pine Island Canal was not a sea-
level canal. Instead, the canal went up and over the island
by utilizing shallow ground water. However, it could not
have been an entirely open system. That is, the Indians
needed to control the canal's water so that inputs and
outputs were as balanced as possible. In the case of the
Pine Island Canal, this meant that output, or discharge, had
to be carefully controlled. Had the canal been an open
channel, then water would have flowed unhindered from
each end of the canal rendering it unfunctional in many
ways (for example, by making the water too shallow in
portions of the channel, eroding or caving in the banks
from seepage, and creating a dry peak or "divide" between
east and west portions of the canal).
In order to make a functional canal, the Indians had to
create a system where inputs matched outputs. In other
words, they needed to create a canal where ground-water
seepage and rainfall inputs matched evaporation and
discharge. The Indians could have done this by making the
canal have a closed or partially closed channel, thus
stopping or decreasing flow and thereby helping to retain
water in the channel.
For controlling discharge, the Indians needed to install a
series of structures in the canal. These could serve as dams
or, when input was excessive (from heavy rain), as spill-
ways for output. Such control structures would have created

its in feet. a series of stepped impoundments in the canal's
y (1981). channel where the surface of the water normally
could stand near the level of the surrounding
water table. Such standing water would have
Slope minimized damage to the sides or banks of the
channel due to caving caused by excessive
ground-water seepage.
.0037 But where could control structures have been
.0020 placed? We suggest that places to consider are
.0031 points between the lengthy canal segments,
.00 identified above. For example, if control struc-
.0001 tures were placed at the anomalies of Segment 5
.0048 and Segment 7, they could have created an
.00021 impoundment incorporating the long, straight,
.0003 and almost-level Segment 6. If another control
.003 structure was placed at the anomaly of Segment
.001 10, it likewise could have created an impound-
.006 ment from the long and nearly-level Segments 8
.0022 and 9. The last two segments could have been
.0031 combined into a single impoundment because
their slopes were so slight. Similar reasoning
would place hypothetical control structures and
impoundments as shown in Figure 7 and as described in
Table 3.
The feasibility of these impoundments can be tested by
seeing how fluctuating water tables would affect them.
First, we can test maximum water level in the impound-
ments. Assuming that control structures could have acted as
spillways, then the maximum level in any impoundment
would have been the lip of the spillway. We can assume
that a maximum elevation for each spillway lip correspond-
ed to ground level (as found outside the canal's embank-
ments) at each spillway location. This level represents the
maximum water table possible, since it is equivalent to the
level of the surrounding ground surface. A higher water
level in the channel would seem unlikely. (At a higher
level, we may assume a flood in which water would tend
to erode the channel banks and flow around spillways.)
For testing the feasibility of an impoundment in a state of
maximum water level, we can determine the difference in
elevation between the back end of an impoundment and its
front end at the spillway lip ("x" minus "y" see Figure
8). This difference cannot exceed the depth of the canal's
channel if the bottom or bed of the channel is to be covered
with water, which is a necessity for a functional canal.
Moreover, this difference should be less than the depth of
the channel so that somewhat diminished water levels can
continue to cover the bed. However, if water tables receded
enough, the bed would have become dry at the back end of
an impoundment and it would have been necessary to drag
canoes along these dry sections in order to use the canal.
Table 3 shows that the elevational differences between the
fronts and backs of all seven hypothesized impoundments
are less than the hypothesized channel depths. The channel
depths are based on the assumption that the bed was dug at
least into the top of the hardpan, which varied slightly in
depth depending on the soil. Thus, all of the hypothesized


1997 VoL. 50(3)


Table 3. Hypothesized impoundments
elevation changes in feet.




based on interpretation of canal


Change in
Elevation (x-y)o



1800 10.35-11.8





Changes in elevation (x-y) for each impoundment
depth of the canal channel).

impoundments appear to be feasible by this manner of
Only one impoundment, incorporating Segment 3, seems
too shallow toward its back portion. However, the Indians
might have remedied this by digging a slightly deeper
channel there. Indeed, this was a portion of the canal that
crossed Daytona soil with its deeper hardpan, typically
about 45 cm (1.5 ft) deeper than in the adjoining Myakka
soil (U.S.D.A. 1984:78, 87, Sheet 18). A slightly deeper
channel also would have reached the hardpan and helped
retain water. Thus, the channel in this short stretch need
not have been much deeper than elsewhere (and such a
difference would be difficult to detect today).

Channel Depth

For the canal to function, a fluctuating water table (and
thus variable water levels in the channel) required engineer-
ing solutions not only in the lengths of impoundments, but
also in the depth of the channel. That is, the Indians needed
to dig a channel that could accommodate a fluctuating water
table in each impoundment and hold enough water so that
the canal would be functional for much of the year.
In this regard, the channel sides and bed played an impor-
tant role in the canal's water system. As water evaporated
from the channel's water surface, more ground water could
seep in through the sides and the bed of the channel. Since
the surface of impounded water in the channel would not
have paralleled the water table (which would have tended
to parallel the ground surface), seepage input at the back of
an impoundment would have helped replace seepage output

be less than 3 to 5 ft (the hypothesized

at the front (Figure 8).
Also, as noted above, the bed of the channel extended
into the top of the hardpan. From an engineering stand-
point, the hardpan would have afforded a desirable bed for
the channel because of its propensity to retard vertical
percolation and to hold ground water above it. Thus, by
digging the channel into the top of the hardpan, the Indians
would have helped retain water in the canal.
At two locations that have been investigated, the channel
did appear to penetrate the hardpan. This was the case
where a cross-sectional profile of the canal was obtained in
Myakka soil in 1981 (Figure 4). There, traces of the
channel reached the top of the hardpan, at least 80 cm (2.6
ft) below the surface, but it could not be determined to
what depth the channel had extended into the hardpan. In
another location in early 1997, the authors used a soil auger
to obtain a soil profile; the profile suggested that the
channel had extended approximately .9 to 1.1 m (3 to 3.6
ft) below the surrounding land surface3.
Given channel depths of .9 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft) for the
Pine Island Canal (Table 3), it is probable that much of the
canal went dry for extended periods during the dry season
and droughts. From the standpoint of engineering, such dry
periods probably were favorable for canal construction and
maintenance. Indeed, it would have been easiest to dig the
canal during the dry season when the water table was low.
At such times, the sand would have been dry and lighter in
weight, and it would have been easier to dig and move than
wet sand. The hardpan also might have been easier to break
and lighter in weight when dry. Digging implements could
have included hewn and sharpened sticks, and possibly
hafted, notched, quahog clam shells. However, none of the

segments and their

Channel Depth







3 to 4
4 to 5
3 to 4

3 to 4

3 to 4

3 to 4
3 to 4
3 to 4




Figure 7. Plan view (top) and topographic cross-section (bottom, with vertical exaggeration) along the course of the
five locations where the profiles in Figures 3 and 4 were obtained.

latter has been observed in association with the canal.
Once loosened and excavated from the channel, the
Indians moved soil to the sides, probably using baskets, to
form the canal's embankments. They also might have taken
advantage of the dry season to remove aquatic weeds and
algae, which would have grown in the canal's channel.

Tidal Areas

At each end of the canal, the Indians needed to dig the
channel to be deep enough to hold some water at low tides,
or slightly deeper than approximately .3 m (1 ft) below
mean sea level. Conversely, the highest tides would have
brought tidal water inland along the channel to an elevation
approximately .3 m (1 ft) above mean sea level. Such a
point would have been a logical place to build a control
structure near each end of the canal.


From an engineering standpoint, our earlier observations
can be interpreted to show that the Indians devised solutions
to challenging features in the landscape. For example, they
bent segments of the canal in order to stay on level land
and avoid shallow depressions. They avoided a steep area

by slightly turning the canal, thereby selecting a gender
grade that was more favorable. They built control structures
and formed impoundments where the slope of the land
changed relatively abruptly.

Rainfall and Lateral Canals

The Indians had to contend with inputs of water into the
canal system due to rainfall. Usually, these inputs helped to
recharge the channel with water. However, massive and
fast inputs from storms would have been large enough that
they might have threatened to damage the canal and to
hinder its function and maintenance. The Indians had to
devise ways to handle excess water.
Rainfall impacts would have been lessened by the canal's
embankments. The rimming embankments would have
restricted direct input from rainfall to the area within the
crests of the embankments. The embankments would have
kept surrounding runoff and thin sheetflow to beyond their
crests; thus, rainfall outside the crests would not have
affected the channel directly. (Indirectly, however, sur-
rounding rainfall would have recharged the ground water,
thereby raising the water table and, in turn, the level of the
water in the canal's channel.) Thus, the canal's embank-
ments can be viewed as artificial berms that helped protect


1997 VOL. 53)


Pine Island Canal showing hypothesized stepped impoundments and control-structure locations. Also marked are the

the channel from large rainfall events.
Ideally, excessive inputs of water to the channel would
have flowed over control structures, acting as spillways,
and then flowed out the canal's eastern and western ends.
However, massive and fast inputs of water during the rainy
season, and other times of year, would have posed prob-
lems. Several impoundments were long (up to 3300 ft
[1006 m], see Table 3) and thus had a large surface area.
These would have caught much direct rainfall. In effect,
input would have exceeded the capacity for output and
floods would have resulted.
One explanation of canal anomalies appearing as slight
lateral deviations in the canal could be due to floods that
flowed around control structures, eroding the bank and
creating a lateral, or "anomalous," signature. Maintaining
the canal might have involved repairing damaged control
structures, as well as keeping them working properly. It is
unknown what such structures might have looked like, but
suitable materials for building them include cabbage palm
logs. Future archaeological research could target the
excavation of a proposed location of one of these hypothe-
sized water-control structures to see if remains exist. Such
structures might have been simple dams and Indians could
have dragged canoes around them while moving through
the canal.

Massive influxes of water also would have threatened
"downstream" stretches of the canal with flooding that
could have filled the channel and even topped the embank-
ments. Such flooding would have caused much erosion and
required massive repairs. One way to avoid this would have
been to build lateral canals for carrying away excess
discharge. Thus, we should expect to find lateral canals at
both ends of the Pine Island Canal and we do.
At the ends of the Pine Island Canal, it appears that water
carried by lateral canals was used to help fill artificial
ponds. For example, at Pineland (Figure 7), a lateral canal
appears to have diverged from Impoundment F (at Segment
12, an anomaly) and carried water toward the Adams
Mound (8LL38) and its encircling pond (which has been
filled with earth in the twentieth century). At the western
end of Impoundment G (Segment 13), another lateral canal
appears to have directed water into another now-filled pond
that lay immediately west of the Pineland Burial Mound,
now called the Smith Mound (8LL36) (see Luer 1991:Fig-
ures 3-5).
Thus, the Indians did the reverse of twentieth-century
white settlers at Pineland who ditched and drained the land,
and who filled its low spots with earth. In contrast, the
Indians dug "negative" features, especially canals and
ponds, and filled them with water. Thus, the Indians' effect




on Pineland's originally high water table was to maintain it.
In similar fashion, at the eastern end of the Pine Island
Canal, two or three northward-leading lateral canals seem
to have carried water to an artificial oval pond bordered by
a mound (8LL40) (Figures 9 and 10; also see Luer 1989b).
Today, this pond is nearly filled with sediment and over-
grown with large mangrove trees. However, when it was
new and functional, it could have been fresh or brackish
when filled by water from lateral canals.


Finally, we should stress again that dry periods probably
lowered the water table enough to render the canal inopera-
ble. Droughts were temporary, however, and digging the
channel deeper to reach unusually low water tables appar-
ently was not worth the labor effort. The work needed
would have been very considerable and would have in-
volved deepening and widening the channel. In addition,
once a dry spell was over, a wider and deeper channel
would have been more difficult to maintain given the larger
volume of water it would have held.
Today, the effects of dry and wet periods are dramatic, as


high water

least functional
water level

they probably were in the past. For example, in June 1981,
the water table was 1 m (40 in) below the ground surface
where the Pine Island Canal was cross-sectioned (Figure 4).
This low water table followed an unusual dry period of 12
months or more (a very dry 1980 wet season and an
average 1980-1981 dry season) (MacVicar and Lin
1984:483, Figures 39 and 40). In contrast, 1995 was a wet
year and the authors observed the same area of the canal
with a much higher water table that was 15-20 cm (6-8 in)
below the ground surface in March and at or above the
surface (flooded) in July.
The canal typically would have functioned most of the
year due to rains, but not always in the spring due to
dryness. This would have varied depending on rainfall.
Periods of general inundation punctuated by droughts of
two or more years due to rainfall shortages are believed to
have characterized the nearby Everglades during the last
5000 years (Parker 1974:19-21).
Undoubtedly, the Indians had ways of dealing with wet
and dry periods. For example, in southern Florida in the
1500s, a Spaniard reported that Indians around Lake
Okeechobee altered their subsistence activities in response
to high or low water (True 1944:13). In the case of the



l at e w at e r


balanced seepage Mexinua bd

Figure 8. Schematic cross-section oriented parallel to the Pine Island Canal that shows hypothesized impoundments,
control structures, and water levels. The "least functional water level" occurs when the water level falls below the
bottom of the upper end of an impoundment.

1997 VOL. 50()



Figure 9. Map of the eastern end of the Pine Island Canal. Note lateral canals and pond. Compare
with photograph in Figure 10.
a" C;MMM&'-, '.

East Entrance of Canal

Figure 10. Aerial photograph of the eastern end of the Pine Island Canal (blow-up of a portion of
U.S.D.A. 1953b).




Pine Island Canal, dryness would have been temporary. As
a fallback, natural open-water routes through Pine Island
Sound, Matlacha Pass, and the Caloosahatchee River were
still available, although less convenient.


Before concluding, we should stress that the Pine Island
Canal is in need of preservation. Only two portions remain
intact and both are unprotected. Large stretches of the canal
have been destroyed in the last 10 to 15 years. State, local,
or other entities need to acquire what is left.


The Pine Island Canal was an engineered waterway. It
was not a simple or casually-dug "ditch." Careful planning
went into its placement on the landscape and intensive
effort went into its construction and maintenance.
Our study of the Pine Island Canal shows how the canal
might have functioned physically and suggests some
pragmatic or engineering capabilities of Florida Indians. It
is clear that the builders of the Pine Island Canal were
sensitive to minute changes in local topography. They made
some stretches of the canal as level as possible, even
avoiding slight depressions, and they ran one portion of the
canal diagonally to contours to minimize its slope. They
also were careful about the depth and width of the channel,
the latter having been approximately uniform throughout its
Overall, in order for the canal to function, it appears that
the Indians needed to balance inputs (of ground water and
rainfall) with discharge. We hypothesize that they con-
trolled the water in the canal's channel with a series of
stepped impoundments. As possible ways to protect the
canal from flooding, the Indians built protective embank-
ments along the channel and they constructed lateral canals
to carry away excess water.


I We have given informal names to these terraces, based on local place
names (Figure 5). The origin of such terraces is unclear and debated by
geologists. They may be attributable to higher sea-level stands during the
Pleistocene, or they may be a result of differential drainage combined with
soil formation and erosional processes. Today, large portions of these
terraces have been obliterated by twentieth-century land alterations,
especially the cutting of roads and drainage ditches and the clearing and
leveling of land.
2 If the Pine Island Canal had run in a straight line across the easternmost
portion of Pine Island, it would have been confronted by an uneven
surface and by slopes that were too steep. Descending this land surface
from west to east, such a straight route would have crossed three difficult
areas: 1) a steep area with a slope of .0097 (9.6 to 3.8 ft in elevation over
a distance of 600 ft), 2) another area with an undulating surface and an
overall slope of .0042 (3.8 to 5.7 ft in elevation over a distance of 450 ft),
and 3) another undulating area with an overall slope of .0031 (5.7 to 1 ft
in elevation over a distance of 1500 ft).
3 In February 1997, the authors, accompanied by Bud House and Fred

Tyres of the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society, used a soil auger
to obtain a soil profile from the middle of the canal channel at the location
designated "Profile #1" in Figures 3 and 7. This location is approximately
1 m (3 ft) above mean sea level. In the bottom of the swale marking the
channel, the ground surface is approximately 10 cm below that of the
surrounding land. Measuring from the surface of this low ground, the soil
profile consisted of: dark gray sand (0-32 cm), gray sand (32-40 cm), dark
brown peat (40-53 cm), dark gray sand (53-75 cm), dark gray sand with
black semi-concreted chunks of sand (75-80 cm), brown sand (80-100 cm),
and tan sand (100-125+ cm). In this profile, we suggest that the
lowermost tan sand, and perhaps the overlying brown sand, are soils under
the bottom of the canal. Thus, the bed of the channel might have been 80
or 100 cm below the present-day surface, and 90 to 110 cm (3 to 3.6 ft)
below the surface of the surrounding ground outside the canal embank-
ments. Regarding the peat in the soil profile, we suggest that it formed in
a semi-filled channel that supported weedy or grassy vegetation. On
conducting additional soil augering outside the canal's embankments, we
found no similar buried peat.


We would like to thank Joann Mossa, a geomorphologist at the
University of Florida, Department of Geography, and Daniel Spangler, a
geologist at the University of Florida, Department of Geology, for their
helpful comments. Jerald T. Milanich also provided useful comments. The
Lee County Property Appraiser's Office kindly sent us photogrammetric
maps. Don Muske allowed us to visit a portion of the Pine Island Canal
near his house in 1995 and 1997. On visits to the canal, we were accom-
panied by Wayne "Bud" House and Fred Tyres of the Southwest Florida
Archaeological Society, Rick Moore of the Pine Island Land Trust,
archaeologist Annette Snapp of the Lee County Planning Division,
education specialist Charles Blanchard, anthropologist Robert Edic, and
archaeologist Charles Thomas. Conversations with architect Herschel
Shepard and architecture student John Martin helped us in investigating the

References Cited

Carter, M. R., L. A. Burns, T. R. Cavinder, K. R. Dugger, P. L. Fore,
D. B. Hicks, H. L. Revells, and T. W. Schmidt
1973 Ecosystems Analysis of the Big Cypress Swamp and Estuaries.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency No. DI-SFEP-74-51.
Duever, M. J., J. E Carlson, J. F. Meeder, L. C. Duever, L. H.
Gunderson, L. A. Riopelle, T. R. Alexander, R. F. Myers, and D. P.
1979 Resource Inventory and Analysis of the Big Cypress National
Preserve. Report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior,
National Park Service by Center for Wetlands, University of
Florida, Gainesville and Ecosystem Research Unit, National
Audubon Society, Naples.
Fairbridge, Rhodes W.
1974 The Holocene Sea-Level Record in South Florida. In Environ-
ments of South Florida: Present and Past, edited by Patrick J.
Gleason, pp. 223-232. Memoir 2, Miami Geological Society,
Coral Gables.
Hamrick Aerial Surveys
1981 Photogrammetric maps with 1-foot contour intervals of Township
44 South, Range 22 East, Sections 7, 8, and 9, Lee County,
Florida. Scale 1 inch = 300 feet. Clearwater, Florida.
Luer, George M.
1989a Calusa Canals in Southern Florida: Routes of Tribute and
Exchange. The Florida Anthropologist 42:89-130.
1989b Further Research on the Pine Island Canal (8LL34) and Associat-
ed Sites, LeeCounty, Florida. The FloridaAnthropologist42:241-
1991 Historic Resources at the Pineland Site, Lee County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 44:59-75.


1997 VOL. 50(3)


MacVicar, Thomas K., and Steve S. T. Lin
1984 Historical Rainfall Activity in Central and Southern Florida:
Average, Return Estimates and Selected Extremes. In Environ-
ments of South Florida: Present and Past H, edited by Patrick J.
Gleason, pp. 477-509. Miami Geological Society, Coral Gables.
Marquardt, William H.
1992 Recent Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental Investigations in
Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of
the Calusa, edited by William H. Marquardt, pp. 9-57. University
of Florida, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental
Studies, Gainesville.
Missimer, Thomas M.
1980 Holocene Sea Level Changes in the Gulf of Mexico: An Unre-
solved Controversy. In Holocene Geology and Man in Pinellas
and Hillsborough Counties, Florida, compiled by Sam B.
Upchurch, pp. 19-23. Southeastern Geological Society, Tallahas-
Newsom, Lee A., and Barbara A. Purdy
1996 Florida Canoes: A Maritime Heritage from the Past. The Florida
Anthropologist 43:164-180.
Parker, Garald G.
1974 Hydrology of the Pre-drainage System of the Everglades in
Southern Florida. In Environments of South Florida: Present and
Past, edited by Patrick J. Gleason, pp. 18-27. Memoir 2, Miami
Geological Society, Coral Gables.
Scholl, David W., Frank C. Craighead, Sr., and Minze Stuiver
1969 Florida Submergence Curve Revised: Its Relation to Coastal
Sedimentation Rates. Science 163:562-564.
Scholl, David W., and Minze Stuiver
1967 Recent Submergence of Southern Florida: A Comparison with
Adjacent Coasts and Other Eustatic Data. Bulletin of the Geologi-
cal Society of America 78:437-454.
Stapor, Frank W., Jr., Thomas D. Mathews, and Fonda E. Lindfors-
1987 Episodic Barrier Island Growth in Southwest Florida: A Response
to Fluctuating Holocene Sea Level? In Symposium on South
Florida Geology, edited by Florentin J-M R. Maurrasse, pp. 149-
202. Memoir 3, Miami Geological Society, Coral Gables.
True, David 0. (Editor)
1944 Memoir ofDo. d'Escalante Fontaneda Respecting Florida, written
in Spain, about the year 1575. Translated by Buckingham Smith.
University of Miami and the Historical Association of Southern
Florida, Coral Gables.
United States Department of Agriculture
1953a DCT-4H-40, dated 16 FEB '53. Black and white aerial photo-
graph showing western portion of Pine Island Canal. Print on file,
Map and Imagery Library, University of Florida, Gainesville.
1953b DCT-3H-158, dated 16 FEB '53. Black and white aerial photo-
graph showing eastern portion of Pine Island Canal. Print on file,
Map and Imagery Library, University of Florida, Gainesville.
1984 Soil Survey of Lee County, Florida. University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
United States Department of Commerce
1978 Tide Tables 1979, High and Low Water Predictions. East Coast
of North and South America, Including Greenland. National
Ocean Survey, Rockville, Maryland.
Walker, Karen Jo
1992 The Mystery of the Pineland Canal. Calusa News 6:3.
Wheeler, Ryan J.
1995 The Ortona Canals: Aboriginal Canal Hydraulics and Engineering.
The Florida Anthropologist 48:265-281.
1997 Walker's Canal: An Indian Canal in the Florida Panhandle.
Typescript in possession of the author.



Working on the

* "4).,
'V !~,





Published in the Spring

It and other back issues

of 1983

of The Anthropologist

are available from

Graves Museum of Archaeology

and Natural History

481 South



FL 33004


Phone (954)925-7770 FAX (954)925-7064


:1' --
* C



10 NW 124th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33182

On September 14, 1983, the Archaeological Society of
Southern Florida (ASSF) began excavation at 8DA141 after
being issued a permit by the Metropolitan Dade County
Preservation Board. The site is a black earth midden, 48.5
m x 18 m, that originally was situated on a tree island in
the Everglades. Earlier testing of the site (Coleman 1973)
revealed that it consisted of about 30 cm (12 in) of black
loam over 30-35 cm (12-14 in) of a hard, concreted layer
that contained animal and fish bone and small particles of
charcoal. Underneath the concretion was grayish-white
sand. The test recovered a variety of artifacts including
prehistoric ceramics (Glades Plain, Glades Tooled, Belle
Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Ft.
Drum Incised, Opa Locka Incised, Miami Incised, and
Matecumbe Incised), Olive Jar fragments, glass beads, an
iron fragment, and shell and bone tools (Coleman
1973:Table 1).
At the time of the 1983 excavation, the site had already
been razed for a rock quarry and was planned to become
part of a 15-meter-deep lake. The site had been stripped of
most of its top soil with the exception of a small area
around some of the trees that were left standing. Ficus
aurea, red bay, papaya, and elderberry were all that
remained of the original vegetation. A spoil bank of
midden, containing Glades Period artifacts, measured 61 m
long by 4.6 m in height. The proposed plan of the project
was to penetrate the aggregate concretion. Palmer and
Williams (1977) provide an excellent explanation of the
formation of this type of lens that occurs in the lower levels
of middens that are found on tree island sites and some
upland sites in south Florida (e.g., Coleman 1989; Newman
1986, 1993).

They are compacted very tightly and are extremely difficult to
dig through...[WJater percolating through humus combines
with detrital carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid. This in turn
dissolves calcium carbonate shell in the upper part of the
midden to form a calcium bicarbonate solution. As the solution
percolates downward, it comes in contact with more alkaline
soil and begins to precipitate (pH of 8.2) calcium carbonate,
which forms the cementing matrix... [Palmer and Williams


Rod Miner, Department Supervisor for the Metro-Dade

County Survey Section, and Ted Riggs, Surveyor for
ASSF, established north-south and east-west base lines and
two datum points with elevations which served as bench-
marks. Grid points were laid out at 5 ft (1.5 m) intervals
along both base lines and elevations were established for
each 5 ft (1.5 m) station (Figure 1). Owners of the quarry
were instrumental in assisting us with their heavy equip-
ment under our supervision (Figure 2).
The first goal was to establish the size of the concretion.
A trench measuring 115 ft (35 m) in length by 1.5 ft (.46
m) wide was dug to bed rock along our north-south base
line (Figure 3). Exposed concretion was observed at station
20N/60E and ended at 115N/60E. The trench revealed that,
except for a few areas, the concretion went to bed rock for
most of its length.
Six 5 ft x 5 ft (1.5 m x 1.5 m) excavation units were
established along the east-west base line between 80N/80E
and 80N/105E (Figure 1). Unit 100N/95E was established
to investigate a cache of nine shell celts and one modified
quahog clam shell (Figure 4) that was uncovered when a
road for the quarry was bulldozed across the north end of
the site. Twelve other units were excavated at the site. All
were excavated in 10 cm levels and soil was sifted through
a motorized mechanical screen fitted with 6.4 mm (1/4 in)
mesh hardware cloth and a drop-in 3.2 mm (1/8 in) mesh
screen. All excavated material was washed in clean water
and then sorted.


Tables 1 and 2 list the artifacts recovered during the
excavation. Table 3 provides measurements for the nine
shell celts recovered from the cache in Unit 100N/95E.
We encountered our first feature, a primary flexed burial,
in the trench at station 85N/60E. The burial was embedded
in the concretion 30 cm below the ground surface and 15
cm above bed rock. A shell celt had been placed next to the
skull and another shell celt had been placed against the
bottom of the feet. This individual was oriented on an east-
west axis with the head to the east. The concretion was soft
enough to remove the burial without damage to the bone.
The two shell celts found in association with the burial
were sent to Beta Analytic, Inc. for radiocarbon dating.
The celt that was placed by the skull (Beta 8567) returned
a date of 3190 90 B.P. and the celt that was placed by


VOL. 50 No. 3



90 100 110 120

0 25ft
0 10m
Figure 1. Map of site showing the layout of excavation units and the location of the excavated trench.

Figure 2. Heavy equipment removing overburden from the site. Bill Lyons, Jeanie McGuire, and
Wes Coleman are doing a walkover examination.


1997 VOL. SO3)


Figure 3. Excavated trench looking south. Jeanie McGuire mapping the concretion level.

Table 1. Pottery distribution

by levels, all units combined.

Table 2. Non-ceramic artifacts by level, all units combined.

Ceramic Types

1 2 3 4

5 6 Totals

Artifact Types

1 2 3 4

5 6 Totals

Sand-tempered Plain
Miami Incised
Dade Incised
Glades Tooled
Ft. Drum Incised
Belle Glade Plain
St. Johns Plain
St. Johns Incised
Opa Locka Incised
Key Largo Incised
Surfside Incised
Unclassified Incised
Unclassified Wares
Mica Inclusion Wares


8 15




1127 44 13 21

1 1132

0 1 1206

the feet (Beta 8568) returned a date of 3850 120 B.P.
Some of the units in the northeast part of the site had
extensive damage done to their upper levels by heavy
equipment but they were investigated because human
remains were uncovered above the concretion layer. After
the human remains were removed, it was determined that
they represented secondary burials because of the broken

Strombus Shell Celts
Shell Beads
Shell, Altered
Bone Points
Carved Deer Antler
Sharks' Teeth
Drilled Sharks' Teeth
Lithic Points


3 3 2

1 23
1 13

1 3

43 13 6 3 4 2 71

long bones, the absence of smaller bones, and the concen-
tration of remains that were not disturbed by the heavy
equipment. The results of the analysis of skeletal remains
from above the concretion were the same as those analyzed
at the Cheetum site (Newman 1993:40-41). Fracturing of
the long bones were predetermined within a desired size
range. Some also showed cutting or chop marks at the
breaks. This is a pattern that is commonly found on
secondary burials in the region.
Dental remains were sent to Richard R. Souviron,
D.D.S., Associate Medical Examiner for Dade County,
Florida in August of 1985. His evaluation (Souviron 1985)
indicated that the teeth came from individuals ranging in



(1986:44) suggested that post molds located near
burials at the Cheetum site may have been related
to burial preparation.
A carved shell pendant in the shape of a bird
(Coleman et al. 1983) was encountered at the
beginning of Level 3 in Unit 80N/80E along with
Ft. Drum Incised and Key Largo Incised pottery.
Fort Drum Incised is associated with the late
Glades I Period (A.D. 500-750) while Key Largo
Incised first appeared during the Glades Ha Period
(A.D. 750-900) and continued to be used through
Glades Ilb (A.D. 900-1100) (Milanich 1994:301).
The concretion layer was just beginning to cover
the pendant in this unit.
8 vIn Unit 85N/85E it was discovered that a trench,
7.5 to 10 cm wide and 1.5 m long, had been cut
into the bed rock. The trench ran downslope into
a shallow solution hole in the Miami Oolite. These
solution holes will hold water for some time after
a rain and the trench was apparently cut to carry
rain run-off to the basin. This was one way to
gather water during the dry season in south Flori-


The excavation recovered artifacts that confirmed
the findings of the earlier test excavation which
indicated use of 8DA141 during the entire Glades
Period. In addition, the finding of a primary burial
S-in the concretion layer with associated burial
goods, the dating of this feature to between 3850-
3190 B.P., and the discovery of artifacts below
the concretion indicate early use of the Everglades
tree islands. Apparently during the Late Archaic
Period the placing of grave goods with primary
burials was a common practice (Carr et al. 1984;
Newman 1993:41). This custom does not seem to
have been practiced with secondary burials,
Figure 4. Shell celt cache at 100N/95E. although Carr and Reiger (1980:73) have indicated
Table 3. Shell celt cache dimensional data.

age between 17-25 and 35-45 years of age. Wear on the
teeth was considered excessive, and both periodontal Number Weight ngth Wh
disease and calculus were present in the skeletal population. D m CM
In his report, Souviron also describes the results of his (gin) (cm) (cm)
analysis of teeth from the Cheetum site (8DA1058) which
is located only about 150 m to the west of 8DA141. The 1 240 17 6.25
major distinguishing feature between the two sites was the 2 175 10 6.00
unusually dark, chocolate-brown staining of the enamel on 3 100 12 5.50
the teeth from 8DA141. The staining was determined to 4 100 11 5.50
have occurred after burial. 5 200 12 6.00
Post molds were found in all of the units but two, 6 100 10 5.50
85N/95E and 85N/90E, in the northeast section where the 7 120 12 6.00
burials were found. Due to the. damage in this area, no 8 300 17 6.50
conclusive interpretation could be made about the pattern of 9 50 8 4.00
the post molds; only their existence was noted. Newman


1997 VOL. 50(3)


that shell celt caches, similar to the one found at 8DA141,
may be material expressions of grave offerings. Within an
8 km radius of 8DA141 there are five sites that have shell
celt caches marking cemeteries. The only exception is
8DA93 where two shell celt caches were discovered but no
burials were detected, although Carr and Reiger (1980:73)
feel that additional investigation might locate them.


I would like to thank the many ASSF members who worked on the
project. The following were the backbone of this project: Big Jim Lord,
Jeanie McGuire, Joe Davis, Debra Sandier, John Carruthers, Seth Letkow,
Sue Goldman, Jim McLellan, Judy Trimble, and Bill Lyons. Thanks also
to Bob Carr and especially Deborah Brownfield Carr for identifying the
plants on the site; Dr. Joe Davis, Sr. for his insight and Dr. Joe Feist for
the push to get this report done; my son, Wes Coleman, Jr., for the word
processor; and above all to my wife, Diana, for putting up with all the
mess of books and notes this report produced.

References Cited

Carr, Robert S., M. Yasar Iscan, and Richard A. Johnson
1984 A Late Archaic Cemetery in South Florida. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 37:172-188.
Carr, Robert S., and John Reiger
1980 Strombus Celt Caches in Southeast Florida. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 33:66-74.
Coleman, Wesley F.
1973 Site 8DA141, Dade County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
1983 A Carved Shell Pendant from Dade County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 36:140-141.
1989 Salvage Excavation at the Trail Ridge Site, Dade County. The
Florida Anthropologist 42:257-262.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville.
Newman, Christine
1986 A Preliminary Report of Archaeological Investigations Conducted
at the Cheetum Site, Dade County, Florida. Report prepared for
Marks Brothers, Inc. by The Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy, Miami.
1993 The Cheetum Site: An Archaic Burial Site in Dade County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 46:37-42.
Palmer, Jay, and J. Raymond Williams
1977 The Formation of Geothite and Calcareous Lenses in Shell
Middens in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 30:24-27.
Souviron, Richard R.
1985 Dental Remains 8DA141. Report submitted to the Archaeological
Society of Southern Florida by the Medical Examiners Office,
Dade County, Florida.





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Years 0

1947 199

HOLOPAW depicts a middle Archaic campsite in north
Florida. Hunters are returning from g cessful bear hunt; a
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of a giant alligator;, 1danan converses with traders from a
distant place. e4I foreground, a flintknapper works on
finishing his finely made projectile point.
THE HUNTERS illustrates a Paleoindian hunting party in
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THE KILL depicts two Archaic period hunters preparing to
spear a large alligator in the depths of a southern cypress

CLOSING IN depicts a group of Paleoindian hunters closing
in on a mastodon and her calf.

CALUSA depicts the large village site at Pineland, Florida ca.
A.D. 900-1100. Featured on the cover of Florida's First

TATAMAHO depicts an Indian gigging a garfish while his son
playfully loads the catch in a basket. Nearby, a panther waits
for a free meal and a raccoon eagerly awaits leftovers.

THE RETURN depicts two tattooed Indians returning from a
day of fishing. Their canoe is loaded with fish and shellfish.
In the distance, smoke rises from a campsite hidden amidst
the mangroves and shaded by cedar trees.

BOSKITA depicts the Green Corn Ceremony, one of the most
important rituals of many southeastern Indian cultures.

SOLITUDE is based on td p* s of early European
explorers and depi tity hunter returning to his canoe
loaded with fia[u I


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The Kill



1250 9th Avenue North, Naples, Florida 34102
E-mail: arlee@naples.net

Between Frank Hamilton Cushing's 1896 report to the
American Philosophical Society on the Hearst-Pepper
expedition to Key Marco and the publication of The
Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida by Marion Spjut
Gilliland in 1975, the only supplemental information on this
important site was an 18-page report in the March, 1965
issue of The Florida Anthropologist written by two avoca-
tional archaeologists, John C. and Linda M. Van Beck. In
keeping with the reminiscent tone of the Florida Anthropo-
logical Society's semi-centennial year, its authors, now
living in retirement in Tallahassee, have been willing to
share, via letters to the author, their memories of digging
a mound of whose exact relationship to Cushing's marshy
site they were not quite sure at the time.

A Mound is Found; Excavation Starts

While on a visit to his father's home in Naples during the
Christmas holiday season of 1961, newlyweds John C. and
Linda M. Van Beck, both keen on archaeology though
educated in other fields, drove to Marco Island. The island
was known to them for the Cushing finds and the shell
mound at Goodland. At Key Marco they stopped at the post
office to learn where they could make some investigations.

The postmistress informed me that all the Indian mounds and
excavations were at the south end of the island. We knew
about Goggin's work at Goodland Point [Goggin 1949], so I
decided that was the place to start.

As I walked to the car, I stared at this huge hill 50 feet in
front of me and to the left of the car. All the rqst of the terrain
in the area was like a table top. I called it to Linda's attention
and she promptly decided we should check it out. We did.
WOW! In looking over the slope and lay of the mound, we
decided that the mound originally must have extended across
the road and gone to the water's edge on the east...We tried to
place the mound in relationship to the Cushing site, and
decided that the Court of the Pile Dwellers had to be to the
west as described in our article [see Figure 1]. We figured we
couldn't be too close to it because Cushing had made no
mention of the mound in his writings [Cushing 1896] and just
about every archaeologist from his time forward had made the

pilgrimage to Marco, and the mound was never mentioned by
any of them! Sonny [Wilburn A.] Cockrell was the first to state
we had not properly placed our site in relation to the Court
[Cockrell 1970], and Dolph [Randolph J.] Widmer soon said
'amen' to his conclusion [Widmer 1988].'

Cushing's report was not available to the Van Becks
locally, but during an earlier trip to New York Linda -
though mainly interested in studying Clarence B. Moore's
materials had used some of her limited time to make
notes and reproduce by hand Cushing's site map from a
copy at the Museum of the American Indian.

We could not relate the Cushing map to any of the maps of
Marco we could find. Modern technology and cleared terrain
do make a difference in recognizing what you are seeing.

So began several years of intermittent work on one of the
eminences that made up the huge Key Marco mound
complex overlooking the Cushing excavation site. John had
studied with Charles Fairbanks at Florida State University,
and both learned from Fred Sleight, an archaeologist and
then curator of the Central Florida Museum in Orlando.
They had helped bring up a sunken canoe from Lake
Tohopekaliga in Osceola County and had worked with
Ripley P. Bullen excavating the Dixie Lime 1 and 2 sites
west of Ocala.
The automobile trip to the island from Naples took an
hour via a bridge that has since been replaced. Although
they could have accessed the site by boat, they gave up the
idea after, on one attempt, being stranded in a mangrove
swamp fighting off clouds of mosquitoes.

They were so thick we could not leave the edge of the water.
The mangroves wouldn't allow us to sit down, so we huddled
on the edge of the water with our jackets over our
heads...Those four hours were an eternity.

We excavated pretty much according to the book, except that
we used a finer mesh screen (1/2 inch [instead of 3/4 inch]
where 1/4 inch is now standard) than had been used before in
the Glades area, and we kept every bit of faunal remains...We
dug on most holidays and vacations from 1961 into 1963. At
times the mosquitoes were deadly fierce, and we dam near had



VOL. 50 NO. 3


Figure 1. Cushing's 1896 map of Key Marco showing
the location of the Van Becks' excavation in relation to
the "Court of the Pile Dwellers."

heat stroke. Fortunately, the mound was fairly well shaded by
large trees, which made things a lot better than they could
have been. As the main pit got deeper, we had to use a ladder
to climb in and out, dragging a bucket. We took turns, one
dug and the other sifted. The walls of the pit were almost
nothing but shell, bone, ceramics, and ash, and ash, and more
ash [Figure 2]. There was amazingly little sand. When we
sieved we had to stand upwind or choke to death. In the pit, if
the wind blew at all, the ash swirled around like smoke in a
chimney and just about did you in.

The north end of the island was very sparsely populated, and
it was rare that we would see anyone. The site was heavily
wooded so no one could see us while we were working.
Vandalism was certainly never a problem.

An aerial photograph included in their 1965 report, and
which later figured largely in locating a vacant lot on which
salvage excavation was done in 1995 (Quesnell 1996), was
obtained by pure accident.

My dad picked up that photo after we had started digging at
the site. He thought we would want it and we certainly did. I
have no idea who took the photo or why.

The Area is Developed; It's Time for Writing

The couple's excavation ended in late 1963. On learning
of impending development, John Van Beck had written the
developers, the Mackle Brothers, advising them of the
location of the site they had worked and

asking if the development was to be in its vicinity. They
assured us that it was not and gave us permission to continue
our excavations...Next holiday we drove to Marco and saw a
sight that would sicken anyone. The mound had been bulldozed
flat, and canals cut into the site from the west. Tens of
thousands of square feet of ground were covered with crushed
ceramics...batter boards were up; further excavation was
precluded by construction activity, so it was time to write.

We contacted Elizabeth Wing at UF [University of Florida]
who was one of the few zooarchaeologists in the country. She
was most supportive and did an excellent job of analyzing the
faunal remains.

Her 10-page analysis of their material was published in the
same issue of The Florida Anthropologist that included the
Van Becks' report (Wing 1965).

One of the main problems in writing was in shell identifica-
tion. There had recently been significant changes in shell
nomenclature. We never would have made it without Dr.
Towner B. Root's help...We were living in Winter Park at the
time we were excavating, so we had ready access to the Beale
Shell Museum on the Rollins [College] campus. Before
excavating Pit B, Linda met with John Goggin at the Universi-
ty of Florida to discuss the site and ceramic dating. At the time
we were analyzing pottery, I was taking an excellent ceramics
class which gave me a lot of insight into ceramic construction
and glazing techniques. This enabled me to determine the
unique method used in constructing Goodland and particularly
Goodland Red ceramics. Goggin, from his work at Goodland
Point [Goggin 1949], never found specimens as well preserved
as we did...there were trays of pottery everywhere, mostly on
the floor, but on the grand piano...on top of the refrigerator,
etc.; it took the better part of a year to put the article togeth-

One partial vessel, turned over to a potter for reproduction,
was lost on his death.

Thirty-Two Years Later

Looking back 32 years to a dig they had valued not for its
association with the Cushing finds but because it was a
major, pristine, Glades shell mound, the Van Becks take
satisfaction in having been at the forefront of the technolo-
gy of the time and having made contributions to it.

We considered the greatest value to be that for the first time
(within our knowledge) a Glades site had an almost complete
top-to-bottom stratigraphy and ceramic sequence. We studied
The Florida Anthropologist most closely and read every back
issue we could get our hands on. It appeared that to the time

1997 VOL. 50(3)



of our Marco adventure, all sites excavated and reported upon
were built outward in quasi-concentric rings, making dating
and ceramic sequence a matter of conjecture. The excitement
of finding a stratigraphic site to confirm the findings of
Goggin, Sears, etc., was really hot stuff to us.

Referring to later criticism of explorations relying on test
pits of restricted size, Linda adds: "...we were the first real
'telephone booth' in Glades work and are darned proud of
They also take pride in their recovery of faunal remains,
not a standard procedure at the time, and relish apprecia-
tions such as that of author Lewis H. Larson (1980:104):
"Of all the sites, the Marco Midden...produced the most
species and the greatest number in each species...."
"Goodness only knows what possessed us to collect the
jillions of bits of bone..." wrote John in one letter, "my
wife's attention to detail? My analytical chemistry and math
A third source of great satisfaction to them is the contri-
bution they made to knowledge of the Glades ceramic
manufacturing technology, referred to earlier. "Goggin was
a bit surprised by our physical finding...."
Following publication of the 1965 article, the couple
pursued non-archaeological careers, with the exception of
occasional visits to recorded sites, including some in
Central America and Europe, but the archaeological
connection was not completely broken. Their Key Marco
material, along with materials from other sites in the
Naples area, Tick Island, and Barbados, and related memo-
rabilia, was donated to the Florida Museum of Natural
History in 1991, and their daughter Sara has a Master's
degree from the University of Florida in archaeology. She
wrote her thesis on excavations done with Prudence Rice in
Peru, and is now employed as an archaeologist with the
National Park Service.


' All direct quotes are from a series of letters from John and Linda Van
Beck to the author written between 1995 and the spring of 1997.

References Cited

Cockrell, William A.
1970 Glades I and Pre-Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns on
Marco Island (Collier County, Florida). M. A. thesis, Department
of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast
of Florida. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida. The Florida An-
thropologist 2:65-91.
Larson, Lewis H., Jr.
1980 Aboriginal Subsistence Technology on the Southeastern Coastal
Plain during the Late Prehistoric Period. University Presses of
Florida, Gainesville.

Figure 2. Linda Van Beck at the bottom of Test Pit B.
The short, straight, nearly horizontal white line at the
bottom of the photo is the top of a 1.5 m stepladder.
The bamboo rod is calibrated in six-inch (15.24 cm)
sections. The excavation revealed numerous superim-
posed hearths. The light-colored material contained only
a small percentage of sand; it was mostly ash, clouds of
which made digging difficult.

Quesnell, Quentin
1996 Relocating Cushing's Key Marco. The Florida Anthropologist
Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck
1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 18:1-20.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the
Southwest Coast of Florida. University of Alabama Press, Tusca-
Wing, E. S.
1965 Animal Bones Associated with Two Indian Sites on Marco Island,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 18:21-28.

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A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

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This Bird-man
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main illustration
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poster depicting
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Available for a
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Join the F

Florida Indian (
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
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and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a
$6.50 donation
to FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon
and purple on a
heavy paper.

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
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lorida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

YES! I want to join FAS!
Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
Other rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
patron $100, and life $500.
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EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is the text of President Loren
Society's annual meeting in Miami, May 10, 1997.

The very first thing I would like to do is compliment and
thank the Archaeological Society of Southern Florida for
doing such a fine job...including the 50th anniversary
committee ; Barbara Tansey, Beth Reed, Jim Lord, Anna
Flores, and Bob Carr. And, let's give ourselves a round of
applause in celebration of our 50th anniversary.
I would also like to thank all members for their continued
support during this past year and for my re-election for the
next year. Its been a privilege and an honor serving you.
And here we are 50 years later. In many ways we have
returned to our "roots"...continuing our mission as stew-
ards of the past through a cooperative spirit between
avocational and professional archaeologists. FAS had it's
beginning in August 1947 at a conference held in Daytona
Beach, Florida...and quoting FAS's first president, John
Griffin: "the purpose of which was to exchange information
and work out a general framework for archaeology in the
state." Participants in that conference included John M.
Goggin, Yale University; Charles M. Brookfield, National
Audubon Society; Albert C. Manucy, National Park
Service; John W. Griffin, Florida Park Service; Hale G.
Smith, Florida Park Service; Wesley Hurt, Alabama
Museum of Natural History; Charles H. Fairbanks, Nation-
al Park Service; Antonio J. Waring Jr., from Savannah,
Georgia; Gordon R. Willey, Bureau of American Ethnolo-
gy, Smithsonian Institution; Mark F. Boyd, Florida Histori-
cal Society; Winston W. Erhmann, University of Florida
and 1947 conference chairperson; and Lewis G. Scoggin,
Florida Park Service.
The first Florida Anthropologist was published in May
1948 and again quoting John Griffin, it was "the most
important vehicle for the advance and continuity of the
Florida Anthropological Society." Fifty years later the
journal continues with that same spirit and quality. In the
not too distant future, a comprehensive index will be
completed and available to members.
Additional vehicles have been developed or are being
developed; most notably, Florida Archaeology Month, now
entering its fifth successful year, and the FAS video on

Blakeley's banquet address at the Florida Anthropological

"Florida's Lost Cultures," soon to be completed by the end
of this year.
I'd like to say, which I didn't previously mention, that I
am very, very passionate about Florida archaeology and
FAS, particularly its contribution to science, public archae-
ology, and preservation. I am very humbled to be your
50th anniversary president, especially after reviewing the
roster of presidents in the last FA journal.
I would like to mention that something historically
significant happened on April 10th, 1997. I signed, along
with Steve Martin, Cultural Resource Manager for the
Florida State Parks, a contract, a partnership agreement
between FAS and the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Florida Park Service, which will provide the
FAS chapters an opportunity to monitor all archaeologically
sensitive areas within the Florida park system. Of course
this will ultimately provide for environmental protection as
well. All monitoring will first be approved by Florida's
Division of Historical Resources and also by the Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection. I would like to note that
this partnership is the result of a team process that extends
to past president Betty Riggan's administration, beginning
with the long range planning committee; through past
president Jacqueline Piper's administration spearheading the
effort; and completion of the partnership contract during
this past year's administration. The agreement includes
monitoring Florida's 153 state parks.
The partnership agreement contract was formulated by
Steve Martin with input from the Society, the Division of
Historical Resources, and of course, the Department of
Environmental Protection. FAS owes much thanks to Steve
:Martin; his efforts to satisfy the legal requirements mandat-
ed by DEP and DHR were met accordingly. [The text of
this agreement is printed on the following pages.]
Again, thank you, and I will work just as hard during this
next year as I did the last. May FAS's centennial anniver-
sary remember this event.


SDepartment of

..A Environmental Protection

Lawton Chiles Virginia B. Wetherell
Governor Secretary

April 14, 1997

Dear Board Members and Chapters, Florida Anthropological Society:

The Division of Recreation and Parks and Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. are pleased to
transmit the enclosed, signed Agreement between our organizations. The Agreement
encourages participation by FAS members and chapters during monitoring projects for
archaeological resources in state parks.

We very much appreciate your review and support for the draft agreement last month. During
the FAS Annual Meeting, May 8-11, 1997, we will discuss procedures for compiling names of
prospective volunteers and making them available to area state parks. We will also consider
preferred options for the annual archaeological training to be provided by the Divisions of
Historical Resources and Recreation and Parks.

Creation of this Agreement is exciting both for the Division of Recreation and Parks and the
Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., whose roots extend back some 50 years when the Society
was being formed with the help of archaeologists who were employed by Florida State Parks.
We believe this Agreement will help our organizations achieve common objectives to protect,
preserve, interpret, and learn about archaeological sites in Florida.


Loren R. Blakeley, President Steven W. Martin, Cultural Resources Manager
Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. Bureau of Natural and Cultural Resources
Division of Recreation and Parks

cc/enc: Fran P. Mainella, Director, Division of Recreation and Parks
George W. Percy, Director, Division of Historical Resources, Department of State
Jacquelyn G. Piper, Past President, Florida Anthropological Society
Dot Moore, Secretary, Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.
Mike Bullock, Assistant Director, Division of Recreation and Parks
Dana C. Bryan, Chief, Bureau of Natural and Cultural Resources
Jim Miller, Chief, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division of Historical Resources
Chiefs, Bureau of Parks Districts 1-5


This Memorandum of Agreement made the La.day of /d ., 199.7 between the Florida
Anthropological Society, Inc., a Florida not-for-profit Corporation (hereinafter referred to as "FAS"), and the
State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection (hereinafter referred to as DEP), sets forth
procedures for volunteer services to Florida State Parks as described herein.

WHEREAS, FAS and DEP are committed to furthering the preservation and interpretation of
anthropological and archaeological resources of Florida;

WHEREAS, FAS is an organization, whose membership is unrestricted for any persons having
an interest in anthropology or archaeology, that ascribes to a code of ethics and standards of quality to
govern anthropological work;

WHEREAS, FAS strives to disseminate information on anthropology and archaeology through
publication of newsletters and a scientific joumal, The Florida Anthropologist, and by sponsoring "Florida
Archaeology Month" with other co-sponsors, including DEP;

WHEREAS, DEP, Division of Recreation and Parks (hereinafter referred to as "DIVISION'), has a
program and procedures for encouraging volunteer participation in activities in state parks and the FAS
has organizational objectives to promote general public and government agency preservation of
archaeological and historic sites within Florida;

WHEREAS, the DIVISION, in conjunction with the Division of Historical Resources (DHR), has
developed procedures and an educational program for DIVISION staff to monitor for archaeological
resources when unavoidable ground-disturbing activities in state parks are required;

WHEREAS, the process for monitoring of archaeological resources, as required by DHR, may
benefit from the use of volunteers under certain conditions to detect for the presence of archaeological
resources; and,

WHEREAS, FAS has a network of chapters and statewide membership that are interested in
participating in archaeological work;

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual benefits to be received through this
memorandum of agreement, the parties agree as follows:

1. DIVISION park managers or their designee may contact interested volunteers within the FAS for
impending archaeological monitoring projects that will need volunteer assistance. DIVISION staff shall
have obtained official comment as required by paragraph 267.061(2)(a), Florida Statutes, if necessary,
from DHR prior to scheduling archaeological monitoring activities;

2. FAS will provide to Steve Martin, DIVISION cultural resources manager, in July of each year the
names of FAS statewide members and officers and FAS chapter members who are interested in being
considered as volunteers when parks need assistance during archaeological monitoring activities. In
order to qualify as a volunteer under this program, a person must be a current FAS or FAS chapter
member. The cultural resource manager's telephone number is (904)921-8485 and the address is:
Bureau of Natural and Cultural Resources, Mail Station 599, 3900 Commonwealth Boulevard,
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000. The cultural resources manager will send the list of potential
volunteers to appropriate Florida State Parks;

Page 1 of 2

3. The DIVISION and FAS will encourage volunteer monitors to improve their monitoring skills by
participating in annual training opportunities provided by DHR and DIVISION. Completion of training is not
a requirement for FAS members to volunteer,

4. FAS archaeological monitoring volunteers working under this agreement must complete the
"Volunteer Application" form and the "Individual Volunteer Agreement" form before commencing volunteer
services. Copies of the forms are provided in Exhibit A, attached hereto and incorporated by reference

5. FAS archaeological monitor volunteers working under this agreement must provide to the
appropriate park staff, at the end of each day of volunteer service, the date and number of hours of
volunteer service performed on the "Volunteer Time Record" form attached herewith in Exhibit A;

6. Selection and supervision of volunteers is at the sole discretion of the DIVISION and nothing in
this agreement assigns any right or responsibility to FAS, its chapters, or members except as specified in
this agreement, and/or in the "Individual Volunteer Agreement";

7. The DIVISION shall send a copy of its monitoring report and correspondence required by DHR to
the participating FAS chapters) to document project activities participated in by FAS members. FAS
chapters must send copies of project summary reports, quarterly, to the FAS Secretary;

8. Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent the DIVISION from entering into volunteer agreements to
perform the same or similar work with any person who is not a member of FAS;

9. Volunteer archaeological monitoring activities by volunteers must be supervised at all times by a
FPS certified monitor or professional archaeologist designated by the DIVISION. Volunteers shall follow
the Guidelines for Volunteer Archaeological Monitors and sign the form attached hereto as Exhibit B, prior
to volunteering as a monitor in a state park;

10. FAS archaeological monitor volunteers shall be covered by state liability protection for their
volunteer service as provided for in paragraph 110.504(4), Florida Statutes, a copy of which is included
herewith in Exhibit C. This protection does not include negligent, willful, or malicious acts by the volunteer;

11. FAS archaeological monitor volunteers shall be covered by workers' compensation in accordance
with paragraph 110.504(5), Florida Statutes, a copy of which is included herewith in Exhibit C;

12. This memorandum of agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws
of the State of Florida; and,

13. This memorandum of agreement shall be reviewed by both parties in two (2) years and may only
be amended by a written document duly executed by both parties. This memorandum of agreement may
be canceled at any time by either party upon notification to the other party of the desire to ca cel the

By: By: / f
Loren Blakeley, President ran P. Mainella, Director
Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. Division of Recreation and Parks

Page 2 of 2


EDITOR'S NOTE: The following article by John Griffin on the history of The Florida Anthropological Society is reprinted
from The Florida Anthropologist Vol. 36, Nos. 3-4.

When, in August of 1947, a number of us launched the
Florida Anthropological Society under an initial organizing
committee, the establishment of a journal was foremost in
our minds. It was, however, not until the spring of 1948
before the first issue of The Florida Anthropologist was
mailed to the approximately 70 members of the nascent
The formation of a state society to serve professional and
non-professional alike seemed a logical, and even neces-
sary, step to many of us who were working on the archae-
ology of Florida in that period immediately following the
second World War. A number of out-of-state archaeologists
and institutions had been hard at work on research which,
when published between the years 1946 and 1951, would
bring our knowledge of Florida archaeology into a new era.
By correspondence and meetings, this knowledge was being
shared among the professionals including, among others,
Gordon Willey, Irving Rouse, John Goggin, and James B.
Griffin. Hale Smith and I had begun work for the Florida
State Park Service in the summer of 1946, becoming the
first archaeologists employed by the state. There were
numbers of interested and informed academicians and
laymen within the state who were eager to participate.
There had to be a formalized avenue of communication
between all of these parties.
In August of 1947, a three-day conference was held in
Daytona Beach where Smith and I were engaged in summer
field work (Figure 1). The purpose of the Daytona Confer-
ence was to exchange information and work out a general
framework for the archaeology of the state. It was a
rewarding conference, but the specifics of it relate more
closely to the history of Florida archaeology than to the
history of the Florida Anthropological Society. However,
on the day following the conference, August 14, 1947,
some of the participants, being together in one place, can
be said to have established the Society, or at least set it in
motion. Before the end of the month the first newsletter
had been issued and distributed.
That newsletter contained a statement that is worth

The Florida Anthropological Society is organized to serve both
non-professionals and professionals interested in one or more
fields of Florida anthropology.

The primary interest of the Society is in the Florida Indian,
past and present, but the scope of the Society is as broad as

the field of anthropology 'the science of man.' An interest
in any field qualifies one for membership.

At another point in that first newsletter, it was noted that
the Society encouraged the establishment of local chapters.
Chapters, so important in the current organization, were
slow to materialize, but they were authorized from the very
The initial Organization Committee was as follows:
Chairman: W.W. Ehrmann, University of Florida; Secre-
tary-Treasurer: Hale G. Smith, Florida Park Service;
Editor: John W. Griffin, Florida Park Service; Committee
Members: John M.Goggin, Miami, O.F. Quackenbush,
University of Florida, and Frederick W. Sleight, Rollins
The initial newsletter had tentatively projected that the
first annual meeting would be held in April of 1948, but it
did not materialize until February 12, 1949. In the mean-
time, there were several changes and additions to the
organizing committee. Hale Smith vacated his position as
Secretary-Treasurer to return to college to work on his
doctorate. His successor, Bevode C. McCall, did the same
thing, and was replaced by Dr. Donald E. Worcester of the
Department of History, University of Florida. Both Smith
and McCall became members of an expanded committee,
to which were added Dr. Raymond F. Bellamy of Florida
State University; Robert F. Greenlee, an anthropologist
teaching in Daytona Beach; and Dr. Albert C. Holt, pastor
of the First Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville. The compo-
sition of the committee became five anthropologists, four
sociologists, one historian, and one minister.
This group managed the affairs of the Society during its
first 18 months. During that time three newsletters ap-
peared, members were mailed reprints of John Goggin's "A
Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and Periods
in Florida," and both double numbers of volume one of The
Florida Anthropologist were published.
The 80 pages of the first volume of The Florida Anthro-
pologist contained eight articles, five book reviews, and
several brief communications. The table of contents reveals
a deliberate attempt on the part of the Editor to encompass
the broad scope of subject matter envisaged in the purposes
of the Society. Archaeology, ethnohistory, and physical
anthropology are represented in the articles, while the book
reviews encompass archaeology, ethnology, history, and
general cultural theory. The emerging field of historical
archaeology was represented by the first paper in the

__ ___


volume, and authors included both professionals and non-
I must admit that achieving this degree of balance took
some doing. Particular authors had to be solicited, my
former professor of physical anthropology for one. Some
articles had to be extensively rewritten by the Editor in
cooperation with the authors, and the field of anthropologi-
cal linguistics was not represented. I must also admit that
I left no stock of manuscripts for my successor as editor.
Lack of a backlog is still an editorial complaint.
The choice of a symbol (the term "logo" was not then in
common use) fell to the Editor. I had in 1946 published an
article on certain Florida artifacts which I believed were
related to the widespread Southern or "Buzzard" Cult, and
subsequently one of these, in silver, had appeared in the
Goodnow Mound in Highlands County, excavated by Hale
Smith and me. This artifact type impressed me as eminently
suitable for the new society and journal. It represented to
me a strictly Florida type related to a broad southeastern
pattern, executed in metallic form which symbolized the
contact of prehistoric and historic cultures. The easiest
representation to copy was the gold ornament found near
Ft. Bassinger on the Kissimmee River and published by
A.E. Douglass in 1890. This, then, became our logo. It
remains as such, even though it may be interpreted some-
what differently today.
When the first annual meeting of the Society was held on
the campus of the University of Florida on February 12,
1949, we could boast of 104 members and a deficit of
$2.23, which had been covered by borrowing from the
$50.00 special publication fund. Only eleven members
attended that first meeting. They were A.T. Anderson,
Adelaide K. Bullen, Ripley P. Bullen, Winston W. Ehr-
mann, John W. Griffin, John M. Goggin, Albert C. Holt,
Bevode C. McCall, Lois Watkins, Kenneth F. Wilson, and

Figure 1. Participants
in the Daytona Confer-
ence, August, 1947.
From left to right: John
Goggin, Charles Brook- \
field, Albert Manucy,
John Griffin, Hale ,
Smith, Wesley Hurt,
Charles Fairbanks,
Antonio Waring, and
Gordon Willey.

Donald E. Worcester.
The constitution of the Society was adopted and the
assembled group proceeded to the election of its first slate
of officers. It should be remarked that there were nine
offices to fill and eleven members in attendance! But since
three slots were filled by members not in attendance, the
group elected only slightly more than half its own number.
The first governing panel was as follows: President: John
W. Griffin, Florida Park Service; First Vice-President:
Winston W. Ehrmann, University of Florida; Second Vice-
President: Lucius S. Ruder, Clearwater; Secretary: Ade-
laide K. Bullen, Gainesville; Treasurer: Lois Watkins,
Gainesville; Editor: John M. Goggin, University of Flori-
da; Executive Committeemen: Frederick W. Sleight, Mt.
Dora, Albert C. Holt, Jacksonville, and Madaline W.
Nichols, Tallahassee.
Four future presidents and two future editors were in that
group. One of them, Dr. Holt, became in 1951 the first
non-professional to hold the presidency, but over the
history of the organization that office has been split nearly
fifty-fifty between non-professionals and professionals, in
keeping with the original concept of the composition of the
The Florida Anthropologist has continued to be, to my
mind, the most important vehicle for the advance and
continuity of the Florida Anthropological Society. About
115 issues, more or less, have followed the thin offering of
Volume 1. Eleven editors have labored with- scores of
authors to give us this vital source which now contains over
500 articles on more than 5000 pages. What would Florida
Anthropology be without it?

St. Augustine, Florida


1997 VOL. SW)


EDITOR'S NOTE: The following has been excerpted from an article by Louis Tesar which appeared as a prelude to the
journal's index originally published in The Florida Anthropologist Vol. 37, No. 3.

The Florida Anthropological Society has continuously
used a metal ceremonial tablet design for its logo. The
original design appears to have been taken from the obverse
of the "Douglas Tablet" (MT #1 in Allerton et al. 1984).
A photograph of this tablet, which was found in July 1878
in the Kissimmee River near Fort Bassinger, Brevard
County, Florida,' was featured on the cover of The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol 37, No. 1, which analyzed all of the
known ceremonial tablets found in Florida.
The logo has been modified eight times since its introduc-
tion on the cover of the first issue of The Florida Anthro-
pologist in May of 1948. This original logo (Figure la),
which appeared on the center front cover, was used by
John W. Griffin (1948) and John M. Goggin (1949-1951).
The original logo was reduced in size (Figure lb) and
continued on the center front cover during the editorships
of Robert Anderson (1952-mid-1954) and Adelaide K.
Bullen (mid-1954-1956). Mrs. Bullen was also the first
editor to illustrate the front cover with more than the logo.
She added skeletons to the cover of the FA 7(3) issue which
was devoted to physical anthropology [see Tesar 1984:Fig-
ure 2]. In 1957, when Charles H. Fairbanks first became
Editor, the logo, which continued as a center front cover
illustration, was returned to its original size and reillus-
trated to correct the original errors (Figure lc).
The logo was again changed in 1960 when Mrs. William
Massey became Editor. She introduced a new, much
enlarged, cross-hatched version, which was centered on the
journal's spine (Figure ld). It resembles our present [1984]
logo (see discussion below) which is an unpublished and
unsigned sketch in the National Archives. Charles H.
Fairbanks continued using this logo and format during his
second term as Editor (1961-1966).
In 1967, when David S. Phelps became Editor, he
changed the publication size from its original 15 x 23 mm
(6 x 9 in) format to its present 23 x 28 mm (9 x 11 in)
format. He also prepared a new logo illustration (Figure
le), which is a smaller, more stylized version of that
introduced by Mrs. Massey. This logo occurs in the upper
left on the front page of the Phelps issues (1967-1969).
Coming full circle, the original 1948 logo with bolder
lines (Figure If) was reintroduced as a center front cover
illustration by Ripley P. Bullen (1970-1976) and continued
by Jerald T. Milanich (1977-1979). However, since Robert
S. Carr became Editor in 1980, the front cover has been

devoted to photographs and illustrations which represent the
theme or main article or topic in each issue. Bob used a
redrawn, reduced logo similar to the original (Figure Ig)
which he placed in the upper right comer of the title page.
Beginning with my editorship in 1984, I have continued the
illustrated covers, but have once again changed the logo
illustration (Figure lh). The current is the original sketch
taken from the unpublished plate (National Anthropological
Archives, Smithsonian Institution Photo Number FLA-35)
and reproduced with permission. George Luer (1984:1) has
suggested that the sketch was prepared around 85 years ago
at the Bureau of (American) Ethnology, possible by Wells
M. Sawyer or De Lacy Gills. The artist apparently com-
bined the distinctive features of two tablets, MT #1 and MT
#4 (Tesar 1984:Figures li-j) in order to create the cross-
hatched sketch.2

Louis D. TESAR
Tallahassee, Florida

EDITOR'S NOTE: The cross-hatched logo described by Tesar
continued to be used on the title page throughout his and
Brent Weisman's tenures as journal editor (1983-1992 and
1992-1995). Beginning in 1996 with FA 49(1), yet another
change was made. The logo on the title page was redrawn
by Scott Mitchell using the original Society logo (i.e., the
"Douglas Tablet," MT #1; see Figure li). In addition, four
different depictions of the ceremonial tablet now grace the
journal's covers, one for each quarterly issue (MT #1 for
March, MT #40 for June, WT #1 for September, and MT
#29 for December). Artists Elizabeth Neily Trappman,
Jeanie Fitzpatrick, Dean Quigley, and Scott Mitchell
illustrated the covers. Finally, a special, 50th anniversary
logo was designed and illustrated by George Luer and
Michael McGinnis. This logo, which pictures the "Douglas
Tablet," is being used on the title page throughout the 1997
anniversary year.


'According to Allerton et al. (1984:28) the "Douglas Tablet" is associated
with the Daughtry site (8HG3) in Highlands County near Fort Bassinger.
It is made of gold alloy and was found originally by John Mizzell Pearce
in 1878. It was later sold to A. E. Douglass. It was Douglass's illustration
of the obverse side of this tablet that was used for the original FAS logo.



Figure 1. Florida Anthropological Society logos: a) 1948-1951; b) 1952-1956; c) 1957-1959; d) 1960-1966; e) 1967-1969;
f) 1970-1979; g) 1980-1983; h) 1984-1995; i) 1996-present.


1997 VOL. 50(3)


2 According to Luer (1984:1) either Sawyer or Gills would have had
access to depictions of MT #1 and MT #4 since the first was published by
Douglas in 1890 and the second was acquired by Frank Hamilton Cushing
in the late 1890s for display in the Philadelphia Museum.

References Cited

Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.

Luer, George M.
1984 Untitled. The Florida Anthropologist 37:1.
Tesar, Louis D.
1984 Our Past, Our Present: An Overview and Index of Publications
of the Florida Anthropological Society. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 37:120-151.


Soon after the initial organizing meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society (FAS) in August 1947, the first
FAS Newsletter appeared. It stated: "The Society encourag-
es the establishment of local chapters." This goal was
formalized by Article 11 of the FAS Constitution, which
was adopted at the Society's 1st annual meeting on Febru-
ary 12, 1949. Although the first FAS chapter, organized in
Gainesville in 1948, lasted only a year, others soon fol-
lowed. Over the years, the number of FAS chapters and
their role within the Society have grown. Today, the
chapters are vital to the continued growth of FAS, and to
the Society's goal of furthering archaeological preservation
and education.
To commemorate the many chapters that have existed
over the years, the staff of The Florida Anthropologist has
compiled a brief history of some of the early chapters that
are no longer active. This narrative is based on primary
documents housed at the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
History at the University of Florida, Gainesville. These
sources are primarily issues of the FAS Newsletter and
minutes of FAS meetings. Additional sources are published
papers. Histories of the 13 active chapters, which were
prepared for distribution at the 1997 annual meeting in
Miami by the Archaeological Society of Southern Florida,
also are reproduced here. These have been augmented with
information that was obtained while researching the
histories of the now-inactive chapters. Additional informa-
tion about FAS chapters can be found in individual "Chap-
ter Spotlight" sections of The Florida Anthropologist, which
have been published intermittently since 1990.

A Brief History of Early FAS Chapters

The first chapter, the Gainesville Anthropological Society
(GAS), was formed in 1948. Although in existence for only
a year, GAS was very active. Meetings were held twice a
month with speakers such as archaeologists John Griffin
and Ripley Bullen. Many GAS members were students at
the University of Florida and they helped archaeologists
John Goggin and Ripley Bullen dig at the Baird Mound
south of Gainesville. GAS also issued at least one mimeo-
graphed scientific report, a typology of prehistoric pottery
types from central Florida (Goggin 1948).
After the demise of GAS, other groups appeared gradual-
ly and lasted longer. First, the Tampa Bay Chapter became
affiliated with FAS in 1953, followed by the South Florida
Chapter in 1956. The latter organization went through
many transformations and exists today as the Archaeologi-

cal Society of Southern Florida (see below). The first
officers of the Tampa Bay Chapter (TBC) were William
Plowden, William Armistead, and Charles Knight. The
chapter concentrated on presenting talks to the public about
preservation and its members worked at the Rocky Point
site on Old Tampa Bay (Plowden 1955). In 1954, TBC
helped John Goggin work at the site of Ft. Brooke in
Tampa. TBC member William Armistead served as FAS
President in 1957. Armistead also reported on an unusual
shell artifact from Terra Ceia in The Florida Anthropologist
(Armistead 1959).
In the early and mid-1960s, TBC evolved into two
groups, one centered at the University of South Florida
(USF) in Tampa and the other in St. Petersburg. In Tampa,
leadership was provided by historian Charles Arnade and
archaeologist Roger Grange, USF professors who served as
FAS Presidents in 1965 and 1966, respectively. In 1966,
chapter members helped host the FAS's 18th annual
meeting in Clearwater. Also active during the 1960s was
historian James Covington of the University of Tampa who
published a number of articles in The Florida Anthropolo-
gist (e.g. Covington 1960, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1977).
Covington also served as FAS President in 1970. In St.
Petersburg, Francis Bushnell, Lyman Warren, and others
were active at many sites including Maximo Point, the
Narvaez site, the Tierra Verde Mound on Cabbage Key,
and Culbreath Bayou (Bushnell 1962, 1966; Warren and
Bushnell 1963; Warren et al. 1965, 1967). Warren was
instrumental in bringing to the attention of archaeologists
and other scientists the presence of submerged sites in
Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, writing several articles
on this subject during the 1960s and 1970s (e.g., Goodyear
and Warren 1972; Warren 1964, 1968, 1970, 1972). In
1969, TBC was superseded by the Suncoast Archaeological
The Indian River Anthropological Society was affiliated
in 1960 and was soon followed by the Broward County
Archaeological Society in 1961. The Central Florida
Anthropological Society and the Northwest Florida Anthro-
pological Society became affiliated in 1963. All except the
northwest Florida chapter remain active today.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, northwest Florida had
a number of active FAS members. One was William
Lazarus who served as FAS President in 1961. Lazarus
wrote several articles about the region and helped found the
Temple Mound Museum in Fort Walton Beach (e.g.,
Lazarus 1958, 1961, 1962). These efforts led to the
formation of the Northwest Florida Anthropological Society


(NWFAS), which became an FAS chapter in November
1963. In 1964, Lazarus again served as FAS President. In
1965, he produced several more authoritative studies on a
wide variety of topics (e.g., Lazarus 1965a, 1965b, 1965c),
During these years, Lazarus worked closely with archaeolo-
gists Charles Fairbanks and Hale Smith at Florida State
University in Tallahassee. In 1967, NWFAS members
helped host the Society's 19th annual meeting in Fort
Walton Beach.
In the 1970s, NWFAS was reinvigorated by a number of
active members including Jennings Bunn, Yulee Lazarus,
Donald Sharon, Thomas Watson, and William Wesley, all
of whom contributed articles to The Florida Anthropologist
(e.g., Lazarus 1970; Lazarus and Fornaro 1975; Lazarus et
al. 1967; Sharon and Bunn 1973; Sharon and Watson 1971;
Watson 1974). In 1978, NWFAS and the Temple Mound
Museum hosted the 30th annual meeting of FAS in Fort
Walton Beach. In 1980, NWFAS member Thomas Watson
served as FAS President. By 1985, however, NWFAS had
become inactive.
In 1967, the constitutional requirement that all chapter
members must be FAS members was changed to read that
at least ten members of a local chapter were required to be
FAS members. That stipulation continues to the present
day. In 1969, the idea of a Chapter Liaison first appeared.
In 1974, the FAS Constitution was rewritten and chapter
representatives joined the generally elected officers and
directors as voting members of the FAS Board. Today, this
provision also remains in effect.
As FAS neared the quarter-century mark two more
societies became affiliated with the Society. In October
1969, the Suncoast Archaeological Society (SAS) became
an FAS chapter. SAS members conducted salvage excava-
tions at the Canton Street site in St. Petersburg in 1970
(Bullen et al. 1978) and hosted the 23rd annual meeting of
FAS in St. Petersburg in 1971. Later that year, SAS
conducted salvage excavations at the Bay Pines site in St.
Petersburg (Gallagher and Warren 1975). In 1977, the
chapter helped host the FAS's 29th annual meeting at the
University of South Florida in Tampa and Ray Williams
served as FAS President.
The Palm Beach County Archaeological Society (PBCAS)
was founded in 1970 and joined FAS in 1974. PBCAS
worked at a number of sites, including the Boynton Mound
complex (Jaffe 1976; Iscan and Kessel 1988), Littlefield
Mound at Lake Worth, Chosen Mound at Belle Glade, Big
Blue midden, the Patrician Mound (Ritchie et al. 1981), the
Riviera site complex (Wheeler 1992), and the Highland
Beach Mound (Winland 1993). Much of this work was
salvage-related. PBCAS also recorded interviews with
member Vernon Lamme who was prominent in the WPA
excavations in southern Florida during the 1930s. PBCAS
co-hosted the 36th FAS annual meeting in Palm Beach in
In 1988, two leaders of PBCAS died, Edward G. Henri-
quez and Frank B. Morrison. Afterward, PBCAS disbanded
and donated its funds to the FAS Monograph Account in

honor of Henriquez and Morrison (Anonymous 1989).
Since 1971 there have been 16 other FAS chapters. Some,
such as the Kingdom of the Sun Archaeological Society,
Apalachee Anthropological Society, Everglades Archaeo-
logical Society, Ocali Scrub Anthropological Society, and
the Paleontological and Archaeological Research Team of
Florida, eventually became inactive. However, most have
continued to exist and thrive.
The Kingdom of the Sun Archaeological Society (KSAS)
was founded in 1978 by Ben Waller and other FAS mem-
bers living in the Ocala area. Waller served as FAS
President in 1975 and began organizing KSAS in 1976.
Waller co-authored articles on Paleoindian lithic artifacts
with archaeologist Jim Dunbar (Waller and Dunbar 1977;
Dunbar and Waller 1983). In the early 1980s, KSAS
conducted informal site surveys in the Withlacoochee River
area. Waller, who was renowned as a diver, died in 1993
(Dunbar 1993).
The Apalachee Anthropological Society (AAS) was
formed in 1981 and two years later it co-hosted the 35th
FAS annual meeting in Tallahassee. In 1984, two AAS
members reported on work at a site near the border of
Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (Benson and Allen 1984).
Also in that year, AAS member Claudine Payne served as
FAS President and AAS member Louis Tesar became
Editor of The Florida Anthropologist, a position he held for
the next eight years. Tesar wrote or co-authored a number
of articles that were published in the journal including one
on the discovery of de Soto's winter camp in Tallahassee
(Tesar and Jones 1989). Other AAS members included
archaeologists Sandra Jo Forney and John Scarry, both of
whom published articles in the FAS journal (e.g., Forney
1985; Scarry 1985). AAS was inactive from 1986-1990 and
then was revived for three years. In 1991, AAS was active
in the classroom and the field, assisting in salvage work at
the Orange Avenue ceramic cache in Tallahassee (Smith
During the 1980s there were five FAS chapters that were
relatively short-lived. The St. Johns Anthropological
Society (SJAS) was active from 1980-1988. SJAS was
associated with the South Brevard Historical Society, based
in Melbourne. SJAS members were from that area. One
SJAS member, Steve Atkins, produced a list of articles
published in the FAS journal through 1979 (Atkins 1979).
The Everglades Archaeological Society (EAS) was
founded in 1981 and joined FAS in 1982. EAS was led by
Wilma Williams, who had been active in FAS and the
Broward County Archaeological Society (BCAS). In the
early 1980s, EAS completed analyses and reports of earlier
field work done through BCAS (e.g., Williams and Mow-
ers 1982). This chapter folded in 1988.
The Ocali Scrub Anthropological Society (OSAS) was
organized in 1984 by Alan Dorian of the U.S. Forest
Service and other FAS members in the Ocala area in order
to fill the gap left by the demise of the Kingdom of the Sun
chapter. In 1985, OSAS co-hosted the 37th annual meeting
of FAS in Daytona Beach. In 1986, Dorian co-authored a


paper published in The Florida Anthropologist that com-
bined ecological and archaeological data from research
conducted in the Ocala National Forest (Kalisz et al. 1986).
By May 1987, OSAS had logged 1000 hours of volunteer
service in the U.S. Forest Service cultural resource pro-
The Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council (WRAC)
was founded in 1983 and was associated with the Citrus
County Historical Society in Inverness. From 1983 to 1986,
WRAC members assisted in archaeological site surveys in
the Cove of the Withlacoochee, a large wetland in the
Citrus County area. The surveys were a joint project of
WRAC, the Florida State Museum (now the Florida
Museum of Natural History), and the University of Florida.
During these surveys, WRAC members helped test a
number of sites including the Ruth Smith Mound, freshwa-
ter shell middens, and Seminole sites (Mitchem and
Weisman 1984, 1987; Weisman 1986a, 1986b). In 1984,
WRAC members worked at the Blackwater Pond site
(Whitney 1986). In 1985-1986, WRAC members helped
excavate the Tatham Mound, a Safety Harbor Period burial
mound which provided data for a number of articles and a
dissertation (Mitchem 1989). In 1986, WRAC co-hosted the
38th FAS annual meeting in Gainesville.
The Paleontological and Archaeological Research Team
of Florida (PART) was an organization of Florida divers
who were interested in vertebrate fossils and cultural
artifacts found in rivers. PART was centered in the Palatka
area of northeastern Florida and was in existence for only
two years (1987-1988). One project by PART was the
investigation of a prehistoric aboriginal site that was
eroding into a river (Denson and Dunbar 1992).
Today, in 1997, there are 13 active FAS chapters, of
which five were founded more than 25 years ago. Their
histories are presented below.

Archaeological Society of Southern Florida

Dan Laxson still browses the thick albums he started
keeping when he first became fascinated with archaeology
in the early 1950s. Now 87, he recalls that he went to the
state museum in Gainesville in 1951 to learn "how to dig,
how to store it all, and how to write it up." He and three
friends founded the Tequesta Archaeological Society in
Miami in 1952 and became an FAS chapter in 1956. The
chapter investigated many sites in south Florida, especially
small "black-dirt" middens. Laxson was a regular contribu-
tor of articles to the earliest FAS journals (e.g., Laxson
1957, 1959), presenting valuable information on these sites.
Eventually he received the Lazarus Award, the Society's
highest honor for an avocational archaeologist.
In 1960, TAS member Marvin Brooks was FAS President
and in 1961 the chapter hosted the 13th annual meeting of

the Society in Coral Cables. In 1963, historian and TAS
member, Charlton Tebeau, served as FAS President.
TAS reorganized in the late 1960s, becoming the Miami-
West Indies Archaeological Society and continuing the FAS
affiliation. Its president was Wesley Coleman, still active
in ASSF today. In 1967, chapter member J. Floyd Monk
served as FAS President.
In 1971 the chapter opened the South Florida Archaeo-
logical Museum located next to the Opa-Locka City Hall.
An earlier museum exhibit was maintained in the Historical
Society museum. It began as four cork-board displays of
local artifacts in the 1950s. In 1979 the growing museum
collection was donated to the Historical Museum of South-
ern Florida in Miami.
As the Miami-West Indies Society declined, the Peninsu-
lar Archaeological Society began meeting at the Museum of
Science. In 1973 its president, Irving Eyster, changed the
name to the Archaeological Society of the Museum of
Science and this group inherited the FAS chapter designa-
tion. A decade later it was given its present name, the
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida (ASSF). The
chapter hosted FAS's 31st annual meeting in Coral Gables
in 1979 and the 49th annual meeting in Miami in 1997.
Member Irving Eyster served as FAS President in 1981.
ASSF has salvaged information from many endangered
sites. Some of the more interesting are the Cheetum and
Coleman sites, with 4500 B.P. Archaic Period occupations,
the Trail site, the Arch Creek site, the Oleta River site, the
L&L site, the Monkey Jungle site, and the Black Creek site
(Coleman 1972, 1983; McKinney et al. 1990; Mowers et
al. 1975; Newman 1993). Many ASSF members have par-
ticipated in digs all over South Florida including the Marco
Island Midden, Highland Woods in Bonita Springs, and the
River Bend site at Loxahatchee.
ASSF members have volunteered with the Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy of Miami and have assisted
with projects such as the Cutler Fossil site, the oldest
recorded site in south Florida, the Key Biscayne Light-
house, and the Honey Hill site. In the early 1970s, the
chapter helped preserve, through public acquisition, the
important Arch Creek site.
For the past five years ASSF has sponsored impressive
Archaeology Fairs which involve educational visual
displays, videos, flintknapping demonstrations, and hands-
on opportunities for children to dig and sift for small bones
and shells. The fairs also serve as a showcase for local
historical reenactors who set up Indian, military, and
pioneer campsites.
The chapter currently has 80 members, 16 of whom are
members of FAS. Newsletters are mailed to another 60
professional and community-affiliated individuals, libraries,
and organizations. Monthly meetings are held with lively,
informed guest speakers discussing all aspects of archaeolo-
gy and Florida history. The monthly newsletter contains
articles on related archaeological and anthropological
subjects including news about other FAS chapters.


1997 VOL. 50(3)


Broward County Archaeological Society

The present members of the Broward County Archaeo-
logical Society (BCAS) owe thanks to the farsightedness of
its founding members. Their early involvement in and pro-
found contributions to the research of South Florida
archaeological sites set the standard for those who fol-
It all began in 1959 with a devoted group of eight people
who were compelled to "uncover" evidence of native
Tequesta and European settlers. The objective stated in the
charter of incorporation reads as follows: "to promote and
enrich the educational and cultural facilities of the commu-
nity through exhibits, displays and reports of historical
relics and artifacts pertaining to earlier inhabitants of
Florida and the eventual establishment of a permanent
museum to be available to all citizens." BCAS was admit-
ted to the FAS in 1961.
Without a home base, the early BCAS held meetings at
libraries and churches. As the archaeological finds began to
grow into archival size, selections were exhibited in
schools, chambers of commerce, and libraries. Community
involvement has always been an integral part of the chap-
In 1969 the BCAS was the recipient of a gracious dona-
tion from Mrs. Floyd Wray, owner of Flamingo Groves in
west Dade County. A restored cottage on the property soon
became a museum for the chapter. Gypsy Graves, geolo-
gist, archaeologist, and explorer, became Director of the
small museum begun by the BCAS. The Museum of
Archaeology was later relocated to downtown Ft. Lauder-
dale, inhabiting a 10,000-square-foot facility. In 1993 the
museum was moved again to its current 50,000-square-foot
location in Dania and was renamed The Graves Museum of
Archaeology and Natural History. This tremendous growth
enabled the museum staff and BCAS members to enhance
monthly meetings, educational programs, lectures, tours,
and fund-raising events. BCAS remains the scientific
branch of the museum and the museum serves as home
base for BCAS. The chapter has a community of volunteers
to whom it is grateful for their involvement and support.
After nearly 40 years BCAS continues to improve upon
the initial goals set forth by the founding members. Count-
less sites have been investigated through BCAS team efforts
including the Spanish River complex in Boca Raton, the
Margate-Blount site, the Peace Camp site, Markham Park,
Bishops Hammock, and the New River Midden (Graves
1989; Mowers and Williams 1972; Williams 1983; Wil-
liams and Mowers 1977, 1979). BCAS member Wilma
Williams became FAS President in 1976 and the chapter
hosted the 28th annual meeting in Fort Lauderdale that
same year. It also hosted the 47th annual meeting in Dania
in 1994.
In 1995 BCAS began a transformation. The chapter's
president, Terri Dotson, reenergized the Board of Directors

and members, and fine-tuned the goals for the years ahead.
An internship program through the Anthropology Depart-
ment at Florida Atlantic University has been established;
several sites in South Florida are slated for investigation;
and BCAS also is working in conjunction with the Marine
Archaeological Advisory Council on a marine site, the
wreck of the cargo ship Gil Bias.

Central Florida Anthropological Society

The Central Florida Anthropological Society (CFAS) is a
group of professional and amateurs alike whose goals are
to learn about and preserve Florida's historic and prehistor-
ic past. CFAS was formed by a group of dedicated ama-
teurs in 1963. The year before, the nascent society hosted
the FAS's 14th annual meeting in Orlando. Its members
recognized the need for a local organization to help aid in
the preservation and advancement of anthropological
matters in Central Florida.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the chapter actively
aided the state with quality fieldwork and reporting at such
well-known sites as Tick Island, Stone Island, the Phillip
Mound, and sites around the area of Lake Apopka (Benson
1967; A. Dreves 1979; R. Dreves 1974; Jahn and Bullen
1978; Small 1966). This excellent background contributed
to CFAS members being invited to Hontoon Island,
Hunters Creek, Delon Springs, and other sites. The CFAS
just recently completed an underwater survey of a ship-
wreck in the Wekiva River which led to a survey of an
associated "ghost town."
In 1976, 1980, and 1988, CFAS hosted the Society's
24th, 32nd, and 40th annual meetings. CFAS member Carl
Benson served as FAS President in 1971.
Today, the chapter's general course of direction has
shifted from "digging" to one of education. It also has been
the force behind "Walk Back In Time," a yearly education-
al event held at Wekiva Springs State Park. Each month the
CFAS meeting has speakers from around Florida who
provide interesting, exciting, and informative programs on
diverse topics.
The support and involvement of the chapter's many
members and volunteers are the key ingredients that have
enabled the CFAS to achieve its goal of preserving Flor-
ida's anthropological history.

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

The Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society (CGCAS)
is an excellent example of individuals with widely varied
backgrounds coming together to form a well-respected
organization in the Tampa Bay area. CGCAS became a
chapter of FAS in 1977. The chapter recently celebrated its
20th anniversary honoring many of the founding members.
Even though the membership has waxed and waned over

THE FLORIDA AluImoI'owGIsr 1597 VOL. 50(3)

the years, a stable core continues to keep CGCAS active.
Several CGCAS members have served as FAS Presidents
including Marion Almy (1982), Joan Deming (1985), Karen
Malesky (1986), Jackie Piper (1995), and Loren Blakeley
(1996-1997). CGCAS also hosted the 34th, 39th, and 45th
annual meetings of FAS. In 1979, CGCAS published a
projectile-point guide for the Central Gulf Coast (Robinson
1979) and the chapter recently completed a comprehensive
bibliography on archaeology and related topics (Vojnovski
CGCAS has focused on building coalitions with area
museums, science institutions, and preservation and
environmental societies. Members have continued to
educate the public on the importance of preserving Flor-
ida's archaeological past. This has been achieved through
public and private schools, libraries, and the news media.
CGCAS also has hosted many guest speakers and conducted
primitive technology demonstrations and workshops.
CGCAS members have participated and assisted in several
events related to Florida archaeology. These include the
"12,000 Years of Gulf Coast Prehistory" exhibit at the St.
Petersburg Museum of History and the "Indian Summer
Festival" held at the same locale. CGCAS also was asked
to design an archaeological exhibit window in the new
Tampa Bay History Center. The concept was well received
and resulted in a $12,500 donation to the Center.
In 1993 and 1995 CGCAS sponsored its own "Archaeolo-
gy Day" in conjunction with Florida Archaeology Week.
Many primitive technologies were represented as well as
Bay area museums, science centers, and other organi-
zations. CGCAS held its Florida Archaeology Month
activities in 1996 and 1997 in conjunction with the Science
Center of Pinellas County's Family Day. CGCAS member
Elizabeth Neily Trappman designed the official FAS
Archaeology Month posters for 1996 and 1997.
In November 1994 the Harold Anderson family of St.
Petersburg approached CGCAS to investigate their proper-
ty, the Narvaez site. The family has preserved the site for
many decades. It has long been suspected that the site is the
1528 landing place of Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez.
Excavation has continued for the past two years with
European glass beads, iron artifacts, and Spanish olive jar
sherds being recovered. Other artifacts include shell tools,
plummets, carved bone hairpins, lithics, and Safety Harbor
Period ceramics. CGCAS was awarded a grant from the
Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Re-
sources that will allow CGCAS to analyze the artifacts,
obtain radiocarbon dates, and prepare a report. CGCAS has
been supported in this project by the Science Center which
has provided lab and office space. This assistance has been
invaluable in allowing the archaeological work to be
conducted in a first-rate facility near the site.
In September 1996, CGCAS adopted Jungle Prada Park,
a city park located just north of the Anderson property. By
adopting the park, CGCAS is helping to preserve another
major part of the Narvaez site for the future. CGCAS is
currently working with the Science Center to develop plans

for an archaeological exhibit about the site.

Indian River Anthropological Society

The Indian River Anthropological Society (IRAS) was
founded in April 1956 by Dr. E. Y. Guernsey and a dozen
enthusiastic avocational archaeologists. It became an FAS
chapter in 1960. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the
chapter participated in various local digs (e.g., Jordan et al.
1963). Bud Knoderer, past president, taught -an anthro-
pology course as part of a continuing education program.
He recruited many new members throughout the 1970s and
Chapter members have participated in many excavations
with professional researchers including the Grant site and
Gauthier site with Calvin Jones, the Windover site from
1985-1987 with Glen Doran and Dave Dickel, Futch Cove
with Bob Johnson, and the Kennedy Space Center survey
with Joan Deming. IRAS has participated with Judy Bense,
University of West Florida, in preparing first-generation
predictive models of selected areas of Brevard County. The
group also aided in the comprehensive archaeological
survey of Indian River County.
IRAS members Clifford Mattox and George Magruder
served as FAS Presidents in 1962 and 1972, respectively.
The chapter also hosted the FAS's 16th, 20th, and 33rd
annual meetings.
The last five years have been devoted to reporting and
surveying new sites and conducting salvage work at sites
that are being destroyed by development. The chapter has
reported more than two dozen new sites to the Florida Site
File. IRAS also has worked on updating, clarifying, and re-
moving duplicate entries from the site file of Brevard
County. In 1993, in support of Florida Archaeology Week,
IRAS hosted an Artifact Identification Day at the Cocoa
Library, Cocoa, Florida.
IRAS is affiliated with the Brevard Museum of Natural
History and conducts all its meetings there. The chapter
holds both a monthly meeting and an associated activity,
such as cleaning and cataloging artifacts from past digs.
Semiannual campouts are held in conjunction with the
survey and investigation of new sites.

Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Histori-
cal Conservancy

The Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy (KVAHC) was formed in May 1991 and
became a chapter of FAS in 1992. Creighton and Bette
Northrop were its founders and driving force. From its
inception, KVAHC was committed to locating, identifying,
and recording sites, and educating the public to preserve
them. The first officers were Jim Fitch, President; B'Jo
Summers, Vice President; Carol Mills, Secretary; Sandy


1997 VOL. 50(3)


Umbel, Recording Secretary; Creighton Northrop and Anne
Reynolds, Trustees.
The first order of business was to educate new members.
In conjunction with South Florida Community College
(SFCC), KVAHC offered members and the interested
public a series of introductory archaeology classes in the
summer of 1991. The course was taught by professional
archaeologist Bob Austin who became KVAHC's mentor.
Instructional field days followed.
KVHAC has accomplished a lot in six years. A lab and
library has been established. Members Chuck and Jane
Wilde attended seminars on curation and bone study, and
they have kept the lab active and up-to-date. Jane Wilde
also writes the KVAHC newsletters. Cathy and Richard
Little have organized the chapter's history and photographic
In 1992 KVAHC sponsored an Indian Pow Wow and
Rendezvous. Thirty-one buses and 1320 children attended
for a cultural educational exchange. KVAHC has participat-
ed with SFCC in Elderhostel programs, teaching classes in
early Florida history and archaeology, as well as taking a
group to the Christiansen site to observe how an archaeo-
logical excavation is conducted. Archaeologist Scott
Mitchell led this instructional field trip. Creighton Northrop
and Jim Fitch worked with the Board of County Commis-
sioners in Highlands County to create a Historic Preserva-
tion Commission, on which Northrop served.
In 1993, the State of Florida's Department of Community
Affairs approved the Highlands County Comprehensive
Land Management Plan. KVAHC was instrumental in
providing the County Planning Department with language
and objectives to put in place a Land Development Regula-
tion Ordinance which will protect cultural resources in the
County. Highlands County has completed its cultural
resources element which accompanies the comprehensive
plan. KVAHC members participated in the County-wide
survey that was conducted in 1995 to identify, designate,
and preserve archaeologically sensitive sites. KVAHC
members Creighton Northrop and Jim Fitch have been
especially active in attending governmental and planning
sessions to keep historic preservation in the county's land
development regulations.
KVAHC has worked with the Highlands County school
administration, resource specialists, and teachers to help
implement programs on early Florida history in the school
system. This has been followed up with programs by
KVAHC members in classrooms and at teachers' meetings.
In addition, KVAHC is regularly asked to speak to local
organizations and to present exhibits. A permanent display
of artifacts from local sites is kept at the Historical Society
Museum in Lake Placid.
KVAHC members have participated in several archaeo-
logical excavations. The Royce Mound dig in 1992 was the
first archaeological excavation in Highlands County since
the Goodnow Mound in the 1940s (Austin 1993). KVAHC
also has participated in excavations and surveys at Bluff
Hammock, Fort Bassinger, Clemments Grassy Creek,

Driggers, Morgan Hole, Blueberry, and Christiansen sites.
Artifact data from many of these sites were used to study
lithic procurement patterns in the region (Austin 1996).
Chris Christiansen, Anne Reynolds, Bruce Stepp, Jeanette
Hoy, Carol Mills, and Chuck Wilde keep the organization's
field workers educated, outfitted, organized, and working.
In 1995, KVAHC hosted the FAS annual meeting in
Sebring. The reception featured native foods, art, and
music. Attendees were able to tour Archbold Biological
Station. KVAHC also has held events and participated each
year in Florida Archaeology Week and Month.

Northeast Florida Anthropological Society

The Northeast Florida Anthropological Society (NEFAS)
has a history rich in archaeological research. For eight
years during the 1960s, the chapter, then known as the
Jacksonville Archaeology Club, worked on the Mayport
Mound project. Work on the large sand mound, owned by
Judge Harold Clark, was headed by Dr. Tom Gouchnour.
The club worked on several underwater sites until interest
began to wane. Finally, in July of 1970, Joe Sasser of the
Florida Community College at Jacksonville and Gouchnour
began work on the bylaws of a society which would be
aligned with the Florida Anthropological Society. On the
first Friday in January, 1971, about 20 members of the
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society met for the first
time. Meetings typically centered around what would be the.
next day's activities. Several projects followed.
In 1971, Dr. Goodman of Miami gave permission for the
excavation of what would become known as the Goodman
Mound. Several child bundle burials were recovered as well
as a skull fragment engraved with weeping eyes, which be-
came the logo of the chapter (Recourt 1975).
During the following years NEFAS hosted its first FAS
annual meeting which featured Gordon Willey. In 1975
another excavation, this time at the Black Hammock
mound, yielded a child's burial with a mastodon vertebra.
Again, in 1977, Jerry Hyde, a longtime FAS representative
for the chapter, and member Ralph Goslin met Dr. Wilcox
while returning from a FAS meeting. Dr. Wilcox, owner
of the property that contains the Mount Royal site, suggest-
ed that if the chapter would restore the site he would donate
it to the State of Florida. A seven-year project ensued. The
length of the restoration was due to the undertaking of
another simultaneous excavation at the Dent Mound on
Pelotes Island in north Jacksonville (Ashley 1995). Both
projects were completed in 1984. Laboratory analysis of the
Dent Mound artifacts still continues each month at the
Museum of Science and History where the artifacts are
Chapter member Jerry Hyde served as FAS President in
1979 and 1989. NEFAS hosted two annual meetings of the
Society the 26th annual meeting in 1974 and the 41st
annual meeting in 1989 both in Jacksonville.


Recently NEFAS has redirected its efforts toward edu-
cation and is currently developing programs with "To-Mo-
Ke" (Todd Morton Kelley) which include a living history
presentation of Timucuan life and a hands-on experience for
young people to assist them in understanding the past
though archaeology. Other educational efforts for this 60-
member society include a writing project entitled "The
Anthropology of Florida Points and Blades," a museum
project which looks very promising, and the development
of a film lending library which now includes over 30 films.

Pensacola Archaeological Society

One afternoon in the spring of 1982, at the Pensacola
Historical Museum, Tommy Garner, Allan Gantzhorn,
Norman Simons, Sandy Johnson, and Nancy Van Epps
were talking about archaeology, tossing around the idea of
forming an archaeological society. Nancy Van Epps was a
member of an FAS chapter in Panama City, two hours east.
Norman Simons, curator of the museum, felt that with the
increase in archaeology courses at the University of West
Florida (UWF), it might be possible to form a nucleus. He
suggested that Tommy Garner tackle the project.
Interest began to spread and by early 1984, Judith A.
Bense, anthropology professor at UWF, Simons, and Van
Epps were increasingly disturbed about the continuing
destruction of the nonrenewable information base of
Pensacola's early historical sites. This concern spread to
Earle Bowden, "Woody" Skinner, Roy Reeves, and others,
who formed the Pensacola Archaeological Committee to
protect and manage archaeological resources.
On June 4, 1985, 35 people met to discuss an archaeo-
logical ordinance protecting archaeological deposits prior to
construction by the City of Pensacola. Interest in preserva-
tion led to the formal organization of the Pensacola Archae-
ological Society (PAS) on June 11, 1985.
PAS has unique qualities as far as FAS chapters go. It is
extensively involved with marine archaeology and ship-
wrecks, so its members not only get dirty, they get wet.
PAS is proud to be part of the only high school credit
program in archaeology anywhere. The course is offered
through the Washington High School Archaeology Institute.
The chapter's ties with many institutions in the communi-
ty enable its members to experience a wide variety of
archaeological opportunities, to acquire skills and knowl-
edge, and to share them with students and others. One of
these strong ties is with the Archaeology Institute at the
University of West Florida. The staff there, particularly
Judy Bense, has supported the chapter from the beginning.
The FAS annual meeting was held in Pensacola in 1991
and was hosted by PAS. Judy Bense took attendees on a
tour of the Seville District and the Colonial Archaeological
Trail. Connie Franklin took a group to Arcadia to visit a
dig site there. The keynote speaker was Kathleen Deagan.
The Pensacola Shipwreck Survey was started in 1991, led

by archaeologist Roger Smith, Billy Ray Morris, and
Marianne Franklin. In 1992, PAS reported the remains of
possibly the oldest ship in Florida waters, one of six ships
that sunk in the Bay during the 1559 hurricane that de-
stroyed Tristan de Luna's ill-fated settlement. Also that
year, PAS helped form a citizens' group to support the
creation of an underwater preserve for the battleship USS
Massachusetts in shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. The
effort was successful and in 1993 PAS dedicated Florida's
fourth Underwater Archaeological Preserve. A bronze
plaque was engraved and made ready to be placed under
water at the site of the all-steel battleship that was built 100
years earlier and saw duty in the Spanish-American War.
The plaque was placed at the site in 1994. A book on the
history of the battleship was funded by several grants
written by PAS members James Coleman and Connie
Franklin, and was published by the chapter in 1995. Copies
were given to all libraries and schools in two counties and
is sold at museums.
Breastplate armor over 100 years older than any found in
the New World was discovered during the Emmanuel Point
excavation, which involved PAS volunteers on and under
the water and in the lab.
In 1995, a teacher at Washington High School (WHS)
called PAS President Connie Franklin to request help in
setting up an excavation demonstration in his class. Frank-
lin thought about starting up the NAS Pensacola/Santa
Maria de Galve University of West Florida Archaeological
Institute Field School. She called Judy Bense and asked if
WHS students could come to watch and observe. From that
small beginning began the journey to the creation of the
Archaeological Institute at Washington High School.
Students and teachers were allowed in trenches and test pits
to work along side professional archaeologists and graduate
students from the university. It was a unique project.
Eventually a formal partnership was signed by the UWF
Archaeological Institute, Pensacola Archaeological Society,
Pensacola Junior College, and Washington High School.
The sharing of resources and expertise has resulted in
training for the students as well as for PAS members. They
have excavated at several sites. An open house at the high
school is now part of our Archaeology Month events. Now
WHS students receive science credit for a course in

St. Augustine Archaeological Association

The genesis of the St. Augustine Archaeological Associa-
tion (SAAA) goes back to 1984 when archaeologist Stan
Bond conducted an archaeological field school for a handful
of interested people. This original group worked with John
Griffin at an investigation that year at the St. Augustine
Historical Society's Oldest House Museum. SAAA was
organized in 1985. Among those on the first Board of
Directors were John Griffin and Kathleen Deagan.


1997 VOL. 50(3)


Archaeology in the nation's oldest city is exciting primari-
ly because of the range of archaeological opportunities.
SAAA has furnished volunteers for the Historic St. Augus-
tine Preservation Board, the St. Augustine Historical
Society, Florida Conservation and Recreation Lands,
University of Florida field schools, St. Augustine Light-
house Museum, and the City of St. Augustine Archaeology
Program. If you want to dig, there is usually an archaeo-
logical investigation somewhere in town every day, some-
times two or three. Because many of the city's archaeologi-
cal investigations take place downtown, they attract thou-
sands of visitors, both tourists and locals, and the volun-
teers must be proficient as docents as well as diggers. Over
75,000 people visited the investigation of the Ribera House
Garden and over 57,000 people visited the Cubo Line
SAAA members have volunteered at sites dating to the
Orange Period at Crescent Beach and North City, St. Johns
Period sites, sixteenth-century Spanish colonial sites, Indian
Mission sites, plantation sites, and twentieth-century sites
(e.g., Bond 1992; Halbirt 1993; Tesar et al. 1986).
Sometimes all these components are present at one location!
SAAA has helped Kathleen Deagan search for Pedro
Menendez's first fort and Francisco Menendez's Fort
Mose. This summer SAAA will assist a team from South-
ern Oceans Archaeological Research in the maritime survey
of St. Augustine Bay.
SAAA produces a quarterly newsletter and has published
a book to aid in the identification of Spanish Colonial
ceramics. Members are currently working on books to aid
in the identification of glass and beads. SAAA holds
monthly meetings with guest speakers for its 150 members.
In 1992, SAAA hosted the 44th annual meeting of FAS.
SAAA member Betty Riggan served as FAS President in
1993 and 1994.

Southeast Florida Archaeological Society

The Southeast Florida Archaeological Society (SEFAS)
began on January 20, 1996 and was originally called the
Treasure Coast Archaeological Society. The name was
officially changed in 1997. The original eight members met
at the Elliot Museum in Stuart. Few of them had met
before, but they discovered they all had the same thought
- to get organized and apply to become a chapter of FAS.
Shortly after this they met again to create and organize.
A name was chosen, officers were elected, and a code of
ethics, by-laws, and constitution were adopted. News of the
formation of this new group focused on archaeology was
spread in a press release announcing the first general
meeting on February 24, 1996. About 40 people attended.
By the end of the spring season the chapter had about 50
During the hot summer months, meetings are held in the
field under the direction of Andy Asbury. He leads mem-

bers to local sites listed in the Florida Site File and gives
instruction on basic archaeological activities of ground
proofing, how to map and record observations, and how to
do uncomplicated excavation work while collecting pottery
sherds. Once the snow birds return in the fall, the chapter
has formal meetings.
SEFAS has sponsored a six-session evening course on
archaeology that was held to give a general overview of
anthropology and Florida's prehistory. For Florida Archae-
ology Month, members manned a booth at the Martin
County Fair and sponsored, with Chautauqua-South at the
Martin County Library, Barbara Purdy's program on
"doing archaeology."
SEFAS members have many ideas for the future and are
desirous of doing everything at once. A primary goal is to
adopt a one-year, five-year, or even ten-year plan so
SEFAS can coordinate its efforts to take advantage of its
members' strengths.

Southwest Florida Archaeological Society

The Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (SWFAS)
at times has been short of cash, speakers for its monthly
meetings, and hosts for its coffee hours, but never, since its
incorporation in 1980, has it lacked for purpose.
The need to put its collective shoulder to the wheel of site
conservation was brought to its members dramatically only
months after its incorporation, when a Naples gardener en-
larging a pond turned up human bone. For days members
dodged around heavy earthmoving equipment in order to
salvage skeletal material and water-soaked wood (there was
no opportunity to conduct a full-scale scientific dig; this
was before Chapter 872, Florida Statutes, set rules for un-
marked burials). What they were in, of course, was the Bay
West site, radiocarbon dated to more than 5,100 years B.P.
and reported in The Florida Anthropologist (Beriault et al.
Two years later, the chapter's founding president, John
G. Beriault, was chair of a newly organized Collier County
historic advisory board. Still later, years of lobbying and
organizational effort by SWFAS members paid off with
passage of a county ordinance providing a measure of
protection for historic and archaeological sites, and the
establishment of a historic preservation board which has
always included a SWFAS member since its inception in
1991. A matching grant from the Florida Department of
State, Division of Historical Resources to SWFAS and the
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy of Miami pro-
vided means for a partial archaeological survey of northern
Collier County, a prerequisite to implementation of the
protective ordinance.
In the absence of a resident, local, professional archae-
ologist, SWFAS made a number of informal project
surveys at the request of developers. Those and other
investigations resulted in SWFAS placing more than 100

TKi FLORIDA AN'riIROPoLoGIsr 1997 VoL 50(3)

sites on the Florida Site File. In this and other related
work, the organization has profited from the membership
of archaeologists Linda S. Robinson, George Luer, and
Robert S. Carr, physical anthropologist Michael J. Han-
singer, and the late civil engineer Joseph Long, whose
generosity with instruction in the use of the plane table
gave the organization a mapping capability which has
resulted in detailed plans of some of the area's more
notable archaeological features.
Where destruction of a site was inevitable, SWFAS has
made salvage excavations when possible. Over time, and in
the absence of a permanent facility, material from these
digs accumulated. Fortunately, with a boost from SWFAS,
the Collier County Museum acquired a small building once
used as a field laboratory by an early Everglades scientist,
Frank C. Craighead, Sr. The building went into operation
as a SWFAS laboratory in 1988, first to preserve, then to
analyze previously dug material. SWFAS's first formal
report since publication of the Bay West site salvage, an
account of the excavation of an inland site, Mulberry Mid-
den, was printed separately in 1992 and later in The Florida
Anthropologist (Lee et al. 1993). Its second major report,
on the Satin Leaf site, was printed in May 1996 under the
SWFAS imprimatur and as part of the Collier County
Museum's technical report series. It also appeared in the
FAS journal (Lee et al. 1997). Affiliation with SWFAS
gives the Collier County Museum the distinction of being
one of a handful nationwide to have an archaeological
laboratory. In addition, SWFAS members have assisted
professional archaeologists in excavations at Pineland and
Key Marco (e.g., Lee 1996; Widmer 1996).
In pursuit of its goals of learning more about its area's
prehistory, disseminating that information, and preserving
its evidences, SWFAS recently presented its eighth Frank
C. Craighead, Sr. Award. Previous awards have gone to
the late Colonel Donald H. Randell and his wife Pat, who
have preserved major archaeological sites; Dr. and Mrs.
Robin C. Brown of Fort Myers, who were active in the
successful Year of the Indian project and other efforts in
behalf of the science; William Marquardt of the Florida
Museum of Natural History, Director of its Southwest
Florida Project; a developer, Bonita Bay Properties;
conservationist Arthur Lee of Naples; influential newsman
Kevin Lollar of the Fort Myers News-Press, Randolph
Widmer and Rebecca Storey of the University of Houston,
and SWFAS's founding president, John Beriault, for his
many accomplishments over the years.
Over time, SWFAS has developed inter-institutional
relationships. It has swapped manpower with the Florida
Museum of Natural History's Southwest Florida Project in
exchange for training SWFAS members in field and
laboratory skills. Recruiting has followed the Museum's
geographical interests, resulting in a northward expansion
of SWFAS's membership, which had its original nucleus in
the Naples area. Membership has shifted such that monthly
meetings are held in Bonita Springs, roughly midway
between Ft. Myers and Naples. There is a similarly close

relationship between SWFAS and the Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy of Miami. SWFAS also routinely
provides speakers and classroom leadership to area colleges
and conducts workshops in bone identification and general
lab techniques.
On another level, ties between SWFAS and FAS have
been close, with three of its members, George Luer, John
Beriault, and Art Lee, having served as FAS presidents.
Former SWFAS president Annette Snapp served as FAS
secretary and Jack Thompson, another former SWFAS
president and current treasurer, is in his seventh year as
FAS treasurer. SWFAS also hosted the 42hd annual
meeting of FAS in Naples.

Time Sifters Archaeological Society

In October 1986, several people who had taken classes in
archaeology from Marion Almy, past president of FAS, at
Manasota Community College and Sarasota County Techni-
cal Institute were inspired by her to found an organization
dedicated to the preservation of Florida's archaeological
heritage. They held the first meeting of the Time Sifters
Archaeological Society (TSAS). The specific purpose was
to "teach the public that archaeology is a non-renewable
resource and that its preservation must be enforced by
education and legislation." The chapter meets monthly,
October through May, with speakers on archaeology and
allied subjects. Distinguished speakers have included
William Marquardt, Associate Curator in Archaeology,
Florida Museum of Natural History; Anthony Andrews,
professor of anthropology, New College; Calvin Jones,
archaeologist with the Florida Division of Historical
Resources' Bureau of Archaeological Research, who
conducted excavation of de Soto's winter encampment in
Tallahassee; Nancy Reed, professor of archaeology, Texas
Tech University; James Strange, professor at USF and a
director of the dig at Sephoris, Israel; Jerald Milanich,
author and Curator in Archaeology at the Florida Museum
of Natural History; James Dunbar, archaeologist with the
Bureau of Archaeological Research; and many others. The
public is invited through newspaper announcements.
There have been field trips twice a year to such places as
Ussepa and Pine Islands to see important Calusa sites
(members later volunteered in these investigations); the
Windover site; Fort Foster, a Second Seminole War fort in
Hillsborough County; historic St. Augustine; the First
Encounters exhibition in Tampa; Crystal River; the Florida
Museum of Natural History in Gainesville; the Appleton
Museum, Ocala; Little Salt Springs; and the Russian
Exhibit at the International Museum in St. Petersburg.
Members have volunteered for many archaeological
excavations. More than 25 volunteers worked on a salvage
excavation at the Archaic Period shell midden adjacent to
the Guptill House on Spanish Point. Chapter members
volunteered 500 hours to Historic Spanish Point to assist


1997 VOL. 50(3)


archaeologists working on the "Window to the Past"
exhibit. Members also worked with George Luer, one of
the first directors of Time Sifters and past president of
FAS, at an early Indian site near Sarasota, and volunteered
over 1000 hours on the Manasota Key dig directed by
Wilburn Cockrell.
Chapter members designed and wrote a brochure explain-
ing Chapter 872, Florida Statutes ("Offenses Concerning
Dead Bodies and Graves"). The brochure was produced by
the chapter and was distributed to developers and contrac-
tors throughout the state. It was updated and reissued for
Florida Archaeology Week 1993. Time Sifters obtained a
grant from the Florida Department of State, Division of
Historical Resources to match-fund the writing and design-
ing of a brochure on archaeological preservation. It was
distributed and also reissued for Archaeology Week 1993.
For these and other projects Time Sifters received Merit
Awards from the Sarasota Herald Tribune in 1989 and
Members have given educational talks to groups such as
Classroom on Wheels at Sarasota County Technical
Institute, the Rotary Club, and at elementary schools. Time
Sifters also worked with the Sarasota County Archaeologist
and the Director of the County's Department of Historical
Resources to write and set up a Sarasota County ordinance
to protect archaeological sites.
Time Sifters has a diverse membership: professional
archaeologists, high school and college students, teachers,
attorneys, retired persons, people in the construction
business and service industries, public employees, and
more. The chapter publishes a newsletter eight times a year
which announces future programs, presents articles on
archaeology and allied subjects, and keeps the members up-
to-date on the organization's functions. In 1996, Time
Sifters hosted the 48th annual meeting of FAS in Sarasota.
Time Sifters, almost 11 years old with a membership of
about 120, is flourishing and contributing to the local and
state effort to preserve and protect our archaeological
resources and cultural heritage.

Volusia Anthropological Society

The Volusia Anthropological Society (VAS) was con-
ceived in a shell pit by many of those working on the
excavation of a giant ground sloth. They were concerned
with the destruction of local sites and wanted a formal
preservation group with professional association. Even
before VAS became incorporated it was decided it would
be a chapter of FAS.
In March 1978, the first formal meeting was held and Jay
Bushnell, college educator and now Ph.D., was elected
president. Steve Hartman, then Curator of Science at the
Daytona Beach Museum of Arts and Sciences, was the
organizer and motivation for VAS. He called together
everyone who had information about local sites and per-

suaded them to join VAS. They then combined their
experience and knowledge to identity 21 previously unre-
corded prehistoric sites for the Volusia Council of Govern-
ments (now the County Council). Ultimately this infor-
mation was incorporated in the County's Planning Board
for the Program for Protection of Tomoka River/Spruce
Creek Basin's Environmental Quality.
Then came the terrible threat of a development the size of
a city to be built north of Tomoka Park. This area included
wetlands and numerous historic and prehistoric sites such
as Indian middens and burial mounds. After months of
hearings, a compromise was reached which resulted in part
of the area being saved and incorporated into Tomoka State
Park. VAS worked closely with the Florida Division of
Historical Resources to identify sites in this area for the
state archaeologists. VAS also spent many grueling hours
presenting information at public meetings to prevent the
development's destruction of the environment and our
heritage resources.
VAS and the Ormond Anchor Chasers (a SCUBA diving
club) co-produced the Fourth Underwater Paleontology and
Archaeology Seminar with speakers such as Bill Royal,
Donald Keith, C. Vance Haynes, Gordon Watts, Sonny
Cockrell, and of course the sloth "big three": Roger
Alexon, Don Serbousek, and Steve Hartman.
About seven years ago VAS was involved in what became
a great example of coordination with construction workers,
a building contractor, and preservationists. A construction
worker building a contractor's personal home began finding
pieces of pottery at the site. VAS sent a committee to meet
the contractor who gave the chapter permission to review
the site. VAS assured the contractor that his privacy would
not be invaded and the location would only be made known
on the Florida Site File. The badly eroded remains of three
bundle burials were found exposed on top of a hill which
had been part of an old orange grove. Fortunately, it was
a safe distance from the actual house site; erosion had
brought pottery to the house site for the workers to find.
In keeping with the new burial law (Chapter 872, F.S.)
the VAS president contacted the Medical Examiner who
examined the site and concurred that the bones were more
than 75 years old. In fact, the site contained Archaic
projectile points and St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped
pottery. It was felt that this was a significant site as it was
near Lake Dia, a midway point from the Atlantic Ocean
and the St. Johns River. VAS promised not to notify the
media and to preserve the confidentiality of the location,
but a site report was sent to the State with the owner's
approval. The owner assured VAS that the site would be
sodded over to prevent further erosion. In 1994 all the
remains were reinterred at the site which is now a public
park where further disturbance will not occur. This was one
of the first sites in the state that involved the Medical
Examiner's Office under Chapter 872 and VAS was happy
to encounter the positive cooperation of the contractor.
One of the purposes of VAS is to help educate the public
regarding anthropological and archaeological preservation.

TUE FLORIDA ANnnIoI'oI.oGssT 1997 VOL. 50(3)

This is accomplished in monthly meetings which include a
speaker or program. Speakers have included such notables
as John Griffin, Jerald T. Milanich, S. David Webb,
Barbara Purdy, Ben Waller, Curtis Osceola, and others.
Members also make presentations, providing fascinating
facts and anecdotes about history. VAS also holds public
training events. As an avocational group, VAS has mem-
bers who work as volunteers for professionals and have
helped in the recent survey of Tomoka State Park (Piatek
1992), the Washington Oaks historic survey, and the
Hacienda Del Rio survey. In 1985, VAS co-hosted the
FAS's annual meeting and VAS member Harold Cardwell
served as FAS President in 1987 and 1988.


The histories of past FAS chapters were compiled by George Luer. The
histories of the 13 active FAS chapters are reprinted (with modifications
and additions) from FAS: The Chapters. The History of the Florida
Anthropological Society's Thirteen Local Affiliates published by the
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida and distributed at the Florida
Anthropological Society's annual meeting in Miami. Printing of that
document was made possible by a donation from Florida Power and Light
Company. The Editor thanks FAS President Loren Blakeley for providing
a copy of the publication, Terry Simpson for scanning it into Word Perfect
format, and all of the FAS chapters for researching, writing, and
contributing their histories.

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Wheeler, Ryan J.
1992 The Riviera Complex: An East Okeechobee Archaeological Area
Settlement. The Florida Anthropologist 45:5-17.
Whitney, Theodore
1986 The Blackwater Pond (8He66) Site, Hernando County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 39:194-207.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1996 Recent Excavations at the Key Marco Site, 8CR48, Collier
County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 49:10-25.
Williams, Wilma B., and Bert Mowers
1977 Markham Park Mound No. 2, Broward County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 30:56-78.
1979 Bishops Hammock, Broward County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 32:17-32.
1982 Archaeological Excavations at the Rolling Oaks II Site, Broward
County. The Florida Anthropologist 35:118-126.
Winland, Kenneth J.
1993 Disease and Population Ecology in Southeast Florida. M.A.
thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University,
Boca Raton.


1997 VOL. 50(3)


Dates of
Affilliation Chapters




Gainesville Anthropological Society
Tampa Bay Chapter
South Florida Chapter (as officially recorded in Society's
minutes. Known locally as the Tequesta Archaeological
Society and, later, the Miami-West Indies Archaeological
Indian River Anthropological Society
Broward County Archaeological Society
Central Florida Anthropological Society
Miami-West Indies Archaeological Society
Northwest Florida Anthropological Society
Suncoast Archaeological Society
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida (originally
Archaeological Society of the Museum of Science)
Palm Beach County Archaeological Society
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
Kingdom of the Sun Archaeological Society
St. Johns Anthropological Society
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
Volusia Anthropological Society
Apalachee Anthropological Society

Everglades Archaeological Society
Ocali Scrub Anthropological Society
Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council
Paleontological and Archaeological Research Team of Florida
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
Time Sifters Archaeology Society
Pensacola Archaeological Society
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
Southeast Florida Archaeological Society (originally Treasure
Coast Archaeological Society)

S IJerry Milanich greeting visitors to the Tatham Mound, fall 1985. Photo by Nancy White.

Sonja Gray tiett) ana vave Knlgnt (rlgnt), soutneast riorlaa Arcnaeological
Society, at work at the Ft. Pierce Mound, fall 1996.

From left to right, Joan Deming, John Beriault, and George Luer examine a fea-
ture during a 1987 survey near Naples. Photo by Art Lee.

Nancy White excavating at the Corbin-Tucker site, summer 1988.

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society members Luther Ross (left) and Grant Hurst
(right) excavating at the USF Village site, 1991. Photo by Pam Vojnovski

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society members Linda Allred and Wes Powl
excavating at the Narvaez site, 1996.

F ;0 rI

Loren Blakeley demonstrating prehistoric pottery
making, 1991.

Louis Tesar at Magnolia Cemetery, Apalachicola,
summer 1994. Photo by Nancy White.

Art Lee m me aoumwest rionoa iarcnaeuiogicai aociely s traigneau muuiaLtr y.
Photo by George Luer.

Bud Knoderer (far right) supervises Indian River Archaeological Society members during
salvage excavation of the Hatbill Mound, October, 1977. Photo by Vera Zimmerman.

Brent Weisman with a bead from the Fig Springs Mission site, spring 1989.
Photo by Nancy White.

Indian River Archaeological Society members Vera Zimmerman and Ann Harris
excavating Archaic burials at the Gauthier site, 1977. Photo by C.R Knoderer.


C-111 -t-L-e-

rrom len to ngnT, aurt moore, jan Kanenoury, Vean zunmerman, vera
Zimmerman, Jim Escoffier, and Karl Bossert, Indian River Archaeological Society,
mapping 8BR549, 1995. Photo by Nancy Escoffier.

Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy testing the BaIberysie
1996. Carol Mills at left, Martha Dorrell at screen with students from overleaf Academ.
Photo by Anne Reynolds.

Chuck Wilde washing artifacts in the Kissimmee
Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
lab, 1996. Photo by Anne Reynolds.

rquardt at Gait Island. Photo by Ken Hardin.

Martha Riddlehoover (lett) and- onnme ranlm
(right) screening for artifacts at the site of a British
Colonial fort in Pensacola.

St. Augustine rcnaeological society snowing a group or scnooi cnuaren just now
small one centimeter is at the Cubo Line, St. Augustine.


A )~7.

Betty Riggan backfilling at the Cofradia site, St. Augustine.

"Connie" Franklin, Pensacola Archaeological Society, and a Washington High School
Archaeology Institute student assist children in the reconstruction of pottery sherds during
Archaeology Day, March, 1996.

Ripley Bullen at TIic Island. Mrom me collections or me Anmropoiogy
Department of the Florida Museum of Natural History, FLMNH #PN94.228.917.

Harv Dickey (toreground), Jonn eniuips tstanmng), ana memDers oI me rensacua
Archaeological Society, excavating brick foundation of the Officers' Quarters at a British
Colonial fort in Pensacola.

. J i : 32/ .1

Barbara Purdy (far right) and crew at Hontoon Island, 1988. Photo b

From left to right Rochelle Marrinan, Charles Fairbanks, Kathy Deagan, and Carl
MacMurray, University of Florida Armadillo Roast

John Griffin (left) and Kathy Deagan (right) in St Augustine, 1990.

From left to right: Chris Newman, Dana Ste. Claire, Bill Prentiss, Marsha Chance .., Glen Doran examining a burial in downtown Tampa, 1994. Photo by Rob Stewart.
(with rabbit ears), Randy Bellomo, and Darcie MacMahon at Rollestown Midden,
summer 1982. Photo by Bob Austin.

Jeff Mitchem (left) and Bill Prentiss (right) chowing down at the Armadillo Roast, Donna Ruhl excavating at Amelia Island. Photo by Jerry Milanich.
1983. Photo by Bob Austin.
_^* *

Roger Grange and Jackie Piper, 1994. Photo by Bob Austin.

ims with students at the Safety Harbor site, 1978. Photo by Bob Austin.

IP /4L

Bob Austin (left) and Dana Ste. Claire (right) chilling out at Rock Hammock, summer


Dot Moore neck deep in the excavation of a nineteenth-century well builder's trench,
New Smyrna, 1995. Photo by Dana Ste. Claire.

Charles Fairbanks teaching field school, ca. 1980s.

Phil Gerrell ilet and Cakin ones I rghtl conducting a rier urei, 199:i Photo
by Nancy White

Ann Cordell analyzing sherds in the Florida Museum of Natural History archae-
ology range. Photo by Bill Marquardt.

Melanie Wendt brushes ot a mia-1 / /s oome Trom
New Smyrna colonist's house site, 1997. Photo by
Dana Ste. Claire.

Ben Waller diving for Paleo points.

Mike Russo excavating at Piney Point, 1986. Photo by
Ken Hardin.

Photographs provided courtesy of Linda Allred,
Bob Austin, Kathy Deagan, E. L. "Connie" Franklin,
Ken Hardin, Art Lee, Elise LeCompte, George Luer,
Bill Marquardt, Jerry Milanich, Anne Reynolds,
Betty Riggan, Donna Ruhl, Dana Ste. Claire,
Brent Weisman, Nancy White, and Vera Zimmerman.
Design and layout by Octavo Design and Production, Inc.



Prehistory of the Central Mississippi Valley. Charles H.
McNutt (Editor), University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa,
1996. xiii + 313 pp., figures, tables, references, index,
$34.95 softboundd).

Arkansas Archeological Survey, P. 0. Box 241, Parkin,
Arkansas 72373-0241.

The archaeology of the Central and Lower Mississippi
Valley is undergoing a dynamic period of changing inter-
pretations and testing of long-held assumptions. As senior
scholars in the region retire, younger researchers are
coming on the scene, with fresh ideas and new data from
surveys, excavations, and studies of existing collections.
This activity is fostering healthy debates and the publication
of edited collections of papers and overviews, of which this
book is one.
The cover of McNutt's volume features pictures of the
three undisputed pioneers of archaeology in the region:
Philip Phillips, James A. Ford, and James B. Griffin.
Sadly, all are now deceased, but their classic, coauthored,
1951 study, Archaeological Survey in the Lower Mississippi
Alluvial Valley, 1940-1947, is still the benchmark for all
subsequent studies of the region from Cape Girardeau,
Missouri to New Orleans, Louisiana. The authors in
McNutt's collection of papers (which covers the region
between Cape Girardeau and the mouth of the Arkansas
River) include both senior scholars and younger research-
ers, and they are explicit about differing interpretations of
the archaeological evidence.
The first seven papers are overviews of the archaeology
of specific regions. McNutt concludes with a summary
chapter, peppered with his own interpretations. The volume
begins with an overview of southeast Missouri by Robert
Lafferty and James Price. The authors marshall a tremen-
dous amount of information into an interesting and thor-
ough summary of the region. The formidable number of
radiocarbon dates they report will be especially useful for
researchers working in the region and adjacent areas.
R. Barry Lewis then gives his interpretations of the
archaeology of western Kentucky and the Cairo Lowlands
of Missouri, based on his research in the region in recent
decades. He emphasizes some of the problems with time
frameworks and cultural sequences in the region, a problem
that affects much of the Mississippi Valley. Culture
sequences from the southern Mississippi Valley do not
necessarily fit the more northern regions, and Lewis tries
to clarify the situation somewhat.

The next chapter is a summary of the archaeology of the
Reelfoot Lake Basin in western Tennessee and southwest
Kentucky, by Robert Mainfort. Mainfort disagrees with
Lewis on some points of terminology. His paper is valuable
for his discussion of artifacts recovered from sites in the
region, highlighting the gaps in our knowledge of the area.
One curious result of his research is the finding that there
are few Mississippian sites along the interior west Tennes-
see rivers, even though the river valleys contain soils well-
suited for agriculture.
The fourth chapter, by Gerald Smith, summarizes archae-
ology in western Tennessee. This is one of the least
effective papers, dominated by discussions of projectile-
point types and inadequate descriptions of some of the
many phases in the region. In part, this is due to the fact
that many of the archaeological phases in the Central
Mississippi Valley are poorly defined, especially for the
Mississippian Period. It is particularly difficult to describe
these phases in terms of percentages of different ceramic
types, and this is one of the problems with which Smith
tries to grapple.
Dan and Phyllis Morse then provide a brief overview of
archaeology in northeast Arkansas since the publication of
their major 1983 synthesis, Archaeology of the Central
Mississippi Valley. Although the authors mention and cite
most of the major research efforts in the area, few new
data are presented. Emphasis is placed on the Dalton and
Mississippian periods, reflecting the major research
interests of the authors. The paper is especially effective in
relating recent reinterpretations of the route of the de Soto
expedition through the area, and the ethnogenesis of the
Quapaw Tribe.
The next chapter is a summary of the archaeology of east-
central Arkansas by John House. This brief paper is a
readable synthesis that uses major sites and excavations to
emphasize the various cultural phenomena in the area.
House (along with the Morses) laments the massive site
destruction in the region from agricultural development
(land leveling) and pothunting, both of which have occurred
on a scale unimaginable in other parts of the country.
The final area chapter is by Charles McNutt, covering the
Upper Yazoo Basin of northwest Mississippi. McNutt does
an admirable job of summarizing the complicated archaeo-
logical situation in this area. He critically examines phases
that have been defined (or in some cases, named but never
adequately defined) for the region, emphasizing the identifi-
cation and discussion of good marker artifacts for the
various phases.
The book concludes with a major summary by McNutt.


Not an easy task by anyone's standards, he does a very
good job of summarizing the salient points of the other
authors. McNutt has an obvious ecological bias, going into
great detail about environmental differences in various
regions and the resulting effects on local culture sequences.
In this situation, it makes sense, and the result is a satisfy-
ing overview.
The papers in this volume were originally presented at a
meeting of the Southern Anthropological Society in 1989.
Although the authors were allowed to update and revise
their papers, it is unfortunate that the volume took so long
to see the light of publication. Several of the papers are
dated, and in some cases, major projects in the intervening
years have altered some of the conclusions put forth by the
Without a doubt, this book will be an essential volume for
anyone working in the Central Mississippi Valley. But
frankly, for researchers working elsewhere, most of the
papers would be too difficult to understand because of the
many artifact types and phases which are generally familiar
only to those working in the area. For those desiring a
good summary of the archaeology of the region, McNutt's
summary chapter is a wise choice. His summary table of
phases, sites, and terms is especially valuable.
Charles McNutt and the contributors to this volume are to
be commended for undertaking a difficult synthesis of a
complicated and fascinating region of the country. And we
should be grateful that the University of Alabama Press
continues to publish affordable, well-made books on
Southeastern archaeology.

A History of Florida through New World Maps: Borders of
Paradise. Dana Ste. Claire (Editor) with catalogue annota-
tions and essay by Peter A. Cowdrey, Jr. and essays by
Dana Ste. Claire. University Press of Florida, Gainesville,
1997. 64 pp., glossary, suggested readings, bibliography,
$12.95 softboundd).

San Luis Archaeological and Historic Site, 2020 W. Mission
Road, Tallahassee, Florida 32304-1624

This book is a reissue of a book first published in 1995
by the Museum of Arts and Sciences in Daytona Beach
under the title, Borders of Paradise. The editor of this book
needs no introduction to the members of the Florida
Anthropological Society. Dana Ste. Claire is presently
Archaeologist and Curator of History at the Museum of
Arts and Sciences. His collaborator, Peter A. Cowdrey,
Jr., a historian, works with the Museum of Florida History
at the Old Capitol in Tallahassee.
The first 21 pages of this publication contain a one-page
introductory essay by Ste. Claire and his main essay
covering historic Florida from European contact down
through the achievement of statehood in 1845. In this essay
he discusses in turn European portrayals of Native Ameri-

cans, Spanish exploration and settlement of Florida, the
British Floridas of the eighteenth century, the impact on
Florida of the American Revolution, the second Spanish
interlude, the Seminole Indians in Florida history, and the
achievement of statehood. Ste. Claire closes his essay with
a brief description of the background of New World
mapmaking. Many pages reproduce engravings and other
artwork portraying Florida scenes during the three-and-one-
half-century period on which his essay is focused. Four of
the illustrations are seventeenth-century portrayals of St.
Augustine and its harbor done in Europe and acquired by
Kenneth Worcester Dow and Mary Mohan Dow. One
portrays St. Augustine during the British Period. The
remainder are more familiar ones such as a portrayal of
Billy Bowlegs and Count Castelnau's depiction of the 1826
state capitol.
In the second section of the book, Peter Cowdrey presents
16 maps that were drawn between 1540 and 1846. Four
date from the sixteenth century, three from the seventeenth
century, eight from the eighteenth century, and one from
the nineteenth century. Most of the maps reproduce the
colors of their originals. Although many are available in
other sources, Cowdrey's notes on each of the maps greatly
enhance their usefulness.
In a separate closing essay, Cowdrey discusses the
navigator as mapmaker, demonstrating that navigational
theory and practices strongly influenced mapmaking during
this age of exploration. Briefly, he describes the devices
that were available to sixteenth-century navigators and how
they used them.
Not all the maps concern Florida directly or have Florida
as their major focus. One depicts Cuba alone. New Spain
or Mexico is the major focus of two. One is a 1651 map of
the world that was chosen as an example of early seven-
teenth-century English cartography. One of the valuable
features of Cowdrey's section is his reflections on the
politico-diplomatic portent of some of these maps.
This publication will be a useful tool for its depictions of
scenes from early Florida, and its illustrations of and
commentary on the development of mapmaking. Its republi-
cation by University Press of Florida makes it available to
a wider audience than the one reached by the original

White Ironstone: A Collector's Guide. Jean Wetherbee,
Antique Trader Books, Dubuque, Iowa, 1996. viii + 228
pp., figures, bibliography, indexes, $20.95 softboundd).

Environmental Services, Inc., 8711 Perimeter Park Blvd.,
Suite 11, Jacksonville, Florida 32216

"Working in earth makes me easy-minded." These words
from potters of Staffordshire, England, open this book,
which contains much useful information for archaeologists
who deal with a variety of temporal contexts. Sites with


nineteenth- and early twentieth-century remains are admit-
tedly not everyone's cup of tea, myself included, but when
ironstone/whiteware is recovered it is nonetheless a profes-
sional responsibility to seek interpretations from these
ubiquitous artifacts. Working in earth also makes many
archaeologists easy-minded, and this book can help ease the
frustrations some exhibit when recovering late-dating
Chapter 1 begins by drawing a parallel between sturdy,
plain ironstone pottery and rural America during the
nineteenth century. The working majority were so busy
wresting a living from the land and clearing their acres
that, except for the wealthy gentry, there was little time to
be concerned with elegant table services. As seen in
historic artifact scatters across the nation (and much of the
world for that matter) most households used a little of the
year's profits to buy a set of ironstone dishes.
Chapter 2 provides a brief summary of ceramic develop-
ments that led up to the production of ironstone. Avoiding
mere descriptions, Wetherbee focuses on the influence of
international rivalries, economic circumstances, and
marketing preferences among different levels of society.
These factors are seen as culminating in the development of
an inexpensive, durable type of pottery that attracted
buyers. "There was a vast world market begging for these
useful stonewares" (p. 6). In 1813, Charles James Mason
made public his "Patent Ironstone China." Mason was a
good huckster and soon housewives across America
clamored for "ironstone china," a term that soon became a
permanent addition to the ceramic vocabulary.
In Chapter 3, the author briefly discusses the geography
of production. Nearly all of the English dishes we call
ironstone were made in the Staffordshire area, where
materials were available and the port of Liverpool was a
convenient distance to the northwest. Misuse of the term
"china" is discussed and, with apologies, Wetherbee admits
that it is impossible to avoid using it since so many of the
ironstone potters included the word "china" in their makers'
marks. Quoting Josiah Wedgewood, perhaps the leading
name among potters, we are told that refined earthenwares
are "not transparent, and consequently not china, for
transparency will be the general test of china" (p. 7). The
author opines that the sale of cobalt blue designs on white
ironstone did more to heal the wounds of the War of 1812
than all the words of the great British and American
leaders. In the 25 years following the conflict, dish-hungry
America was flooded with mass-produced white pottery
decorated with cobalt blue.
In concluding this short but informative chapter, Wether-
bee summarizes the evolution of form and design that
characterized the Staffordshire industry. Drawing directly
from George Miller's work, price lists are cited in order to
cast some light on the comparative value of these wares.
Shape preferences among Canadian and American consum-
ers are discussed, and we are given a brief introduction to
the fact that a wide variety of forms was being produced.
By the end of the nineteenth century most ironstone bodies

were designed for use as hotel china or toilet wares.
The next three chapters provide the information to which
users of this book will most often refer. Chapter 4 presents
general rules for reading makers' marks on the bottoms of
dishes potted during the nineteenth century. An index with
which to decode the letters used to document the year and
month of vessel production is given, as are some handy tips
for drawing general temporal interpretations in the field.
Of note is the list of "Other Names for Ironstone," of
which there are (count 'em) seventy. Briefly, these include
such familiar names as White Granite, Ironstone China, and
Royal Patent Ware, as well as the more obscure Dresden
Opaque China, Imperial Parisian Granite, Indian Ironstone,
Porcelaine a la Francais, and A la Perle. The French-
sounding names reflect the fact that from around 1840 to
1850, the Staffordshire firms felt threatened by French
potters who had begun making similar wares. Despite the
international contest, and the new names, the same English
wares were being produced.
This chapter also includes an alphabetized list of over 150
English potters whose nineteenth-century marks are known,
along with the factory locations and the years of produc-
tion. Sherds with makers' marks have always been gold to
those who try to refine temporal interpretations from
nineteenth/early twentieth century sites, and this list is most
useful. If for no other reason, pages 19 to 21 make this
book worth owning by archaeologists because they allow
for a quick identification of the dates of manufacture
associated with known marks. Wetherbee acknowledges the
need to update all lists through current research.
Chapter 5 deals with shapes. Included are lists of the
standard components of dinner sets and toilet sets, as well
as the more unusual ironstone forms (e.g., spittoons,
funnels, bed warmers). Chapter 6 covers vocabulary and
provides an alphabetized list of terms for describing
designs, formal attributes, finials, handles, lugs, etc. This
portion of the book serves as a useful companion to
Florence and Robert Lister's Descriptive Dictionary For
500 Years of Spanish-Tradition Ceramics (Lister and Lister
It is at this point that the book reveals its collectors'
orientation. The next ten chapters go into great detail with
such titles as "Shapes Named for Renowned People and
Places," "Grain and Grape Designs," "Foliated Shapes,"
"Ribbed and Classical Themes," etc. Many (many) black
and white photographs are included, in addition to numer-
ous line drawings of shapes, border designs, and makers'
marks. There is a wealth of specialized information here.
Chapter 17 discusses American White Ironstone, which
was made in most American potteries from about 1870 to
1900. Wetherbee includes a list of 88 American potteries of
the nineteenth century, their marks, and the founding dates
of the factories. At first, simple methods and patterns were
copied from the Staffordshire potters and much experimen-
tation was needed. From the 1840s on, perhaps the most
productive and best known of the American potteries were
those in the East Liverpool, Ohio region as has been

1997 VOL. 5 3)



voluminously treated by Gates and Ormerod (1982).
Chapters 18 through 21 return to the documentation of
specific forms, which are again lavishly depicted and
geared to collectors. Topics include "Utilitarian Pieces,"
"For Children Only," "Reticulated and High-Relief Trea-
sures," and "The Rare and the Wonderful." The final
chapter, "Still Looking, Still Listening," identifies problem
areas and questions that merit closer scrutiny.
There is no flashiness in this guide; the only color is on
the cover. The photographs are all closeups and are quite
good, and the drawings, while sometimes a bit crude, are
detailed. While a casual perusal of the volume may suggest
a reliance on photographs and drawings, the breadth of
information this book contains is really its most impressive
feature. There is also a bibliography, an index of shapes,
a potter's index, and (somewhat surprising for this book) a
price guide. I spotted only one typographical error (in the
table of contents). The text is readable, interesting, and
sprinkled with the realism of a person who knows what she
is talking about. A brief biography reveals that Jean
Wetherbee was born in the Mohawk Valley of New York
in the town of Canajoharie, an Indian name meaning "the
pot that washes itself."
Increasingly, archaeologists have been eschewing attempts
to determine whether pottery is ironstone or whiteware.
Rightfully so to some extent the temporal distinctions are
negligible and the differences in appearance of contempora-
neous wares (lacking makers' marks) are as likely to draw
different interpretations as are Munsell readings among
different individuals. Even Wetherbee seems to view the
two as synonymous, although it was not until page 164 that
she used the term "whitewares." From a temporal perspec-
tive, we can agree at a general level with the Encyclopedia
of English Ceramics and simply view white granite/iron-
stone/whiteware as the final phase of pearlware.
Taken as a whole, this book represents an incredible
amount of research and documentation, and is a valuable
reference book that keeps on giving. Since it is a collector's
guide, Wetherbee has done much to please that audience,
but at the same time she has provided a number of tools
that are of use to archaeologists in solving a problem. The
white pottery found during surveys is not going to go away,
and the vague "late nineteenth/early twentieth century
designation" is often incorrect, not to mention wildly
imprecise. This pottery is almost 200 years old is the
site from the 1840s or the 1920s? Learn as much or as little
as you care to, but anyone who has ever picked up a piece
of white pottery can gain something from this book.

References Cited

Gates, William C., Jr., and Dana E. Ormerod
1982 The East Liverpool Pottery District: Identification of Manufac-
turers and Marks. HistoricalArchaeology 16(1-2), whole volume.
Lister, Florence C. Lister, and Robert H. Lister
1976 A Descriptive Dictionary for 500 Years of Spanish-Tradition
Ceramics (13th Through 18th Centuries). The Society for Histori-
cal Archaeology, Special Publication No. 1.

About the Authors:

George M. Luer grew up with many interests including the study of orchids. He attended school in New
England, Spain, and Florida. He began doing archaeological work in southern and central Florida in the
1970s and presently is obtaining a doctoral degree in archaeology at the University of Florida.

Ryan J. Wheeler was raised in Fort Lauderdale where he developed an interest in natural history. He has
academic degrees from Florida Atlantic University and the University of Florida, and has authored and co-
authored a number of articles focusing on Florida archaeology. Currently he works for the Florida Bureau
of Archaeological Research conducting surveys on state lands purchased through the Conservation and
Recreational Lands Program.

Wesley F. Coleman is a life members of the Florida Anthropological Society and former Director at Large
(1974-1976). He also is on the Board of Directors of the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc.
and is Coordinator for Living History events in south Florida.

Arthur R. Lee, an avocational archaeologist, is Director of the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society's
Craighead Laboratory and is a past President of the Florida Anthropological Society.

Loren R. Blakeley is President of the Florida Anthropological Society and past-President of the Central Gulf
Coast Archaeological Society. A graduate of the University of South Florida, he uses his interest in
primitive pottery manufacturing as a way to teach the public about cultural and environmental preservation.

John W. Griffin, one of Florida's pioneer archaeologists, passed away in 1993. He was a founding member
of the Florida Anthropological Society, the first Editor of The Florida Anthropologist. He also was twice
elected as FAS President (1949 and 1974). During his five decades of research and field work he made
significant contributions to the archaeology of Florida's Mission Period, the Everglades region, and the
ceramic chronology of Volusia County. He received the Society's Ripley P. Bullen Award in 1989, the
Florida Archaeological Council's Lifetime Achievement Award in 1991, and an honorary Doctor of
Humane Letters degree by the University of Florida in 1992.

Louis D. Tesar is former Editor of The Florida Anthropologist and is currently an archaeologist with the
Florida Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research.

Jeffrey M. Mitchem is Associate Archaeologist with the Arkansas Archeological Survey and Associate
Professor of Anthropology at the University of Arkansas. He directs an ongoing program of excavations
and research at the Parkin site, a fortified Mississippian/Protohistoric Period village site in northeast

John H. Hann is resident historian at the San Luis Archaeological and Historical Site in Tallahassee and
is the author of several books and articles on the Mission Period in Florida.

Greg C. Smith is a Senior Archaeologist with Environmental Services, Inc. He received his Ph.D. from
the University of Florida in 1991 following research related to cultural formation in sixteenth-century
Spanish Colonial sites in Peru and Haiti. As a consulting archaeologist his research interests have
necessarily broadened.


7 VoL. S3)

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