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Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00094
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference: Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society
Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: June 1997
Copyright Date: 1948
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00094
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA9403
oclc - 01569447
issn - 00153893
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's page
        Page 50
    Articles
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
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        Page 65
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        Page 68
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        Page 82
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        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Florida Anthropological Society 1997 award recipients
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Obituary
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Book reviews
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    About the authors
        Page 112
Full Text





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additional


information and permissions.






rn


An


LORIDA


ANTHROPOLOGIST


Years


Volume 50
June 1997


Number 2


194


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Editor's


Page.


Robert J


Austin


ARTICLES


Grog-Tempered Pottery in the Mocama Province.


Keith H.


Ashley and Vicki L. Rolland


Metal Crested Woodpeckers: Artifacts of the Terminal Glades Complex.


Ryan J


Wheeler


A Case of Direct Association Between Fiber-tempered Pottery, Late Archaic Stemmed Points, and Santa Fe


Points at the Reddick Bluff Site,


Walton County.


Gregory A.


Mikell


FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1997 AWARD RECIPIENTS


Ripley C.


Bullen Award: Kathleen A. Deagan


Lifetime Achievement Award: William H. Sears


President's


Award for Distinguished Service: Arthur R. Lee


Chapter Awards for Distinguished Service

OBITUARIES

William H. Sears.


William R.


Maples.


BOOK REVIEWS


Milanich: The Timucua.


Keith H


Anderson and Sassaman (Editors):


Ashley
Paleoindian and Early Archaic in the Southeast.


Ryan J.


Wheeler


About the Authors










EDITOR'S PAGE


This issue of The Florida Anthropologist includes three


results of his excavation


at the Reddick


Bluff


site in


articles
the stat
focuses
sites in
on their
Period
this not


that together cover much of the
e. The first, by Keith Ashley
on grog-tempered pottery found
the Mocama Province of north
* analysis of sherd assemblages
sites, the authors provide a fo
tterv which thev refer to as th


They go on
tions of th
explain its
Pedro series
occupying
Florida. Its


geographic range of
and Vicki Rolland,
t on Spanish Mission
east Florida. Based
from seven Mission
rmal description of
ie San Pedro series.


, h - -- -- -- -- --------------
to discuss the temporal and geographic distribu-
e series and then present some hypotheses to
origin and spread. They suggest that the San
s may have originated among Timucuan groups
the interior of present-day Georgia and/or
Spread may have been fostered by changes in


food processing and cooking methods or by an influx of
nonlocal people who practiced a grog-tempered pottery-
making tradition.
The second article by Ryan Wheeler deals with a specific


artifact type -
to be restricted
describes the cr
data on the few
tion, dating, sty
Relationships to


metal crested woodpeckers that appears
in its distribution to south Florida. Ryan
ested-woodpecker form, and provides basic
known specimens including their distribu-
'listic relationships, and presumed function.
Other artifacts, including metal ceremonial


tablets, a tortoiseshell crested-bird ornament from Georgia,
and tortoiseshell streamers from Key Marco, also are
explored. Ryan attempts to place these artifacts within the
iconography of late prehistoric south Florida, specifically
invoking Goggin's "Glades Cult" as a local expression of
the more wide-spread Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.


The third article is


by Greg Mikell.


It describes the


northwest Florida. Deptford and Norwood pottery was
found at this site, the latter in association with stemmed and
lanceolate-shaped projectile points. The lanceolate-shaped
bifaces are identified as Santa Fe points which have
traditionally been assigned to the late Paleo-Indian Period
based on their lanceolate form. However, as Greg discuss-
es, the temporal placement of Santa Fe points has been
debated in Florida and the greater Southeast. Greg's
excavation provides the first firm stratigraphic and associa-


tional evid
during the
On a di
Miami, sp
ern Florid


lence from Florida for the use of this point type
Late Archaic Period.
fferent note, the Society's annual meeting in
onsored by the Archaeological Society of South-
a, was a successful, four-day event the longest


ever for an FAS meeting!
chapter should be congratul
putting together the society's
recognition of the Society's


The member
ated for their
50th annivers
anniversary,


s of this FAS
hard work in
ary meeting. In
Miami Mayor


Alex Penelas, presented President Loren Blake
proclamation at the FAS Banquet. The pr
congratulated the Society on its many accomplish
designated May 8-11, 1997 as Florida Anthr
Society Week.
The Florida Anthropological Society Awards
presented at the banquet and the recipients are


ley with a
oclamation
hments and
opological

were also
profiled in


this issue. Congratulations to all of these dedicated FAS
members for their achievements in fostering the goals of
the Society.

ROBERT J. AUSTIN








GROG-TEMPERED POTTERY IN THE MOCAMA PROVINCE


KEITH H. ASHLEY' AND VICKI L. ROLLAND

Environmental Services, Inc., 8711 Perimeter Park Boulevard, Suite 11, Jacksonville, Florida 32216
E-mail: akashley@jax-inter.net


A distinctive grog-tempered pottery has been recovered at
Spanish mission villages and other related sites along the
Atlantic coast from the Satilla River, Georgia south to St.
Augustine, Florida. While archaeologists over the past four
decades have noted its occurrence and commented briefly
upon its various surface finishes and heavy, crushed-sherd
tempering (Adams 1985; Borremans 1985; Bullen and
Griffin 1952; Chaney 1987; Dickinson and Wayne 1987;
Goggin 1952; Hemmings and Deagan 1973; McMurray
1973; Merritt 1977; Milanich 1971a), none have examined


its physical attributes in any detail. On
is to present a formal definition of
aboriginal ceramic series based on
sherds from seven sites located along
of Florida and Georgia. A second
dialogue concerning the dynamics of i
along the southeastern Georgia and


coast
1565-
The
by his
Pedro


e intent of this paper
the grog-tempered,


the analysis
the eastern sc
intent is to
its origin and
northeastern


of 106
aboard
initiate
spread
Florida


during the Spanish Mission Period (ca. A.D.
1702).
grog-tempered series is thought to have been made
toric Timucua-speaking groups who inhabited the San
mission district of the Mocama Province (Figure 1).


Its emergence on the coast marked a departure from the use
of sand-tempered Savannah or chalky St. Johns pottery that
characterize late prehistoric sites in northeastern Florida
and southeastern Georgia. While the grog-tempered ware is
most common at sites along the coast, a hinterland Timu-
cuan origin for its producers is possible. Following the
precipitous decline of indigenous coastal populations who
bore the brunt of European contact, the regrouping of
Timucua-speaking peoples at coastal mission villages may
constitute one of several factors influencing the emergence
and spread of the grog-tempered series within the Mocama
Province.
A brief comment on the term Mocama is needed as back-
-- -. I I


ground for the to


owing discussion. Mocama, spoken by


both the Saturiwa and Tacatacuru of coastal northeastern
Florida and southeastern Georgia, was one of the 11 known
Timucua dialects (Deagan 1978a:91; Granberry 1993:6;
Milanich and Sturtevant 1972). Because Mocama was the
nrednminant native lanuaEe spoken alone the Atlantic


portion of this coastal province was referred to as San
Pedro, a name derived from the region's principal mission,
San Pedro de Mocama (Hann 1996:18; Worth 1995:12).
Although the word "Mocamo" has been used by various
researchers over the past 30 or so years, this aberrant
spelling is not found in primary Spanish documents and is,
in fact, morphologically impossible in the Timucua lan-
guage (Granberry 1993:6; Hann 1996:18).
In an earlier paper (Ashley and Rolland 1996), we
suggested Mocama as the type name for the postcontact
grog-tempered series, since this designation had been used
informally by some mission archaeologists during the late
1980s to refer to this pottery. However, in light of recent
documentary research and syntheses on the Timucua (Hann
1996; Milanich 1996; Worth 1995), the use of the term
Mocama as a pottery name seems to be overstretching its
utility since Mocama already denotes a seventeenth-century


mission province, an ethnic group, and a dialect ot the
Timucua language. More importantly, it appears that not all
native groups in the Mocama Province utilized this ware.
Therefore, San Pedro, after the district and mission San
Pedro de Mocama, is proposed as the ceramic series name.

Previous Studies

John Goggin (1952), in his seminal study of northern St.
Johns archaeology, made the first reference to San Pedro
pottery by reporting that an unnamed sherd-tempered series
occurred in northeastern Florida and was most common on
Amelia Island. With regard to temper, he stated that "small
to large chunky pieces of crushed potsherds are included in
a sandy paste" (Goggin 1952:112). Based on his observa-
tions, undecorated sherds prevailed, although cob-marked,
fabric-impressed, simple-stamped, complicated-stamped,
and check-stamped types also occurred. The series was
presumed to have Georgia origins, and Goggin (1952:57,
112) dated it to the "St. Johns II [Period] and perhaps
later."
At about the same time as Goggin's study, Ripley Bullen
and John Griffin (1952) conducted a reconnaissance survey
of portions of Amelia Island, Florida. Although Goggin had





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 1. Map showing the Timucuan region, Sand Pedro de Mocama,
and modern Georgia and Florida (adapted from Milanich 1996).


the island (Bullen and Griffin 1952:45). At the Oldtown


Jerald Milanich (1971a, 1972) reported the


recovery of 317 plain and


sherds


(9CAM14)
Cumberland


15 cob-marked


v


Dungeness


on the southwestern


Island,


Georgia.


Vharf
coast


This is the


presumed site of the main Tacatacuru village
and Spanish mission San Pedro de Mocama.
From surface collections made at the site,


Milanich


(1971a:117)


suggested


that the


contact-era "Timucuan [Tacatacuru] inhabit-
ants made a sherd-tempered plain and cob-


marked


ware


rather


than St. Johns


pottery." Subsequent testing at the site by the


National


Park Service


sherd-tempered


identified


pottery,


as Wilmingtor


yielded
but the;
n ceramic(


additional
se were


researcher (Ehrenhard 1976, 1981).
Following the lead of Milanich, archaeolo-
gists working at mission-related sites in the
Kings Bay locality (Adams 1985; Smith et al
1981), on Amelia Island (Hemmings and


Deagan


Saunders


1992),


on Fort


George Island (Dickinson and Wayne 1987;


Jones


Augustine
1983) be


McMurray


(Chaney


gan


1973),


1987;


ascribing


and in St.


Merritt


1977,


the still unnamed


grog-tempered ware to the historic Timucua
occupants of their particular sites. Because
the pottery has been recovered in appreciable
quantities at a variety of sites in southeastern
Georgia and northeastern Florida, a formal
series typology now seems warranted.


Ceramic Study


Fernadina


site (8NA9),


the researchers


reported


sherd-tempered pottery was restricted to the upper levels of
all test units, in the same stratigraphic context as proto-
historic San Marcos ceramics (Bullen and Griffin 1952:50).


status


of grog-tempered


pottery


in northeastern


Florida became more uncertain with the definition of the


Colorinda pottery series in


1957.


According to


William


Sears (1957, 1959), the distinguishing characteristic of this
mostly undecorated ware is the presence of pulverized St.
Johns chalky potsherds within a sand-tempered paste. Based
on his seriation of pottery from sites in the St. Johns River
estuary, Sears assigned Colorinda pottery to the late St.
Johns I and early St. Johns II periods (A.D. 750-1000), and
tentatively related it both to Goggin's unnamed series and
4-,-\\ l1T.-..~-A 1 /- r. n /^rt flnI 1 llfll *kr-*/"n- n f irtr n rnn~w /~no /\ ,,rf tlQ nn/^rtbnr n


Sherd Sample

To gain a better understanding of the physical characteris-
tics of the grog-tempered series, a grab sample of 106
sherds was selected from seven Mission Period sites for


analysis.


primary


was the identification


common attributes that would help define the series. A
sample from a variety of sites was sought so as to docu-
ment the range of variability that might be present in the
ware, which is believed to have been produced locally on


sites in


southeastern


Georgia and


northeastern


Florida.


However, some vessels may have been used to transport
items (e.g., tribute), and thus may be recovered on sites
enrnm dietanr'i frnm their nflrlc nf nminnfantnre





ASHLEY AND ROLLAND


5545) in Duval County, Florida; and the North Beach site


(8SJ48) in St.


Johns County,


Florida (Figure 2).


Harrison Homestead site has been subjected to broad-scale
and controlled excavation.


pottery specimens


in this study were taken from


collections at the Florida Museum of Natural History, the


Methods


St. Augustine


Preservation


Board,


and Environmental


Services, Inc. A formal description of San Pedro series
pottery is provided in Table 1, and ceramic data by site are
provided in Table 2.
From a temporal perspective, each site contains a Mission


The ceramic study began with a macroscopic examination
of each sherd to describe interior and exterior surface
treatments. In addition, the color, weight, and thickness of


specimen


were recorded.


If the sherd


permitted,


Period


component,


documented missions.


and three


identified


The Dungeness Wharf site is the


location of the sixteenth and seventeenth-century mission
San Pedro de Mocama on Cumberland Island; the Mocama
mission of San Juan del Puerto is located at the archaeolog-
ical site of the same name on Fort George Island; and the
Harrison Homestead site on Amelia Island contains the
remains of the successive late seventeenth-century missions
of Santa Maria de Yamassee and Santa Catalina de Guale.
Also of note is the possibility that the Greenfield Plantation


rim/lip morphology and vessel form information also were
documented. Next, a fresh break was made on each sherd
in order to identify gross aplastics in the paste, such as


grog, sand, grit, and/or mica.


The fresh break also made


it possible to register interior coring and degree of mineral-
ogical color development using the Munsell soil color chart.
When possible, a Munsell rating also was taken of grog
particles.
After the fresh break was made, all sherds were initially


viewed at


10x magnification using a Leica StereoZoom


site (8DU78,


5544,


5545) is the location of the early


eighteenth-century Spanish garrison and Indian settlement
of Fort Piritiriba (Piribiriba), as well as the earlier location
of the visit San Pablo (Arnade 1960; Hann 1996:272, 290,


298; Johnson and Ste. Claire 1988).


Unfortunately, all of


these sites contain multicomponent deposits, and only the



Table 1. Description of San Pedro Series pottery


binocular microscope equipped with a micrometer eyepiece.
It should be noted that low magnification is required when
estimating the relative frequency of granule-sized grog
inclusions. Because most of the San Pedro sherds contained
a range of grog particle sizes, higher magnification was
needed to insure that all grog particle sizes were properly


Study Sample: 106 sherds from 7 sites in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia.

Method of Manufacture: Segmental coiling.

Paste: A fine-to-coarse sand paste tempered with crushed grog (prefired clay). Grog particles are most often angular and range in size
from medium (.25-.50 mm) to granule (2-4 mm). Particle size combined with the frequent presence of flat-sided clay inclusions suggest
that crushed sherds were the primary tempering agent. As a tempering agent, the grog has been retired, therefore its texture may appear
denser and more vitrified than the surrounding clay body. Grog inclusions include a variety of colors, such as gray, buff, salmon, and
deep red.

Texture: Surfaces vary from rough to smooth. Due to the presence of numerous large grog inclusions sherds often possess lumpy,
irregular surfaces. In rare instances, grog particles can protrude through vessel walls providing a three-dimensional, pebbly surface.

Surface Treatment and Decoration: The newly defined San Pedro pottery series consists of 6 main types: plain, check-stamped, cob-
marked, textile-impressed, cord-marked, and complicated-stamped. Sherds displaying incised lines, punctated, and/or scraped surfaces
have been recovered, but such types are infrequent and no distinct design patterns have been discerned. Intentional obliteration of
stamped/impressed designs is common. Interiors often retain evidence of shell scraping. Most often, interior and exterior surfaces are well-
finished to hard-tooled. Burnished surfaces are rare with the exception of intermittent burnishing associated with the obliteration of exterior
impressions.

Form: Small bowls and simple pots. Sherds range from 7 to 12 mm in thickness, although most are between 8 and 10 mm. Rims are


II I mi


MOCAMA POTTERY





1997 VOL. 50(2)


Satilla River --*"





GEORGIA-. um
*


)erland Island


St. Marys River Dungeness Wharf Site
FLORIDA 'Q "'
S\Devils Walkingstick Site
.








.* Harrison Home!

Nassau River '



Quercus Site-e ; ';
^ ; A :- *San Juan Del


..l'," *0-Greenfield Planta
Jacksonville


.. St. Johns River Atla
-,y Atla.\Oce
yS ,.,Intracoastal .Oce
I.' ~Waterway
*


stead Site


Puerto


tion


ntic
an


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


<.





ASHLEY AND ROLLAND


MOCAMA POTTERY


Table 2. Ceramic data.


Site Number Average Average Scraped Grog Grog Particle
of Sherds Weight (gmin) Thickness (numm) Surface Frequencya Size (mm)b

Dungeness Wharf 21 27.0 9.8 3 interior 7 common 9 >2
(9CAM14) 1 exterior 12 frequent 12 .25-2
2 occasional

Devils Walkingstick 18 45.2 9.9 6 interior 3 common 11 >2
(9CAM177) 4 exterior 10 frequent 7 .25-2
5 occasional

Harrison Homestead 13 28.1 9.0 10- interior 1 common 2 >2
(8NA41) 3- exterior 3 frequent 11 .25-2
9- occasional

San Juan del Puerto 19 45.7 9.7 10 interior 1 common 7 >2
(8DU53) 0- exterior 9 frequent 12 .25-2
9- occasional

Quercus (8DU625) 5 17.6 8.3 1 interior 0 common 1 >2
0 exterior 4 frequent 4 .25-2
1 occasional

Greenfield Plantation 13 27.3 8.7 7 interior 1 common 3 >2
(8DU78, 5544) 3 exterior 3 frequent 10 .25-2
9 occasional

North Beach (8SJ48) 17 17.5 9.9 3 interior 1 common 6 >2
1 exterior 15 frequent 11 .25-2
1 occasional


a Grog frequency (after Rice 1987:349): Rare = <1%
20-30%.
b Wentworth size classification (after Rice 1987:38-39):
Coarse = 1.0-2.0 mm; Granule = 2.0-4.0 mm


Occasional

Fine = .12


= 1-5%;


Frequent


.25 mm; Medium


= 5-10%;


Common = 10-20%;


.25-.50 mm; Coarse


Abundant =


= .50-1.0 mm; Very


documented.


Thus,


to further identify


aplastics and to


estimate the size and relative abundance of sand and grog
inclusions, each sherd also was examined at 70x magnifica-
tion. Aplastic particle size and density were gauged using
the Wentworth Scale and relative abundance scale, respec-
tively (Rice 1987:38-39, 349). Paste analysis followed the


visual


chart,


standardized
(1993:36-39).


descriptive
and used


terminology, ax
y Rice (1987)


id percentages
and Cordell


Going into this study we knew that a key issue of inquiry
would be temper, since the terms sherd, grog, and clay all


had been


interchangeably


in the past to describe


inclusions in the ceramic series. Our use of the term "grog"
follows that of Shepard (1956:25) and Rice (1987:476),
who define grog as prefired clay products (e.g., potsherds,
brick, tile) ground to small particle size and added to a clay


fired only once, they should achieve the same or nearly the
same color level as the background matrix or paste. In
contrast, prefired clay inclusions go through two firings, so
their colors) should be more highly developed than the
paste and possess a more vitrified appearance (Rice
1987:344-345; Shepard 1956:28). An exception, however,
is that pots fired in a reduction or low oxygen atmosphere
will produce a paste that lacks color development, even if
prefired clay inclusions are present. During firing, hardness
and color characteristics of a ceramic body are brought
about through the interplay of three conditions: duration of
firing, temperature, and amount of available oxygen. Thus,
it should be expected that the open-pit firing process used
by aboriginal potters would allow for a range of achieved
color saturation during one firing episode (Shepard 1956;
Rice 1987).
4 4 r f*





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 3.


Sherd sample from Dungeness Wharf: 26, 30, 38, 39,


44) plain; 33) cob-marked; 45) cord-


marked; 28, 29) unidentified punctated; 46, 47) check-stamped; 31, 42) unidentified scraped;
unidentified surface; 36, 41) obliterated impression; 37) eroded.


amics from this site (Figure 3). The following definition of
the newly proposed San Pedro ceramic series is based on
our analysis of this sample in combination with ceramic
information gleaned from previous studies.


Temper


27, 35)


decorated sherds often possess lumpy irregular surfaces.
Grog inclusions include a variety of colors, such as buff,
gray, salmon, and deep red, with individual sherds exhibit-
ing either uniform or diverse grog coloring.
In our study, grog consists overwhelmingly of non-spic-
ulate prefired clay. Spiculate grog occurs infrequently with


non-spiculate grog,


but never alone as is the case with


Based


on relative


frequency,


angularity,


color


development, it was determined that the manufacturers of
the San Pedro series pottery used crushed fired clay as
temper. Particle size combined with the frequent presence
of flat-sided clay inclusions strongly suggest that crushed
sherds were the primary tempering agent. Because "ground
sherds" are, by definition, a type of grog, the ceramic
series will be defined as grog-tempered. This also will help


to alleviate


confusing jargon


such as "sherd-tempered


Colorinda series pottery. Spiculate grog (i.e., crushed St.
Johns sherds) in very limited quantities was found only in
specimens from the Greenfield Plantation and North Beach
sites. As mentioned previously, crushed St. Johns sherd
tempering is the defining characteristic of Colorinda series
pottery (Sears 1957, 1959), which predates the San Pedro
series by at least six centuries. Those few examples of San
Pedro pottery that contain St. Johns sherds differ from
Colorinda pottery in the quantity of spiculate grog and in


fi + a r n n t~ + a


n 4+ r~ + a


rain nf n^f


ft-~ r


n rn ~, on no


vh ~rd ,IEIIvI IIn.'IUv ,lIIIIIiIiI(V~t gluT irntgii 11,1 Muir I~tU>'tI;IitA. 1''


i 1I t~ 1l l l7 irll 1 ii i^ i I I i ll i r ^ | lit I. i 1/1g ~ l l Ill Iil I* 1 1 i ii i. i n 1 1l





ASHLEmY AND ROLLAND


MOCAMA POTTERY


Assemblage Composition and Surface Treatments


surface treatment were observed and include cob marking,
check stamping, curvilinear complicated stamping, scrap-


Previous


investigations


in Florida


and Georgia have


textile


impressing,


punctatmg,


marking,


suggested that plain or undecorated San Pedro sherds are


most


common


(Borremans


1985:207-208;


Goggin


incising. These seem to be representative of those reported
in the literature (Table 3). In addition, some decorated


1952:112; Milanich 1971a; Merritt 1977:117). In the study
sample, undecorated exterior and interior surfaces included


roughly finished,


well-smoothed,


hard-tooled,


and bur-


nished examples. Compacted surface finishes help to seal
the porous clay body, suggesting that these finishes may be
related to vessel function and are not necessarily a mode of
decoration. Evidence of both interior and exterior surface
scraping was observed as part of the finishing process. In
our sample, the interior surfaces of 40 sherds (37.7%)
showed evidence of shell scraping prior to final finishing.
Seven of these (6.6%) showed no evidence of any addition-
al surface finishing, and the shell-scraped surfaces were
unaltered. Shell scraping, which can be performed at any


drying stage before firing,


was probably a byproduct of


making the thickness of vessel walls uniform.
Because of the "grab sample" means of selection used in
this study, ordinal ranking of the frequencies of surface
treatments is tenuous, although in the past cob marking has
been noted as the most common surface decoration (Deagan
1978a; McMurray 1973; Merritt 1977 Milanich 1971a,


1972).


In the study


sample,


various minority types of


sherds


were


partially


smoothed


over,


which


obscured


portions of the designs and left intermittent patterns that
were difficult to discern, particularly in the case of cob- or
textile-impressed sherds. Intentional obliteration of stamped
or impressed designs seems, in fact, to be a common trait
of the series.
With regard to cob-marked sherds (Figure 4), one intent
of the study was to scrutinize closely such sherds to ensure
that they were cob-marked and not textile-impressed. Using
calipers, various measurements were taken of individual


impression lengths


distance


between


, widths, a
impressions,


nd angles,
in an eff


as well as the
oirt to observe


uniformity in the design. Temporary casts of sherd impres-
sions were made from modeling clay and examined to see
if cupule indentations or warp-and-weft patterns could be
discerned. As a result, only three sherds were confidently


typed as textile-impressed.


been stamped


with a dried,


Eleven sherds seem to have


kernel-less corn cob.


surface treatments on eleven other specimens were too
obliterated to distinguish between the two types. The cob-
marked specimens display considerable variation in execu-


Table 3.


Surface treatments on sherds in the ceramic study.


Dungeness Devils Harrison San Juan Greenfield North
Surface Treatments Wharf Walkingstick Homestead del Puerto Quercus Plantation Beach Totals

Plain 5 4 1 8 8 26
Cob-Marked 1 1 1 7 1 11
Textile-Impressed 1 1 1 3
Cob/Textile Obliterated 2 1 5 2 1 11
Cord-Marked 1 1 1 3
Cord-Marked Obliterated 1 1
Check-Stamped 2 5 6 1 2 7 23
Check-Stamped Obliterated 1 1 2
Complicated-Stamped 3 1 4
Shell-Scraped 1 1
Shell-Scraped Obliterated 1 I





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


4tY'r\
/.'.
~

A4 ~ "'s


,H, .- ,i


Figure 4. Examples of San Pedro Cob Marked pottery. Proveniences: top row, left to right) not part
of current study, San Juan del Puerto, San Pedro de Mocama; bottom row, left to right) San Juan del
Puerto, San Pedro de Mocama, San Juan del Puerto.


tion, ranging from bold and crisp (in which distinct cupule
and cob row impressions are discernible), to haphazard and
overstamped. Smoothing over of cob-marked pottery also
is a common attribute of the Alachua ceramic series in
north-central Florida (Milanich 1971b:33).

Rim/Lip Morphology


sherds were very slight, suggesting large vessel diameters.
No plates, brimmed vessels, or other colonoware forms
were observed in our study. Additional support for this
observation comes from Mary Herron's (1986:36) analysis
of 182 grog-tempered sherds from the Fountain of Youth
site (8SJ31) in St. Augustine. The only vessel form she
noted was that of a shallow globular bowl with a diameter


of 15 cm.


There is little doubt that the grog-tempered


Twenty-five


specimens


in the study


sherds. Of these, 13 are direct, 9


incurvate.


Although


are exc


one interior fold


sample


are rim


urvate, and 3 are


was noted,


remainder display simple rims that include 13 flattened lips,


sherds from the Fountain of Youth site conform to our
definition of the San Pedro ceramic series because James
Merritt, who excavated and first analyzed the Fountain of
Youth specimens, states:


9 rounded lips,


and 2


beveled lips.


On decorated rim


sherds, impressions are continuous
20 rim sherds is depicted in Figure


to the lip.


samp


- .-, I *-~


Milanich (1971) found sherd-tempered plain and cob-marked
sherds at the presumed site of the San Pedro de Mocamo [sic]
mission on Cumberland Island and has identified the sherds
C..- 0 C T '* 1 -. L _-.* ^iL . .- , -^--. 7. -. C" '..n-U ^^-,knr In r














































Figure


Profiles of selected rims analyzed in this study.


Proveniences: a-/) San Pedro de Mocama; j-o) San Juan del Puerto;


p-q) Greenfield ]


r-s) North Beach;


t) Quercus.





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


incidence


(76%)


exterior


sooting


(carbonized


residues) combined with what appears to be a lack of vessel
forms with sharp angles (e.g., carinated or cazuela bowls)
suggests that some grog-tempered vessels served mostly as
cooking pots. From a technological standpoint, researchers
have noted that large-particle tempering (e.g., grog, shell,
etc.), coupled with a noncompacted surface finish, serve to
maximize the thermal tolerance and body strength of pots,


thus creating more efficient cooking vessels (Rice


Amelia Island, Saunders (1992) found a correlation between
vessel form, surface decoration, and mission layout. She
also reported that burnishing was most often observed on


simple bowls (Saunders 1992:145-150).


This information


suggests that some San Pedro vessels may have been used
for functions other than cooking. Additional research should
be undertaken to explore the relationship between grog size
and vessel function.


1987;


Steponaitis 1983). In our sample, large-particle tempering
was most apparent at Dungeness Wharf and San Juan del
Puerto (Figure 6), where several sherds contained large
grog inclusions that protruded through the sherd surfaces.
In contrast, some sherds were observed with fewer and
finer grog inclusions, and many of these displayed surfaces
that had been either hard-tooled or burnished. Functionally,
highly compacted surfaces (e.g., hard-tooled, burnished)


are better suited


containers.
Homestead


for use


as serving and


liquid storage


This was especially evident in the Harrison


sherd


Spanish-influenced,


collection, which
non-household


was derived


contexts


within


Other Grog-Tempered Pottery Types


No other formally defined grog-tempered pottery types
dating to the late prehistoric period occur in northeastern
Florida and/or southeastern Georgia. A perusal of artifact
assemblage tables in archaeological reports from the region
shows that the only formal grog-tempered series recovered
on sites are Colorinda and Wilmington, both of which date
to around ca. A.D. 400-1000. With regard to the Colorinda
pottery series, its Woodland context and distinctive crushed
St. Johns sherd tempering set it apart from the San Pedro
series (Sears 1957, 1959). At sites that have yielded


mission compound at Santa Catalina de Guale. In her study


appreciable


quantities


of Colorinda


pottery,


ware


of Guale (San


Marcos)


pottery


from Santa


Catalina on


usually is found in association with St. Johns pottery and


-II I __________





ASHLEY AND ROLLAND


MOCAMA POTTERY


sand-tempered plain wares (Russo 1992:116).


The Wilmington


ceramic


series


has been


defined


crushed sherd-tempered wares that are plain or decorated;


most


common


surface


treatment


marking (Caldwell and Waring


1968;


is a heavy


DePratter


1979).


Although DePratter's (1979) description of the paste of
Wilmington series pottery closely resembles that of San
Pedro, Wilmington sherds are infrequently recovered from
sites in the St. Marys region. Further, very few Wilming-
ton sites have been identified along the lower Georgia coast


south


of the


Altamaha River,


and none is


known for


association with postcontact San Marcos pottery at many
coastal sites. Unfortunately, sites that have yielded grog-
tempered ceramics in these two localities have yet to reveal
a clear stratigraphic distinction between prehistoric six-
teenth century and early postcontact contexts.
Archaeologists working in the Kings Bay locality have


commented


on a perceived


association


between


grog-


tempered plain and sand-tempered, Savannah Cord Marked
pottery (Borremans 1985:210, 284; Cordell 1993; DesJean
1985:149; Espenshade 1985:307,329; Smith 1982:354-355;
Walker 1985:102-103). Interestingly, this co-occurrence is


northeastern Florida (Cook 1977:24; Espenshade 1985:333;


most evident in mixed


contexts


(e.g.,


upper disturbed


Russo 1992:116; Smith et al.


1981:440). It may be that


levels)


multicomponent


sites


(e.g.,


9CAM171,


some sherds from this region, particularly those from sites


9CAM177) that contain evidence of postcontact aboriginal


a postcontact component,


been classified as


occupations.


The fact that grog-tempered pottery was not


Wilmington when, in fact, they are San Pedro.
In addition to these two formal pottery types,


recovered at other late prehistoric Savannah sites such as


various


the Killion site (9CAM179;


Smith


1982:355) and


unnamed sherd-,


grog-,


and clay-tempered sherds have


been found on sites in the area under study.


Since the


Crooked River site (9CAM118; Crook 1984) suggests that
San Pedro pottery was not part of the prehistoric Savannah


criteria used by authors to define the observed tempering
material as sherd, grog, or clay are lacking, it is difficult
to determine whether these sherds were indeed tempered
with prefired clay (e.g., crushed potsherds) or instead
contained lumps of dried clay. Thus, an explicit distinction
needs to be made between these two types of clay inclu-
sions when classifying grog-tempered sherds. On this same
subject, Marion Saffer states:


Lumps of clay in a paste, as opposed to ground sherd, may be
the result of insufficient grinding of the clay prior to its use in
the vessel. (By insufficient grinding is meant simply that the
clay was not ground to uniform fineness.) In some coastal
clays that the author has worked with, the lumps are common-
place. These clays are very hard when dry and very difficult
to grind. Thus, it bears noting that what has been called "sherd
tempering" may not be deliberately added pieces of sherds, but
lumps of clay. Further it may be hypothesized that those areas
and/or [temporal] phases where harder clays were used for
pottery (i.e., clays that were relatively difficult to reduce to a
fine powder) will have higher frequencies of what has been
called sherd tempering [Saffer 1979:24-25].


San Pedro Pottery: Temporal Context and Origins


Temporal Context


material a
(9CAM14),


assemblage.


no Savannah


the Dungeness
Cord Marked


Wharf
sherds


collected by Milanich (1971a) from several eroded shell
middens which were thought to date to the Mission Period.
Although only one 1 x 1 m test unit was dug at the Shell-
bine Creek site (9CAM24) in northern Camden County,


Kirkland


(1979:22)


reported


that sherd-tempered-plain


potsherds were recovered from a level that overlaid "levels
where sherds of Savannah Fine Cord Marked occurred."
Using the Kings Bay data, Espenshade (1985:308) has
tentatively suggested that the production of grog-tempered,


cob-marked
tempered,


pottery increased
cord-marked pottery


at the expense of
in the Kings Ba


sand-
area


around A.D. 1400. Based on her excavations at the Devils
Walkingstick site, Walker (1985:102) hypothesized that this


same ceramic shift occurred later,


during the sixteenth


century. Radiocarbon dates from Savannah sites in extreme
northeastern Florida tend to support Walker's hypothesis,
and strongly suggest that cord marking, not cob marking,
was the primary decorative mode in use when the French
Huguenots arrived in 1562 (Ashley 1995; Saunders 1992).
This begs the question Are grog-tempered plain and
Savannah Cord Marked types temporally related? If they
are, is their association a precontact or postcontact phe-
nomenon? Or, is their perceived association the result of
post-depositional mixing?


Present data suggest that south of the St. Johns River,
precontact ceramic assemblages are characterized by St.


Johns chalky pottery,


whereas to the north,


in the St.


Marys region, sand-tempered plain and cord-marked wares
....^A nnkn n-a f lfh ...n. Tart nnrnni rnnan~rnbnrt^o m/-l'.,irtrn in\ Vt


In her recent


analysis of 54


Savannah


Period


(A.D.


800-1500) potsherds from seven sites in the St. Marys
region, Ann Cordell (1993) identified 7 that were grog-
tempered plain. All were from a single site, Devils Walk-
:n* nn4Znflir TIflf' A S I 7'7\ an ,,ll+4nn^ a nan+^jhjh*4 ^IfJh~~ 1rnnntnV* +tn





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


conducted at the site by


Walker (1985:103),


who used


radiocarbon dates to suggest an "occupation range of A.D.
1575-1650" for Timucuan groups making cob-marked (San
Pedro) pottery.


To the south,


near St.


Augustine,


the grog-tempered


they also are characterized by gross differences in paste.
The Alachua series is defined as being tempered with
"medium sized grains of quartz sand plus some grit"
(Milanich 1971b:31). In addition, minority types of surface
treatment found on the grog-tempered series, such as check


series is frequently recovered at sites that also yield large
quantities of St. Johns pottery. The co-occurrence of these
two pottery types once again is restricted to mixed contexts
(Deagan 1978b; Chaney 1987; Merritt 1977, 1983), and
excavators have had difficulty in reliably segregating late


prehistoric


from early contact proveniences.


Curiously,


cord-marked sherds are rare at late prehistoric and post-


contact sites in the St.


Augustine vicinity (Stan Bond,


personal communication 1996). No Savannah Cord Marked
sherds were recovered from a coquina-dominated midden
that yielded abundant grog-tempered sherds at the North


Beach site,


which was radiocarbon dated to the early to


mid-seventeenth century (Bond 1993, 1996). This coquina
midden partially overlaid a late prehistoric St. Johns II
oyster shell deposit. The fact that the grog-tempered series
is found in seventeenth-century contexts in the St. Augus-
tine vicinity, and that Savannah Cord Marked pottery is
rare, suggests that the two are not part of the same assem-
blage and that the former is a postcontact ware.

Origins


Because the San


Pedro series is most often found at


Timucua (Mocama) missions or related sites, it seems very


likely that its ethnic affiliation is


Timucua.


If so,


where might the origins for the San Pedro series lie? Some
researchers have previously suggested that the San Pedro


stamping


and complicated


stamping,


are not found on


Alachua wares. More data along this line of inquiry are
needed.
There are at least two factors that might account for the
sudden appearance of the San Pedro series in an area not
known for the use of heavy grog tempering: 1) change in
food processing and cooking methods on the part of the
local population, and 2) depopulation of one group and the
arrival of nonlocal people whose potters were part of a
grog-tempered pottery-making tradition (see Rice 1984). In
some ways both hypotheses ring true. With regard to the
first, the natives living at coastal missions were experienc-
ing changes in their traditional subsistence economy. Most
notably, farming was more intensive during the Mission
Period, with corn and an array of newly introduced crops
grown by coastal mission Indians (Hann 1996:99; Milanich
1996:143; Ruhl 1993). At the same time the missions
themselves were undergoing episodes of population aug-
mentation or repopulation (Hann 1996; Milanich 1996). At
present, it is difficult to choose one alternative over other
equally plausible explanations since requisite archaeological
data are currently unavailable.
From a geographical perspective, it is worth noting that
grog tempering marks the Mission Period within the
hinterland Timucua Province of North Florida (Weisman
1992:38), and it also occurs in Mission Period pottery in


the Apalachee


Province


(Rochelle


Marrinan,


personal


pottery


series


was related


to the Wilmington-derived


Savannah ceramic complex of the northern Georgia coast
(Deagan 1978a:93, 101; Milanich 1971a:118). Although


cord marking does


occur as a minunority


decoration


surface treatment on San Pedro pottery, the dissimilarity


between


San Pedro


series


pottery


and the indigenous


communication 1996). While grog tempering appears to be
common in all mission provinces, the wares are stylistically
different in each region. Additional research is needed to
fully understand the cultural affiliation of San Pedro pottery
and its relationship, if any, to grog-tempered pottery types
produced in other mission provinces.


Savannah series suggests that the former did not develop
out of the latter. As discussed above, however, the two
types were both manufactured along the coast after Europe-


Discussion


an contact


are frequently


recovered


in the


same


postcontact contexts.
The direct source of the San Pedro series may not lie to
the north, but rather to the west within the interior of


present-day Georgia and/or


Florida.


In fact,


all of the


contributing authors who dealt with protohistoric contexts
in the Kings Bay Phase III investigation suggested some
link between grog-tempered, cob-marked pottery and the


A ~ ~ n-~ i /!, ^ ^:

While some may disagree that the San Pedro pottery
series dates exclusively to the postcontact period along the
coast, there is little doubt that the ware was being manufac-
tured -by aboriginal groups during the late sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. This was a time of tremendous
societal turmoil and displacement for the Indians of La
Florida, who were compelled to adapt to a swiftly changing
social, physical, and epidemiological environment (Dobyns


- - - - - ~ -





ASHLEY AND ROLLAND


Mocama Province.


Spanish


accounts


indicate


that the


various


Timucua-


speaking groups of southeastern Georgia were drawn into
the mission system and placed under the jurisdiction of San
Pedro (Geiger 1937; Hann 1996; Worth 1993, 1995). In
fact, by 1600, if not earlier, friars stationed at the coastal
missions of San Pedro and San Juan were proselytizing
among the inland Timucua and enticing them to relocate to
the main mission settlements. In fact, Father Baltasar Lopez
of San Pedro de Mocama writes that he "made expeditions
into the hinterland [northern Florida]" (Milanich 1994:277).


the end of San Pedro series pottery. Interestingly, the best
evidence for its production beyond this date comes from the
Harrison Homestead site (8NA41) on Amelia Island, which
is the location of the non-Mocama missions of Santa Maria
de Yamassee (1673-1683) and Santa Catalina de Guale


(1686-1702).


The former was established and the latter


relocated to the same area on Amelia Island from the north
after San Pedro was abandoned. Archaeologists working at
the site have recovered San Pedro series pottery in moder-


ate amounts


1992:168).


(Hemmings


and Deagan


1973;


Saunders


It seems doubtful that either Guale mission


Thus,


mission


villages


and possibly


visits


served


aggregation points where linguistically related, yet dialec-
tically distinct, Timucua groups coalesced. Such interac-


tions,


whether


intermittent


or sustained,


would


included a large Mocama population, since Worth (1995)
has convincingly demonstrated through archival research
that as coastal groups were forced to aggregate themselves
at mission settlements, Mocama people settled at Mocama


brought


different


pottery


potters


together,


missions


and Guale


groups


in Guale


missions.


providing opportunities for information exchange and the


borrowing of ideas and/or techniques.


Thus, it may have


been within such heterogeneous refugee or mission settle-
ments that the grog-tempered series had its genesis along


However, since intergroup marriage does not seem to have
been prohibited, some Mocama potters may have been
living at Santa Maria and/or Santa Catalina during the late
seventeenth century and manufacturing San Pedro pottery.


the Atlantic coast.


Finally,


interesting


to note that archaeologists


Because the grog-tempered series was first recovered on
Cumberland Island, it is most often cited as the ware of the


indigenous


contact-era


Tacatacuru


(Deagan


1978a:101;


Milanich 1971 la, 1972). This contention is based on a large
surface collection from what appears to have been the
location of the main Tacatacuru settlement and the Spanish


Mission of San Pedro.


Since then the ware has been found


working in the interior


Timucua mission province have


grappled with a similar ceramic dilemma (Loucks 1979;
Weisman 1992). There, it is the appearance of grog-tem-
pered Jefferson ceramics during the Mission Period that
supplants the indigenous Suwannee Valley series. In the
past, researchers have suggested that the abrupt appearance
and dominance of the new ceramic types at mission sites in


in appreciable amounts at other sites along the mainland
coast of Camden County in territories possibly belonging to
different Timucua groups such as the Yufera and Cascan-
gue (Adams 1985; Kirkland 1979; Smith et al. 1981).
Presently, archaeologists are unsure what pottery these and
adjacent hinterland Timucua, such as the Ibi (Yui) and
Oconi, were making at contact and shortly thereafter. Thus,
an understanding of the origins of the San Pedro series may


be found in the interior of southern Georgia,


possibly


within or near the Okefenokee swamp.
While present at many coastal sites, the San Pedro series
does not reflect the wholesale replacement of all Timucua
pottery types with the grog-tempered series. Instead, the
ware seemingly represents an addition to the other pottery
types that characterize Mission Period contexts along the
Atlantic coast of southern Georgia and northern Florida.
Considering the archaeological evidence at hand, and in
light of the demographic changes Timucua populations were
undergoing during the late sixteenth century, any attempt to


assign


the grog-tempered


ceramic


series


to a specific


Timucuan group at this time seems premature. Moreover,


4


I


- .-l- -- ..--------


*..-nnnn.ftjni^ an nrj7n nyflfliflfl fT Yflf fl*ri flg~r in .at't'nii U.* ifl t1


the Timucua Province was the


result of a large-scale


migration of nonlocal Apalachee groups into the region.
Recently, both Milanich (1996:104-107) and Hann
(1996:231-237) have challenged this interpretation, arguing
that there is no documentary evidence for the wholesale


repopulation


of the


Timucua


missions


Apalachee


Indians. Although Hann (1996:234-235) rejects the migra-
tion hypothesis outright based on the documentary informa-
tion at hand, Milanich (1996:106) is more accepting and
even suggests that Timucua-speaking groups from Georgia
may have repopulated the Timucua Province during the
Mission Period. A definitive answer to this dilemma must
await further archaeological and archival research.

Conclusion

The newly proposed San Pedro pottery series has been


defined h
aboriginal


as a crush


ware.


At the


ed grog (f
assemblage


hired


leve


clay)-tempered
1, undecorated


wares seem to dominate, although a range of minority
surface treatments occurs, including cob-marked, check-
QtrmnPd rnrd-marlced teytilp-imnreqqed and comnlcaated-


MOCAMA POTTERY





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


postcontact phenomenon, and its occurrence on sites along
the Atlantic coast of southeastern Georgia and northeastern
Florida reflects movements of Timucua-speaking groups


and/or


boundaries
settlement
analytical,


their pottery


between


vessels


San Pedro


at St. Augustine.


behind


protective


and the


main


Spanish
Spanish


Additional archaeological,


and archival research is needed before more


definitive statements can be made regarding


the grog-


tempered series and the specific cultural identity(ies) of its
makers.


Acknowledgments


Earlier


versions


Anthropological


of this paper were presented in


Society


meeting in


Sarasota


1996 at the Florida


and the Southeastern


Archaeological Conference in Birmingham, Alabama. Special thanks are
given to Elise LeCompte, Becky Saunders, Jerald Milanich, Stan Bond,
and Charles Potter for allowing us to examine sherds from collections at


their respective institutions. Thanks also to


Smith and Marsha


Chance for their helpful comments. Finally, the authors wish to thank Bob
Austin and three anonymous reviewers for their critiques and editorial
suggestions.


Anthropology, Florida State Museum, Gainesville.
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1977 The Lower Georgia Coast as a Cultural Sub-Region.


Georgia
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1978a Cultures in Transition: Fusion and Assimilation Among the


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Mitigation of NPS 9CAM5 and 9CAM6. National Park


Service,


Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee.
Espenshade, Christopher
1985 Ceramic Technology of the Kings Bay Locality. In Aboriginal
Subsistence and Settlement Archaeology of the Kings Bay


Locality, Vol. 1, edited by W.H. Adams, pp. 295-336. Universi-
ty of Florida, Department of Anthropology Reports of Investiga-
tions No. 1, Gainesville.
Maynard


Geiger,
1937


The Franciscan Conquest of Florida (1573-1618) In


Hispanic American History.


Site: A Diachronic


on a Tidal River in


Southeast


Georgia. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
Bullen, Ripley P., and John W. Griffin
I ftlC A.. A ..n.1nn.llnn1tnl i a, ar An maal TClinA lnrilda Tho


Goggin,
1952


Studies


The Catholic University of America,


Washington D.C.
John M.
Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology,


Florida.


Yale University Publications in Anthropology 47, New


Haven.
Granberrv. Julian


Bay Locality,


1985 Archaeology of
Perspective of A





ASHLEY AND ROLLAND


MOCAMA POTTERY


Hemmings, Thomas, and Kathleen Deagan
1973 Excavations on Amelia Island in Northeast Florida.


Contributions


Chicago.
Ruhl, Donna


of the Florida State Museum 18, Gainesville.


Heron, Mary K.
1986 A Formal and Functional Analysis of


from Two


St. Johns


Sites in St. Augustine, Florida.


Old Customs and Traditions in New Terrain: Sixteen- and
Seventeenth-Century Archaeobotanical Data from La Florida. In


Series


Pottery


In Ceramic Notes 3,


Foraging
Margaret


and Farming in the Eastern Woodlands, edited by


Scarry,


255-283.


University Press of Florida,


edited by Prudence M. Rice, pp. 31-45. Occasional Publications
of the Ceramic Technology Laboratory, Florida Stated Museum.
Gainesville.


Gainesville.
Russo. Michael


Chronologies and Cultures of the St. Mary's Region of Northeast


Johnson, Robert E., and Dana Ste. Claire


An Archeological and


Historical


Survey of


the Greenfield


Plantation Tract, Duval County, Florida. Report prepared for
Sound Builders of Duval County, Inc. by Florida Archeological
Consultant, Jacksonville.


ones,


William


Florida and Southeast Georgia. The
45:107-126.
Saffer, Marion


Florida


Anthropologist


1979 Aboriginal Clay Resource Utilization of the Georgia Coast.


thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Gainesville.


M.A.


University of Florida,


A Report on the Site of San Juan del Puerto, A


Spanish


Mission,


Saunders, Rebecca


Fort George Island, Duval


County,


Florida. On file, Haydon


Stability and


Change in


Guale Indian Pottery,


A.D. 1350-1702.


Burners Library, Jacksonville.
Kirkland, Dwight S.


Preliminary


Archaeological Investigations on Floyd


Camden County, Georgia. Early Georgia
Larsen, Clark Spencer (Editor)


7:1-25.


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Sears,


Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
William H.


Excavations on Lower St.


Johns River, Florida.


Contributions of


the Florida State Museum 2, Gainesville.


The Archaeology of Mission


Santa


Catalina


De Guale: 2 Bio-


Two Weeden Island Burial Mounds, Florida. Contributions of the


cultural Interpretations of a Population in


Transition. American


Florida


State Museum 5, Gainesville.


Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers Number 68,
New York.
Loucks, L. Jill
1979 Political and Economic Interactions Between Spaniards and
Indians: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Perspectives on the


Mission System in Florida.


Ph.D. dissertation, Department of


Shepard, Anna O.
1956 Ceramics for the Archaeologist. Carnegie Institute of Washington,
Washington D.C.
Smith, Marvin T.


1987 Archaeology of Abo
Southeast. University


original


Culture Change


in the Interior


of Florida Presses, Gainesville.


Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.


McMurray, Judith A.
1973 The Definition of the


Aboriginal Depopulations in the Postcontact Southeast. In The


Forgotten Centuries:


Ceramic


Complex at San Juan del Puerto.


M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.


Merritt, James D.
1977 Excavation


Indians and


Europeans in the American


South, 1521-1704, edited by Charles Hudson and Carmen Chaves


Tessar, pp. 257-275.
Smith, Robin L.


The University of Georgia Press, Athens.


Coastal Mississippian Period Sites at Kings Bay: A Model-Based


Coastal


Eastern


Timucuan Village


in Northeast


Archaeological Analysis.


Ph.D. dissertation,


Department of


Florida. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State
University, Tallahassee.
Beyond the Town Walls: The Indian Element in Colonial St.


Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Smith, Robin L., Chad O. Braley, Nina T. Borremans, and Elizabeth J.
Reitz


Augustine. In Spanish St.


Augustine:


The Archaeology


Colonial Creole Community, edited by Kathleen Deagan, pp.


147. Academic


Press,


New York.


Coastal


Adaptations in


Sites at Kings Bay.


Bay, Camden County,


Southeast


Final Report o


Georgia.


Georgia: Ten Archaeological
n Secondary Testing at Kings


University of Florida, Depart-


Milanich, Jerald T.
1971a Surface Information from the Presumed


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Papers.


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Site of San Pedro de


Sites Archaeology


5:114-121.


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the Florida
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Tacatacuru and the San Pedro de Mocama Mission.


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41:283-291.


Franciscan Missions and Native Peoples in Spanish Florida. In
The Forgotten Centuries: Indian and Europeans in the American
South, 1521-1704, edited by Charles Hudson and Carmen Chaves


Tesser,


pp. 276-303. University


of Georgia


Press,


Athens.


1996 The Timucua. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Ma.
Milanich, Jerald T., and William C. Sturtevant


Francisco Pareja's 1613


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ment of Anthropology, Gainesville.
Frankie


1990 Pine Barrens Lamar. In Lamar Archaeology: Mississippian
Chiefdoms in the Deep South, edited by Mark Williams and Gary
Shapiro, pp. 82-93. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
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1983 Ceramics, Chronology, and Community Patterns: An Archaeolog-


ical Study
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Settlement Archaeology of the Kings Bay Locality, Vol. 1, edited
by W.H. Adams pp. 75-104. Department of Anthropology
Reports of Investigations No.1, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville.
Weisman, Brent R.


at the Fig


- flt..... .. .. I... Cl ,..4A.. fl~...a.4rnant nC Vt-nt-a flh,. o.nn Srinav Mivvinn 1Iyiiver~itv


Pref of Florida. (aineqvillep


at Moundville. Academic


9CAM177D. In


Excavations on the Franciscan Frontier: Archaeology


gnrmnov Mivvinn llnivftrcitv








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HOLOPAW depicts


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IQl*ccessful bear hunt; a


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THE HUNTERS illustrates


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CLOSING


IN depicts


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A.D. 900-1


Featured on


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TATAMAHO depicts an Indian gigging


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THE RETURN depicts two tattooed


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In the distan


ce, smoke rises from a campsite hidden amidst


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ROSKITA denicts the Green Corn Ceremony.


one of the most


THE


ANTHROPOLOGICAL


Cn
(r)
0
b$'


f:M^4


d







METAL


CRESTED


WOODPECKERS,


ARTIFACTS OF THE


TERMINAL


GLADES COMPLEX


RYAN J. WHEELER

Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, 5932 NW 28th Terrace, Gainesville, Florida
32653
E-mail: rwheeler@mail.dos.state.fl.us


Metal


crested-woodpecker


ornaments


are distinctive


woodpeckers are associated contextually, temporally, and


artifacts of contact-era southern Florida. This artifact type
has contextual and stylistic relationships with the better


through


manufacture


reworked,


European-


derived material. Despite this, the tablets and woodpeckers


known


"ceremonial tablets"


(Allerton et al.


1984).


differ


in style,


with the crested


woodpeckers


clearly


tablets and crested woodpeckers, along with a complex of
related artifacts, form the basis of what Goggin (1947,
1949:641-656) called the "Glades Cult." While this concept
is no longer in vogue with some archaeologists, we are still
confronted with the unusual burial goods of the Glades IIIc


representing an avian being,


while the tablets combine


celestial imagery with abstracted zoomorphic designs. In
this sense, the metal crested woodpeckers have more in
common with the bone and wood animal-effigy carvings


made earlier in the Glades


Tradition.


Upon comparison,


Period


(A.D.


1500-A.D.


1760),


many


of which


reworked from salvaged Spanish shipwreck materials. In
fact, this complex of artifacts includes a blend of traditional
native objects and items of Spanish material culture, as well
as the reworked metal items discussed here. Together the
tablets and woodpeckers represent a complex, interrelated
system of iconography that shares some motifs with other
cultures of the southeastern United States, and yet holisti-


cally appears as a distinctive local art style.
This paper focuses on the crested-woodpecker


detailing


known


specimens,


distribution,


form,


dating,


iconography, stylistic relationships, and function. Relation-
ships to other artifacts, including a tortoiseshell crested-bird
ornament from Georgia, and tortoiseshell streamers (long


however, the tablets and woodpeckers share several motifs,
providing evidence of a close iconographic link between the
two artifact types.


Metal Ceremonial Tablets


Allerton et al. (1984:15-23) have provided an analysis of
the formal qualities of the metal ceremonial tablets along
with a list of design elements that regularly appear on the
tablets (see Figure 1 for tablets and related artifacts). The
typical tablet form is comprised of two parts: a tenoned half
and a thicker spatulate half. The five design elements that


appear regularly on the obverse of many metal


include the cross-and-circle,


tear drop,


tablets


concentric arcs,


decorative strips cut from sea turtle scutes)
Marco, also are explored.


from Key


medial


and nested half-rectangles.


Crescents and


vertical lines comprise the only motifs that routinely occur


on the


reverse


side of these


tablets.


Allerton


et al.


Iconography of the Terminal Glades Complex
or "Glades Cult"


(1984:16) suggest that the cross-and-circle motif and its
variants that appear on the tablets are related to the cross-


and-sun-circle


motif


of the Southeastern


Ceremonial


Metal ceremonial tablets and metal crested woodpeckers
are the two artifact types at the heart of the "Glades Cult"
as defined by Goggin (1947:275; 1949:642-649). Goggin
(1949:642-649) patterned the "Glades Cult" on the "South-


Complex. Allerton et al. (1984:16-19) interpret the remain-
ing motifs found on the obverse side of the tablets as
abstracted zoomorphic designs; the tear drops represent


eyes,


the concentric arcs are akin to


the lore or area


ern Cult"


"Southern


as formulated by Waring and Holder (1945). The


Cult,"


or Southeastern


Ceremonial


Complex


(SECC), includes an array of artifact forms, imagery, and
motifs associated with the political and religious aspects of
Mississippian cultures in the southeastern United States, ca.
A Tf 11flfl 1 AAA \1n-;1nt1 n ,-rn^lnnnohn Ka*,aan t*h "'lloas,


separating the eye from the upper edge of the bill on the
crested woodpeckers, and the nested half-rectangles suggest
a muzzle, bill, nose, or mouth. The medial strip, one of the
most common motifs on tablets, is found separating the
eyes on many Key Marco animal carvings and paintings.
SI l ,, m-mtql tnl, fae eaantn nn nh4 nn vel^t front 'T7,nnirnlv M t"'





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 1. Metal ceremonial tablets, and related forms, showing designs related to those on the crested woodpeckers:
a-b) duck- or spoonbill-effigy plummets of stone, Jones Mound (8HI4); c) ceremonial tablet of stone, 8CR45; d) gold
tablet, Williams I (8HG3B); e) silver tablet, 8GL35; note the nested arcs below teardrop motif; f) silver tablet, 8LL2;
note hatching used to highlight some motifs; g) copper alloy tablet, 80S4; note the unusual eye motif that replaces
the typical teardrop motif; h) silver kite-shaped pendant, Picnic Mound (8HI3). Drawings of stone and metal tablets
reproduced from Allerton et al. (1984:45, 28, 41), courtesy of George Luer. Drawing of the Picnic Mound specimen
from the Goggin Collection, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Gainesville.


obvious zoomorphic representations, including duck and
I * rr.i I---------------------- 11-


1996:51-58, 317-319, Figure 9-3; see Figure la-b). The
... J- __ 1__- l tf* ^ .. ... i i -,L . .. l- .. . ..- t-l __! r





METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


crested woodpeckers are known, far fewer than the number
of known tablets. Eight of the nine woodpeckers are
illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. These all are long, thin,
tapering objects with the design of a crested bird in profile


the arc behind the eye. An interesting detail found on about
half of the crested woodpeckers is an oblong cut-out area
that separates the bill from the chest (Figure 2a, c, e, g).


All specimens are incised with details of
uding lines that extend down a portion of
artifact. These lines may be akin to the
noted on animal representations produced
ses of the Glades Tradition, as exempli-
d dolphin tablet and painted woodpecker
Marco (Gilliland 1975:Plates 36 and 61).
nade the crested woodpeckers concentrat-


ed the greatest incised detail on the eye
bossed and/or fitted with circular cop
Allerton et al. (1984:18) compare the
the crested woodpeckers with simil
ceremonial tablets from various site


recovered from Key Marco,


including


A.


e, which
per or
eye mot
ar moti:


often is em-
gold covers.
:ifs found on
fs found on


,s, and on artifacts
the cat figurine, sea-


turtle figurehead, alligator figurehead, and bone pin with
vulture carving.

Catalog of Specimens

Goggin (1949:579-582) provided a brief list of the eight
then-known crested-woodpecker ornaments (with some
errors). An updated and more detailed catalog follows.
Branstetter (1991:77-82) follows Goggin's numbering of the


crested woodpeckers, which is maintained here.
summarizes physical and stylistic aspects of
presently known metal crested woodpeckers.


Table 1
the nine


Metal Crested Woodpecker #1

Rau (1878) reports a gold crested woodpecker recovered
from a site in Manatee County' (Figure 2e; also see
Covarrubias 1954:271). This piece was sent to the Smith-
sonian Institution for identification by Damon Greenleaf2 of
Jacksonville, who obtained it from the excavator. Rau
(1878:298-299) describes it as "cut from a flat piece of
gold plate, not quite a millimeter in thickness, and some-
what thinner at the edge." Apparently the object was
broken near the woodpecker's head by the excavator. The
eye is embossed, but does not have an associated applied
eye, and apparently was not perforated. Rau (1878:300)
made some observations on the manufacture of the orna-
ment, noting that it was hammered from sheet or coin
metal, decorated on both surfaces, and engraved with a dull
knife. The engraving implement produced a "double line,"
similar to engraved lines on other metal specimens of this


Metal Crested Woodpecker #2

Tallant (n.d.; see also Allerton et al. 1984:Figure 5;
Branstetter 1991:78-79) recovered a silver crested wood-
pecker, with copper applied eye, from Gopher Gully


(8GL
condit
erode
design
This


28; SFM 4512). Goggin (1949
ion of this specimen, which i
d edges (see Figures 2a and
is incised on both sides.
specimen has a wedge-shaped


P:580) notes the poor
is weathered and has
4, center). The same

projection extending


from the bottom of the eye, akin to the example from
Mound Key (cf. Figure 2b). This detail is found on other
zoomorphic forms in Florida art, including a Hopewellian
eagle-effigy plummet of stone (Brose et al. 1985:86), and
the "sea turtle" figurehead from Key Marco (Gilliland
1975:Plate 68). Luer (1992:55) has pointed out the bird-like
qualities of the latter specimen, which may actually be an
osprey and not a sea turtle.

Metal Crested Woodpecker #3

Another Tallant specimen of silver, with gold applied eye,
is from Nicodemus (8GL9; SFM 8552) (Tallant n.d.; see
also Branstetter 1991:78). Both sides are engraved, and the
maximum length is 21.1 cm. The lower end of the piece is
not pointed but squared off (see Figures 2d and 4, top). It
is unclear if the object was broken and reworked, or simply
made this way. This piece lacks the oblong cut-out area
between the bill and chest. Nicodemus has produced four
ceremonial tablets, two of which have concentric-arc motifs
(Allerton et al. 1984:30-33; Luer 1994:185).

Metal Crested Woodpecker #4

Goggin (1949:580) assigned a copper specimen found by
Tallant to Nicodemus, the same site from which #3 (above)
was recovered. There is an extremely fragmentary copper
crested-woodpecker ornament in the SFM collection (SFM
A1943), attributed in the Tallant catalog to Ortona
(8GL35). This appears to be the same specimen listed by
Goggin, and thus I believe that it should be attributed
correctly to Ortona. Both Tallant and Goggin
(1949:329-331) recovered contact-era artifacts from the


at the wider end.
a bird's head, incli
the length of each
body or life lines
during earlier pha
fied by the incise(
plaque from Key
The artisans who


WHEELER






THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 2.
(8WA15),


- - ~- a a'


Metal crested woodpeckers: a) MCW #2 (8GL28), 23.1 cm


b) MCW #7 (8LL2), 23.8 cm; c) MCW #8


26 cm (after Goggin 1947:274); d) MCW #3 (8GL9), 21.1 cm; e) MCW #1, Manatee County, 22.9 cm (Rau
a j- r nw w 'nrjj-.-w rc -J a*h ,f k. ** rd WW U~ A T J O rNt / -




METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


Figure 3.


Metal Crested Woodpecker #9, obverse and reverse, from an undetermined site in Glades County (drawing


after 1982 photographs by David Allerton).


The length of this specimen is estimated at 30 cm.


Private collection.


~. a .~ .. -


WHEELER





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 5.


Metal crested woodpecker from 8LL2 (UM 8189). Photograph by the author, with permission of


the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.


with reached mane and bridle carved on the end and a pure
gold eye stuck on with pine gum" (Tallant 1935:97).


Metal Crested Woodpecker #6


(1989:262-263,267)


present


partial


lists of


the objects


recovered from the burial cache. This collection contains an
extensive array of glass, cut crystal, rolled metal beads,
and coin beads4, as well as a number of native objects
including a fine Busycon shell dipper, shell gorgets, bone


Goggin


(1949:580-581)


and Tallant


(1935)


note that


beads and ornaments,


and a Point


Washington Incised5


another crested-woodpecker ornament of silver was recov-


ceramic adorno. Allerton et al. (1984:28-29) illustrate two


ered at Bee Branch


1, thirty


years


prior


to Tallant's


ceremonial


tablets recovered


with this cache.


Both are


excavation. No additional information about this specimen


is available.


Metal Crested Woodpecker


distinguished by the cross-hatch incising used to highlight
motifs (see Figure If).
Stylistically, the Mound Key crested-woodpecker orna-
ment is a variation of the typical form. Morphologically,


the outline is blocky and angular


- divergent from the


A silver specimen (UM


8189),


with a perforated and


tapering, rounded lines of the other crested-woodpecker


embossed eye was recovered from a contact-era burial in


ornaments.


Details


of the engraved


design


vary.


the high shell mound at Mound Key


Figures 2b and 5;


/il-,/ rt- "^ 1 07 ^1. \A;1onm/-rh 1 OO' Atf\ flnaarrrn nrlnlmnil _


Nested chevrons replace concentric arcs at the juncture of
tho ho/Al anrA hill Tho p\up rtvion nlen ic cliohtlv different





WHEELER


METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


The most obvious diver-


gence from the typical design is the lightly incised hatching
and cross-hatching that fill areas of the eye, crest, bill, and
body.


be some corrosion along the surface and edges, especially
at the tip. The creases on the flat, thin shaft suggest that the
object was folded or bent.


Observations on the Metal Crested Woodpeckers


Metal Crested Woodpecker #8


Distribution


Goggin (1947:273-274) reports a copper crested-wood-
pecker ornament from St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge


Seven


of the nine known


metal


crested-woodpecker


(NWR) Cemetery (8WA15;


see Figure 2c), located near


Tallahassee in the Florida panhandle.


This object is like


most of the other crested woodpeckers described from
southern Florida, and was found with other metal objects
and glass beads (see Branstetter 1991; Griffin 1947; Willey
1949:298-299). This crested woodpecker is notable for its
lack of an embossed eye, a feature found on all other
examples (see Table 1). See the discussion section below
for a further comment on this artifact.

Metal Crested Woodpecker #9

Another crested-woodpecker ornament (Figure 3) was
found in 1981 or 1982 in the area west of Lake Okee-
chobee, and is currently in a private collection (George
Luer, personal communication, 1995). This specimen is of
silver and is similar to most other examples discussed
above, although it appears to be longer (its size is estimated


at 30 cm).


The eye


is embossed,


and both sides are


engraved with the typical details of the crested woodpecker.
It is interesting to note that the design varies slightly on


either side


, with the obverse side exhibiting less attention


to quality and overall integration of the design elements.
Regarding the condition of the specimen, there appears to


ornaments are from sites in the western Lake Okeechobee
Basin, primarily burial mounds in Glades County. Figure
6 shows the distribution of the crested-woodpecker orna-
ments and areas of greatest concentration. Two of the nine


specimens


came


elsewhere.


specimen


was


reported by Goggin (1947) to have come from the St.
Marks NWR Cemetery site (8WA15) in the Florida
panhandle. A stylistic variant was recovered from Mound
Key in the Caloosahatchee region.

Iconography

Rau (1878:298-302) compares the crested woodpecker
from Manatee County with the ivory-billed woodpecker
(Campephilusprincipalis), once a common bird of southern
Florida, now probably extinct on this continent (Kale and
Maehr 1990:87). Goggin (1949:579-580) suggested other
possibilities for the intended bird, including the kingfisher.
Considering the elaborate eye-markings, I would suggest
Dryocopus pileatus, the pileated woodpecker, as another
likely candidate.
Luer (1992:58-59) has compared the applied and em-
bossed eye of the crested-woodpecker ornaments to the
"pop-eye" found on Mississippian-period ceramic bird-head


TahlI 1


Summer and comparison of metal cr .


a-.- a ..y~---- 4- -- -

MCW# Site Material Embossed Applied Wedge Cut-out Hatching Lines Length
Eye Eye Under Below as Zone Behind in cm.
Eye Bill Fill Eye

1 Manatee Co. Gold Yes No No Yes No Yes 22.9
2 8GL28 Silver Yes Yes, Yes Yes No No 23.1
Copper
3 8GL9 Silver Yes Yes, No No No No 21.1
Gold
4 8GL35 Copper Yes No No Yes No No 8.2a
5 8HN17 Silver Yes Yes, No No No No 24.3
Gold
6 8HN17 Silver ? Yes, ? ? No ? ?
Gold


been substituted for the cut-out.





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Figure 6. Map showing the locations of some sites and areas where metal crested-woodpecker
ornaments have been recovered. Sites in Glades and Hendry counties, occupying the western
Lake Okeechobee Basin, have produced most of the known specimens.


adornos. Schwehm (1983:77) also discusses this focus on
a large or elaborate eye in her consideration of artwork


from


Marco


and other


southern


Florida


sites.


Schwehm (1983:112) explains this artistic attention to the


eye by


citing the Calusa belief regarding the soul,


recounted by a sixteenth century Spanish missionary, Juan
Rogel:


specimen from Ortona (8GL35).


The other copper speci-


men, from St. Marks, also may be of copper alloy (this
specimen had an applied eye of gold and was associated
with other objects of Spanish derivation). Like all other
crested woodpeckers, both copper specimens probably were
made of shipwreck-derived metal, and were associated with
European-derived goods.


Decorative


technique and design


are standardized


They say that each man has three souls. One is the little pupil
of the eye; another is the shadow that each one casts; and the
last is the image of oneself that each one sees in a mirror or


crested woodpeckers, and some similarities exist to the


design


elements


on metal


tablets.


One unique crested


woodpecker is known from a contact-era burial at Mound


in a calm pool of water.


And that when a man dies, they say


Figures 2b and 4).


Unlike the other crested


thn nn n te .nilc P~e te ndvnn tht he hid ne ,mnr/~l-Annn'rcho tb0 hnA f lin~o orA ntb-ir inricpd1 2rP2Q Al the





WHEELER


METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


Stylistically,


other motifs with


kite-shaped


pendants.


the crested-woodpecker


ornaments


some of the ceremonial


Kite-shaped


share


tablets and


pendants occur at a


number of contact-era sites in southern and eastern Florida,
and often have an embossed leaf pattern. Tablets from the
western Lake Okeechobee Basin often have nested arcs on
their lower spatulate half, a design found on the bills of the


crested-woodpecker


ornaments


Figure


Metal


Tablet #40 in the Allerton et al. (1984:40-41) catalog has
a derived figure-eight in place of the more common tear-
drop motif (see Figure ig). This derived figure-eight also
occurs on the kite-shaped pendant (Figure lh) from the
Picnic Mound in Hillsborough County (Bullen 1952:66-67),
and is clearly related to the elaborate eye motif found on
the crested-woodpecker ornaments.


The similarity


kite-shaped


of some motifs on


pendants,


and metal


the metal


crested


tablets,


woodpeckers


artistic representations and ethnohistoric information, both
Hudson (1976:263-264) and Smith (1991:128-130) note that
the elaborate headgear worn by Southeastern Indians in
prehistoric times may be forerunners of the Creek and


Seminole


turban.


Considering


is possible


turban-like headdresses were being worn by Florida Indians
in the seventeenth century. Figure 8 presents an artist's
conception of an Indian wearing the metal crested wood-
pecker and silver band found together by Tallant at Gopher
Gully.


Temporal Placement


As noted


above,


crested


woodpeckers


are made


contact-era metal and have been recovered from the same
sites as, or in association, with European-derived materials
that were likely taken by the Indians from shipwrecks and


indicates that these objects are part of a larger, cohesive,
stylistic and iconographic system. Viewed outside this
context, the metal tablets have been subject to a host of
explanations, but alongside the metal woodpeckers, kite-
shaped pendants, and other objects, the tablets can be seen
as abstracted zoomorphic forms that incorporate elements
of earlier design traditions with aspects of Mississippian


castaways.


Glades


This places the crested woodpeckers in the


IIIc period


(A.D.


1500-1760).


the metal


ceremonial tablets, the crested woodpeckers probably were
manufactured throughout this period (also see Allerton et


1984:22;


Luer


1994:185).


Some of the associated


Spanish-derived material helps to date the woodpecker


ornaments,


although most collections only


provemence


symbolism.


objects


to sites,


and lack detailed


information


on the


artifacts found directly with the crested woodpeckers. For
example, two coin pendants from Nicodemus (8GL9) bear


Function


anachronistic


dates


of 1610


(SFM


A7041,


W. Montague Tallant (1935, n.d.), who discovered four
of the nine known examples, referred to metal crested


A7064). Rau (1878:299) presents the results of an assay
performed by the Mint of Philadelphia on the gold speci-


woodpeckers as "sweat scrapers."


Among the Timucua in


1562, Jean Ribaut observed that one of the Indians wore a
"little plate of copper" that was used to "scrape and take


sweat


bodies"


(Ribaut


1927:80).


Tallant may have been aware of this reference, and it may


be the basis


for his terminology6.


Tallant (n.d.)


recovered several less ornamented objects that he called


men shown in Figure 2e,
corresponds with the Spanis


noting that the composition
h "ounce" of gold dating to


1772. Mitchem and McEwan (1988:41) identified Clarks-
dale bells from St. Marks and Bee Branch 1, noting that
this type of hawksbell primarily dates to the early sixteenth
century. However, some beads from St. Marks date to later
periods, suggesting that the site was used at different times


"sweat


scrapers.


Four


of these


objects


are listed


throughout


contact


era (Mitchem


McEwan


Tallant's artifact catalog; they bear no crested-woodpecker
design or form, and are plain or have some embossing. In
addition, two long, tapering, silver artifacts also were
recovered from Fort Center (another site where tablets have
been found in Glades County) and appear to be the blade-
shaped objects described by Sears (1982:65).


1988:41-42).
There are indications that the Mound Key crested wood-
pecker, as well as two metal tablets, date to the early


eighteenth century.


The unusual crested woodpecker from


Mound Key was associated with a Spanish sword hilt


ascribed to the reign of Charles III or IV


of Spain by


Goggin


(1949:579) relates that


Tallant recovered one


crested woodpecker in direct association with the skull of
a human burial and a silver band (see Figure 7). Goggin
(1949:579) continues by describing the similarity of this
band with the silver turban bands of the Seminole (see
r .. 1 AnC.IO 1 00\ Ti, ,nn-ni.*a Anaon-r;haA iv Tolloznt


Stephen Grancsay of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (in
Goggin 1949:627-628; also see Allerton et al. 1984:28).


would


correspond


the mid-to-late-eighteenth


century. Mound Key probably presents the best provenience
for a crested-woodpecker ornament and its associated
arti-fPoto nhih inrlii.p, l fn l n mltll tithlstc Minf h !anlrchllc





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Silver turban band from 8GL28 (SFM 4513) found in association with Metal Crested Woodpecker


#2. Photograph by the author,


with permission of the South Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium,


Bradenton.


1550 to 1600, although similar artifacts are known from the
period A.D. 1650 to 1700 (Mitchem 1991:309). Almost as
numerous in the Mound Key collection are Florida Coin


beads,


which Fairbanks (1968:102) dates to the period


between A.D.


1650 and


1720.


Punta Rassa glass


tn --


teardrop pendants also came from the Mound Key cache
(UM 8206); this pendant type occurs at late seventeenth and
early eighteenth century sites such as San Luis and the
trading post at Ocmulgee (Fairbanks 1956:35, 67; Mitchem
1991:309). The Mound Key assemblage suggests a date in
the late seventeenth or early eighteenth centuries.

The Crested-Woodpecker Form Through
Time and Space

Crested birds appear in various forms among Mississip-
nian onnieties of the Soumtheast and annear in a minor role


Figure 7.





WHEELER


METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


utters sharp, tremulous war cries." Similarly, Speck and
Broom (1951:58-59) state that during the Cherokee ball


players'


dance,


one dancer


represents


the redheaded


woodpecker, a bird of powerful beak and flight, and taunts
the players of the opposing team.
Artifact examples from sites in the southeastern United
States range from highly naturalistic to wildly fantastic
portrayals of the crested-bird form. In fact, most regions
with expressions of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex


a distinctive version


of the crested


woodpecker,


ranging from figures engraved on Moundville pottery, to
examples carved on shell gorgets and dippers (see Brain
and Phillips 1996:9-12; Hamilton 1952:45, Plates 54-55;


Holmes


1883:280-286;


Moore


1905:137-138,


235-240;


lends the Etowah specimen a greater realism, more like
bone and antler animal carvings from Florida (cf. Wheeler
1996:135-136), and removes it from the conventionalized
form of the metal crested woodpeckers.


Larson
contexts


(1993:183-184)


of the


attempts


Florida metal


cross-date the tortoiseshell


use the historic


crested


example and


woodpeckers


Burial


Etowah. It would seem, however, that the Etowah pin is
earlier than the metal examples, due to its association with
only precolumbian artifacts, its material, and its simpler
incised details. Larson (1993:183-184) does feel that the
Etowah specimen originated in Florida, as suggested by its
material (marine turtle laminae) and the related Florida
forms.


Phillips and Brown 1978:Plates 26,28,29,31,69; 1984:Plate
204). One example from Etowah, Georgia, closely approxi-
mates the formal qualities of the Florida specimens.


Crested Woodpeckers and Tortoiseshell Streamers


The crested-bird


ornament


Etowah,


described


A Crested-Bird Ornament from Etowah, Georgia


Larson (1993:179-181) reports a tortoiseshell ornament


from Burial


109, Mound C at Etowah (Figure 9).


specimen is like the metal crested-woodpecker ornaments
in form, though there are some important differences7. The
tortoiseshell ornament has a tenon or peg at its terminal
end. Other than this variation, the outline of the bird head
and its overall length compare well with the metal exam-
ples, including the cut-out area that separates the bill from


the chest.


The Etowah ornament varies from the metal


specimens most in its incised detail, as the overall arrange-
ment is less complicated. In fact, the eye is formed by a


simple circular form,


with a surrounding line defining


details of the bill and merging with the bird's neck. The
line that connects the area of the eye with the rest of the
body is very similar in intent to the lay-out of the metal
crested woodpeckers. This simpler version of a crested bird


above, could be an elaborate example of a


streamer,
Etowah,
Dwellers"
58a-b). 1


I


" an artifact type
and from the Key


(Cushing
'ortoiseshell


laminae of the hawk


known
Marco


1897:376; Moo
is fashioned I
:sbill sea turtle


"tortoiseshell


from Mound
"Court of the


rehead


1932:Figure


scutes


(Eretmochelys


bricata); the scutes of the green sea turtle also can be used,
but they are thinner, less attractive, and less suitable for


carving (Pritchard et al.


1983:105).


Regarding the Key


Marco pieces, Cushing (1897:376) states that he found a
number of bone hairpins "to which beautiful, long flexible


strips


of polished


tortoise


shell...had


attached."


Several fragmentary examples of these tortoiseshell strips
are preserved in the collection of the Florida Museum of
Natural History (Catalog Nos. A6446 and A6447). One of
these is illustrated in Figure 9, and has the same tenoned


end observed


on the Etowah


crested


Complete


examples of tortoiseshell strips or streamers also were


r-- ----- .., ..;^ -'..r--*-.*---.-V '- rr^,Wr .. -- _





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


found at Etowah in Mound C graves (Moorehead 1932:88,
Figure 58a-b). Like the crested bird of tortoiseshell, and
the Key Marco examples, these are long thin strips, with a
tenon on one end and a tapered point at the other. Moore-


head (1932:88) says


"numbers of these occurred in the


stone graves, always at the head, we suppose they served
as supports for the elaborate headdresses worn by certain
officials of the Etowans."


Stylistic Variation and a Sequence of Forms


tablets and crested


woodpeckers (see


Figure


(1994:185) notes that these arc-bearing tablets all were
recovered from sites in a small area in the western Lake
Okeechobee Basin, roughly equivalent to the area where the
crested woodpeckers were found.
The final, and possibly latest, metal crested woodpecker
in the sequence is the single specimen from Mound Key.
As noted above, this piece has a blocky, angular outline, as
well as the notable addition of light zone-hatching. Stylisti-
cally, this hatching and cross-hatching relates the specimen
to the metal ceremonial tablets from Mound Key and other


Three styles of crested-woodpecker ornaments can be
delineated and placed along a temporal continuum. The first


style,


and probably the earliest,


is exemplified


by the


tortoiseshell streamer from Etowah. The detail of this piece
is simpler than that of the metal examples, and it probably
was tied to a hair pin or similar hair ornament as suggested
by the Key Marco streamers. The material and stylistic
relationship to the later metal specimens suggest that the
Etowah tortoiseshell crested bird (and the other tortoiseshell
streamers found by Moorehead) originated in Florida.
The second stylistic group is comprised of the bulk of the
known metal crested-woodpecker ornaments from Florida,
with the exception of the Mound Key specimen. Functional-
ly, these artifacts probably still were being used as hair
ornaments, but no longer as streamers tied to other objects,
as demonstrated by the lack of a tenon or attachment point.
Rather, the metal crested woodpecker may have been used
in concert with a metal band, possibly in a turban-type
arrangement. Presumably, the metal crested woodpeckers
also could have been worn with a cloth headdress or as a


hair pin.


These examples of the crested woodpecker are


extremely similar in form and incised detail,


with only


minor variations. The material is the most diverse feature,


and includes gold, silver,


and copper or copper alloy.


Geographically, this stylistic group is confined to the
western Lake Okeechobee Basin, with the exception of the
copper or copper alloy example from the St. Marks NWR
Cemetery.
The similarity of the artifacts in this second group makes
attempts at stylistic subdivision difficult. The metal crested
woodpecker from Gopher Gully varies slightly from the
other specimens in its proportions, and has the greatest
number of design elements found on a single specimen (see


sites in southwestern Florida.


The use of the wedge motif


under the eye allies the Mound Key crested woodpecker to
the specimen from Gopher Gully, as well as to animal
representations dating to earlier in the Glades Tradition, as
mentioned above. If the Mound Key burial cache dates to
A.D. 1700, and Burial 109, Mound C at Etowah dates to
pre-European contact, perhaps A.D. 1200-1400 (as suggest-
ed by the dates in Larson 1993:184), then a range of 300
to 500 years is suggested for the stylistic sequence present-
ed here.


Discussion


The metal crested woodpeckers, along with the pre-
European contact example in tortoiseshell from Etowah,
form a unified artifact class consisting of three overlapping
styles. The artifact type appears to be distinctively Floridi-
an, forming one aspect of a complex symbolic system that
includes the ceremonial tablets and related forms discussed


above.


The Etowah and Mound Key examples of crested


woodpeckers suggest some temporal depth for this symbolic
system in southern Florida, despite the hypothesis that the
bulk of the metal crested woodpeckers (comprising the
second style in the sequence) were made by one or two
artisans. Other regional manifestations of the Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex (i.e., Spiro, Oklahoma; Moundville,
Alabama; Etowah, Georgia) each have their own distinctive
portrayals of the crested woodpecker (see Muller 1989 on
these regional manifestations).
Considering the information presented above, what more
can we say of the symbolism found in the crested wood-
peckers, and the larger system of meaning inherent in the
related "'Glades Cult" materials? Regarding the crested-


Figure 2a and Table


It is possible,


considering the


woodpecker artifacts, two things are clear:


1) based on


stylistic unity of these artifacts, that all were produced by


one or two artisans within a short span of time.


Wiessner


form and context this is an object of personal adornment,
and 2) there appears to be a general connection between the


(1983:265) notes that objects made in sets at the same time
tend to resemble one another, but objects made by the same
individual thrnioh time tend tA vary cnnsiderablv esnecial-


woodpecker


warfare


in the


1968:45-47). Moving a step further,


Southeast


(Howard


we could speculate


h, nt- -anl ,n-nAnnrI-nr h' .-A0o rt 7ar-n n m*n nrlN noneh1,7 H, Arrl rln





METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


attached. The mandibles are turned backward over the scalp
which is tightly bound to the pipestem. One of the pipes is a
war calumet with the pendent attachment of eagle feathers
stained red. The other is a peace calumet with eagle feathers
unstained [Willoughby 1932:58-59].


sion is


accepted,


it would


seem unlikely


that crested


woodpeckers were worn by the paramount chief, but rather
by a group of principals all holding equivalent positions.
Goggin and Sturtevant (1964:190) comment on such a
"council" of Calusa principal men that visited the Spanish


Luer (1993:246-247) has illustrated and discussed a Safety
Harbor Incised bottle with applique bird feet, and has
suggested a connection between this effigy representation
and the use of real bird feet and talons as emblems of rank.
Hypothetically, the crested woodpeckers could have served


similarly


as emblems


of rank.


Ethnohistoric


records


indicate that a war chief rank or "great warrior" existed
among the contact-era Calusa, and may have occurred in


governor in the Apalachee province in 1687


Documents


recording the visit described the men as "three nobles and


rulers and also fifteen tascaias or braves"


(Smith


translation quoted in Goggin and Sturtevant 1964:190; also
see Hann 1991:78-83 for information on this visit). It is
enticing to consider the possibility that this, or another


similar


explains


presence


of the crested-


woodpecker ornament in the St. Marks NWR Cemetery.


neighboring


Serrope


and Mayaimi


tribes


of the Lake


Okeechobee region (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964:191; Hann
1991:227; Lewis 1978:31). Ethnohistoric records also
document the use of bird heads in Timucua and Apalachee
military headdresses (Hulton 1977:Plate 106). An Apala-
chee "crown" or headdress was described as follows:

a crown made of the beaks of parroquets, deer hair, and wild
animal hair, such as are much used in the dances which the
pagans have for tascayas or norocos, names which are given
to the courageous Indians [in Boyd et al. 1951:82].


The tortoiseshell crested bird discussed by Larson (1993)
was certainly associated with warfare-cult paraphernalia of
the Mississippian era, including material such as a mono-


lithic axe,


embossed


copper baton,


bilobed-arrow


ornaments, Dover chert blades or "flint swords," as well as
a number of copper symbol badges representing bird talons


and plumes.


It is interesting that both the tortoiseshell


crested bird from Georgia and the metal crested woodpeck-
ers from Florida are of exotic materials with respect to
their proveniences; objects of adornment and costume made
from exotic goods (e.g., copper, marine shell) are features


of the


Mississippian Southeastern


Ceremonial


Complex


(Muller 1989:25; Phillips and Brown 1978:19-20).
In this sense, the metal crested woodpeckers may belong
to a southern Florida version of the Mississippian war-


fare/cosmogony complex
(1986:677-679,680). This


described


cult institution


by
would


Knight
have


existed within a specific clan, whose members had access
to and control over esoteric knowledge associated with


mythological


beings


success


in warfare


(Knight


Conclusions


The metal


crested


woodpeckers


placed


temporal and spatial context, with a tentative chronological


ordering of forms.


The evidence presented suggests the


metal crested woodpeckers are at the core of the southern
Florida "Glades Cult" iconography, a concept originally
advanced by Goggin (1949). Also, a functional continuum


has been


outlined


woodpecker ornaments.


for the crested-bird


and crested-


The earliest example, from Eto-


wah, probably functioned as a tortoiseshell streamer like
other similar, undecorated objects from Etowah and Key


Marco.


As shipwrecked


metal


became


a material


manufacture of the crested woodpeckers, the manner of


wearing


the objects changed


slightly,


the device


serving as a pin along with a metal band, possibly in a
turban arrangement.
The metal crested woodpecker is an artifact type within a
much larger, and probably rather esoteric, symbol system.
It is suggested here that the crested-woodpecker ornament
served as an emblem or insignia of a specific military rank
or office. Such offices existed among the Indian tribes of


Florida,


and probably


were


partly


hereditary,


partly


ascribed. The fact that the crested woodpeckers and metal
ceremonial tablets have some common design elements


indicates a relationship,


with each artifact type being a


component in a larger system of representation. It is hoped
that the above catalog and detailed information on the
crested woodpecker's stylistic history and associations will


contribute


to the eventual


synthesis of Goggin's


symbolic


and iconographic


"Glades Cult" material.


1986:680). This hypothesis is consistent with the martial
associations of the woodpecker noted above. Information


Notes


synthesized


Goggin


and Sturtevant


(1964:188-192)


indicate.s that a.osnrted ranks or nrincinal positions existed


SGoggin (1949:580) notes that, at the time of the gold crested wood-
pecker's discovery, Manatee County encompassed portions of Charlotte,


WHEELER





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


recovered by the Johnsons in 1890, noting that all the artifacts were found
in a superficial burial of one or two individuals. First-hand sources,
including a hand-written letter by Frank Johnson (in Luer 1985:273), and


Report of Investigations No.


8. Florida Geological


Survey,


Tallahassee.
Coe, Ralph T.


others


1895:201;


Cushing


1897:347-348) indicate


that the


historic-era burial came from the shell mound (8LL2). A later account
written by Damkohler (Lewis 1978:40; Schell 1992) is confusing in that
it leads the reader to believe the cache was found in the burial mound
(8LL3). The clue to understanding Damkohler's description is his mention
of Frank Johnson farming on the "burial mound" and finding several
relics; it is likely that he meant to indicate the more spacious, high shell
mound where Johnson was farming, and not the much smaller burial
mound in the mangrove swamp. Apparently, a shield and other Spanish
arms accompanied the interment, and some of the artifacts described by
Damkohler match those in the University of Pennsylvania Museum
collection.
4 The coin beads described in Fairbanks (1968:102) are actually from the
Mound Key collection.
s Point Washington Incised is a Mississippian pottery type known from
burial contexts in Fort Walton and Safety Harbor areas (Wheeler
1996:254, Figure 7-6; Willey 1949:463). Luer (1992) has discussed
adornos broken from vessel rims.
6 Tallant's "sweat scraper" moniker also may be a reference to an
implement resembling a curved blade, called a strigilis, used in Roman
baths to remove or scrape off dirt and sweat (Cowell 1980:146-147).
7 Regarding the specific bird portrayed by the tortoiseshell pin, Larson
(1993:180) suggests the belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), although details
are lacking to confirm this identification.


1977 Sacred


Circles:


2,000


Nelson Gallery of Art,
Cowell, F. R.


1980 Life


Years
Kansas


Perigee,


of North American Indian Art.
City. Missouri.


New York.


Covarrubias, Miguel
1954 The Eagle, the Jaguar and the Serpent:


Indian Art


Americas. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Culin, Stewart
1895 Archaeological Objects Exhibited by the Department ofArchaeol-
ogy and Palaeontology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Cushing, Frank H.


1897 Exploration
of Florida.


35:329-448.
Deagan, Kathleen
1987 Artifacts of the
1500-1800, V


of Ancient Key-Dwellers Remains in the Gulf Coast


Proceedings of the American Philosophical


Spanish
'olume


Smithsonian Institution


Douglass, A. E.
1890 Description of


Colonies
1: Ceramic


of Florida and the
ics, Glassware,


Society


Caribbean,
and Beads.


Washington, D.C.


a Gold Ornament from Florida.


American


Antiquarian and Oriental Journal 12:14-25.
Downs, Dorothy


1995 Art of the Florida


Seminole and Miccosukee Indians.


University


Press of Florida, Gainesville.


Acknowledgments


Fairbanks, Charles H.
1956 Archeology of the


Funeral


Mound,


Ocmulgee


National Monu-


George


Luer deserves credit as a pioneer in the study of the material


ment, Georgia.


Archeological Research


Series


No. 3,


National


culture of the Contact Period in southern Florida. He provided needed
encouragement and assistance with this study. I also would like to
acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals and their re-
spective institutions: Laura Branstetter (formerly of the South Florida
Museum and Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton), and Gabriella Vail and
Lucy Fowler Williams (University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archae-
ology and Anthropology, Philadelphia). David H. Dye took the photo-
graph of the three silver crested woodpeckers in the South Florida
Museum, and graciously allowed its reproduction here. Leila Membrefto,
graphic artist, illustrated the hypothesized use of the metal crested
woodpecker and silver band from Gopher Gully. The comments provided
by Bob Austin and anonymous reviewers helped in improving the
manuscript.


Park Service.,


Washington, D.C.


1968 Florida Coin Beads.


Fogelson, Raymond
1971 The Cherokee Ballgame C)
Ethnomusicology 15:327-338.
Fundaburk, Emma Lila (Editor)


1958 Southeastern Indians Life


1564-1860.


The Florida Anthropologist 21:102-105.


Portraits:


An Ethnographer's


Catalogue


View.


Pictures


Luverne, Alabama.


Gilliland. Marion


1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco,


Florida.


University


Presses


of Florida, Gainesville.
Goggin, John M.
1947 Manifestation of a South Florida Cult in Northwestern Florida.


References Cited


American Antiquity 12:273-276.
1949 The Archeology of the Glades


Southern Florida. Type-


Allerton, David,


George


script on file, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Universi-


M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr


1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida.
Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.


Boyd, Mark F., Hale G. Smith, and Joh
1951 Here They Once Stood: The
Missions. University of Florida
Brain, Jeffrey P., and Philip Phillips


of the Late


n W. Griffin
Tragic End


Press,


the Apalachee


Gainesville.


Prehistoric and Protohistoric


Southeast. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,
Harvard University, Cambridge.
Branstetter, Laura


1991 The Tallant


Metal Artifacts from Florida's


Historic


ty of Florida, Gainesville,


with numerous annotations and


additions after 1949.
Goggin, John M., and William C. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society (with notes on
sibling marriage). In Explorations in Cultural Anthropology:
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Goodenough, pp. 179-219. McGraw-Hill,


Griffin, John W.
1947 Comments on a Site in the


New York.


St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge,


Wakulla County, Florida. American Antiquity 13:182-183.


Hamilton, Henry W.


.


44J


I ncr, 'L. t...~ A A .. .. 'U,. AS' i, nn~ a r* Am.,, nfl~fl nirt t Li (nhnla


in Ancient Rome.


1996 Shell Gorgets:


Collection:


l Xlflh/tl


i nr'-i






WHEELER


METAL CRESTED WOODPECKERS


Howard, James. H.
1968 The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex and Its Interpretation.


Memoir No.
Hudson, Charles


6. Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia.


University of


Tennessee


Press,


Knoxville.
Hulton, Paul
1977 The WorkofJacquesLe Moynede Morgues:A Hugenot Artist in
France, Florida and England, 2 Vols. British Museum of Natural
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Kale, Herbert W., and David
1990 Florida's Birds: A I
Sarasota.


Knight, Vernon J., Jr.
1986 The Institutional


S. Maehr


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Phillips, Philip, and James A. Brown
1978 Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from the Craig Mound at Spiro,
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1984 Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from the Craig Mound at Spiro,
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S. Hopkins, R. Lankford, R. Marquez M., L. Ogren, W. Pringle, Jr., H.
Reichart, and R. Witham


1983 Manual


of Sea


Turtle


Research


second edition, edited by K.


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A. Bjomrdal and G


Techniques,
. H. Balazs.


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Organization


of Mississippian


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Rau, Charles


American Antiquity 51:675-687.
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a Gold Ornament from


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, pp.


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1978 The Calusa. In Tacachale: Essays on the Indians


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Southeastern Georgia during the Historic Period, edited by Jerald


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Luer, George M.
1985 An Update on Some Ceremonial Tablets. The Florida Anthropol-
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1991 Historic Resources at the Pineland Site, Lee County, Florida.
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1992 Mississippian-Period Popeye Bird-Head Effigies in West-Central
and Southwest Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 45:52-62.
1993 A Safety Harbor Incised Bottle with Effigy Bird Feet and Human
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The Florida Anthropologist 46:238-250.


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Connor. Publication No.


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1992 Men6ndez's Fort


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Florida, A


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The Soto States Anthropologist


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1982 Fort Center: An
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1860 Documents in the Spanish and two of the early tongues of
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1983 Edge of Wilderness: A Settlement History


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Tulsa.


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1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press
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1989 First Encounters: Spanish Explorations in the Caribbean and the


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Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1989 Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/ProtohistoricArchae-
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1991 Beads and Pendants from San Luis de Talimali: Inferences from


Varying


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Florida Anthropologist 44:307-315.


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1988 New Data on Early Bells from Florida. Southeastern Archaeolo-
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Smith, Kevin E.
1991 The Mississippian Figurine Complex and Symbolic S
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1951 Cherokee Dance and Drama.


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1935 Florida Finds. Hobbies 40(7):97-98.
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1945 A Prehistoric Ceremonial Complex in the Southeastern United
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1996 Ancient Art


Florida


Peninsula:


500 B.C.


to A.D. 1763.


Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
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1983 Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile Points.


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48:253-276.


1;1llar. flnirdnn 0


1976 The Southeastern Indians.


of the London Edition of 1563.


of Terra


Site in the


Lake Okeechobee





Working on the


YOU'LL NEED VOLUME 36, NOS. 1,2
OF THE


Published in the Spring of 1983


It and other back issues


of The Anthropologist


are available from


Graves


Museum


and


of


Natural


rcha


History







CASE OF


DIRECT


ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FIBER-TEMPERED POTTERY,


LATE ARCHAIC STEMMED POINTS, AND SANTA FE POINTS AT THE


REDDICK


BLUFF SITE,


WALTON


COUNTY


GREGORY A. MIKELL

4430 Yannrmouth Place, Pensacola, Florida 32514


Limited excavations at the Reddick Bluff site (8WL1108)
in Walton County, Florida have resulted in the recovery of
some very interesting artifacts and data related to the Gulf


and early Woodland (Deptford) artifacts confined to an area
on the bluff covering less than one hectare, and probably


represent a campsite.


The site is located 80 to


meters


Formational


Period (Bullen


1971;


Walthall and Jenkins


from the current river bank.


There is evidence that other


1976) in northwest Florida as well as the Late Archaic
Period in peninsular Florida and elsewhere in the Southeast.
The Reddick Bluff site has provided the first direct evi-
dence for the association of fiber-tempered pottery, Late
Archaic stemmed projectile points, and Santa Fe points in
northwest Florida. Norwood Plain and Norwood Simple
Stamped pottery was recovered from buried contexts in


unrecorded sites are located in the vicinity of the site.
Weeden Island ceramics have been found eroding out of the
bluff along the Choctawhatchee, but none were found at
8WL1108.


Methods


association


Santa


points,


Late Archaic


stemmed points, a stemmed scraper, grinding stones, lithic
debris and debitage, and a few other artifacts. Alexander
and Deptford pottery also was found at the site, but not in
direct association with the majority of the Late Archa-
ic/Middle Gulf Formational materials.


Background


During the winter of 1995, test excavations were con-
ducted at 8WL1108 in Walton County, Florida. The site,
known as Reddick Bluff, was initially discovered by Boyd
Whalon in 1993. Mr. Whalon, who owns property and a
home at Reddick Bluff, found several large fiber-tempered
sherds while digging a fire pit for smoking meat in his


shed. Mr.


Whalon brought the pottery to the Fort Walton


Temple Mound Museum and was asked to contact me,


which he did.


Thus, the investigation of Reddick Bluff


began. Although the site area had been impacted by road
and utilities construction and residential development, I
decided to investigate the site because Mr. Whalon assured
me that the pottery came from a previously "little disturbed


area."


Mr. Whalon


was correct,


as the results of our


excavation demonstrated.


The site is situated in a hardwood hammock along the
southern slope of a ridge toe that forms Reddick Bluff on
the Choctawhatchee River (Figure 1). Elevated 3 to 5
meters above the Choctawhatchee River, Reddick Bluff
.t_.- __----_-^----I-~- -l L- .--.- *-- 4-- ^- - 4i' ,.1 -^ j- 4-....^


During the course of the investigations at Reddick Bluff,
one 2 x 2 m square unit, six 1 x 2 m units, two 1 x 1 m


square units, and twenty 50


x 50 cm shovel tests were


excavated. Excavation units were placed primarily in areas
that appeared to have potential for producing useful data
based on the Whalon finds and shovel test results (Figure
1). The excavation units eventually formed two irregular
"block" excavations. Block 1, consisting of a total of 13
m2, was placed on a gently sloping, bench-like feature on
the lower end of the ridge slope where Mr. Whalon made
his find. Block 2, consisting of 5 m2, was located 60 to 65
m north of Block 1, near the crest of the ridge toe, where
additional fiber-tempered pottery was recovered in a shovel
test. Block 1 consisted of one 2 x 2 m unit (Unit 9), four
1 x 2 m units (Units 1, 2, 3, and 6), and one 1 x 1 munit
(Unit 4). Block 2 was made up of two 1 x 2 m units (Units
5 and 7) and a 1 x 1 m unit (Unit 8) (Figure 1). Each unit
was excavated to between 100 and 130 cm, terminating at
30 cm or more below the last artifact recovered in each


case.


Standard


archaeological


methods


were


conduct and record excavations. The majority of the exca-
vated matrix was screened utilizing 6.4 mm (1/4 in) mesh,
but two possible features were sampled for flotation and
radiocarbon-datable materials. Excavation proceeded in 10
cm levels, except where 5 cm divisions were maintained
when substantial numbers of artifacts were encountered.
Potential features were excavated and documented separate-
ly. Features were recorded, sectioned, and excavated as






THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


= SURFACE ARTIFACTS


= POSITIVE SHOVEL TEST


Q = NEGATIVE SHOVEL TEST


- -


ix


--7-


BLOCK 2 -
l~w^ x


- -


I.
I-


-t
a -


- -


Wha
Hou


BLOCK 1


- -
a


8*


-a
- a --- - - -


- - -


-
- -


spring


Choctawhatchee River 75 m e


Figure 1.


8WL1108 site map showing test units, shovel tests, and topographic features of the site.


8WL1108


~o


1997 VOL. 50(2)





REDDICK BLUFF (8WL1108)


scatter of chert and quartzite flakes between about 5 and 15


cm below datum (cmbd).


No fiber-tempered pottery was


part of Block 1.
The soil profile of Block


is quite straight forward.


recovered in the upper 15 cm of Block 1. Norwood pottery,
chert and quartzite projectile points, tools, lithic debris and
debitage, and other associated artifacts, including mussel
shell, bone fragments, fired clay lumps, and charcoal, were


Stratum 1 consists of sod and associated soil to a depth of
4 to 6 cm. Stratum 2 is a gray (10YR5/1) to light gray
(10YR6/1) sand extending to between 12 and 15 cm and


contains


the Deptford


materials.


Stratum


is a dark


recovered below 20 cm to a depth of 60 cm.


concentration


of Norwood


materials


The main


was encountered


between 25 and 40 cm.


yellowish-brown (10YR4/4), very sandy loam extending to
a depth of 70 to 75 cm. Stratum 3 contained the Norwood
component. Below Stratum 3, a brownish-yellow (10YR6/6


Even though no discernable, distinct midden soils were
encountered, scattered freshwater mussel shell, a few bone
fragments, charcoal, and amorphous clay lumps were found
in association with the Norwood materials, suggesting that
a light-density midden might be present. The eastern half
of Unit 9, a 2 x 2 m unit, yielded the most interesting
deposits, including the majority of the potential midden


to 6/8),


sandy loam was encountered that produced no


artifacts except those associated with an intrusive distur-
bance. The disturbance, located along the eastern edge of
Unit 1, is believed to be a machine-drilled power-pole hole,
from which the pole had been removed after it was dam-
aged by wind. Unit 1 also encountered Boyd Whalon's fire


materials.


Within an area of slightly less than 1.5 m2, Unit


In Block


2, fiber-tempered pottery was mixed with sand-


9 produced closely associated, in situ materials that include


tempered-plain


check-stamped


sherds


(Deptford)


Norwood Simple Stamped and Plain sherds,


Santa Fe,


between


10 and 40 cm with fiber-tempered pottery and


Putnam, and Levy points, a stemmed/hafted end scraper, a
flake end/side scraper, and two ground-stone implements.
This assemblage of artifacts, along with a small amount of
chert and quartzite debitage, was recovered at a depth of 25
to 32 cm. Figure 2 is a photograph showing the association
of a Norwood Simple Stamped rim sherd, a Santa Fe point,
a pitted muller (pestle) and metate-like grinding stone, and


scattered debitage at 28 to 30 cm.


The Norwood Simple


Stamped rim sherd depicted in Figure 2, and other fiber-


tempered sherds recovered in Unit 9,


were later found to


articulate with sherds recovered in other units that were a


lithic debris present below 20 cm to 70 cm. Disturbance to
subsurface deposits and surface soil erosion was a problem


evident in the Block 2 area. The s
quite similar to that of Block 1,


oil profile of Block 2
except that Stratum


extends to only 8 cm and Stratum 3 to 60 cm. Block 2
showed evidence of extensive rodent burrowing to a depth
of 70 cm and contained a large, posthole-like disturbance
that extended to 85 cm, further compromising the value of
the materials recovered there. Surface-recovered artifacts
include chert flakes and a Savannah River point base found
along Reddick Road (Figure 1). The surface artifacts were
evidently disturbed when the road was built
and subsequently eroded out of the road cut.
Block 1 produced the only significant data to
be recovered from the site. Even though no


clearly


defined


features


or middens


were


encountered, and despite the less than spectac-
ular density of artifacts, Block 1 produced an
impressive assemblage of lithics and pottery,


primarily from


undisturbed contexts.


Most


important is the clear association of Norwood
Plain and Norwood Simple Stamped pottery


stone


stemmed


tools,


and Santa


including


Fe projectile


Archaic
points.


Although materials recovered in Block 2 and
the shovel tests are included in the following
discussions, the Block 1 data are of primary
interest.

Ceramic Artifacts


~. -' ~Ia~


MIKELL





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


Table 1.


1997 VOL. 50(2)


Pottery recovered at 8WL1108 by block and level or shovel test.


Ceramic Types
Provenience NP NSS DLCHST DBCHST DSS AI STP UIDCHST Totals

Block 1
Level 1 1 1 2 1 5
Level 2 1 1 1 1 3 7
Level 3 9 2 1 12
Level 4 8 3 2 13
Level 5 8 2 1 11
Level 6 2 2
Level7 2 2

Block 2
Level 1 3 3
Level 2 2 1 3
Level 3 3 3 1 7
Level 4 3 2 1 6
Level 5 3 3
Level 6 4 4

Shovel Tests 4 1 5
Surface 3 3

Totals 49 5 1 2 1 2 22 4 86


KEY: NP


= Norwood Plain; NSS


Bold Check Stamped; DSS


= Norwood Simple Stamped; DLCHST


= Deptford Simple Stamped; AI = Alexander Inci


= Deptford Linear Check Stamped; DBCHST
sed; STP = sand-tempered plain; UIDCHST =


= Deptford
unidentified


check stamped.


and 100 cm in Blocks 1 and 2, but were most numerous


between 60 and 80 cm.


The ceramic vessel fragments,


which are far more informative, are detailed in Table 1 and


tempered sherds were recovered. These sherds represent at
least three and possibly four vessels, one of which is simple
stamped in an irregular, 6 to 7-cm-wide band around the


are the focus of the discussion on ceramics.


collar, between 1 and 8 cm below the rim.


The vessels


pottery


recovered


Reddick


Bluff


includes


were crudely


made and


thick-walled.


One vessel


elements of two distinct series. Sand-tempered plain and
decorated types of the Deptford Period make up one series


fiber-tempered


and simple-stamped


(Norwood) make up the second (Figure 3).


pottery


The sand-


Norwood Simple Stamped globular pot with a slightly
restricted orifice. At least one vessel is a Norwood Plain
simple bowl with a subconoidal, rounded base (Figure 4).
Rim sherds are slightly incurvate with rounded, smoothed


tempered ceramic assemblage consists of sherds with ware
characteristics, particularly coarse to fine sand tempering,
and surface decorations typical of the Deptford Period in
the northwest Florida-Southern Alabama region (Lazarus
1965; Tesar 1980:65-72; Thomas and Campbell 1993:542-
549; Trickey 1958; Willey 1949:354-360). Deptford Period
types recovered include Deptford Linear Check Stamped,
Deptford Simple Stamped, Deptford Bold Check Stamped,
and Alexander Incised. The Deptford and Alexander sherds
are all small and allow for little vessel form analysis, but
they appear to be sherds from globular pots or bowls with
sliehtlv constricted orifices. Coil fractures are present on a


Flat body


sherds were recovered that hint at the


presence of one flat-based or straight-walled vessel. Flat-
based beakers are common in Stallings Island and Wheeler


assemblages


(Jenkins


1981;


and Griffin


1950).


Surface colors on the fiber-tempered sherds range from
buff or dull yellow to brown with dark, sometimes black
paste cores. No coil breaks are evident in the assemblage
and the surface colors indicate a low-temperature oxidizing
atmosphere during firing (Phelps 1965:67).
Although Deptford and Norwood ceramics are commonly
found in association with one another along the Gulf Coast


of northwest


a dirolF


(Mikell


91 92 :300-307:


Vt' *fVJi LII TV IdOL A AJ1 tlfl liTJ 11ill1 I ., .f.ff--.rfL I 1iVIIW1I l I11


Milanich


|





MIKELL


REDDICK BLUFF (8WL1108)


associated with the Deptford and Alexander sherds.


illustrates


this fact. A single


Deptford


Table
Check


Stamped rim sherd was recovered in Block 1 at 80 to 90
cm, but was found in the previously described power-pole
disturbance in Unit 1.


Although the fracture pattern on the fragment is rather
curious, it does not appear to be an impact fracture. The
remaining lateral edge and base of the Santa Fe fragment
are well made and sharpened, indicating that it was broken
as a result of use rather than during manufacture. Basal
grinding or collateral flaking, which are characteristics of


Lithic Artifacts


Dalton Cluster projectile points or blades (Justice


1987;


Two hundred forty-nine lithic artifacts were recovered at
the Reddick Bluff site (Table 2). As a comparison of Tables
1 and 2 will indicate, the majority (161 or 64.7%) of the
lithic artifacts were recovered in


association


Powell 1990), are not evident on either specimen, nor do
they bear evidence of resharpening or reworking. Neither
specimen is heavily patinated.
The Levy point is a chert stem and basal-blade fragment


with the Norwood


component, between 20 and 40
cm below surface in Block 1.
With the exception of one pro-
jectile point, this total includes
all tools and projectile points.


Diagnostic


were


recovered along with a stemmed


scraper,


biface fragments,


um-


facial flake tools, and debitage


and debris.


The majority of the


d
ci


e f


artifacts,


points and tools,


thereof,


including all
or fragments


flakes


0 5


cortical surfaces were recovered
in Block 1. As with the discus-
sion of ceramics, Block 1 lithic
artifacts will be highlighted. The


projectile


points


and selected


tools recovered at the site are
illustrated in Figure 3.
Two complete projectile points


and two


point fragments were


recovered in Block 1 in associa-
tion with the Norwood ceramics.
A stemmed end scraper, appar-


worked


down


broken point, also was recovered
in the same context. Point types
include Santa Fe, Levy, Putnam,
and Savannah River. Projectile
points were classified based on


criteria
(1975),


Justice


Sby
(1987),


Bullen
Sand


Powell (1990).
The Santa Fe points consist of


a large,


complete


Tallahatta
I I





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


obviously been reworked.


Like the Levy point,


the Sa-


vannah


River


is a stem


basal-blade fragment. Stem and
shoulder morphology are clearly


linked
type,
broken


to the Savannah


however.
off 2.4


base of the stem.


shoulder


River


The blade is
cm above the
The stem and


pressure


flaked, but finishing work on the
lateral edges is not so evident.
The blade fracture on this chert
specimen also is a hinge frac-
ture, but a crystalline fissure is
present on one end of the break.
The blade may have been broken


during


late-stage


but it also could
during use.
The stemmed e


made


a slate-like


manufacture,
have broken


scraper is
material.


Figure 4. Hypothetical reconstruction of a Norwood Plain vessel. Approximately
one-third of this vessel was recovered in Block 1.


The stem was formed by corner
notching and the rounded scrap-
er end was formed by thinning
and steep retouch of the broken


blade segment.


The basal mor-


with the blade snapped off 1.7 cm above the bottom of the
stem. Although the stem and base are pressure flaked and


finished, the lateral edges are not.


hinge fracture.


The blade fracture is a


These characteristics suggest that the blade


was broken during late-stage manufacture.


The 8WL1108


specimen is small and appears somewhat corner-notched on
one side, measuring 3 cm in width at the shoulder and 7
mm in cross section on the blade. It could be a Limestone
point that was broken prior to blade finishing. As Powell


(1990:39)


has indicated,


the Limestone type,


which


phology of this specimen is not
consistent with any diagnostic point type, but most closely
resembles the Limestone type (Powell 1990:39).
Other stone tools, all from Block 1, include a chert
end/side scraper, four marginally retouched chert flakes,
and two ferruginous sandstone grinding stones (Figure 3),
The end/side scraper is a unifacial tool, a blade-like flake
that has been steeply retouched along its distal end and one
lateral edge. The marginally retouched flakes are viewed as
expedient cutting, shredding, notching, or scraping tools.
Three of the four retouched pieces are flaked or chipped on


common from the


Tennessee River Valley into southeast


their dorsal surfaces only,


while the fourth is bifacially


Alabama, is


"similar to some Levy examples,


[but] the


worked


into a denticulate along


one edge.


One of


Limestone is differentiated by its expanding base, a usually
thinner cross section, and more radically angular stem-to-
shoulder configuration." I am classifying the specimen as
a Levy because it lacks clear concave curvature on the stem


base and because only a few


Limestone-like points are


documented for the Choctawhatchee region (Thomas and
Campbell 1993:451)
The Putnam is tentatively identified based on the presence
of continuous recurvature from shoulder to stem resulting


grinding stones is a metate-like grinding base, smoothed


and worn on one surface.


The second ground-stone object


is an apparent muller with a central pit located on one face.
The rounded and smoothed edges on this piece indicate that
it was used for pounding and grinding, perhaps with the
metate-like piece found nearby. The pit indicates that it also
may have been used as a nutting stone or anvil.
The lithic debitage and debris assemblage is dominated by
chert (74%), but Tallahatta quartzite (19%), and unidenti-














Table 2.


Lithic artifacts recovered at 8WL1108 by block and level or shovel test.


Bifaces Unifaces Debitage Ground Stor
Santa Putnam Levy Savannah Stemmed Distal End/Side Marginal Prim. Sec. Ter. Core BTF Retouch Shatter Sm. Metate- 1
Provenience Fe River Scraper Frag. Scraper Retouch Trim. like

Block 1
Level 2 1 3 1 1 1
Level3 2 1 1 1 3 11 9 39 11 21 3 3 1
Level4 1 2 1 5 2 18 1 18 4 1
Level 5 1 13 1 8
Level6 1 2 1
Level 7 1

Block 2
Level2 1 1
Level 3 2 1
Level4 1 1 1 5
Level 5 4
Level 6 2 4
Level7 2 4

Shovel Tests 1 5
Surface 1 2 11 3 2

Totals 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 18 13 86 17 60 30 10 1


KEY: Frag.


= fragment; Pri.


= primary; Sec.


= secondary; Ter. = tertiary; Trim.


= trimming; BTF


= biface-thinning flake; Sm.


= Small





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


reduced to a core tool or was reduced in preparation for
obtaining flakes to be utilized or manufactured into finished
tools. Second, except for the cobble-core debitage found in
Units 1 and 4, there is no other evidence for core reduction
or primary tool manufacture at the site. The lithic assem-
blage contains no cores or core fragments, exhibits low fre-


quencies


of artifacts


associated


with initial


stages


Putnam types is not unexpected in northwest Florida and


elsewhere


in the Southeast,


but the


co-occurrence


Norwood ceramics and Santa Fe points is.


Although
Norwood


radiocarbon dates are not available for the


component


at 8WL1108,


several


northwest Florida Gulf Formational and Deptford sites
place it between ca. 2000 B.C. and 600 B.C. (Thomas and


reduction, and contains numerous biface-thinning flakes.
These characteristics are indicative of tool rejuvenation


Campbell


1993:524-527).


date from Alligator


Lake


Lazarus's (1958)


indicates


radiocarbon


that fiber-tempered


rather than primary manufacture (Bradley


1975; Collins


pottery was present in the area by no later than 1100 B.C.


1975;


Guderjan


1981).


The presence of marginally re-


The Elliot's


Point


complex


is a major feature


of the


touched flakes and evidence of tool conservation, such as
resharpening and reworking of points, suggests that the
occupants of 8WL1108 had limited access to lithic re-


sources.
indicated


Limited access


presence


to lithic raw materials is


of Tallahatta


quartzite


Marianna chert in the assemblage. Although these two lithic
resource materials are commonly reported in the Chocta-
whatchee drainage area (eg., Thomas and Campbell 1993),
the source area for Tallahatta quartzite is southwest Ala-
bama (Curren 1982) and the chert quarry located nearest


the site is on Wright's


Creek, over 40 km northeast of


8WL1108 (Upchurch et al. 1981).


Choctawhatchee area Gulf Formational Period, even to the
point that Thomas and Campbell (1993:528) state that "we
are considering all Gulf Formational sites [on Eglin Air
Force Base] to be possibly related to the Elliot's Point
complex." Reddick Bluff did not produce any artifacts that
are distinctively Elliot's Point complex materials, such as
baked clay objects, microliths, steatite vessels, and exotic


objects or raw materials.


The site may, then, be associated


with post-Elliot's Point developments dating to later than
about 1000 B.C. Thomas and Campbell (1993:528) regard
sites producing fiber-tempered ceramics and no distinct


Elliot's Point artifacts to be a late,


"perhaps transitional


Other Materials


As described above, freshwater shellfish and vertebrate
faunal remains are scarce but present at 8WL1108. The


presence


of freshwater


mussel


(Unionidae)


a Late


Archaic/Gulf Formational site on the Choctawhatchee River
is not completely unexpected (Cumbaa 1976). Only 11 shell
fragments were recovered, however, and all were found in
association with the Norwood component in Block 1. Seven
bone fragments make up the vertebrate faunal remains. Six
are small, long or flat bone fragments that appear to be
mammalian, but are otherwise unidentifiable. The seventh
is a distal deer (Odocoileus virginianus) metatarsal frag-
ment. Five of the bone fragments, including the deer bone,
were recovered in Block 1 in association with the Norwood
artifact assemblage. The only other material recovered was
charcoal that was somewhat evenly distributed within the


producing


artifacts.


Aside


the prehistoric


materials, 17 modem historic artifacts (glass, metal, nails,
and turpentine cup fragments) were recovered from the


upper


to 10 cm of the units in Blocks 1 and 2.


Discussion and Summary


The Reddick Bluff site has produced both interesting and
i /* P 1' T A 1


development of the Gulf Formational," particularly when
such occurrences are in locations inland from coastal areas.
The presence of Deptford pottery on the site also may be
an indicator of a later Gulf Formational occupation.
There are numerous sites in northwest Florida where
stemmed points of various types occur in Gulf Formational
contexts (eg., Kimbrough 1990; Little et al. 1988; Thomas
and Campbell 1993), but the association of Santa Fe points


and ceramics of any type is rare.


For that matter, the


occurrence of Santa Fe points in any context is uncommon.


To underscore the situation,


of the thousands of sites


recorded in the Choctawhatchee drainage system, only four
(80K333, 8WL91, 8WL322, and 8WL1071) have produced
Santa Fe points (Mikell et al. 1995; Reichelt 1972; Thomas
and Campbell 1993). At each site, a single Santa Fe was
recovered from contexts indirectly associated with fiber or


sand-tempered


pottery.


In each


case,


the Santa


Fe is


considered to be an earlier point "utilized or curated by
later site occupants" (Thomas and Campbell 1993:323).
Several other reports of Santa Fe-like points from ceram-
ic-bearing sites or deposits also exist, but in several of
these reports the Santa Fe-like points are not identified as
Sante Fes and they are often only described morphological-
ly. Penton (1990:25) recovered a Santa Fe-like point from
a Deptford midden situated along Santa Rosa Sound at the
Pirate's Bay site (80K183) in Okaloosa County. Bense et
/1 nbAr~o -i ir- I I\ -- --- I~-,-*--- /^ ^1 1:1.^ -,.. nncn -/n C.-nn~





REDDICK BLUFF (8WL1108)


stemmed


points,


St. Johns,


Pasco,


and Perico


Incised


pottery were also recovered. Also in Hernando County, a
Santa Fe is reported from a sinkhole site (8HE64) that
produced Deptford and Pasco ceramics (Ferguson 1997).
Austin et al. (1992) report a Beaver Lake point from a


radiocarbon


dated


(910-790


B.C.)


Late Archaic-Early


Woodland (Gulf Formational) burial at the Bay Cadillac site


in Tampa.


The Bay Cadillac Beaver Lake point closely


resembles a Santa Fe. Santa Fe-like points have also been
recovered from early Woodland contexts at Yat Kitischee
in Pinellas County (Austin 1995), from Woodland contexts
at 8SM128 in Sumter County (Estabrook 1995), and at Fort
Center near Lake Okeechobee (Steinen 1982:78).
While the "utilized by later site occupants" assumption
may be useful for interpreting the problematic association
of a transitional Paleoindian/Early Archaic point type and
pottery, there are reasons to question the validity of such


assumptions.


First, all Santa Fe points reported for the


Choctawhatchee area have been found on sites that also
produce ceramics or they are reported as isolated finds.


Second,


the Santa


Fe and Tallahassee point types


considered to be temporally related (Bullen 1975; Justice
1987; Powell 1990) and recent searches of the Florida Site
File indicates that all recorded Santa Fe and Tallahassee
points are in some manner associated with various types of


pottery (Ferguson 1997


Wisenbaker


1996).


Tallahassee


points often are found on northwest Florida and southern
Georgia sites that produce Late Archaic or Early Woodland
projectile point types and/or pottery (Bullen 1958; Crook
1987; Gresham et al. 1985; Ledbetter 1994) or in associa-


tion with Hernando


points (Powell


1990:36).


Powell


(1990:40) even suggests that Hernandos may be "derived


from
cluster


the distributionally


noting


"Santa


similar


Santa


Fe-Tallahassee


Fes and Hernandos


Florida to Alabama often share remarkably similar attrib-
utes of overall workmanship." Finally, but perhaps most
importantly, Santa Fe points reported in the literature as


Bolen materials, these points have not been encountered. Some
[Santa Fes] have been present in multicomponent assemblages
including Paleolithic forms, but under inconclusive conditions
or at sites that defy accurate stratigraphic analysis. Also, an
examination of several examples believed to be representative
of this early form revealed neither proof of great antiquity nor
a clearly definable difference between "early" and "late"


specimens


beyond


predictable


limits


of intratypological


variability [Powell 1990:36-38].

The in situ association of Norwood pottery, Late Archaic
stemmed points, and multiple Santa Fe points at 8WL1108


does not favor the


"later use or curation"


assumption.


Although the Santa Fe points at Reddick Bluff could have
been picked up and brought to the site, it would seem an


odd coincidence that two


context,


particularly


were


found


neither


in such a


specimen


showing


evidence of reworking or resharpening. If all Santa Fe and
Tallahassee points are to be considered protoarchaic it is,
again, an odd coincidence that so many are found in some


sort of association with pottery.


What is needed, of course,


is additional evidence of the association of Santa Fe points


and Gulf Formational or Early


Woodland ceramics and


point types. Reddick Bluff, at the very least, provides the
first such evidence for the Santa Fe type in northwest
Florida.
A growing body of evidence exists to indicate that the
Santa Fe point type, as it was defined by Bullen (1968,
1975), is problematic. Despite the circumstantial evidence
that indicates that Santa Fe points are not protoarchaic
diagnostics, most researchers will likely continue to assume
that they are an early type. I have previously proposed that
we are likely dealing with two distinct point typess, and are
often mistaking later Santa Fes for protoarchaic Dalton
points (Mikell 1996:89-91). More research is certainly in
order before the issue will be resolved. Powell offers
another prudent statement that appears to have merit:


Late Paleoindian or Early


demonstrated


conclusively


Archaic diagnostics cannot be


to be from


contexts


(Ferguson and Neill 1977; Goggin 1950; Goodyear et al.
1983; Neill 1963). Perhaps Santa Fe points are simply a


"cousin"


points


to Early


common


Woodland


triangular,


in the Piedmont


Region


concave-based
of Alabama,


Until incontrovertible evidence verifying and defining the
existence of an early [protoarchaic] Santa Fe-like point
becomes available, interpretive placement of all members of
the Tallahassee-Santa Fe cluster should be restricted to a Gulf
Formational to Woodland context [Powell 1990:36].


Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas.


Gresham et al.
question about I


(1985) attempted to resolve the same


rallahassee points when


they recovered


several from the Carmouche site at Fort Benning, Georgia.
While the Carmouche site assemblage failed to provide
secure data to answer the "early or late" question, their
crldv nf rennrted Tallahasee and Tallahassee-like points in


The evidence from 8WL1108 certainly tends to substantiate
Powell's viewpoint. From a more practical point of view,
I have now researched two sites that provide evidence that
Santa Fe points are not an early diagnostic and may be
more diagnostic of Gulf Formational and Early Woodland
periods.


MIKELL


, "





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


thank the anonymous persons who reviewed this manuscript and
helped to improve it.


Anthropologist 30:18-21.
Goggin, John M.


An Early


Lithic Complex from Central Florida


American


Antiquity 16:46-49.


References Cited


Goodyear,
Goodyear


Albert


C., Sam B. Upchurch, Mark J. Brooks, and Nancy N.


Austin, Robert J., Kenneth W. Hardin, Harry M. Piper, and Jacquelyn G.
Piper
1992 Archaeological Investigations at the Site of the Tampa Convention


Center,


Tampa, Florida.


Volume 1: Prehistoric Resources.


1983 Paleo-Indian Manifestations in the Tampa Bay Region, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 36:40-66.
Gresham, Thomas H., W. Dean Wood, Chad O. Braley, and Kay G.
Wood
1985 The Carmouche Site: Archeology in Georgia's Western Fall Line


Report prepared for the City of Tampa Public Works Department


Hills, A Data Recovery Project.


Southeastern Archeological


by Janus Research/Piper Archaeology,


St. Petersburg.


Austin, Robert J.
1995 Stone Tool Technology and Use. In Yat Kitischee: A Prehistoric


Services,


Inc., Athens, Georgia.


Guderjan, Thomas H.
1981 The Caney Creek Site Complex: Lithic Resource Conservation


Coastal


Hamlet, 100 B.C.


- A.D. 1200, edited by Robert J.


Austin, pp. 176-218. Report prepared for the Board of County
Commissioners of Pinellas County, Florida by Janus Resear-
ch/Piper Archaeology, St. Petersburg.
Bense, Judith A., Ronald W. Deiss, Dianne C. Dusevitch, Eloise F.
Gadus, Alan Gantzhorn, H. Stephen Hale, Rochelle Lurie, and Irvy
Quitmyer
1984 Hawkshaw, Prehistory and History in an Urban Neighborhood in


Pensacola,


Florida.


Office of Cultural and Archaeological


and Technology. Southeastern
Bulletin 24:115-117.


Archaeological


Conference


Jenkins, Ned J.


Gainesville Lake Area Ceramic


Description and


Chronology.


Archaeological Investigations in the Gainesville Lake Area of the


Tennessee-Tombigbee


Waterway,


Volume


2. University of


Alabama, Office of Archaeological Research, Report of Investi-


nations 12.
Justice. Noel D.


Tuscaloosa.


Research, University of West Florida, Reports of Investigations
Number 7. Pensacola.


Bradley, Bruce A.
1975 Lithic Reduction


Sequences: A


Glossary and Discussion.


Lithic Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by Earl
Swanson, pp. 5-13. Mouton, The Hague.
Bullen, Adelaide K., and Ripley P. Bullen
1954 Further Notes on the Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando
County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 7:103-105.
Bullen, Ripley P.


1958a


Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff
Reservoir Area, Florida. In River Basin Survey Papers, edited by


Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., pp. 315-357


Bureau of American


Stone Age


Spear and Arrow Points of the


Midcontinental and


Eastern United States. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Kimbrough, Rhonda L.


1990 Norwood Period


Sites in the Apalachicola National Forest,


Florida. Paper presented at the 47th annual meeting of the
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Mobile.
Lazarus, William C.


A Poverty Point Complex in Florida.
11:23-32.


1965 Alligator Lake, A
Florida Coast. The
Ledbetter, Jerald R.


The Florida Anthropologist


Ceramic Horizon Site on the Northwest
Florida Anthropologist 23:83-124.


The Walker Street Site, 9ME60.


Georgia 22:1-73.


Ethnology Bulletin 169. Washington D.C.
1968 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points. Florida
State Museum, Gainesville.
1971 The Transitional Period of the Southeastern United States as


Viewed from Florida, or the Roots of the Gulf Tradition.


South-


Little, Keith J., Caleb Curren, and Lee McKenzie
1988 A Preliminary ArchaeologicalSurvey ofthe BlackwaterDrainage,
Santa Rosa County, Florida. Institute of West Florida Archaeolo-
gy Report of Investigations 19. University of West Florida,
Pensacola.


eastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin
A Guide to the Identification of Florida Pi
edition). Kendall Books, Gainesville.


13:63-70.


ojectile


Points (2nd


Mikell,


Gregory A.


1992 80K5 Revisited, the 1992 Excavations. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 45:294-307.


Collins. Michael B.


.1996


Two Sites of Interest in the Withlacoochee Bay


Area of Levy


1975 Lithic Technology as a Means of Processual Inference. In Lithic
Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by Earl


Swanson,


pp. 12-23. Mouton, The Hague.


County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 49:89-94.


Mikell,
1995


Gregory


A., Sharon Brown, Keith Hemphill, and Ken Pinson


Completing the Inventory: Continuing Cultural Resources Survey


Crook, Morgan Ray, Jr.
1987 The Lowe Site


Report,


A Contribution to Archaeology of the


Force


Counties. Volume 29


Base, O0
, Survey


kaloosa,


Santa


of Units X-292,


Rosa, and Walton


X-318,


Coastal Plain. Georgia Department of Transportation,


Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management 3.
Cumbaa, Stephen L.
1976 A Reconsideration of Freshwater Shellfish Exploitation in the
Florida Archaic. The Florida Anthropologist 29:49-59.
Curren, Caleb B.
1982 Middle and Late Archaic Period Utilization of Tallahatta Quartz-
ite in Southwest Alabama. In Archaeology in Southwestern Ala-


X-322.


Associates,
Milanich, Jerajd T.


Report of Investigations


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Thomas and


Inc., Fort Walton Beach.


1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian
Florida, Gainesville.


Morrell, L. Ross
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A Preliminary Report. The


Georgia


at Eglin Air


X-310,


Florida Anthropologist 13:101-110.





REDDICK BLUFF (8WL1108)


Phelps, David S.
1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber-Tempered Ceramics. Southeastern


Archaeological Conference Bulletin
Powell. John


2:65-69.


Points and Blades


Coastal Plain,


A Guide to


Classifi-


cation of Native American Hafted Implements in the Southeastern


Coastal Plain Region.


American Systems of the Carolinas, Inc.,


West Columbia, South Carolina.
Reichelt. David C.


1972 Florida State


Site File Form for 8WL91. Florida Division of


Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Steinen, Karl
1982 Other Non-Ceramic Artifacts. In Fort Center: An Archaeological


Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin, by


William H. Sears, pp.


Sears,


110. University of Florida Press
William H., and James B. Griffin


Gainesville.


1950 Fiber-Tempered Pottery of the Southeast. In


Prehistoric Pottery


of the Eastern


United States.


University of Michigan Museum of


Anthropology, Ann Arbor.
Tesar, Louis D.
1980 The Leon County Bicentennial Report: An Archaeological Survey


of Selected Portions of Leon County,


Florida.


Bureau of Historic


Sites and Properties Miscellaneous Project Report Series 49.
Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Management,
Tallahassee.
Thomas, Prentice M., and L. Janice Campbell (Editors)


Cultural


Resources Investigations at Eglin Air


Force


Florida: Technical Synthesis. New World Research, Inc., Report
of Investigations 192. Fort Walton Beach.
Trickey, E. Bruce


1958 A Chronological Framework for the Mobile Bay


American Antiquity


Region.


23:388-396


Upchurch, Sam B., Richard N. Strom, and Mark Nuckles
1981 Methods of Provenance Determination of Florida Cherts.


Report


submitted to the Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Florida
Division of Archives, History, and Records Management in
compliance with State Grant No. 80-072. On file, Department of
Geology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
Walthall, John A. and Ned J. Jenkins


The Gulf Formational Stage in Southeastern Prehistory.


eastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin


19:43-49.


Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections 113, Washington, D.C.
Wisenbaker, Michael J.
1996 Florida Division of Historical Resources letter to Dr. Newel
Wright, Eglin Air Force Base Historic Preservation Officer,
dated June 11, 1996. On file, Florida Division of Historical


Resources, Tallahassee.


South-


MIKELL










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FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY


1997


AWARD RECIPIENTS


RIPLEY P. BULLEN AWARD

KATHLEEN A. DEAGAN


The Ripley P. Bullen Award is presented in recognition
of outstanding accomplishment in the area of improving and
fostering good working relationships among professional


and avocational


archaeologists.


The 1997


award


presented to Kathleen A. Deagan by Betty Riggan repre-
senting the St. Augustine Archaeological Association.
Dr. Deagan is Curator of Historical Archaeology at the


Florida Museum of Natural History


and the author of


numerous books, monographs, and journal articles on the
Spanish presence in Florida during the Colonial Period.
Her work investigating terrestrial and underwater sites in
Florida and the Caribbean has gained world recognition.
For more than twenty years, Dr. Deagan has brought
field schools from the University of Florida to St. Augus-
tine to investigate the Spanish culture of North America.
She consistently welcomes both the novice and the skilled
volunteer to participate in her excavations, and many of
these have been members of the St. Augustine Archae-
ological Association. Dr. Deagan was instrumental in the
formation of the Association and has been a member since
its beginning, serving on the first Board of Directors in
1986. Her excavations attract interested tourists and local


townspeople,


and her


numerous


presentations


to the


Association always draw large and enthusiastic audiences.


Through her efforts, Dr.


Deagan has made archaeology


more accessible to the public as well as avocational archae-
ologists.


LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD

WILLIAM H. SEARS


The Florida Anthropological Society in conjunction with
the Florida Archaeological Council presented a special
Lifetime Achievement Award posthumously to William H.
Sears. FAS Awards Committee Chair George Luer present-


Florida Atlantic University. Although he worked at many
archaeological sites, he is perhaps best known for his
excavations at the Kolomoki site in southwest Georgia, the
first major archaeological project of his career, and at Fort


was





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


PRESIDENT'S AWARD
FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE

ARTHUR R. LEE


The 1997


award was presented to Arthur


R. Lee. Jack


Thompson, representing the Southwest Florida Archaeologi-
cal Society (SWFAS), accepted the award for Art who was
unable to attend the meeting.
Art Lee is a man of wide interests and great skills. He


served
Board


as FAS President


of Directors


1992-1993)


(1991-1992).


Befo:


and on
re and


the FAS


since


presidency, Art and his wife Lynn have regularly attended
FAS Board meetings as SWFAS Chapter Representatives.
In 1994-1995, he was co-editor of the FAS Newsletter. Art


has always


been,


continues


to be,


a catalyst


organizing FAS and SWFAS members to action. During his
term as President, he worked hard to inventory back issues
of The Florida Anthropologist and assemble them in one
place, first near Orlando and finally in Dania at the Graves


Museum of Natural History.


It was largely through his


efforts that Collier County adopted a Historical and Archae-
ological Preservation Ordinance. Art also helped establish
a repository of historic preservation ordinances at Nova
University in Fort Lauderdale to assist others in drafting
such legislation. Beginning in late 1991, Art served several
years on the Collier County Historic Preservation Board. In
that capacity, he helped initiate a major salvage excavation
at Key Marco in the summer of 1995. He also helped orga-
nize a centennial exhibit at the Collier County Museum of
Cushing's famous 1896 finds at Key Marco, and he wrote


an exhibit catalog for it.


For ten


years,


Art wrote and


to individuals who


have provided exemplary service to the Florida Anthropo-
logical Society by advancing the Society's goals of public


education, archaeological preservation,


and stewardship.


edited the SWFAS Newsletter, retiring from this job in
April 1997. Art also has published several articles in The
Florida Anthropologist and presently is leading the team


that is preparing and publishing a series of
recent SWFAS field and laboratory projects.


reports on


CHAPTER AWARDS
FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE

Individual FAS chapters honor their members for outstanding service in furthering the interests of archaeology and


preservation


George Luer, Chair of the Awards Committee, presented the certificates.


Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society


FAS.


Wes has a special interest in beads and he recently


published an article on this subject in the CGCAS Newslet-
nr - lt~n + /44r *1 t 2 n ^* - ^f + *ni'n Car A nnn Antn^or- l rnIran- / 1*-f\rr ^


The President's Award is presented





1997 AWARD RECIPIENTS


Harbor Museum in an exhibit entitled "From Mud to
Magnificence." His enthusiasm for archaeology and for
educating the public about preserving Florida's past makes
him an important asset to CGCAS and FAS.
Pam Vojnovski received a Certificate of Achievement for
her continuous dedication to CGCAS and the Narvaez
Project. She has been actively involved with the project
since its inception and was a major force in writing the
successful application for a Florida Department of State
grant that was awarded to CGCAS for the project. She also
serves as the project's Co-Principal Investigator. Although
Pam works full time as a professional archaeologist, she
unselfishly gives of hier time and knowledge to educate the
many CGCAS members who work with her in the labora-
tory, teaching volunteers the fine points of cataloguing and
sorting artifacts and faunal remains. She has designed a
traveling display that highlights CGCAS and its many
functions, and she recently completed a comprehensive


bibliography of
through CGCAS.
Assistant for The


Florida archaeology
In addition, Pam also


that is available


serves


Florida Anthropologist. Pam


as Editorial
s thorough-


ness and dedication to her profession make her an impor-
tant and valued member of CGCAS and FAS.


St. Augustine Archaeological Association

MARGARET PERKINS


A Certificate of Achievement was presented to Margaret
Perkins for her years of service to the St. Augustine
Archaeological Association (SAAA). Margaret has been an
indispensable member of SAAA since she joined the
organization in 1987. She has served as a Board member or
officer for eight years, holding every office for at least one
term and some for two terms. When the Government House
flooded and artifacts were six feet under water, she was


there to help clean up
proper curation. This


the mess and restore the artifacts to
effort alone took more than a year.


She is a mainstay on projects conducted by th
tine Preservation Board Archaeologist, the Cit
gist, the St. Augustine Historical Society,
Florida's C.A.R.L. Program, as well as on
conducted by the University of Florida. She is
to help when SAAA participates in festivals


e St. Augus-
y Archaeolo-
the State of
field schools
always ready
and she has


devoted many, many hours to help prepare for Archaeology
Week/Month. For these reasons, Margaret was recognized
as a valued member of SAAA and FAS.











OBITUARY


WILLIAM


H. SEARS


1920-1996


m


m





WILLIAM H. SEARS


received his M.A. in Anthropology in 1947,


writing a


thesis on the preceramic cultures of the eastern United
States. His first published article was the result of a class
assignment on "What is the Archaic," which his professor,
James B. Griffin, submitted to American Antiquity without
Bill's knowledge. Griffin gave him a copy of the published
paper and a grade of A at the end of the term. Forty years
later Bill was still asking, among many other questions,
"What is the Archaic," but now it was his students' turn.
In seminars he would make his students read numerous
monographs and write similar papers. I am sure that many
earned an A under his tutelage, but none wrote a paper that


of Florida" and "An Investigation of Prehistoric Processes
in the Gulf Coastal Plain." The latter article ensued from a
National Science Foundation grant-funded project in which
Bill surveyed sites and examined collections from Florida
to Texas. He revisited sites and restudied data generated by
C.B. Moore and other archaeologists. During this time he
continued his work at Florida sites, excavating at Bayshore
Homes in St. Petersburg, the Bluffton Burial Mounds, the
Tucker site on Alligator Harbor in Franklin County, and


performing


archaeological


surveys


in the Everglades


National Park and in the Cape Coral area at the mouth of


the Caloosahatchee River.


During his


long career


While the answer to


had changed, been refined, and


broadened, the frequent revisiting of old and important
questions was a theme that characterized Bill's career,
whether it was in the classroom, in the field, or in print.
Bill earned his Ph.D. in 1951 from the University of
Michigan. The subject of his dissertation was the culmina-
tion of five years of excavations at the famous Kolomoki
site in southwest Georgia. The dissertation, originally titled


published over 40 articles related to Florida sites alone, and
many continue to be cited today. Much of his work paved
the way for more research by other archaeologists.
In 1963 Bill made another career change, moving from
museum curator to administrator and educator at Florida
Atlantic University in Boca Raton where he became Chair
and founder of the Department of Anthropology. During his
early days at Florida Atlantic, Bill penned another sterling


article entitled


Sacred


and Secular in Prehistoric


The Prehistoric


Cultural


Position


Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia,


in the Southeast


was published in four


Ceramics." Just as the "backyard archaeology" of Charles
Fairbanks enhanced the field of historical archaeology, so


volumes by the


University of Georgia Press.


The final


did Sears's


seminal


on prehistoric


mounds


volume, Excavations at Kolomoki, Final Report, published
in 1956, remains a classic.


In 1956 Bill also published three other articles.


Two of


these were on Florida where he had been working on the


Melton Mound and Turner River sites.


The third was in a


time-honored volume edited by Gordon R. Willey entitled
Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the New World. Bill's
contribution was "Settlement Patterns in the Eastern United


States.


In the early 1950s Bill taught at the University of Georgia
and then at Hofstra College on Long Island, New York


before moving


to the Florida State


Museum (now the


Florida Museum of Natural History) as a curator min 1955.
During the next five years Bill worked at a number of other
Florida locations including sites on the lower St. Johns


River,


the Grant


site and Browne


Tract


in northeast


Florida, numerous highway salvage projects throughout the
state, the extensive shell middens and mound at Maximo
Point in St. Petersburg, the Mackenzie Mound in Marion
County, and a Seminole site in Alachua County. All of
these sites were reported, some in The Florida Anthropolo-
gist. Bill often trained and used volunteers, both young (he
was well known for the many times he sought the sturdy
and willing help of local Boy Scout troops) and old. Many


members


of the Florida


Anthropological


Society


..,a..IrnA- nnr f~lU 1 o nrnnn/^A/te' ornMiinA thnotOt'Ql


villages awaken new thoughts and ideas in the minds of
many prehistoric archaeologists working in the Southeast.
To paraphrase one archaeologist, "Sears's 'Sacred and
Secular' article did more to open my eyes, and I am sure
the eyes of others, than dozens of other articles."
It also was during this period that Bill began and super-


at the


famous


Fort Center site near


Okeechobee in Glades County. This research continued into
the 1970s and culminated in a highly acclaimed book, Fort
Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee
Basin, which was first published by the University Press of
Florida in 1982 and was reprinted in 1994. At Fort Center,
Bill was an early pioneer in the collection of faunal remains
as well as soil samples for palynological analysis. He also
recognized the need to develop techniques to preserve the
waterlogged wooden carvings recovered from a pond at the
site. He knew from Frank Cushing's work at Key Marco
that the wooden artifacts would not survive through time


untreated.


While not the preferred conservation technique


today, Bill's white glue baths have successfully preserved
the many wood carvings from Fort Center for the past 35
years.
In the mid-to-late 1970s, Bill started to look southward to
the Caribbean. He loved to sail through the islands with his
family during their summer vacations and other holidays.
While riedino the nnveti nf nne of his favorite contemno-


was published in a national journal.


"What is the Archaic"





100 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1997 VOL. 50(2)


Florida Atlantic University. Shortly thereafter he and his
wife, Elsie O'Reilly Sears, moved to Vero Beach where he
kept busy doing carpentry and woodworking, a hobby of
his for years. His Queen Anne's Period replicas were
masterpieces.
Bill often taught in his seminars that there was no such
thing as "cook book archaeology." To paraphrase him,
"You must look, walk over your site, think and rethink,
and then maybe you will get it right." In 1992, many years
after the publication of his Kolomoki monograph, Bill
wrote an article which was published in Southeastern
Archaeology entitled "Mea Culpa." In it he revised his
chronology for the Kolomoki site to complement contempo-
rary findings and dates associated with Swift Creek and
Weedon Island. The article was an expression of his belief
that archaeologists need to think and rethink their data, and
it demonstrated that he was still reading and thinking about
archaeology from his place of retirement.
Bill Sears was a thinker and a doer; few of us will
accomplish as much or do as good a job as he did. During
his five decades in archaeology, Bill was a curator, admin-
istrator, academician, colleague, mentor, and friend. He
generated and initiated many thoughts, opened numerous
doors, and built a foundation of work for others to build
on. Yet he recognized that his work was but a small part of
a bigger picture. Bill Sears was truly one of Florida's
premier archaeologists.

Acknowledgments

Information on Bill Sears's career was compiled with the help of Karl
Steinen and Jerry Milanich. The photograph of Bill was provided by
Florida Atlantic University, courtesy of Jerald Kennedy.

DONNA L. RUHL








OBITUARY


WILLIAM R. MAPLES
1937-1997





102 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1997 VOL. 50(2)


Born in Dallas, Texas in 1937, William Maples developed
an early interest in human remains. While attending the
University of Texas (UT), majoring in English and Anthro-
pology, he worked as an ambulance attendant, orderly, and
emergency room assistant. After receiving his B.A. in
1959, Maples worked as an insurance adjuster for The
Hartford Insurance Company in Dallas before entering
graduate school at UT in 1961. He received his M.A. in
1962 and began work on his Ph.D. in 1964. For two and
a half years he worked in primate centers in Africa,
eventually graduating with a doctorate in Anthropology
from UT in 1967.
Maples began his teaching career at Western Michigan
University immediately after graduating in 1967. In 1968
he was hired as an assistant professor of Anthropology at
the University of Florida. He became chair of the depart-
ment in 1973 and in 1978 he was named Curator of
Physical Anthropology at the Florida State Museum (now
the Florida Museum of Natural History).
Maples began consulting with Florida medical examiners
in the early 1970s, bringing his expertise in the identifica-
tion of age, gender, ethnicity, and cause of death to crime
and accident investigations. He soon developed a reputation
for being able to solve some of the state's most difficult
cases. In 1985 he convinced University of Florida benefac-
tor Cicero Addison Pound, Jr. to help fund a human
identification laboratory on the University campus. The
C.A. Pound Human Identification Lab opened in 1986 as
part of the Florida Museum of Natural History.
Maples brought both compassion and scientific rigor to
the more than 1000 cases he was involved with during his
career. He participated in a number of high profile cases
involving the remains of former U.S. President Zachary
Taylor, slain civil rights leader Medgar Evers, Nazi war
criminal Josef Mengele, Spanish conquistador Francisco
Pizzaro, and Victorian-era "Elephant Man" Joseph Merrick.
He described these and other cases in his 1994 book Dead
Men Do Tell Tales. Despite the fame these cases brought
him, he maintained that his work on the more mundane
homicides had a greater impact on the citizens of Florida.
Although diagnosed with inoperable brain cancer in 1995,
Dr. Maples continued his work for the next two years. Just
before his death, Maples helped identify the fragmented
remains of children killed in the ValuJet airline crash in the
Everglades.
William Maples is survived by his wife of 38 years,
Margaret Kelly Maples; two daughters, Lisa Linda Maples
and Cynthia Lynn Myers; six grandchildren, Nicole, Kara,
Kristopher, Mallory, Dylan, and Billy; and a brother,
(hrl-l'oo A AannlAO









BOOK


REVIEWS


The Timucua. Jerald T. Milanich. Blackwell Publishers,


Lamar (south Georgia).


While the Alachua Tradition is


Inc., Cambridge,


1996. xix


+ 235 pp., figures, tables,


confidently linked to the Potano, correlations between some


references, index, $29.95 (cloth).


of the other


archaeological


assemblages


and specific


Timucuan groups remain somewhat uncertain. It is gratify-


KEITH H. ASHLEY


see that the


Savannah archaeological


culture is


32216


Jerald Milanich, the quintessential synthesizer of Florida
prehistory and ethnohistory, again has penned a comprehen-


sive and up-to-date volume.


Written to make scholarly


information accessible to the general public, The Timucua
is the latest in The People of America series by Blackwell
Publishers. In this book, Milanich takes the reader into the


world


of the Timucua


Indians


Florida and southern Georgia,


native


peoples


of North


of northern


peninsular


who were among the first


America


to be described


European chronicles. In the process he tells the story of the
Frenchmen and Spaniards who became an integral part of


getting its just recognition as the material assemblage of the
contact-era Timucua in extreme northeastern Florida. The
question remains, however: Where exactly along the
Atlantic coast does the Savannah archaeological manifesta-
tion give way to that of St. Johns?
Chapter 2 addresses the not-so-simple questions: Who
were the Timucua and where did they live? Although the
Timucua were never unified politically or ethnically, they
did share a common language. And thanks to Fray Francis-
co Pareja, an early seventeenth century Spanish missionary,
we know that at least nine distinct dialects of the Timucua
language were spoken. This information, along with tidbits
gleaned from other Spanish documents, has enabled
Milanich and his colleagues, most notably John Hann and
John Worth, to map the locations and track the movements


Timucuan life after 1513.


of Timucua-speaking


groups


throughout


the Colonial


With a broad brush, Milanich paints a new picture of the
Colonial Period Timucua, and based on recently uncovered


Period; a formidable and ongoing task.


In Chapter


Milanich


introduces


the reader to


data, a more accurate one.


not a unified,


chiefdom-level,


We see that the Timucua were


agricultural


society,


sixteenth century Spanish (Ponce de Leon, de NarvAez, de
Soto, and Menendez) and French (Ribault and Laudonniete)


rather disparate Timucua-speaking groups that were deftly
adapted to their particular environments. Although some
groups grew corn, its production played a much smaller
role in the lives of Timucua-speaking people than once
thought. Unfortunately, tangible archeological evidence is
lacking for the timing, scope, and range of horticultural
practices within the Timucuan region.
This well-illustrated volume contains 50 figures, although


expeditions that first encountered the various


cultures.


Interactions


between


explorers


Timucuan


and the


natives of La Florida were at times cordial, at other times
deadly.
Chapters 4 and 5 pertain to the Spanish mission system,
with documentary and archaeological data used in concert
to elucidate various aspects of mission life. Beginning in


the last quarter of the sixteenth


century,


the Timucua


many


appeared


in other publications.


most


striking of these may be the frontispiece a new figure
that depicts a Timucuan region that is geographically much
broader than previously thought. As presently perceived,
the Timucuan region stretches from the confluence of the
Altamaha and Oconee rivers in Georgia south to the lakes
district of central Florida. In Florida, the region is bounded
on the west by an arbitrary line running parallel to the Gulf
coast from the Aucilla River to the Cove of the Withla-
coochee, and on the east by the Atlantic coastline.


Indians were congregated at mission villages, taught the
Catholic doctrine, and introduced to the Hispanic way of
life, all part of Spain's colonization process. While the road


to missionization


was seemingly


intentions of the missions'


friars,


paved


the good


their concern for the


Indians' well-being often was at conflict with the desires of
Spanish soldiers and colonial administrators. During the
Mission Period, the Timucua had to cope with a rapidly
changing cultural and biological milieu, one that would
eventually foster their demise.
n-J I- n9 Iq I I I I


Environmental Services, Inc.
8711 Perimeter Park Blvd., Suite 11,


Jacksonville, Florida






THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1997 VOL. 50(2)


groups allied themselves and "assumed some of the guises


larger


chiefdoms


particular


needs" (p. 163). Such a level of organization presumably
was shaped by the fact that the Timucua were not intensive


agriculturalists.


While possibly an oversimplification, this


approach helps explain some of the discrepancies that exist
between the archaeological record and accounts written by
Europeans on the subject.
Chapter 8 is appropriately entitled "The End." The impact
of European colonization on native lifeways was tremen-
dous, with large portions of the native population succumb-
ing to the detrimental effects of disease and warfare. The
dawn of the eighteenth century witnessed the effective end
of the mission system at the hands of British-sponsored


forces


Carolina.


Afterwards


the few remaining


Timucua spent the next half century in villages near St.
Augustine. It is fitting that the book should end where it
began with a mention of Juan Alonso Cabale, the last


surviving Timucua Indian on record,


who died a Roman


Catholic in Cuba in 1767.
The volume is well organized and chapters are frequently


cross


referenced.


Undergraduate


students


and general


readers will benefit from Milanich's keen knowledge of the
archaeology and ethnohistory of La Florida, and from his
ability to convey an immense amount of information in
succinct, nontechnical prose. Individuals more familiar with
the subject matter, however, may find themselves wanting
more details and supporting data. Nevertheless, its breadth,
accuracy, and use of the most current sources will make


a handy


and informative


reference


historians and archaeologists alike. It is unfortunate that its
release has not been better publicized for it is well worth
the $29.95 asking price. I highly recommend this book to
anyone interested in a scholarly account of a vanished
Native American culture.


Considerations" by David Anderson, Lisa O'Steen, and
Kenneth Sassaman, lays the groundwork for many of the
other chapters by summarizing paleoenvironmental studies


of the southeastern United States.


The authors present a


review of the major environmental regimes of the area
between 14,000 and 10,000 years B.P., along with changes
in these environments and inferred cultural relationships.
The Paleoindian era is divided into Early (12,500-10,900
B.P.), Middle (10.900-10,500 B.P.), and Late (10,500-
10,000 B.P.) periods. Evidence for a pre-Clovis occupation
(i.e., sites with pre-10,000 B.P. dates and an absence of
diagnostic lithic artifacts) in the Southeast is discounted,
unjustifiably in my opinion. Readers will find no reference
to Little Salt Spring or Warm Mineral Springs, for exam-
ple. The chronology, environment, and technology of the
Early Archaic Period also is outlined in this chapter.


The second chapter,


"Modeling Paleoindian and Early


Archaic Settlement" by Anderson and Sassaman, provides
a historical perspective on the book's theme. Pre-1965 ideas
about the Paleoindian in the Southeast, such as Caldwell's
(1958) "primary forest efficiency" argument that diminished


importance


occupation


of the


of plant


area,


resources


were


during


borrowed


the earliest


largely


western examples which emphasized big-game hunting.
Post-1965 models were ecologically based and focused on
the effects of climatic change, the utilization of specific
geographic and environmental zones, and the significance
of specific food and raw-material resources. This historical


overview is presented as a prelude to Chapter


of Paleoindian and Early


"Models


Archaic Settlement," in which


Anderson presents a sequence of arguments that form the
basis for a model of early settlement and adaptation that
considers the role of social interaction along with strategies
of food acquisition and raw-material procurement.
Using data on the geographic distribution of Paleoindian
projectile points, Anderson argues that Early and Middle
Paleoindian occupations in the Southeast were extensive and


The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast.


David G.


Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman, editors. University of


Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 1996. xvi +


pp., figures,


tables, references, index, $29.95 (paperback).


diverse.


Concentrations


of these


artifacts


in the


river


valleys of the central Southeast are interpreted as areas of
population concentration, and Anderson suggests that they
may have been staging areas for Paleoindian colonization.
According to his model, residence in these staging areas


RYAN J. WHEELER
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research
C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey


NW 28th Terrace,


Gainesville, Florida


32653


The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast is composed
of 24 papers presented at a 1991 symposium held at the


encouraged
economies,


the development


especially


of foraging


ii forested


areas,


or generalist
and provided


jumping-off points for exploration and colonizing parties.
As small bands of Paleoindians began to spread out across
the region from these population centers, they may have
come together periodically to form socially and technolog-
ically related "macrobands." Of course, the potential for
nre-Clnvis sites in off-shore locations alone the Gulf Coast


The Timucua


TT- --. .:. ^. 0 ^..,-1. ,- in f


1997 VOL. 50(2)


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


Tmi l^/^l 10A r^ifri f^ in r


1





REVIEWS


units would have been to find mates. The band-macroband
model is based on data collected from the Savannah River


Valley (Anderson and Hanson


research


presented


in many


1988) and it guides the


of the regionally


focused


tion on the Late Paleoindian and Early Archaic periods in
that area. The cave deposits contain preserved organic
remains as well as ash and charcoal in distinct lenses. Bone
artifacts from the side-notched projectile-point component


papers.
The first three chapters are valuable for their synthetic
presentation of paleoenvironmental and theoretical topics,
as well as Anderson's thought-provoking model that places


(Early


Archaic) include fishhooks and awls.


Paleoindian


component


includes


bone


The Late
perforated


animal teeth, and bone tubes or beads. Radiocarbon dates
from the site have confirmed the presumed chronology for


social


relationships


at the


center


of settlement-pattern


the Late Paleoindian


through Middle


Archaic


periods.


research.


College


students


studying


North


American,


While not discussed in this volume, Dust Cave also has


Southeastern, or Florida archaeology would benefit from
reading these chapters.
The chapters in Part 2 present regional perspectives and
syntheses, covering virtually every Southeastern state. All
are excellent, but due to limitations of space I will only


discuss


those


that might


hold the greatest interest


Florida readers.


Sassaman's chapter,


"Early


Archaic Settlement in


Middle Archaic deposits,


which would be interesting to


compare with sites of that age in Florida.
The only chapter dealing specifically with Florida is by
Jim Dunbar and David Webb (Chapter 17), and it focuses
on bone and ivory tools from submerged Paleoindian (or
perhaps pre-Paleoindian?) sites in the panhandle. Most of
the artifacts were collected from rivers, some from locali-
ties that have produced the bones of extinct animals as well


South Carolina Coastal Plain," is a regional case study and
test of Anderson's band-macroband model discussed above.
Sassaman uses data compiled from private collections as
well as excavation data from the Savannah River site, with


a focus on


the Palmer-Kirk


phase,


characterized


corner-notched projectile-point tradition that dominated the
state by 9500 B.P. In order to test Anderson's assertion
that band mobility was along major rivers and that aggrega-
tion and exchange occurred between drainages, Sassaman
examined data from three transectss" that cross-cut drain-
ages. Most sites in Sassaman's sample were classified as
base camps or smaller, field stations or hunting camps.
Unusual sites with a diversity of materials, however, are
thought to provide evidence of aggregation sites as pro-
posed by the model. Sassaman notes that while this type of


aggregation may


have been necessary


early on,


it was


probably replaced by more subtle forms of interaction such
as individual trading partners. Thus, Sassaman provides a
modification to the original band-macroband model that


helps


account


for inconsistencies


in the archaeological


record.


Randy Daniel's chapter,


"Raw Material Availability and


as Paleoindian tools.


The modified bones of mammoth,


mastodon, and horse are believed to have been used as


abraders, anvils, beamers, awl handles, and hoes.


These


tools are unlike most bone tools from Florida and have
been identified on the basis of wear-pattern analysis. The
authors note that similar tools have been found at sites in


Russia, Alaska,


Chile, and Europe. Postulated functions


range from flint-working implements to hide-processing
tools, as well as instruments for processing plant fibers,
grinding, and digging. Unfortunately, the carved ivory
shafts being studied by the authors are only briefly men-
tioned and are not illustrated.
Part 3 includes commentary by Joel Gunn, Dena Din-
cauze, Dan Morse, and Henry Wright. Gunn's chapter, "A
Framework for the Paleoindian/Early Archaic Transition,"
invokes a global perspective that deals with major climatic
change, volcanism, and orbital precession. Dincauze points


out in her commentary,


"Modeling Communities and Other


Thankless Tasks," that models based on fewer and fewer
data (and older cultures) become more elegant and unclut-
tered, because they are less precise and unable to withstand
the accumulation of "constraining facts." Dincauze further


Early Archaic Settlement," challenges the ideas presented


notes that models need to accommodate:


1) demographic


Anderson's


band-macroband


model.


primary


objection involves direct versus indirect chert acquisition
and what the presence of exotic stone in archaeological


assemblages means in


terms of interpreting geographic


factors such as population density and reproductive rates,
2) socioeconomic organizations appropriate to 1) and not
entirely imported from modern analogues, 3) local scales of
environmental diversity and informed assumptions about


movement and social organization. Daniel argues that the
presence of exotic stone in Savannah River assemblages
indicates that band ranges encompassed more than one


watershed,


and that


movement


between


drainages


was


available resources,


4) calibrated chronologies for estimat-


ing rates of growth and change in sidereal time, and 5)


climatic


dynamism.


directed at the


While


Dincat


Paleoindian/Early


size's suggestions are
Archaic focus of the


---- --- .41 k^t Jkf tftt^11f r-/.-/ fll-l+ T/lt/ r l., nnflyr^ n


n^frnonntl' nnrt^ r0/ AaraAJ r'ml,, m non cir i nno+ fnfr4 l -^ n nn,,n 1I A hA





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


1997 VOL. 50(2)


objection lies in the absence of a synthetic chapter on the
Paleoindian and Early Archaic in Florida. Readers seeking
a Florida perspective should consult Tesar (1994) on the


Johnson


Daniel


and Wisenbaker


(1987)


Harney Flats, and Purdy (1981


on the Container Corpora-


tion of America site. My greatest satisfaction with the book
is the focus on modeling and the attempt to go beyond site
reports or artifact studies to develop a synthetic understand-


ing of temporal and regional


cultures.


Overall


think


Florida readers working with or interested in Paleoindian
and Early Archaic studies will find this a useful volume,
with good ideas and a strong basis for comparative re-


search.


References Cited


Anderson, David


and Glen T. Hanson


1988 Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeastern United


States:


Case Study from the Savannah River Valley. A


menrcan


Antiquity


53:262-286.
Caldwell, Joseph R.
1958 Trend and Tradition in the


Prehistory


Eastern


United


States.


Memoir No.


88. American Anthropological Association,


Menasha, Wisconsin.
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr., and Michael Wisenbaker


1987 Harney


Flats: A Florida Paleo-Indian


Site. Baywood Publishing


Company, Farmingdale, New York.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1981 Investigations into the Use of Chert Outcrops by Prehistoric


Floridians:


The Container Corporation of America


Site. The


Florida Anthropologist 34:90-108.
Tesar, Louis D.


Johnson Sand Pit
of a Paleoindian


(8LE73): An Analysis and


through


Comparative Review


Deptford Base Camp in Leon


County, Florida. Florida Archaeological Reports


Archaeological Research,
Tallahassee.


32. Bureau of


Division of Historical Resources,






Join


the


Florida


Anthropological


Society


(FAS) !


A non-profit


organization


founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida


Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.


Florida Indian
Poster
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a


$6.50 d
to FAS,
36-inch
printed


onahion
this 18 b'
poster is
maroon


and purple on
cream-colored


heavy
C


paper.


Sm m m - mm - - m - - mmm m m mm mmmmm mmm m -
S IR
E YES! I want to join FAS!
I Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deduc


Other


rates:


institutional, $35


family,


patron $100, and life $500.
E YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50


and receive


a poster by mail (allow


or mo


tible.


re, sustaining,


also tax-deductible,


3-5 weeks).


Name:
Address:


State:


Teleph


one:


MAIL TO:


Memb


Tampa, FL


ership,


33682


c/o Terry Simpson,


CGCAS,


P.O. Box 82255,


Join


the


Florida


Anthropological


Society


(FAS)!


A non-profit


organ


ization


founded in


', with chapters throughout Florida


Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures.


and help


save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-


tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.


Florida Indian (
Poster
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a


* E YES! I want to join FAS!
I Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deduc


Other


rates:


institutional, $35


family,


or mo


tible.


re, sustaining,


patron $100, and life $500.


E YES, I would like to donate an additional


and receive


a poster b


mail (allow


$6.50,


also tax-deductible,


3-5 weeks).


Name:








Annual Meetings
of the
Florida
Anthropological
Society


Year Place Date Host(s)


1947
1948
1949
1950
1951


Daytona Beach
No meeting
Gainesville


Gainesville
Tallahassee


11-13 August


February
February


24 February


initial organizing meeting


Gainesville Anthropological Society
Gainesville Anthropological Society


Florida


State


University,


Department


1952
1953


Winter Park
Gainesville


16 February


February


Anthropology and Archaeology
Rollins College


University


Florida,


Sociology and Anthropolo


Department of
yv. Florida State


Museum, and Florida Park Service


1954


Coral Gables


20 February


University


of Miami and


Historical


Association of Southern Florida


1956
1957
1958
1959
1960


Rainbow Springs
Rainbow Springs
Winter Park
Rainbow Springs
Ormond Beach
Gainesville


19 February


February


2 February
15 Februayr


February


12 March


Rainbow Springs
Rainbow Springs
Rollins College
Rainbow Springs


William H.
University


Sears


FAS President


Florida


, Department


1961


Coral Gables


February


Anthropology
FAS South Florida Chapter and University


of Miami


1962
1963


Orlando
Tampa


24 February
16 February


The Central Florida Museum


University


South


Florida


FAS


1964
1965


1966


Cocoa


Gainesville


Clearwater


February
February


19 February


Tampa Bay Chapter
Indian River Anthropological Society


University


Florida,


Department


Anthropology
St. Petersburg Junior College,


Clearwater


1967


Ft. Walton Beach


4 March


Campus
City of Fort


Walton Beach


Temple


r t r


L r IL










Winter Park
St. Augustine
Jacksonville
Ocala
Ft. Lauderdale


1977


1978

1979

1980
1981
1982
1983


1984


1985


1986



1987
1988

1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994


1995


Tampa


Walton Beach


Coral Gables

Winter Park
Cocoa Beach
Tampa
Tallahassee


Palm Beach


Daytona Beach


Gainesville



Clearwater Beach
Winter Park


Jacksonville


Naples
Pensacola
St. Augustine
Clearwater Beach
Dania


Sebring


March
-18 March
-17 March
-16 February
March


18-19 March


1 April

21 April

8 March
6-8 March
2-4 April
8-10 April


27-29 April


19-21 April


10-12 April



8-10 May
6-8 May


28-30 April
27-29 April
8-10 March
27-29 March
7-9 May
13-15 May


7-9 April


Central Florida Anthropological Society
John W. Griffin, FAS President
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
Ben I. Waller, FAS President
Broward County Archaeological Society
and Breward Community College
J. Raymond Williams, FAS President,
University of South Florida, and Suncoast
Archaeological Society
Temple Mound Museum and Northwest
Florida Anthropological Society
Archaeological Society of the Museum of
Science-Miami and University of Miami
Central Florida Anthropological Society
Indian River Anthropological Society
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
Apalachee Anthropological Society and
Florida Division of Archives, History, and
Records Management
Palm Beach County Anthropological
Society, Broward County Archaeological
Society, and Flagler Museum
Volusia Anthropological Society and Ocali
Scrub Archaeological Society
University of Florida, Department of
Anthropology graduate students (in
conjuction with the annual meeting of The
Florida Academy of Sciences)
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
Central Florida Anthropological Society
and Rollins College
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
Pensacola Anthropological Society
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
The Graves Museum of Archaeology and
Natural History, and Broward County


Archaeological Society
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and















FLORIDA


ANTHROPOLOGICAL


SOCIETY


CHAPTERS


Indian River Anthro. Soc. 3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt I


Volusia Anthro. Soc.- P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 321


St. Augustine Arch. Assoc. P.O. Box 1987, St Augustine, F


Northeast FL Anthro. Soc. -10274 Bear Valley Rd, Jacksonv


island, FL


FL 32085


ille, FL


32952


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-Pensacola Arch. SOC. P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591









Central FL Anthro. Soc. P.O. Box 261, Orlando, FL 32801-0261


Central Gulf Coast Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682


Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons. 13300 U.S. 98, Sebring, FL 33870


Time Sifters Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 2542, Sarasota, FL 34277 ------ -








Southeast Florida Arch. Soc. P.O. I





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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is the quarterly journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.,


and is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December.


The journal is owned and


managed by the Officers and Executive Committee of the Society (see inside front cover).


Circulation


June 1997
Vol. 50 (2)


Average


Total Copies Printed
Sold, UF Library Exchange
To Back Issue Dealer
Mail Subscriptions
Total Paid Circulation
Author Reprints
Free Distribution
Office Use, Left Over
Total


I





THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST


About the Authors:

Keith H. Ashley is an archaeologist with Environmental Services, Inc. in Jacksonville. His interests


include


northeast


Florida


prehistory,


Contact


Period


archaeology,


and aboriginal


coastal


adaptations.

Vicki L. Rolland's introduction into archaeology began with her participation in the excavation off
Santa Maria de Yamassee and Santa Catalina de Guale on Amelia Island, Florida. She is currently
employed by Environmental Services, Inc. in Jacksonville.


Ryan J.


Wheeler grew up in Fort Lauderdale where he developed an interest in natural history.


While a graduate student at the University of Florida he worked on excavations at shell midden
sites at Lake Monroe and Jupiter Inlet. His Ph.D. dissertation research focused on Indian art from
the Florida peninsula, and he has published a number of articles on decorated artifacts. He is


currently an employee of the State of Florida's


Bureau of Archaeological Research where he


works for the C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey.

Gregory A. Mikell is a professional archaeologist from Pensacola. He is a graduate of Florida State


University (B.A.
northwest Florida.


NOTE:


1983) and Wake Forest University (M.A.


1986) and continues his work in


Due to an editorial oversight, the biographical sketch of Robert L.


Knight was omitted from the


last issue of The Florida Anthropologist (Vol. 50, No. 1). It is reproduced in full below.

Robert L. Knight is a consulting environmental scientist with CH2M Hill in Gainesville. He
received his Ph.D. in Systems Ecology from the University of Florida, Department of
Environmental Engineering in 1980. He has been interested in archaeology since childhood and
has been a serious avocational archaeologist for the past five years. He has participated as a
volunteer on the Aucilla River Prehistory Project in Florida and the Allendale Paleoindian Project
in South Carolina.


1997 VOL. 50(2)




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