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Volume 51 Number 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Editor's Page. Robert J. Austin
Osteology of the Late Archaic Bird Island Site (8DI52),
Dixie County, Florida. Christopher M. Stojanowski and Glen H. Doran
Ninety-nine Bottles of Beer in the Wall: A Turn-of-the-century Bottle Well
in New Smyrna Beach. Dana Ste. Claire, Dorothy L. Moore, and Robert W. McKinney
A Barbed Bone Point from the Santa Fe River, Florida. Robert L. Knight
ABSTRACTS OF THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1998 ANNUAL MEETING
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1998 AWARD RECIPIENTS
Ripley P. Bullen Award: Judith A. Bense 165
William C. Lazarus Award: Elizabeth L "Connie" Franklin 165
Chapter Awards for Distinguished Service 166
Steele and Bullard (Editors): Journal of a Visit to the Georgia Islands ofSt Catherines, Green, Ossabaw, Sapelo,
St. Simons, Jekyll, and Cumberland, with Comments on the Florida Islands ofAmelia, Talbot, and St George, in
1753 by Jonathan Bryan. James G. Cusick 169
Fagan: Snapshots ofthe Past. Simon Barker-Benfield 169
About the Authors 174
Cover: Calusa Secrets by Dean Quigley
Copyright 1998 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
In this issue of The Florida Anthropologist we present
several interesting papers on diverse topics. In the lead article.
Christopher Stojanowski and Glen Doran present osteological
data on a Late Archaic burial population from the Bird Island
site in Dixie County. The skeletal remains had been collected
from an eroding beach deposit by several individuals over many
years. Although the remains are in a poor state of preservation,
valuable comparative data on robusticity and dental pathologies
were obtained. As the authors note, there are only a handful of
skeletal samples in North America that are comparable in age
and size to the sample from Bird Island. This relative rarity
makes the Bird Island site a significant archaeological resource
and their paper an important contribution to Florida archaeol-
Dana Ste. Claire, Dot Moore, and Bob McKinney bring us
forward about 4500 years to the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries with a description of their excavation of a
very unique archaeological site in New Smyrna Beach. The
Budweiser Beer Bottle Well is a hand-dug, water-table well
with the upper portion lined entirely with glass bottles, many of
which are beer bottles manufactured by the Anheuser Busch
Glass Manufacturing Company. Historical research and the
dates of operation of the bottle manufacturing companies
indicate that the well was probably built around 1905 using
bottles that were discarded between 1880 and 1905. No other
bottled-lined wells are known in Florida, making this a unique
and unusual site.
In a featured report. Bob Knight describes a barbed bone
point from the Santa Fe River. le then presents background
information on similar artifacts from elsewhere m North
America and Europe in an attempt to place the Santa Fe
specimen in functional and temporal contexts
This year's annual meeting in Gaines\ville is the subject of the
next section. For the first time. the Fl is publshing the
complete abstracts from the meeting. The paper, vaned i
subject matter, ranging temporally and cultural! from the
Paleoindian through modern Seminole. I hope to make thi- a
regular feature in upcoming N ears to provide those \who can not
attend the meeting with current information on archaeological
research in Florida.
The Florida Anthropological Society's annual award,
recipients are highlighted next. Judy Bense received the
Society's Ripley P. Bullen Award and Connie Franklm rece,\ ied
the William C. Lazarus Award. FAS member( Chris Chnstian-
sen. Gail Hart. Ella Mae Ablahat. and Carl Johnson were
honored by their respective chapters for their outstanding
services. Finally. the FAS Board of Directors presented a
special award to Nancy Olson. Education Director for the
Collier County Museum. for her efforts in organizing Flonda
Archaeology Month. Congratulations to all
Book reviews by James Cusick and Simon Barker-Benfield
round out this issue of the journal. Enjoy
RI BTRl J A- .
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Vot. 51 No. 3
OSTEOLOGY OF THE LATE ARCHAIC BIRD ISLAND SITE (8DI52),
DIXIE COUNTY, FLORIDA
CHRISTOPHER M. STOJANOWSKI' AND GLEN H. DORAN2
'Department ofAnthropology, University ofNew Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1086
'Department ofAnthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306
he Bird Island site, 8DI52, is located in Dixie County,
Florida on a small island in the Gulf of Mexico (Figure
1). The nearest human habitation is the town of Horse-
shoe Beach and the site is only accessible by boat. Because the
present location of the site exposes it to high tides, storm surges,
and everyday wave action, the site is actively being destroyed as
beach erosion occurs. This explains the relatively poor preser-
vation of the remains as skeletal materials have been subjected
to adverse environmental forces for considerable periods of
First recorded in the 1960s by John Goggin, the earliest work
at Bird Island was conducted shortly thereafter by Thomas
Watson, an avocational archaeologist. In the 1980s, Nancy
White of the University of South Florida surface collected
materials that had eroded from primary context during severe
storms. The materials from the Watson excavations were
donated to the Florida Department of State. These materials,
along with the White collections, are temporarily on loan to the
Department of Anthropology, Florida State University (FSU) in
Tallahassee. Most recently, Glen Doran and Steven Dasovich
ofFSU have conducted investigations at the site, including the
collection of several relatively intact burials that eroded from
the beach and the controlled surface collection of eroded
materials. Doran and Dasovich also acquired archaeological
materials that were surface collected since the 1950s by Thelma
Flanagan, the previous owner of the island. All materials
collected by Doran and Dasovich are presently curated at
Florida State University.
Although a detailed study of the Bird Island artifacts, faunal
remains, and site morphology has not been conducted, the site
appears to have multiple prehistoric components as indicated by
the presence of Orange Period and later ceramics including
Swift Creek and Weeden Island types. The earliest component
includes the human skeletal material discussed here with no
remains found in association with the ceramic-bearing compo-
nents. Julian Granberry of Horseshoe Beach, Florida submitted
a single sample of surface-collected human bone for standard
radiocarbon dating. The sample returned an uncorrected date of
4570 + 110 radiocarbon years B.P. (Beta-27221). This corre-
sponds to an uncorrected calendrical date of ca. 2620 B.C., or
a calibrated date of 3349 B.C. (Stuiver and Reimer 1993). Such
a date places burial activities in the early part of the Late
Archaic Period, a date corroborated by the lack of ceramics in
the burial stratum. Later components include ceramics, a large
number of which are presently curated at Florida State Univer-
sity (n > 500 sherds). Lithic debitage and complete bifaces from
the site appear to be consistent with the radiocarbon chronol-
ogy. However, it is uncertain to which prehistoric component
the lithic materials belong.
This report represents the first formal analysis and publica-
tion of any data regarding the site, although additional informa-
tion and analysis is included in Stojanowski (1997). The
antiquity and relatively large size of the skeletal sample make
the Bird Island materials significant. We present data on
preliminary demography, dental pathological conditions,
craniometrics, odontometrics, and postcranial metrics. Addi-
tional data are included in Stojanowski (1997).
Preservation and Preliminary Demography
Approximately half of the skeletal sample reported here
eroded from its primary context during major storms. Subse-
quently, these remains were exposed to the adverse effects of
wave action for indeterminate periods prior to collection thus
explaining their poor preservation. The remains are highly
fragmented; only a single complete long bone is present and this
had to be reconstructed. Many exterior bone surfaces exhibit
considerable exfoliation and mineral or marine invertebrate
encrustation. Sun bleaching is fairly common throughout the
sample. An example of these taphonomic changes is presented
in Figure 2.
A quantitative measure of the degree of preservation within
the sample was obtained using a binary scoring system (pres-
ence or absence) of 95 diagnostic skeletal features of sex and
age. Each individual was assigned a completeness score ranging
from 0 to 1 based on the proportion of features present. A score
of 1 would indicate complete preservation. The average
preservation score for the sample was .096, which is very low.
Given the poor preservation of the sample, age estimation
using standard postcranial parameters was not very inform tive.
The areas of limited utility were auricular surface morphology
(Lovejoy et al. 1985), cranial suture-closure (Meindl and Love-
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 3
... .. .. ... .. F O I A1
CAO Graphic by Aubrey Adoms 11/30/92
Figure 1. Map of Florida indicating the location of the Bird Island site.
Figure 2. Superior view of unprovenienced, surface-collected calotte. Note the poor
preservation, cortical exfoliation, sun bleaching, and extreme rodent gnawing on the
exterior cortical surface. This degree of fragmentation is typical of the assemblage.
joy 1985), and dental eruption pat
terns (Moorees et al. 1963; Ube-
laker 1989), Consequently, dental
attrition served as the primary
means of age estimation for adults.
The scoring system that was uti-
lized in this study is a modified
version of the Lovejoy system
(1985; see Stojanowski 1997:54-65
for a complete discussion of the
methodology utilized for age as-
sessments using attrition scores, as
well as raw and ranked scores). The
results are presented in Table 1.
Subadults are severely under
represented at Bird Island (11%,
see Table 1) in contrast to expected
mortality profiles in which sub-
adults and elderly adults should
comprise a larger percentage of
the burial population (Acsadi and
Nemeskeri 1970:27). However,
given the unfavorable preservation
1998 VOL. 51(3)
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
;L; ''- IX
Z' .-. P
STOJANOWSKI AND DORAN OSTEOLOGY OF BIRD ISLAND 141
Table 1. Bird Island skeletal sample age and sex summary.
Burial ID Age Sex
FS 11.23 15.0 female
FS 12, 11 15.1 unknown
Quad 2 18.5 unknown
FS 12, 10 18.6 unknown
Zone 0 22.0 unknown
Burial 7 23.7 unknown
FS 13, 10 25.5 unknown
92.199.14 27.3 male
FS 7 27.4 male
Burial 11 27.5 male
92.199 29.0 unknown
M 32.5 unknown
Burial 12 32.6 female
142 36.0 unknown
167 36.0 unknown
Burial 2 36.1 female
Burial B12 37.8 female
FS 8 37.9 male
Burial 9 39.5 male
FS 7 39.6 male
177 39.7 unknown
92.199.07 43.0 unknown
FS 12, 10 43.1 unknown
Burial 1 43.2 female
FS 11-9 43.3 unknown
181 46.5 unknown
Burial 10 46.6 unknown
156 50.1 unknown,
Zone 3 50.2 unknown
Burial 16 53.5 unknown
92.199.05 60.5 unknown
Beach 60.6 unknown
Burial 13 P male
I = indeterminate
conditions and their effect on relatively fragile subadult bones,
such a bias is not unexpected.
Sex estimation was based primarily on cranial features
including mastoid length, mental eminence, external occipital
protuberance, superior edge of the orbit, and glabellar projec-
tion after Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994:20). The only pelvic sex
indicator available for observation was the sciatic notch. The
postcranial metrics of greatest utility in sex estimation were
humerus epi- condylar and articular widths (France 1983:4-7),
metacarpal dimensions (Scheuer and Elkington 1993:774),
femoral head diameters (Stewart 1979:120), and femoral neck
diameters (Seidemann et al. n.d.). Owing to the population
specificity ofpostcranial metrics, the use of these parameters in
sex assessment was extremely conservative. The results are
presented in Table 1.
Based on the number of frontal bones and left femora (medial
thirds), a minimum of 36 individuals are present in the sample.
This includes four subadults of indeterminate sex, five adult
females, seven adult males, and 20 adults of indeterminate sex.
The individuals included in Table 1 are only those for whom
either age or sex could be determined.
Dental Pathological Conditions
Data on the incidence of dental calculus, hypercementosis,
premortem tooth loss, dental abscesses, and caries were
recorded for the Bird Island sample. The scoring methodology
for all pathological conditions excluding hypercementosis
follows Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). Scoring for hypercemen-
tosis follows Dickel (1991). Incidence by tooth type is pre-
sented in Table 2. No apparent side discrepancies were indi-
cated and such data are therefore not reported here (see Stojan-
owski 1997:65-88). Sex-specific data for dental calculus and
caries are not reported here due to the small sample size (n < 5).
An example of the typical dental condition is presented in
Hypercementosis, premortem tooth loss, and abscesses all
appear to be associated with increasing age and occlusal wear
(Stojanowski 1997:90). The fact that such pathological condi-
tions do not occur in the younger age intervals is suggestive of
a fairly healthy population with little development of premature
dental disease. Caries occurred only on the occlusal surfaces of
the cheek teeth of individuals of the younger age interval. This
suggests that enamel attrition proceeded at a faster rate than
carious development. The low frequency of caries is consistent
with other observations of hunting-and-gathering populations
whose subsistence economies consisted of marine resources
with little consumption of high-starch cereals (Larsen et al.
1991; Walker and Erlandson 1986).
Metrics and Stature Estimates
Data on postcranial, cranial, and dental metrics are reported
in Tables 3-6. No sex-specific data are included here due to the
small number of sexed individuals, but such measures can be
found in the principal author's master's thesis (Stojanowski
1997). Because attrition can affect the accuracy of odontometric
data (Van Reenen 1964:38), mesiodistal and buccolingual
diameters were taken as maximum values and not as defined by
the interproximal contact facets. In addition, only teeth with a
crown height greater than 3 mm were included in the data
presented in Tables 5 and 6.
Stature estimates were derived principally from metacarpal
lengths after Musgrave and Hameja (1978). Doran (1996)
found that metacarpal estimates of stature are not statistically
different from those based on long-bone lengths. For the single
intact femur from Bird Island, stature was estimated using the
Mongoloid regression formula of Trotter and Gleser (1952).
Because stature regressions are sex specific, only those individ-
uals whose sex could be determined are included. Mean male
stature for the Bird Island sample is 171.91 cm (n=7,
s.d=3.13). Mean female stature is 163.47 cm (n=3, s.d.=3.23).
The average stature for all ten individuals is 169.38 cm (n=10,
s.d=5.05). The degree of stature dimorphism is 4.9%. A stu-
I 18M Vo Ci1
,aLw__ H E LORKIDIA f5i^ I nTH rOPLOGISI I ( \
Table 2. Summary of dental pathological conditions, sides and sexes combined.
Calculus Hypercement Premortem Abscesses Caries
(aff/n/%) (aff/n/%) (aff/n/%) (aff/n/%) (aff/n/%)
MXM3 19/22/86 0/7/0 0/26/0 0/26/0 0/27/0
MXM2 28/32/87 0/8/0 0/36/0 0/36/0 0/36/0
MXM1 30/40/75 2 /15 /13 0/45/0 1/45/2 1/44/2
MXPM2 17/34/50 3 12/ 25 0,41/0 1/41/2 0/41/0
MXPM1 15/39/38 5/14/36 0/39/0 0/38/0 0/37/0
MXC 15/31/48 2 18 11 0/34/0 0/34/0 0/29/0
MXI2 11/22/50 0/15/0 1/26/4 1/26/4 0/20/0
MXI1 10/23/43 4/15/27 1/29/3 0/29/0 0/22/0
MNI 7/16/44 1/9/11 9/31/29 1/29/3 0/25/0
MNI2 13/26/50 1/10/ 10 6/42/14 1/26/4 0/25/0
MNC 15/35/43 0/9/0 6/43/14 0/34/0 0/35/0
MNPM1 13/34/38 1/6/17 8/38/21 0/39/0 0/36/0
MNPM2 17/41/41 0/8/0 5/41/12 1/41/2 0/44/0
MNM1 27/42/64 0/9/0 7/44/16 3/45/7 4/45/9
MNM2 33/41/80 0/11/0 6/41/15 2/36/6 2/43/5
MNM3 23/38/60 0/12/0 0/37/0 0/26/0 0/42/0
Totals 293/516/57 19/178/11 49/600/8 11/551/2 7/551/1
ABBREVIATIONS: aff= number of teeth affected; MN = mandibular, MX = maxillary; M3 = third molar. M2 = second molar, Ml = first molar,
PM2 = second premolar; PMI = first premolar; C = canine; 12 = second incisor, II = first incisor.
dent's t test to determine if differences exist between mean
stature in the male and female populations indicated that the
differences are statistically signifi-
cant (t=3.822, df-3.7, p=.021).
The degree of stature dimorphism
may indicate that the population
experienced little adolescent meta-
bolic stress. In comparison to the
skeletal populations from four
other Florida sites, Windover
(Stojanowski 1997), Manasota
Key (Dickel 1991), Fort Center
(Miller-Shaivitz and Iscan 1991),
and Bayshore Homes (Stojan-
owski 1997), the Bird Island sam-
ple exhibits the largest overall
The most striking aspect of this
population is the absolute size
and robusticity of the individuals
compared with 26 other skeletal
samples: Bayshore Homes, Flor-
ida; Canaveral, Florida; Fort Cen-
ter, Florida; Highland Beach, Flor-
ida; Horrs Island, Florida; Perico
Island, Florida; Safety Harbor, Figure 3. ft lateral
Figure 3. Left lateral view
Florida; Sowell Mound, Florida; gen d
Turtle Shores, Florida; Weeden generalzed periodontal
area of Ml. Note that M
Island, Florida; Gibson, Illinois; Klunk, Illinois; Knight, Illinois;
Indian Knoll, Kentucky; Adena, Ohio; Glacial Kame, Ohio;
Sof surface-collected mandible exhibiting severe occusal wear,
resorption, ante-mortem tooth loss, and a large abscess in the
1 has been lost pre-mortem.
Tre V. jn A- i ri
IQIANOWSK- AND ORT. -V-
Table 3. Postcranial metrics and indices in mm.
Measurement N Mean S.D.
Humerus Epicondylar Width
Humerus Articular Width
Humerus Vertical Head Diameter
Femoral Head Diameter
Femoral Vertical Neck Diameter'
Femoral AP Subtrochanteric Diameter
Femoral ML Subtrochanteric Diameter
Tibia AP Diameter at NF
Tibia ML Diameter at NF
^Q o .J..
ABBREVIATIONS: AP = anteroposterior, ML = mediolateral; NF =
nutrient foramen; S. D. = standard deviation.
" minimum superoinferior diameter of femoral neck (see Seidemann et
Hopewell, Ohio; Shelby Bend, Tennessee; Santa Catalina,
Georgia; Stallings Island, Georgia; Schultz Mound, Kansas;
Turner, Missouri; Boyd, Mississippi; Gordon Mounds, Missis-
sippi; and Mangum, Mississippi (Stojanowski 1997:12). Of the
16 measurements (femoral head diameter, stature, cranial
length, cranial module, and 12 odontometric measures) avail-
able for comparison in both Florida and non-Florida samples,
Bird Island mean scores for 11 of these measurements exceed
all other comparative samples (see Stojanowski 1997:170).
This trend was repeated for postcranial, cranial, and dental
meti ics. The consistently large metrics exhibit a normal range
of variation, and the robusticity of the Bird Island sample
appears real and is not simply a factor of taphonomic sampling
Data on epigenetic traits were collected for the Bird Island
sample using the variant system defined in Buikstra and
Ubelaker (1994). As with most parameters in this study, sex-
specific data are extremely limited by the small number of
individuals who could be sexed. The following traits were
scored: all cranial sutural ossicles, os japonicum, infraorbital
suture, supraorbital notch and foramen, mental foramen
number, mylohyoid bridge, auditory exostosis, divided hypo-
glossal canal, condylar canal, mastoid foramen location and
number, parietal notch bonie, parietal foramen, Inca bone, and
metepism. Only the supraorbital notches, supraorbital foramina,
mental foramen number, mylohyoid bridges, auditory exostoses,
and mastoid foramen number and location had sample sizes in
excess of 25 individuals. All data are presented in a lengthy
table in Stojanowski (1997:175-191) but are excluded here due
to space constraints. However, as a whole these data are not
Table 4. Craniometrics in mm and cranial indices summary, sexes
Measurement N Mean S.D. Min. Max.
ABBREVIATIONS: S.D. = standard deviation; Min. = minimum;
Max. = maximum; CRMXL = cranial maximum length; CRMXB =
cranial maximum breadth; BASBREG = basion-bregma length;
BASNASL = basion-nasion length; UPFACH upptL facial height;
MASTL = mastoid length; MINFRB = minimum frontal breadth; NH
= nasal height, NB = nasal breadth; ARH = ascending ramus height;
MINARW = minimum ascending ramus width; BICONDB =
bicondylar breadth; MANBL = mandibular body breadth; MANBH =
mandibular body high; CHINH = chin height, MANL = mandible
length; IOB = interorbital length; BIGONW = bigonial width; FRC -
frontal chord; PAC = parietal chord; OCC = occipital
A minimum of 36 individuals are represented in the Bird
Island s ample, of which there are four subadults, five adult
females, seven adult males, and 20 adults of indeterminate sex.
The remains are very poorly preserved with an apparent
preservation bias favoring middle-aged individuals. The most
notable aspect of this population is the degree of robusticity
exhibited by the individuals. Since each metric variable
exhibited a normal range of variation, the robust character of the
Bird Island individuals do not appear to be the spurious result
of preservation biases.
Where preservation a!!owed observation, there was no
obvious sign of infectious pathologies. Premortem fractures
were also absent in the sample. In the teeth, calculus, caries,
hypercementosis, abscesses, and premortem tooth loss were all
scored. With the exception of dental calculus, mental pathologies
were relatively rare in the sample. Hypercementosis, abscesses,
and premortem loss can be attributed to severe occlusal wear,
S'~h D jMrv mTJU
OSTEOLOGY OF BI D
Table 5. Maxillary dental metrics in mm, sexes combined.
Tooth Measure N Mean S.D. Minimum Maximum
MXII MD 13 8.73 .44 8.03 9.50
BL 13 7.12 .56 6.07 8.04
CH 13 10.15 1.33 6.93 11.58
MXI2 MD 13 7.33 .42 6.60 8.16
BL 13 6.53 .54 5.92 7.76
CH 13 8.78 1.65 5.92 11.06
MXC MD 15 8.56 .31 7.78 8.99
BL 16 8.53 .36 8.02 9.23
CH 16 9.60 1.65 6.13 12.13
MXPM MD 15 7.41 .49 6.68 8.26
BL 15 9.67 .42 8.87 10.21
CH 15 6.58 1.35 3.83 8.66
MXPM MD 19 7.06 .54 5.78 7.64
BL 20 9.42 .52 8.07 10.25
CH 19 5.91 1.17 3.61 8.17
MXMI MD 21 11.38 .64 10.34 12.90
BL 21 12.44 .44 11.50 13.12
CH 21 5.30 .87 3.21 6.73
MXM2 MD 20 10.87 .69 9.75 12.09
BL 20 12.18 .59 11.22 13.30
CH 20 5.48 .95 3.40 7.26
MXM3 MD 13 9.70 .62 8.66 10.35
BL 13 11.55 .36 10.74 11.55
CH 13 5.44 .77 4.04 6.81
ABBREVIATIONS: S.D. standard deviation; MD mesiodistal diameter, BL bucco-
lingual diameter, CH crown height.
Table 6. Mandibular dental metrics in mm, sexes combined
Tooth Measure N Mean S.D. Minimum Maximum
MNI1 MD 10 5.28 .25 4.86 5.73
BL 10 5.63 .47 4.80 6.36
CH 8 7.26 .65 6.64 8.23
MNI2 MD 15 6.19 .37 5.56 6.76
BL 11 6.22 .36 5.48 6.85
CH 15 7.86 1.25 5.21 10.12
MNC MD 23 7.48 .44 6.84 8.50
BL 23 7.75 .55 6.18 8.66
CH 23 9.83 2.04 5.20 13.29
MNPM MD 26 7.25 .47 6.41 8.27
BL 17 8.09 .63 7.27 9.96
CH 26 6.86 1.33 4.14 9.41
MNPM MD 31 7.16 .37 6.30 7.78
BL 20 8.31 .50 7.60 9.65
CH 31 5.53 1.21 3.73 8.60
MNM1 MD 35 11.89 .61 10.24 12.84
BL 36 11.34 .54 10.27 12.53
CH 35 4.89 1.05 3.10 7.07
MNM2 MD 26 11.56 .75 10.28 13.23
BL 26 10.88 .57 9.73 11.96
CH 26 '5.20 .80 4.01 6.64
MNM3 MD 25 10.87 .69 9.69 11.86
BL 25 10.75 .87 9.44 12.96
CH 26 5.24 .93 3.09 7.13
ABBREVIATIONS: S.D. standard deviation; MD mesiodistal diameter, BL bucco-
lingual diameter, CH crown height.
Qvfl!Aukwr AMTI tIu- nM nr nsr I5n.N I AC
factor of increasing age. The fact that these pathologies were
not observed in the younger individuals suggests that the
population experienced favorable health conditions, with an
expected decline in health as age increased. Caries prevalence
also was extremely low suggesting a coarse diet (supported by
the degree of attrition) probably focusing on marine resources
and low-starch plant foods.
The scientific potential of the Bird Island sample is limited
due primarily to poor preservation and high numbers of unsexed
elements. As a demographic sample, Bird Island also has severe
limitations, particularly in the obvious under representation of
subadults and elderly adults. Any cross-sample comparisons
using the data collected in this study must consider that the
demographic integrity of the sample is problematic. The best
area for independent research is the dentition. The Bird Island
collection is well suited to future studies concerning both dental
metrics and pathological conditions. The teeth are well pre-
served and fairly numerous, with approximately 600 included
in this analysis.
In spite of these limitations, the antiquity of the Bird Island
site (ca. 4500 years B.P.) makes these data significant. Skeletal
samples of this antiquity are unusual in North America. In an
ongoing inventory of New World skeletal samples at Florida
State University, which now includes 43,557 individuals, fewer
than 2599 (5.9% of the total) are older than 4571 years B.P.
This older group (>4571 years B.P.) comes from 65 sites
which, excluding Indian Knoll (n-1233), has an average sample
size of 21.3 individuals. Excluding Indian Knoll, there are only
10 North American sites of this antiquity which have samples
as large as or larger than Bird Island. Four of these 10 sites are
from Florida (Windover, Tick Island, Bay West, and Republic
Groves) which account for 518 (52%) of all North American
skeletal material as old as Bird Island. It has been argued, and
seems evident, that the Florida samples can make a unique
contribution to the understanding of early North American bio-
cultural adaptation (Doran and Dickel 1988:365). Given the
established potential and importance of the Bird Island site, and
the active nature of its destruction, further mitigation is war-
ranted and essential.
The authors wish to thank the following people: Julian Granbeny, who
originally brought the destruction of Bird Island to our attention and who also
obtained the radiocarbon date for the site; Thelma Flanagan, the original
landowner, who graciously welcomed our investigations; and the late Carolyn
Davis, who cheerfully and enthusiastically accompanied our several trips to the
island. Ryan M. Seidemann provided the photography of the remains and
Gregory Heide assisted in the creation of the map of Florida.
Acsadi, Gy., and J. Nemeskeri
1970 History of Human Lifespan and Mortality. Akademiai Kiado,
Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker
1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains.
Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville.
Dickel, David N.
1991 DescriptiveAnalysis ofthe Skeletal Collection from the Prehistoric
Manasota Key Cemetery, Sarasota County, Florida (8S01292).
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1996 Historic Burials from the Scott Multiuse Facility, Illinois. Report
submitted to the Archaeological Research Lab, University of Illinois,
Edwardsville and State Archaeologist, Illinois.
Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Radiometric Chronologyofthe Archaic Windover Archaeological Site
(8BR246). The Florida Anthropologist 41:365-380.
France, Diane L.
1983 Sexual Dimorphism in the Human Humerus. Ph.D. dissertation,
Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Larsen, C. S., R. Shavit, and M.C. Griffin
1991 Dental Caries Evidence for Dietary Change. In Advances in Dental
Anthropology, edited by M.A. Kelley and C. S. Larsen, pp. 179-202.
Wiley-Liss, New York.
Lovejoy, C. Owen
1985 Dental Wearinthe Libben Population: Its Functional Pattern and Role
in the Determination of Adult Skeletal Age at Death. American
Journal ofPhysical Anthropology 68:47-56.
Lovejoy, C.O., Richard S. Meindl, Thomas R. Pryzbeck, and Robert P.
1985 Chronological Metamorphosis of the Auricular Surface of the Ilium:
A New Method for the Determination of Age at Death. American
Journal ofPhysicalAnthropology 68:15-28.
Meindl, Richard S., and C. Owen Lovejoy
1985 Ectocranial Suture Closure: A Revised Method for the Determination
of Skeletal Age at Death Based on the Lateral-Anterior Sutures.
American Journal ofPhysicalAnthropology 68:57-66
Miller-Shaivitz, Patricia, and MehmetYasar Iscan
1991 The Prehistoric People of Fort Center: Physical and Health Character-
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1963 Age Formation by Stages for Ten Permanent Teeth. Journal ofDental
Musgrave, J.H., and N.K. Harneja
1978 The Estimation of Adult Stature from Metacarpal Bone Length.
American Journal ofPhysical Anthropology 48:113-119.
Scheuer, J. Louise, and Nicholas M. Elkington
1993 Sex Determination from Metacarpals and the First Proximal Phalanx.
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n.d. Sex Assessment ofthe Human Femur Neck in Prehistoric and Historic
Populations. Submitted for publication to American Journal of
Stewart, T. Dale
1979 Essentials ofForensicAnthropology. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
Stojanowski, Christopher M.
1997 DescriptiveAnalysis of the Prehistoric Bird Island (8DI52) Skeletal
Population. M.S. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State
Stuiver, M., and P. J. Reimer
1993 Extended 14C Database and Revised CALIB Radiocarbon Calibration
Program. Radiocarbon 35:215-230.
Trotter. M., and G.C. Gleser
1952 Estimation of Stature from Long Bones of American Whites and
Negroes. American Journal ofPhysicalAnthropology 10:463-514.
Ubelaker, Douglas H.
1989 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation (3rd
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1964 Dentition, Jaws, and Palate of the Kalahari Bushmen. Journal ofthe
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CmliAMmjM i AM nWDAIu
CHrmns rve nor Pan low run
Join the 1999 Allendale Paleoindian
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Allendale County, South Carolina, May 4 29, 1999.
Calling for volunteers from the public, no experience necessary, to sign up for a week or
more to help excavate ancient Early Man sites associated with prehistoric chert quarries.
Sites include possible pre-Clovis, Clovis, Dalton, and Early Archaic occupations.
Volunteers learn excavation techniques and artifact identification. The expedition also
provides a good excavation experience for undergraduate and graduate students. The
cost is $366.00 per week ($300.00 is tax deductible).
o free camping with hot showers
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o evening lectures and programs
o Paleoindian book and T-shirt
o motels within 30 minutes
Contact Dr. Al Goodyear, SC Institute of
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~~~~law a n m r- -- ----------------------------....~.......~.-l.l
NINETY-NINE BOTTLES OF BEER IN THE WALL: A TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY
BOTTLE WELL IN NEW SMYRNA BEACH
DANA STE. CLAIRE1, DOROTHY L. MOORE2, AND ROBERT W. MCKINNEY3
' Museum ofArts and Sciences, 1040 Museum Boulevard, Daytona Beach, Florida 32114
2 P.O. Box 504, New Smyrna Beach, Florida 32170-0504
3 75 Bridgehaven Drive, Palm Coast, Florida 32137
Archaeological investigations conducted in the summer
of 1995 in New Smyrna Beach, Florida by the Divi-
sion of Archaeological and Anthropological Research,
Museum of Arts and Sciences, unearthed the intact remains of
a historic well which was constructed with mid-to-late
nineteenth-century bottles, several of which are early "Original
Budweiser" beer bottles (ca. 1876-1883). The discovery of
these diagnostic beer bottles early on in the excavation of the
well led us to name the site the Budweiser Beer Bottle Well
The Bottle Well site was documented during a cultural
resource assessment survey of the Bonnet Development, which
encompasses approximately 2.2 hectares (5.33 acres) on the
Indian River (intracoastal waterway) in New Smyrna Beach
(Figure 1). During the summer and fall of 1995, the well was
excavated in its entirety and removed as part of a salvage effort
(Figure 2). The area in which the site was located was slated for
development and this necessitated the documentation and
removal of over 800 bottles and other well materials. Prior to
their removal, each bottle was photographed, plotted on a
master feature plan, tagged, and logged with a complete
description of embossed information and method of manufac-
Lands surrounding the Bottle Well site occupy one of the
oldest sections of New Smyrna Beach, with a lengthy history
dating back to the British Colonial Period. On October 18,
1774, Dr. Andrew Turnbull, the founder of the late eighteenth-
century colony of New Smyrna Beach, was granted 100 acres
(40.5 hectares) in and around the project area by Governor
Patrick Tonyn. A 1773 map from the Colonial Office in
England describes the land grant as "situated on the east side of
Hillsboro River, a little to the southward of the Musqueto Inlet,
about eighty miles S.E.wards from St. Augustine bounded
west on Hillsborough River and all other sides on vacant land"
(Map 1773). The Turnbull colony disbanded in 1777.
In 1803, Robert Walker received a 100-acre grant from the
Spanish Governor of Florida. Walker occupied the land for an
unknown period of time before being driven away by hostile
Seminole Indians during the Seminole Indian wars of the early
nineteenth century. It is possible that Walker once owned the
identical tract of land granted to Turnbull. A letter written by
W.A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of
Florida (probably to John Detwiler; see below) and dated May
9, 1922, describes the land as "situate[d] on the seashore south
of the Bar of Mosquito at a place abounding in the shells of the
oyster, formerly cultivated by Dr. Turnbull" (McRae 1922).'
Prior to 1835, Douglas Dummett (sometimes spelled Dum-
mit) established an estate which occupied the southwest corner
of the Walker grant. The McRae letter records Dummett's land
claim: "The location of the shell mound, by reason of its
elevation, was the subject of inquiry by Governor White
[Spanish governor of Florida] to the Spanish Engineer of
Artillery, for the purpose of ascertaining if it would be detri-
mental to the defense of the Province, if it should be allowed to
claimant [Dummett], it being the best physical evidence of the
location of the claim in the absence of any survey" (McRae
1922). Dummett paid $1.25 per acre for 30 acres (12.1
hectares). He lived on his property until about 1863 when he
moved farther south to what is now Canaveral National Sea-
shore. Dummett's only son, Charles, died in 1860 at the age of
16 as a result of a hunting accident. He is buried at a marked
grave which lies in a street median just north of the Bonnet
An archaeological site recorded in the Florida Site File as
Dummett's Place (8V0106) is thought to be the original site of
the Dummett residence located on an extensive prehistoric shell
mound (Goggin 1952). Both the historic site and the aboriginal
oyster mound which served as the house foundation were
destroyed many years ago. It is believed that Dummett's Place
once occupied an area immediately north of the Bonnet Devel-
opment. An 1851 United States Coastal Survey map of the inlet
area shows a site known as "Mt. Pleasant" at the mouth of the
adjacent Callalisa Creek where the Dummett house is thought
to have once existed. Remnants of an adjacent site, 8V0107,
also known as Dummett's Mound, still exist. This site was part
of the large shoreline midden that once occupied an area along
Indian River Road. Sections of the shell mound are visible in
the southwest comer of the development property.
In 1876, Savilla Alden and her husband bought the 100-acre
Walker grant for $85 from a bank that had acquired it previ-
ously as a tax deed from the United States government (Volusia
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 3
IE AOID N VOL. S
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. ; '. ' .
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Figure 1. Map of Mosquito Inlet area showing the locations of the Budweiser Beer Bottle Well site and Dummett's Place
8 991 Vol Sl(3)
T F ATinorotocI?
S.T C L .... .... m o..-T -c....... ..u o I WELL
Figure 2. Jason Burns removes bottles from the wall of the w
above Debbie Mullins (left) and Melanie Wendt clean and tag I
County 1884). The Aldens constructed a house on the property
which, to date, has never been located. A survey map of the
period (United States Coastal Survey 1882) shows a location
called "Alden's Chimney" on the river shore near the south-
western portions of the Bonnet Development. Another survey
map, dated 1876, shows the remnants of an old chimney and
what is referred to as the "Dummett House" in the general area
In the early 1880s, John Y. Detwiler, the great-grandfather
of developer Stewart Bonnet Mitchell, constructed a three-story
house on an existing prehistoric shell mound (Figure 3). The
house featured a cupola and two large fireplaces, one to the
north and the other to the south of the house. The house was
destroyed by fire between 1916 and 1918. The foundations of
the house, complete with the structural remains of both fire-
places, exist in the southwestern corner of the development
Bottle Well Discovery and Excavation
Although affirmed and documented in 1995, a
bottle well was believed to exist on the property by
several generations of the Bonnet family, owners of
the surrounding lands. A story of an 1800s well
made of old bottles was firmly entrenched in family
and local folklore by the time we arrived to survey
the land. Stewart Mitchell, the current owner, re-
members as a child shooting his pellet gun at bottles
lying on the ground somewhere near the location of
an active well pump station, but neither he nor
anyone else could confirm that a well made of
bottles existed. Our expectations for discovering
such a site were not very high at the beginning of the
Initial clearing of the suspected site revealed a
number of broken nineteenth-century bottle frag-
ments, suggesting that bottles or glass shards had
been deposited in some manner at this location. At
this stage of the excavation, we surmised that we had
unearthed the remnants of a historic bottle dump or
garbage pit which over the years had evolved into
something more colorful in the imaginations of the
property owners. However, the site occupied the
same spatial position as an active well adjacent to a
pump house, suggesting that the bottle fragments
may indeed be related to a well structure.
Using the existing well point to reference the
center of the suspected well feature, a 2-x-2-m-
square grid was established over the area. Excava-
tion, accomplished in 1-m-square quads, revealed a
series of dry-laid bottles arranged in a circular
pattern overlying bottles laid in a rectangular config-
uration (Figure 4).
el while Bottle Well Construction and Materials
The manner of construction makes the Budweiser
Beer Bottle Well an unusual archaeological site. A deep pit,
approximately 2.5 m in depth and 1.5 m in width, had been
excavated to water level sometime during the late nineteenth or
early twentieth centuries. To stabilize the upper circular walls
of the well and the sides of a rectangular reservoir or cap,
workers pushed whole bottles, neck first, into the earthen sides.
The bottle-lined section of the well measured approximately 1.3
m in diameter and extended to a depth of I m below ground
surface. A total of 814 beer, soda, wine, ginger ale, and other
bottles were used to construct the well (Figure 5): the rect-
angular portion was built using 270 bottles; the circular portion
contained 544 bottles.
It is believed that the bottle well was constructed by anony-
mous workers sometime after John Y. Detwiler moved to this
location in 1883. An example of settlement ingenuity at its
finest, the well most likely was built using bottles from a trash
dump, materials that were readily available and cheap, being
SmCLAIRE ET AL
d Tr mN-nF-TWFrC~NTlmY RCYPPIP. WF.I~.
Ica 1002D NTROO
less costly than coquina block or brick which were
more commonly used for well construction. The bottles
may have come from a nineteenth-century drinking
establishment on the peninsula, a nearby household, or
perhaps the discarded ballast of a ship. Similar contain-
ers found in an upscale coquina well associated with
the nearby Detwiler mansion suggest that the empties
may have resulted from Detwiler's partaking (Ste.
Five hundred and sixty bottles displayed embossed
markings of some kind and this information was used to
determine an approximate date of construction. The
users of 31 different makers' marks and trade names
were identified, and of these we were able to determine
the periods of operation for 28 (Table 1). A terminus
post quem (TPQ) for the construction of the well was
established by the beginning manufacture dates for the
most recently made bottles, those of the American
Bottle Company, which began operation in 1905 (Tou-
louse 1971:30-33). In addition, one bottle bears the
dual marks of the Holt Glass Works, which was in
operation from 1893 to 1906, and the American Bottle
Company's Chicago plant, which was in operation from
1905-1916. The dates of overlap (1905-1906) provide
a very tight time frame for the likely construction of the
To determine the probable time frame during which
the original deposit of bottles took place, the beginning
and ending dates of operation for each of the 28 dated
company marks were plotted on a graph (Figure 6).
Examination of this graph indicates that most of the
dates of operation span a period of time from 1870 to
1920. Following South (1977:214-216), the period of
deposition was narrowed further by placing a vertical
bracket on the left side of the graph so that it intersected
at least half of the horizontal time lines. A second
vertical bracket was placed on the right side so that it
intersected the latest beginning dates present. The area Fig
between these brackets defines the period of time when PhF
it is most likely that the bottles were originally depos-
ited; in this case, the period from 1880 to 1905.
The bottles display several interesting technological features
that reinforce their late nineteenth-century origins. A single
crown-capped bottle was found in Level 7 (ca. 70-80 cm below
surface; bottle layer eight of the circular portion of the well).
The bottle, embossed with"Celebrated Cuequot-Club, Trade-
mark Registered, Beverages Made In America," was excavated
from the well with its crimped cap intact. In 1892, William
Painter invented the crown cap which revolutionized the beer
bottling and soft drink industry (Lorraine 1968:42). The crown
cap was fashioned from a circular tin plate which was crimped
over the rolled lip of a bottle.
Another bottle was found with its capping device intact. A
"Finlays Superior Lager, Toledo, Ohio" beer bottle was
recovered with its Lightning stopper capping device in place.
This device, used from 1882 to 1915 (Lief 1965:14; Newman
1970), was a porcelain plug fixed to the outside of the bottle by
means of a permanently attached wire assembly. The wire
ure 3. Detwiler Mansion, New Smyrna Beach, ca. 1890s.
otograph from the Stewart Mitchell collection.
attachment formed a bar that controlled the opening and closing
of the bottle (Polak 1992).
Early molded containers, including several three-piece mold
bottles, were also recovered from the well walls. Three-piece
molds were used in bottle production from 1810 to 1890
(Newman 1970). The lowest level of the bottle well structure
contained 13 round-bottomed ginger ale bottles embossed with
either "Ross's Belfast" or "Gratten & Co LTD, Est 1825." The
round bottoms of these bottles made upright stacking impossi-
ble. They were designed to lay on their sides to prevent the
cork from drying and popping out of the bottle, hence the name
"soda pop." Round-bottom bottles were manufactured and used
from 1860 to 1913 (Newman 1970).
Some of the most interesting containers in the well were the
241 aqua Budweiser beer bottles with applied glass lips. Two
of these bottles have the following embossed on their sides: "C.
Conrad & Co's Original Budweiser, U.S. Patent No. 6376."
Budweiser beer was introduced in 1876 by the Anheuser-Busch
8 991 Vot 51 3
TPu Fan Au lnn\I
Q_ rA A Tv toyh Rarri v Wirwi I -
Figure 4. View of the exposed bottle well from above. The round-bottom bottles can be seen to the right
of the red bay tree, between the tree and the well pipe. These were the lower-most bottles in the well.
Figure 5. Examples of bottles used in the construction of the wel.
d ~Flmu~nrTuF~r~hlTImv RNFn P WPI I
GTV ft nmB Br, A I
THE aORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL.51(3)
Table 1. Identified bottling companies for which dates of operation are known.
ID Maker's Mark or Company Name
1 ABGMCo or Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Compar
ABGMC St. Louis, MO
2 ABG Co, ABGC, or Adolphus Busch Glass Company, St. Louis, M
3 C&Co Cunningham & Company, Pittsburgh, PA
4 See That Each Cork is Cantrell & Cochrane, Dublin and Belfast, Irelai
Cantrell & Cochrane
5 CCCo or CCC C. Conrad & Company, St. Louis, MO
6 DOC D. 0. Cunningham Glass Company, Pittsburg
7 FBCo Fredericksburg Bottling Company, San Francisi
8 FHGW Frederick Hampsen Glass Works, England
9 Finlays Superior Lager Finlays Superior Lager, Toledo, OH (1855-190
and C&Co Cunningham & Company, Pittsburgh, PA (188
10 Georgia Brewing Assoc. Georgia Brewing Association, Savannah, GA
11 H (with varying numbers) Holt Glass Works, West Berkeley, CA (1893-1H
and ABCo. American Bottle Company, Chicago, IL (1905-
12 IGCo Ihmsen Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA
13 L.B.S. British; No name
14 MGCo Millgrove Glass Company, Millgrove, IN
15 NBBGCo North Baltimore Bottle Glass Company, North
16 PGW Pacific Glass Works, San Francisco, CA
17 R&Co Roth & Company, San Francisco, CA
18 Ross's Belfast Belfast Soda Water and Ginger Ale Company, S
19 R. Portner, Wash. D.C. National Capitol Brewing Champagne, Washing
20 SB&GCo Streatnor Bottle & Glass Company, llinois
21 W in shield under B Wood Brothers Glass Company, Ltd., England
22 WIS G Co MIL W Wisconsin Glass Company, Milwaukee, WS
23 WIS GLASS Wisconsin Glass Company, Milwaukee, WS
ly, Belleville, IL and
an Francisco, CA
SOURCES: John Hinkel, St Louis Bottle Collectors Association; James Marshall, Toledo Lucas County Libray, Jane Spillman, Coming Museum
of Glass, New York; Tolouse 1971.
Company and was packaged and distributed by Carl Conrad
who patented the Budweiser trademark in 1878 (Plavchan
1976:72-73). It was not until 1883, after Conrad was forced to
close his firm due to bankruptcy, that Anheuser-Busch acquired
the patent and assumed the bottling and marketing of Budweiser
In addition to the "Original Budweiser" bottles, another 247
bottles are embossed with various marks of the Adolphus Busch
Glass Manufacturing Company established by Adolphus
Busch in 1892 (John Hinkel, St. Louis Bottle Collectors
Association, personal communication 1995; Jane Spillman,
Curator of American Glass, the Coming Museum of Glass, New
York, personal communication 1996; see also Plavchan
1976:76). The "ABGMCo" mark was used by the company
Dates of Operation N
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
1998 VOL. 51(3)
C lIR E ET AL. W--O- L
(see Table 1)
1780 1800 1820
1840 1860 1880
Years of Operation
1900 1920 1940
Figure 6. Visual-bracketing method of determining the period of deposition of the bottles used to construct the Budweiser
Beer Bottle Wel.
] J I I
CsC Pc *iBI r At
A Tm Ir B onmr Draa
Tw IN nuin & ANTHRoprruunpni 1GIT 19O -mA
until 1905 when it merged with Ohio Glass and the Streatnor
Bottle and Glass Company to form American Bottle Company
(Toulouse 1971:26-27, 30-33). Busch's St. Louis bottle plant
continued to operate independently until 1928 using the "ABGC
StL" mark. Other variations of the Busch mark found on the
well bottles include "ABGMC," "ABGC," and "ABG Co."
It appears that the bottle-lined portion of the well (from ca. 0-
100 cm below surface) served as an upper support structure for
a well shaft, although the nature of construction dry-laid
bottles in a porous sand matrix does not lend itself well as a
stabilizing shell. A large volume of displaced sand surrounding
the well site, and the presence of mottling in the sand below the
bottle-lined portion of the well, seem to indicate that a large
shaft was once excavated through the sand to the water table.
However, it would seem that an underlying, unsupported shaft
through porous sand would preclude long-term use as a well, in
that water in the lower levels would quickly undercut its sides,
causing collapse of the upper, bottle-lined walls. Efforts to
locate features in the sand below the bottle level which would
indicate that the bottle-lined portion of the well was underlain
by barrels, a wooden shaft, or other more traditional well
materials were unsuccessful.
It is possible that the near-surface or water-table aquifer in
the New Smyrna Beach area was once shallower than it is
today, and that the bottom of the bottle-lined portion of the well,
represents the point of access to the water table. Subsequent
modifications to the shaft as the water table dropped might
explain the displaced sand and mottling features.
Finally, it also is possible that the bottle-lined structure was
designed as an ornamental cap to protect a well point that was
positioned at water level at the bottom of a pit that was exca-
vated for that purpose and then backfilled. The rectangular
portion of the structure seems to have been designed to house
a cap of some sort, possibly made of wood or metal. A tabby
foundation located near the southwest corner of the bottle well
approximately 40 cm below the ground surface may have
supported a windmill structure designed to pump water to the
nearby Detwiler house cistern. Cast iron piping located in the
ground between the well and the house indicate a westward
direction of flow to the house foundation.
A review of the Florida Site File and the archaeological
literature, as well as conversations with historic archaeologists
around the state, revealed the uniqueness of the Budweiser
Bottle Well site. To our knowledge, no other bottle-lined well
has been documented in Florida. However, other structures
composed of bottles and bottle glass are known for the area.
Between 1820 and 1836, boat slips along Bulow Creek were
lined with whole bottles in the same manner (see Baker 1991,
1997; Gluckman and Baker 1967; Strickland 1985:50-54, for
descriptions of the Bulowville Plantation site in Flagler County).
Volusia County resident and avocational archaeologist Reese
Moore (personal communication 1995) reports seeing
nineteenth-century bottle-lined sidewalks in Ormond Beach
during renovations of the street along the Halifax River just
south of Granada Boulevard during the 1960s.
It remains unclear why bottles, rather than more traditional
materials, were used in the construction of the well. It is
possible that the well is an example of settler ingenuity, using
inexpensive, readily available materials from a nearby bottle
dump instead of the more costly brick or coquina block. Or
perhaps it was the fanciful design of John Y. Detwiler or one of
his workers nearly a century ago. Regardless of the reason, the
well has provided archaeologists and historians with a cache of
invaluable information regarding goods and supplies available
in New Smyrna Beach around the turn-of-the-century, as well
as a most unusual archaeological site.
Walker's grant was never surveyed and so the boundaries were never
accurately established. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, John Detwiler,
who acquired the property in 1883, began contacting county, state, and federal
government officials in an attempt to determine the south boundary line of
Walker's grant. The letter by McRae was probably written to Detwiler during
this period and is one of many such documents in the possession of Stewart
Mitchell. The south boundary line eventually was established on the ground in
The authors wish to thank Stewart Mitchell for providing us, through a
lengthy period of investigation, an opportunity to research and salvage the
Budweiser Beer Bottle Well site. He also made available important documents
fiom his private collection which allowed us to reconstruct the early history of
the property. Dan Cory, a local surveyor, provided us with copies of plat maps
of the Bonnet Development site and showed us exactly where the south
boundary line of the Walker grant was finally established. Joe Knetsch,
Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Survey and Mapping, also
assisted us in locating early maps of the project area. Lewis Preyer, long time
beachside resident who lives on the river where the Dummett Mound once
existed, provided us with much valuable information about early days in that
section of the beach.
A number of volunteers were involved in the excavation of the weD and
surrounding areas, and we wish to thank them. These include David Anderson.
Jason Bums, Dave and Gloria Burnell, Nick Crawford, Roger Grange, Bob
McKinney, Dot Moore, Debby Mullins, Tom Scofield, and Melanie Wendt
Finally, the authors thank Bob Austin for his editorial contributions to this
Baker, Henry A.
1991 Archaeological Excavations at the Bulow Dwelling House, 1982.
Florida Archaeological Reports No. 23, Florida Bureau of Archaeo-
logical Research, Tallahassee.
1997 Fifteen Years on Bulow Creek: Glimpses of Bulow Ville. Paper
presented at the Northeastern Florida Plantation Symposium.
Gluckman, Stephen J., and Henry A. Baker
1967 Archaeological Investigations at Bulow Plantation Ruins State Park:
A Preliminary Report Manuscript on file, Florida Division of
Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspectives in Northern St. Johns Archeology.
Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology 47, New
1965 A Close-up of Closures: History and Progress. Glass Containers
Manufacturers Institute, New York.
Tur.I nmILI a A Irrwmnrm IYInIiT
1990 Vm- l(m3
Yw CNi AIUW WI' Al A Ti rwunu'I .E-C~jjUlRy BYrru, Wiri
1968 An Archaeologist's Guide to Nineteenth Century American Glass.
McRae, W. A.
1922 Certified letter (possibly to John Detwiler) dated 5/9/22. Volusia
County Land Records, Book 105, p. 476, Deland. Copy in the
possession of Stewart Mitchell, New Smyrna Beach.
1773 Map of 100-are Andrew Turnbull grant Copy on file, Florida State
Archives, Series 991, Folder 5, Tallahassee.
1876 Survey map of Township 17 South, Range 34 East. Copy in the
possession of Stewart Mitchell, New Smyrna Beach.
Newman, T. Snell
1970 A Dating Key for Post-Eighteenth Century Bottles. Historical
Plavchan, Ronald Jan
1976 A History ofAnheuser-Busch 1852-1933. Amo Press, New York.
1992 Bottles: Identification and Price Guide. Avon Books, New York.
1995 A Preliminary Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Proposed
Bonnet Development Site, New Smyrna Beach. Report prepared for
Stewart Bonnet Mitchell by the Division of Archaeological and
Anthropological Research, Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona
1977 Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology. Academic Press,
1985 Ashes on the Wind: The Story ofthe LostPlantations. The Volusia
County Historical Commission, Deland.
Toulouse, Julian H.
1971 Bottle Makers and Their Marks. Thomas Nelson, Inc., New York.
United States Coastal Survey
1851 Reconnaissance of Mosquito Inlet Coast of Florida by the Hydro-
graphic Party Under the Command of Lieut. John Rodgers, U.S.N.
Assist U.S.C.S. 1851. On file, Florida Department of Environmen-
tal Protection, Bureau of Survey and Mapping, Tallahassee.
1882 Map ofMosquito Inlet, U.S. Coastal Survey 1882. On file, Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Survey and
1884 Mortgage indenture, George C. Alden & Wife to H. E. Osteen, Feb.
23, 1884. Filed inthe Office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of the
County of Volusia on the 29th day of February 1884. Volusia
County Land Records, Book C, p. 103. Copy in the possession of
Stewart Mitchell, New Smyma Beach.
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FLORIDA ARCHAEOLOGICAL COUNCIL
JOHN W. GRIFFIN STUDENT GRANT
The Florida Archaeological Council is making available a maximum of $500.00 per year to
be awarded to archaeology graduate students (M.A or Ph.D.) who are currently enrolled
in a Florida university. The grant money will assist students conducting archaeological
research in Florida. Grant funds can be used to cover the costs associated with
archaeological field work, special analyses (e.g., radiocarbon dates, faunal or botanical
analyses, soils analysis, etc.), or travel expenses associated with presenting a paper based
on the student's research at a professional meeting. The entire amount may be given to a
single individual or it may be divided up among several applicants at the discretion of the
FAC's Grant Committee.
Students who are interested in applying for the grant should submit a 2-page letter
describing the project for which the funds are being requested; what research questions)
or problems) are being addressed; how the funds will be applied to these problems; what,
if any, additional funds will be used to accomplish the research; and how the research will
contribute to Florida archaeology. Accompanying the letter should be a budget indicating
the amount requested and describing how the money will be spent along with a letter of
Applications for 1999 are now being accepted and can be sent to: Robert Austin, FAC
Griffin Student Grant, P.O. Box 2818, Riverview, FL 33568-2818. The deadline for
applications is May 1, 1999.
FLORIDA ARCHAEOLOGICAL COUNCIL, INC.
A professional organization for the benefit and advancement of archaeology, especially in Florida.
A Barbed Bone Point from the Santa Fe River,
ROBERT L. KNIGHT
2809 N. W. 161 Court, Gainesville, Florida 32609
In this paper I describe a barbed bone point or harpoon tip
found in the Santa Fe River in Columbia County in Novem-
ber i 997. Figure 1 illustrates the unilaterally barbed bone point
found by the author. This artifact was located in shallow gravel
(approximately 30 cm deep) near the Columbia County bank of
the Santa Fe River, downstream of the U.S. 27 bridge. Water
depth at the time of discovery was less than one meter. The
barbed bone point was dislodged from the gravel matrix by
hand fanning. Other artifacts found within the immediate
vicinity included an Archaic stemmed projectile point (Putnam
subtype), a large, crescentric, unifacial side scraper, and two
broken bone points.
Figure 2 illustrates the reverse side of the barbed bone point
as well as three bi-pointed bone points found on other days at
the same site. The barbed bone point is approximately 10 cm
long, 1 cm wide, and .5 cm thick. This tool was apparently
fabricated from a deer ulna in the same fashion as the abundant
bone points, often erroneously called "pins" or "awls," that are
found in the Santa Fe River and throughout Florida. The only
difference between the barbed bone point and other bi-pointed
bone points is the presence of three barbs carved along one
edge. These barbs increase in size from the distal (tip) end to
the proximal end. The third or proximal barb is broken off, and
by the color of the bone (black on the outside and brownish
inside) the break is recent and may have occurred as the point
was fanned out of the gravel. The broken barb was not recov-
ered, but its length and width were surmised based on the cross
section of the break. Figure 1 illustrates the presumed outline of
the intact artifact.
Bone tools are common in Florida throughout the prehistoric
period (Milanich 1994). During the Paleoindian Period, bone
and ivory, single- and double-pointed tools were fashioned as
spear points or as foreshafts for hafting lanceolate points
(Gramly 1996). During the Archaic Period, bone tools included
single- and double-pointed bone points or spear tips, bone pins
(Walker 1992), fish hooks, atlatl weights, carved daggers,
socketed antler handles, and antler flakers. A number of these
tool forms are illustrated by Milanich (1994: 49-50, 68-69) and
bi-pointed bone points are very common in some underwater
sites and in midden sites (Walker 1992). Milanich also reports
One such point with a small bone barb attached to the tip with
pitch has been found by divers in the Oklawaha River. Carved
barbed points some with multiple barbs and bone pins are less
common ... [Milanich 1994:67].
Unilaterally barbed bone points exist in the collections of
several divers in Florida. Some authorities refer to these barbed
bone points as harpoons; however, very few of them are drilled
for the attachment of a line. The majority of these barbed points
are from the Santa Fe and Ichetucknee Rivers, and others have
been reported from the lower Withlacoochee River, the Suwan-
nee River, the Aucilla River, Silver Run, and Ponce DeLeon
Springs (Purdy 1973; personal communications, Jim Tatum,
Ray Harvey, and Paul Lien). These divers all agree that barbed
bone points are rare compared to other bone points found in
Purdy (1973) reported on the occurrence of bone points in
Florida. She illustrates 19 barbed points from Florida rivers,
springs, and other wet sites. Ten of these have a single barb,
seven have two or more barbs, and two are barbed bilaterally.
Bi-pointed bone points are common in Florida in all contexts
that preserve bone. Examples are illustrated or described in
Milanich (1994) for the Aucilla and Ichetucknee rivers (Paleo-
lithic through Mississippian periods are inter-mixed), for the
Fort Center Belle Glade culture of south Florida, the Swift
Creek culture of northwest Florida, the Cades Pond culture in
Alachua County (Woodland Period); and the Fort Walton, St.
Johns II, and Alachua cultures in north Florida during Missis-
sippian times. Milanich (1994:67) states that some of these bi-
pointed bone points show marks and discoloration from pine
pitch, indicating hating and use as spear or arrow tips.
Bone points presumed to be spear points and associated with
lithic types from the Paleoindian Period are illustrated by Neill
(1964) for Wakulla Spring in north Florida where they were
described as abundant. Some of these bi-pointed bone points
were placed in sockets while others were apparently hafted
obliquely on a beveled shaft to create a single- barbed spear
(Neill 1964:Figure 1). Dunbar et al. (1990) illustrate bi-pointed
bone points from the Aucilla River, Page-Ladson site in Zone
C (late Paleoindian to Early Archaic) and Zone B (Middle
Archaic). Willey (1973: Plates 15 and 16) illustrated bi-pointed
bone points from the Perico Island culture (early Woodland) on
the central Gulf coast. Other bone points were apparently used
as awls, and bone pins were used as personal adornment in the
hair and clothes. Many of the bone pins excavated in mounds at
the Archaic Tick Island site in northeast Florida were beauti-
fully engraved, a feature that does not appear to be utilitarian,
but purely decorative. Similar bone points and pins, both
decorated and undecorated have been described from through-
out the southeastern U.S. (Bierer 1977:178-179, 503) and most
regions of North America (e.g., Wedel 1959:Plate 33) and at
numerous northern sites (Moorehead 1987). It is clear that
shaped bone points are one of the most prevalent artifact
categories, covering the full range and spatial extent of North
American prehistory. As such, bone points are not extremely
diagnostic of time or place.
The occurrence of barbed bone points is very limited com-
8 991 Vot 51 3)
Figure 1. Barbed bone point from the Santa Fe River,
pared to unbarbed bone points. For this reason, their presence
and distribution may provide a clue to technology and com-
merce among the early inhabitants of Florida. Purdy (1973:
151) illustrated the known distribution of barbed bone points in
Florida in 1973. Bone points with multiple barbs appear to be
limited to north-central Florida and to environments that contain
numerous examples of Late Paleoindian and Early Archaic
diagnostic projectile points. Bone points with a single barb
appear generally to be limited to a much later context in
southwest Florida at Key Marco (Purdy 1973).
Other than the previously cited references (Milanich 1994;
Purdy 1973) which describe the occurrence of barbed bone
points in the state, one must go to references from other states
and continents to find illustrations of similar
tools. A search for the chronological pres-
ence of these tools in the prehistoric record
might help to put the Florida finds in per-
SThe earliest documented occurrence of
barbed bone points or harpoon tips comes
from the Magdalenian industry of Europe,
which first appeared about 18,000 B.P. A
previous industry, the late Solutrean, was
characterized by the occasional appearance
of bone spear points (sagaies) with etched
Florida. decorations. These became more frequent
during the ensuing Magdalenian Period. The
first rudimentary barbed bone points or
harpoons are found in the Early Magdalenian Period. The first
crude forms consisted of straight bone points with ridges and
notches along one edge only. These early harpoon types evolved
into more complex forms with recurved barbs, barbs along two
opposing edges, and detachable harpoon tips with a hole drilled
near the base to be attached to a rope or string.
The Middle Magdalenian Period (about 16,000 to 14,000
years B.P.) is characterized by barbed bone points with a well-
defined single row of barbs (Osborn 1916). Osbom states that
Of all the Magdalenian weapons the most characteristic is the
harpoon, the chief fishing implement, which now appears for the
first time marked by the invention of the barb or point retroverted
I i 14i 5 6
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DIX EPLAT INC. MIAMI NASHVILLE JACKSON ORLANDO
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Figure 2. Selection of bone points from a site in the Santa Fe River, Florida.
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in such a manner as to hold its place in the flesh. The barb does
not suddenly appear like an inventive mutation, but it very slowly
evolves as its usefulness is demonstrated in practice [Osbom
These earliest harpoons were hypothesized to have been used
either for hunting upland game such as reindeer and/or repre-
senting a redirection to an increased utilization offish (Osborn
The creation of carved bone implements during the Magda-
lenian is important because it represents a technological
breakthrough where stone tools were made specifically to
fashion tools made of bone. The microliths and burins of this
period are the first stone tools routinely used for engraving and
shaping bone weapons. The invention of the barb represents
another significant advance in technology. It was also at this
time that the spear thrower or atlatl (propulseur) first appears
in the archaeological record.
A famous wet archaeological site in Great Britain, Star Carr,
located near Scarborough in Yorkshire, yielded 191 barbed
points made from antler and bone (Clark et al. 1971). This site
dates to the early Mesolithic (ca. 7500 B.C.) and is comparable
to the Early Archaic in Florida. The median length of these
barbed tools was about 20 cm, and some were as long as 35 cm.
All of the barbed bone tools from Star Carr are barbed on one
edge only and vary in number from two to at many as twenty-
eight barbs. The larger size of these tools compared to the
Florida barbed tools is likely a function of the size of the stag
antler material that was available at Star Carr. Otherwise,
illustrations of the United Kingdom barbed points indicate
parallels in form and function. The fact that the cultures that
produced these similar tools were likely contemporaneous is
food for thought.
Barbed bone and copper points, both unilateral and bilateral,
are illustrated for some of the northern portions of North
America including Wisconsin, Minnesota, New York, New
England, Canada, the St. Lawrence Basin, and in Eskimo
country (MacNeish 1952; Miles 1968; Moorehead 1987).
MacNeish (1952:Figure 13) illustrates a bi-pointed, barbed
bone point with three barbs very similar to the point recovered
from the Santa Fe River. This point was recovered from an
Archaic site of the Frontenac Focus (Frontenac Island site).
Hafled examples of unilateral barbed bone points from historic
Eskimos indicate that three or more of these barbed points were
sometimes hafted together to form leisters for spearing fish.
Other hated examples of single barbed points illustrated by
Miles (1968) were used on arrows and spears for hunting deer
In noting the general prevalence of these barbed points in
northern regions, Moorehead (1987:140) goes on to say:
It is not difficult to explain the preponderance of harpoons in the
North and the scarcity of them in the South. They are essentially
a cold-climate implement. In the St. Lawrence region, where they
abound, nets and traps cannot be used save during summer and
fall. The winter sets in early, and the spring is late... most of the
harpooning was done in the winter... Fish are more sluggish in
their movements in the winter, the Indian has no difficulty in
driving the spear into such one as he wishes, before it is able to
draw out of range. I suppose that the method did not vary in
This is an interesting conjecture, but it does not explain the
presence of the early form of barbed bone points in north-
central Florida. Perhaps they were used only on large fish such
as sturgeon or aquatic mammals such as manatees. It should be
considered possible that bone points in Florida, barbed or
otherwise, were not used for catching fish but for hunting
upland game, perhaps in the vicinity of dry river beds with
intermittent water holes (Barbara Purdy, personal communica-
tion 1998). Evidence from sealed stratified sites is crucial to
attempt to provide answers to these types of questions.
An important question that begs an answer is whether the
unilateral barbed bone tool was reinvented in America or
whether it was delivered in some complete form through
migration or trade? The most radical hypothesis may be that the
presence of only the earliest and least sophisticated form of the
unilateral, multiple-barbed point in Florida indicates that this
technology was delivered to this area through an early migration
from the west or directly from Europe or via Great Britain, and
that subsequent developments in barbed bone points did not
make it here until much later through trade with North Ameri-
can tribes that utilized harpoons. An alternate hypothesis is that
the apparently early use of barbed points in Florida developed
through parallel technological evolution because of what Purdy
(1973) refers to as the "law of limited possibilities."
The presence of barbed bone points over time and space
might provide a vector for either human migration or technolog-
ical diffusion. No multiple-barbed bone points are known from
dated Florida contexts; however, their prevalence in the Santa
Fe and Ichetucknee rivers may indicate that they are of early
occurrence, either from the late Paleoindian or the Early
Archaic periods of North America. A more thorough review of
published and unpublished information concerning these
artifacts could add to the growing body of information that must
be accounted for by any workable theory of early human
migration and technological development in America.
Bierer, Bert W.
1977 Indians and Artifacts in the Southeast. Bierer Publishing Company,
Columbia, South Carolina.
Clark, J.G.D., D. Walker, H. Godwin, F.C. Fraser, and J.E. King
1971 Excavations at Star Carr. An Early Mesolithic Site at Seamer Near
Scarborough, Yorkshire. Cambridge at the University Press, Cam-
Dunbar, James S., S.David Webb, and Dan Cring
1990 Culturally and Naturally Modified Bones from a Paleoindian Site in
the Aucilla River, North Florida. In Bone Modification,, edited by R.
Bonnichsen and M.Sorg, pp. 473-498. Center for the Study of the First
Americans, University of Maine, Orono.
Gramly, Richard M.
1996 Guide to the Palaeo-Indian Artifacts ofNorth America. Persimmon
MacNeish, Richard S.
1952 The Archeology of the Northeastern United States. In Archeology of
Eastern United States, edited by James B. Griffin, pp. 46-58. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology ofPrecolumbian Florida, University Press of Florida,
1998 VOL. 1(3)
160 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
1968 IndianandEskimoArtifacts ofNorth America, Bonanza Books, New
Moorehead, Warren K.
1987 The Stone Age in North America, Volume II. The Depot, Sullivan,
Illinois. Originally published, 1910.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1964 The Association of Suwannee Points and Extinct Animals in Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 17:17-32.
Osborn, Henry F.
1916 Men ofthe Old Stone Age Their Environment, Life and Art. Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1973 The Temproral and Sspatial Distribution of Bone Points in the State
of Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 26:143-152.
Walker, Karen Jo
1992 Bone Artifacts from Josslyn Island, Buck Key Shell Midden, and Cash
Mound: A PreliminaryAassessment for the Caloosahatchee Area. In
Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by
William H. Marquardt, pp.229-246. Institute of Archael gy and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1, University of Florida,
Wedel, Waldo R.
1959 An Introduction to Kansas Archaeology. Smithsonian Institution
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 174. U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Willey, Gordon R.
1973 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. AMS Press, New York.
Originally published, 1949.
ABSTRACTS OF THE
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
1998 ANNUAL MEETING
EDITOR'S NOTE: Abstracts of papers presented at this year's annual meeting in Gainesville are being published in The Florida
Anthropologist so that those members who could not attend, as well as other interested readers of the journal, will have access to the
research that is being conducted in Florida.
Archaeology and Public Interpretation of the Church at
Mission San Luis
BONNIE G. MCEWAN
Mission San Luis, 2020 West Mission Road, Tallahassee,
Extensive archaeological and historical research on the
church at Mission San Luis has produced one of the most
thorough studies of its kind in the Southeast. The results of this
study will be presented, along with plans for public interpreta-
tion of the structure.
Beads and Pendants from the Church at Mission San Luis
JEFFREY M. MITCHEM
Arkansas Archaeological Survey, P.O. Box 241, Parkin,
Extensive excavations were carried out inside the church and
beneath the church floor at Mission San Luis in the 1990s.
Artifacts consisted largely of items of personal adornment
accompanying Christians buried beneath the floor. Glass beads
were abundant, but beads and pendants of quartz crystal, jet,
and metal also were recovered. A particularly striking artifact
is an elaborate cross fashioned from a single piece of quartz
The Turnbull Colonists' House Site, New Smyrna Beach
ROGER T. GRANGE, JR.
301 Beachway Avenue, New Smyrna Beach, Florida 32169
Site 8V07051, The Turnbull Colonists' House site, is located
in New Smyma Beach. It is the first residential site of the
Tumbull Colony (1768-1777) to be excavated. Two buildings,
smaller structures, and midden deposits will be described. This
is a preliminary report; the materials from the site have not been
Colorado in Florida: A Paleoindian Lithic Workshop
98 Hickory Wood Drive, Crawfordville, Florida 32327
Archaeological investigations conducted for the S. R. 50
road-widening project in Hemando County, Florida, resulted in
the discovery of the Colorado site (8HE24 I). It has components
dating from the Paleoindian through the Safety Harbor periods.
A relatively undisturbed Paleoindian lithic workshop, containing
very little material from any other period, was discovered in one
of the proposed retention ponds. Analysis of the debitage
assemblage, combined with the numerous broken blanks and
reforms, suggests that this component represents a blank/pre-
form manufacturing workshop. The raw material for the tools
was available in the immediate vicinity. Very few completed
tools were recovered.
Mitchell River 13, A Late Archaic Winter Camp on the
Lower Choctawhatchee River, Walton County, Florida
GREGORY A. MIKELL
4430 Yarmouth Place, Pensacola, Florida 32514
The Mitchell River 13 site (8WL1294), which is located on
a terrace along the Lower Choctawhatchee River floodplain in
Walton County, contains a Late Archaic component identified
as a winter base camp. The site contains a set of intact Late
Archaic cultural features and deposits rarely documented in the
Florida panhandle region. Features documented include an
earthen oven containing a large number of fired clay objects, a
fire pit containing carbonized plant remains, animal bone, and
lithic debris, several refuse pits containing shellfish, plant and
animal remains, an oyster shell midden, and a cache of six early-
stage bifacial chert reforms. An impressive assemblage of
lithic and bone artifacts was recovered in association with the
features, including Late Archaic projectile points.
The Jeanie's Better Back Site (8LF54): Investigations at
an Early Archaic Campsite in Lafayette County, Florida
SCOTT E. MITCHELL AND ROBERT J. AUSTIN
Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc., P.O. Box 14776,
Gainesville, Florida 32604
The Jeanie's Better Back Site (8LF54) was first identified by
SEARCH personnel during an archaeological survey of twelve
highway bridge replacement sites in west Florida. Intact dense
cultural deposits were found to exist within the right-of-way of
State Road 53. Archaeological testing revealed an undisturbed
Early Archaic Bolen component (ca.10,000-9000 B.P.) that
extended across the excavated area. This stratum yielded
numerous complete and fragmented Bolen Beveled, Taylor Side
Notched, and Kirk Serrated projectile points/knives, an Aucilla
adze, several bifacial Dalton adzes, a Hendrix scraper, blade
tools, numerous unifacial tools, reforms, and bifacial cores. A
smaller, less dense Middle/Late Archaic Period (ca. 7500-3500
B.P.) component, evidenced by several complete and frag-
mented stemmed projectile points/knives, was partially dis-
turbed by modem bridge construction and flooding episodes.
r..1 1' nrnn Arpnr fr~ 2WF 1998 VOLV 51(3)I
1997 Emanuel Point Ship Excavation: The Ceramic
ERICA HOLMES, DEBORAH MULLINS, AND CARRIE WILLIAMS
Department of Anthropology, University of West Florida,
Pensacola, Florida 32514
Over 1600 ceramic sherds have been excavated from the
Emanuel Point Ship between 1992-1997. Nearly half of these
were recorded during the 1997 field season. This paper will
provide an overview of the 1997 field season's ceramic
assemblage, focusing on the coarse earthenwares, ElMorro and
An Evaluation of the Research Potential and Cultural
Resource Management of FDOT Right-of-Ways: A GIS
11687 7* Way North #2, St. Petersburg, Florida 33716
The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) awarded
the University of South Florida (USF) a grant to develop and
evaluate criteria for managing "significant" archaeological sites
on FDOT properties. A Geographic Information System (GIS)
is being used to address one aspect of the grant through the
analysis of two objectives: 1) test the validity of using FDOT
road corridors as representative research areas, and 2) test the
efficiency of current CRM Phase I survey methods. FDOT
conducts a large amount of archaeological survey and excava-
tion on their properties every year. Determining the representa-
tiveness of archaeological resources on their properties will
contribute to an evaluation of how and where FDOT should
spend their budget for archaeological research and will encour-
age archaeologists to view road right-of-ways as legitimate
research areas and not just for compliance archaeology.
The North Beach Site: Precontact and Mission Period
Timucuan Occupation of the Northeastern Florida Coast
2882 Dickie Court, Jacksonville, Florida 32216
The North Beach site (8SJ48) is a coastal shell midden
located on a narrow barrier peninsula, approximately 3.2 km (2
mi) north of St. Augustine. Building on the results of limited
testing at the site by Stan Bond in 1992, Environmental Ser-
vices, Inc. and students from the University of North Florida
undertook a two-week field school in the summer of 1997.
Present data suggest that the site was first occupied a century or
so prior to European contact by local Timucua groups and then
again during the seventeenth century by non-local Timucua. The
findings of the field school are discussed in this paper, with
emphasis on the interpretation of the site's Mission-period
"Vanished" Mound Found: Relocating (8P13) Safford
880 Seminole Boulevard, Tarpon Springs, Florida 34689
The exact location of the Safford Mound, 8PI3, became
obscure through time. This significant burial mound was
excavated by Frank Hamilton Cushing in late 1895 through
January 1896 on his journey to South Florida. The site revealed
an extraordinary range of pottery cultures indicating long
continual use. Although it was a low-lying mound, Cushing
discovered it was in a hollowed basin with over 600 stratified,
partial skeletal remains. This important site was overshadowed
by his Key Marco finds. With much research, including the use
of historical documents, the relocating of this "vanished"
mound was accomplished.
Mid-Project Results of Archaeological Excavations of the
1698-1722 Spanish Presidio Santa Maria De Galve at
HARRY J. WILSON
Archaeology Institute, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola,
Three years of archaeological investigations have yielded a
wealth of information regarding late seventeenth- and early
eighteenth-century life at the Spanish Presidio Santa Maria de
Galvd at Pensacola, Florida. Analyses of the remarkably well-
preserved deposits, and recent integration of historical docu-
mentation, have led to new interpretations of Spanish-Indian-
French interaction on the frontier.
Florida Archaeological Law Enforcement Task Force
MELISSA MEMORY AND JAMES J. MILLER
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, 500 South
Bronough Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
Florida is no different than other parts of the country in
experiencing the loss of its unique archaeological resources to
such factors as erosion and other natural processes, develop-
ment and land-use change, and looting and vandalism, despite
federal and state laws intended to protect sites. Even though
laws with strong penalties are in place to protect sites on public
lands, and burial sites on all lands, illegal looting seems to
continue growing. In 1997, Secretary of State Sandra Mortham
appointed the Florida Archaeological Law Enforcement Task
Force to address the issue of unlawful site destruction. The Task
Force includes federal, state, and local government representa-
tives in the fields of archaeology, law enforcement, and criminal
justice, as well as interested private citizens.
Some Insights into the Lifeways of the Owners and Work-
ers While Residing at the Bunch and Later Dummett
Plantations on Tomoka Basin during the Early Nineteenth
TED M. PAYNE
209 Cotorro Lane, St. Augustine, Florida 32086
At the beginning of the nineteenth century John Bunch built
a Spanish-period plantation on the western shore of Tomoka
Basin in what is now Volusia County. The agricultural enter-
prise was sold to Captain Thomas Dummett in 1825, after
which he established and operated a sugar plantation until it was
damaged during the Second Seminole War. Preliminary
investigations identified and examined portions of the plantation
owners' residential complex and the slave workers' settlement.
The paper describes and discusses architectural remains and
material possessions found, as well as the importance of future
research. Analytical studies have provided some insights about
how the owners and slave workers lived.
1998 VOL. 51()
Trc w. njm Al WK-.ionmMnl n
ABSTRACTS OF TE 1998 ANNUAL MEETING 163
Paleoenvironments, Extinct Faunas, and the Aucilla River
MARK P. MUNIZ AND TANYA M. PERES
625-1 SW 10* Lane, Gainesville, Florida 32601
Recent investigations from Little River Rapids (8JE603), in
the Aucilla River, Florida, have revealed a stratigraphic
sequence that documents the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in
North Florida. Radiocarbon dates in association with extinct
fauna place the event earlier than 11,000 radiocarbon years B.P.
(rcybp). This paper looks at faunal and sedimentological
evidence from the deposit in an attempt to discern if the extinct
fauna were absent after 11,000 rcybp due to a shift in deposi-
tional environment, or if the animals were truly extinct. The
results have far-reaching implications for the study of karst
spring depositional environments, as well as Florida Paleoindian
Catfaces, Skidders, and Cypress Shingles: Former Forest
Resource Towns on C.A.R.L Lands
CHRISTINE NEWMAN, MELISSA MEMORY, AND RYAN J.
C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, Florida Bureau ofArchaeo-
logical Research, 500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee,
The production of naval stores and lumber were major
industries in Florida during the early part of the twentieth
century. For over a decade Florida was the leading producer of
turpentine spirits and rosin in America. The production of
lumber from Florida's longleaf pine and abundant cypress stands
was extremely profitable to many. Towns and villages, many
with post offices, stores, and places of entertainment, could be
found throughout the state as a result of these enterprises. But,
as the once-abundant resources diminished, so did the towns -
leaving little but the archaeological record. Several of the once-
booming communities have been located on state-purchased
Conservation and Recreation Lands (C.A.R.L.). The documen-
tation of the resources and their significance to Florida's history
Correlating the Past with the Future: A Computer Meth-
odology that Melds Past Position Location Data with the
Technique of the Future DGPS
CATHERINE M. GATHER, BILL MOORE, AND KEN NEHILEY
1536 Conery Street, New Orleans, Louisiana 70115
Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) offer
archaeologists a means to accurately locate and map sites in an
economical manner. However, it can be difficult to access and
correlate data previously obtained utilizing the traditional
method of position location sextants and beach markers -
with new data obtained utilizing DGPS. Salvors, Inc., the
company contracted to salvage the wrecks of the 1715 fleet as
part of the Florida East Coast Shipwreck Project, was greatly
concerned with the question of accessing and correlating old
data with the new. Accordingly, Salvors, Inc., utilized
triangulation-based mathematical computations to locate the
beach-marker positions for each previous year of the project.
Utilizing this information, we wrote a computer program that
converts sextant angles into latitude and longitude coordinates.
Several computer programs were then coordinated in order to
convert and map the locations of both the old sextant data and
the new DGPS data. The resulting methodology is outlined in
this paper, and once familiar with the process, the archaeologist
can utilize this procedure to produce accurate site maps and
artifact locations quickly and efficiently.
A Re-examination of the Wacissa Bison antiques Kill
C. ANDREW HEMMINGS AND MATTHEW C. MIHLBACHLER
625 SW 10* Lane #3, Gainesville, Florida 32601
We have restudied the Bison antiquus skull from the Wacissa
River that contains an embedded chert projectile-point frag-
ment. The skull was indirectly dated to 10,500 years B.P.;
however, in light of recent advances in bone dating techniques,
we submitted a portion of the skull to obtain a direct AMS bone
date. Also, we attempted to identify the lithic source material of
this artifact by microscopic comparison to known chert sources.
Thirdly, we ran a CT scan of the cranium in order to determine
the shape of the embedded lithic object. We discuss the implica-
tions of this evidence for Paleoindian subsistence strategies is
eastern North America.
Reconstructing Prehistoric Subsistence in South Florida
LYNETTE NORR' AND DALE L. HUTCHINSON2
'Department ofAnthropology, 1350 Turlington Hall, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
'Department of Anthropology, East Carolina University,
Greenville, North Carolina 27858
Ethnohistoric and archaeological evidence for social com-
plexity among the late prehistoric inhabitants of south Florida
has stimulated discussion of the role of agriculture in their
societies. Archaeological evidence for maize is rare or absent.
One way in which prehistoric diet may be determined is through
examination of the geochemical composition of individual body
tissues, such as the skeletal remains that are found at many sites.
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone tissue are
generally indicative of terrestrial vs. marine diets, and of maize
vs. non-maize diets. Twenty-four individuals from prehistoric
sites along the Gulf coast of South Florida were analyzed for
their stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopic composition.
Thirty-two modem and archaeological plants and animals were
analyzed for the food-web information necessary to interpret the
diet of the human population. While human carbon isotopic
values are consistent with maize consumption, other food
resources present at the sites, such as pinfish, mullet, catfish,
sheepshead, sea trout, shark, and sea turtle, are isotopically
similar and could also be responsible for the observed human
Excavations at 8LL717, Bonita Springs, Florida
DANIEL B. HUGHES
Janus Research, P.O. Box 919, St. Petersburg, Florida 33731
In May of 1996, the Archaeological and Historical Conser-
vancy, Inc. conducted its third investigation of 8LL717, known
as the Boone's Farm site and/or the Bonita Bay Shell Works
site. The site is a horseshoe-shaped shell mound with two arms
roughly parallel and oriented east-west. Two previous investiga-
tions involving the mound have led to two differing opinions
regarding the function of the site. The first investigation came to
1oV V -LO DOLOGIS
the conclusion that the horseshoe-shaped shell mound is a shell
work site. This interpretation would suggest a ceremonial
function. The second investigation concluded that the mound
was in fact a shell midden, indicative of a habitation site. The
most recent investigation was conducted within the central
portion of the horseshoe-shaped mound and was designed to be
the most extensive examination of the area. The purpose of the
paper is threefold: to summarize the results of all previous
investigations, discuss the findings of the most recent investiga-
tion, and to shed light on the function of the shell mound.
Clovis, Older Than We Thought or are There Pre-Clovis
Sites in Florida?
JAMES S. DUNBAR
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, 500 South
Bronough Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
The paradigm of "Clovis First" has been replaced with the
acceptance of the Monte Verde site in southern Chile as the
oldest in the Americas. At 12,500 C B.P., Monte Verde
predates the most ancient Clovis site by 1000 radio carbon
years. Florida sites such as Little Salt Springs and Page/Ladson
have likewise produced early radiocarbon dates of about 12,300
" C B.P., but are they related to the Clovis tradition? In Florida
at least, it now appears important to correlate glacial phases
with cultural changes manifested by good times and status quo
versus bad times and survival or extinction. Findings at the
Page/Ladson site suggest Paleoindians utilized the site during a
warm-dry glacial phase known as the Allerod. The site appears
to have been abandoned during the Younger Dryas, perhaps due
to rising water levels, and then reoccupied by Bolen peoples
during the dry Boreal phase. The Paleoindian component at the
Page/Ladson site might represent an early un-fluted, Clovis-like
projectile-point tradition. It certainly represents evidence of
Pleistocene peoples who left their mark on the remains of a
Enduring Seminoles: Alligator Wrestling to Ecotourism
1447 SW Grand Drive, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33312
This paper reconstructs the Seminoles' most important and
most typical economy of the twentieth-century tourism. In a
study encompassing 1917-1997, the Mikasuki-speaking
Seminoles, who call themselves i:laponathli:, pioneered and
molded this new economy to suit their needs, struggling to
survive in an altered environment, with their hunting economy
waning. Long before the concept of cultural tourism or the
buzzword "eco" tourism was coined by sophisticated, worldwide
tourist markets, these reticent people were marketing them-
selves for profit. Media chiefs, lawyers, medicine men, federal
agents, missionaries, traditional politicians, the FBI, civic
leaders, culture brokers, and the anti-government i:laponathli:
create a hotbed of intrigue, with the tourist attractions and their
i:laponathli: employees at the hub. Some of the families set up
the first Indian owned and operated attractions along the
Tamiami Trail. Today, Seminole and Miccosukee tourism is a
major tribal business, courting the worldwide market on the
World Wide Web and at international tourism conferences held
in England, Germany, and Iceland. With tribal and personal
finances soaring with revenues from gaming, it may well be
tourism, once viewed with disdain as vile "commercialism," that
will keep these tribal peoples in touch with their cultural
heritage as they enter the twenty-first century.
An Overview of the 1997 Artifact Assemblage from the
Bow of the Emanuel Point Ship
JASON BURNS, JAMES HUNTER, AND ROBIN MOORE
1002 East Strong Street A, Pensacola, Florida 32501
Excavation in the bow of the Emanuel Point Ship during
1997 uncovered a wide variety of artifact categories and types.
This paper will present an overview of the copper galley
utensils, small arms, rigging components, and the ships anchor.
1998 VoL 51(3)
T F RIDA ANTHROP T
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1998 AWARD RECIPIENTS
RIPLEY P. BULLEN AWARD
JUDITH A. BENSE
The Ripley P. Bullen Award is presented in recognition of
outstanding accomplishment in the area of improving and
fostering good working relationships among professional and
avocational archaeologists. The 1998 award was presented to
Judith A. Bense by FAS President Loren Blakeley (Figure 1).
Dr. Bense is Professor of Anthropology at the University of
West Florida in Pensacola and Director of the University's
Archaeology Institute. She is the author of several books and
monographs on the prehistoric and historic archaeology of
Florida and the southeastern U.S. In addition to her teaching
and research responsibilities, Dr. Bense is active in bringing
archaeology to the public through a weekly radio program
broadcast on WUWF Public Radio, through talks to civic
groups, archaeological and historical societies, and schools, and
by providing hands-on field and laboratory opportunities for
volunteers and students.
Dr. Bense was instrumental in establishing and supporting the
Booker T. Washington High School Archaeology Institute in
Pensacola. Through her active participation in the Florida
Anthropological Society, Dr. Bense has made cooperation with
avocational archaeologists and the interested public a basic
tenet of her work. She has long been an advocate of providing
exposure to archaeology by invited the public to assist her and
her students in the field. At the same time, she has been able to
further the interests of preservation by urging the City of
Pensacola to adopt guidelines for protecting and properly ex-
amining sensitive archaeological sites prior to development.
Figure 1. FAS President Loren Blakeley presents the
Ripley P. Bullen Award to Dr. Judith Bense.
Her skill at communicating the excitement and importance of
archaeology to the public has been matched only by her
commitment to make the past a vital dimension of the Pensa-
cola's modern identity.
WILLIAM C. LAZARUS AWARD
ELIZABETH L. "CoNN~" FRANKLIN
The William C. Lazarus Award is presented to a member of
the Florida Anthropological Society in recognition of out-
standing contributions in the areas of research, site reporting,
assistance to professional archaeologists, community education,
or preservation. The 1998 award was presented by President
Loren Blakeley to Elizabeth L. "Connie" Franklin (Figure 2).
For years, Connie Franklin has been a leader in furthering the
cause of archaeological preservation in Pensacola, where she
has worked diligently for the adoption of an ordinance to protect
the city's archaeological sites. As president of the Friends of the
USSMassachusets she led the local effort to create Florida's
fourth Underwater Archaeological Preserve on the wreck of the
old battleship which is in the Gulf of Mexico. She was instru-
mental in the birth of the Washington High School Archaeologi-
cal Institute, a nationally recognized pilot program combining
education and archaeology. She also serves as liaison between
the school and other academic and community partners,
volunteers, and city, county, and state officials.
A long-time member of the Pensacola Archaeological
Society, she is in her third term as president. With the Pensa-
cola Historical Society she secured a grant from the Pensacola
Sacred Heart Hospital to prepare two "Museums in a Trunk"
for loan to elementary schools to supplement their history
programs. These traveling museums represent the British
Colonial Period and the lives of Native Americans. A hard and
meticulous worker in the field and laboratory, Connie has
worked as a volunteer on many archaeological projects in and
around Pensacola. Her work and dedication to the Pensacola
area and its heritage exemplifies the fine traits and qualities of
William Lazarus, for whom this award is named.
Au __ 9r- If--wA ANuunwo 1IT 1 V .
Figure 2. The William C. Lazarus Award is presented to Elizabeth L "Connie" Franklin by FAS
President Loren Blakeley.
FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE
Individual FAS chapters honor their members for outstanding
service in furthering the interests of archaeology and preserva-
tion. President Loren Blakeley presented the certificates.
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy
A. "CHRIS" CHRISTIANSEN
Chris Christiansen has been a faithful volunteer since the
beginning of the Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy (KVAHC). He has spent untold hours
building the KVAHC laboratory, making screens, tables, and
other equipment and adding to our supplies. He has invented a
number of pieces of equipment that make field work more
efficient and easy. As a volunteer for the Nature Conservancy
and the Florida Trail Association, Chris has learned a great deal
about native plants and animals which he shares with KVAHC
members. He is always at the site early to help set screens and
other equipment. He spends most of his time on the end of a
shovel and cheerfully excavates the deepest levels. Chris helps
everyone load up at the end of the day and is usually the last to
leave. He is one of KVAHC's most dedicated and diligent
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
Gail Hart has contributed much to archaeology and the St
Augustine Archaeological Association (SAAA). In addition to
serving as Secretary and Vice President of the chapter, she has
held the position of Chapter Chair of Florida Archaeology
Month for three years, refining the events and encouraging
cooperation with various agencies in the St Augustine area.
Gail also is the Chair of the SAAA Education Committee,
making it one of the more active committees in the chapter. It
presents programs at local schools to enhance awareness of our
archaeological heritage, purchases books on archaeology for the
public library, and donates research books for the City of St
Augustine's archaeological salvage program. Gail also chairs
the Long Range Planning Committee, and her efforts and hard
work have helped SAAA to investigate what it can do to
encourage further cooperation from the University of Florida,
the City of St. Augustine, and Flagler College.
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
ELLA MAE ABLAHAT
CAPTAIN CARL B. JOHNSON
Ella Mae Ablahat has become a mainstay of the Southwest
1998 Vol 51(31
THE FIA)RIDA AN T
1998 AWARD RECPIENr S 167
Florida Archaeological Society's (SWFAS) Craighead Labora-
tory. Starting out as a trainee, she lost no time I putting the lab's
comparative collection of shells and bones in order, including
its dual-language card file. That done, she progressed from job
to job as the flow ofwork demanded, which ranged from sifting
soil for organic analysis to analysis of shell and bone, often
borrowing tests to study at home. She has proven to be reliable,
eager to leam, and completely dedicated to the lab and its work,
putting in time outside the lab's normal hours.
Captain Carl B. Johnson wrote "computer whiz" on his
application to membership in SWFAS several years ago, and he
has more than lived up to his claim. He has worked with
personnel at the Craighead Laboratory to set up a system for the
use of computers in the analysis of shell and bone so that
production of tables and figures for lab reports has become
standardized and easy. In the production of technical reports he
handles digital photography, graphics, and the preparation of
report pages for printing. As his knowledge of lab work has
increased, he has made contributions to other lab functions. In
accomplishing these assignments, he has invested scores of
hours of his time and has upgraded his equipment to make it
better suited for the tasks he has undertaken. His contribution
to SWFAS is beyond measure.
Florida Anthropological Society
Board of Directors
The FAS Board of Directors nominated Nancy Olson,
Education Director of the Collier County Museum in Naples,
for a special distinguished service award. Nancy has helped
organize Florida Archaeology Month (FAM) for three years.
She volunteered to chair the Florida Archaeology Month
Committee in 1996, and has continued to donate her services by
writing FAM grant applications to the Florida Department of
State and compiling volunteer hours and expenditures as
required by the grant. She also has filed mandatory quarterly
reports about the progress of the grants to the Florida Division
of Historical Resources. In addition to these administrative
duties, Nancy has enthusiastically promoted FAS and FAM to
schools, libraries, museums, science centers, and web sites in
Florida and the southeastern U.S. FAS is grateful that Nancy
continues to promote the Society's mission through her tireless
SUPPORT THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Donate a minimum of $100 to The
Florida Anthropologist Endowment and
receive a signed, limited edition print
by renowned artist, Dean Quigley,
Choose from one of the following
prints in Quigley's Lost Florida series.
HOLOPAW depicts a middle Archaic campsite in north
Florida. Hunters are retuming fro i cessful bear hunt; a
woman grinds tubers to ar a small child is in awe
of a giant alligator;- dtan converses with traders from a
distant place. 6 e foreground, a flintknapper works on
finishing his finely made proje z*point.
THE HUNTERS jJtat, a Paleoindian hunting party in
combat witt -enl e mastodon.
THE KILL depicts two Archaic period hunters preparing to
spear a large alligator in the depths of a southem cypress
The Kill CLOSING IN depicts a group of Paleoindian hunters closing
in on a mastodon and her calf.
CALUSA depicts the large village site at Pineland, Florida ca.
A.D. 900-1100. Featured on the cover of Florida's First
TATAMAHO depicts an Indian gigging a garfish while his son
playfully loads the catch in a basket. Nearby, a panther waits
for a free meal and a raccoon eagerly awaits leftovers.
THE RETURN depicts two tattooed Indians returning from a
day of fishing. Their canoe is loaded with fish and shellfish.
In the distance, smoke rises from a campsite hidden amidst
the mangroves and shaded by cedar trees.
BOSKITA depicts the Green Corn Ceremony, one of the most
important rituals of many southeastern Indian cultures. Boskita
SOLITUDE is based on t*l oi fs of early European Also available: Florida Indian Artifacts, a 16 x 20 inch poster
explorers and depjs Oitj hunter returning to his canoe showing the wide range of artifacts made and used by the
loaded with f 'U native peoples of Florida.
Mail yourdonation to: The Florida Alropologist, P.O. Box 2818, Riverview, FL 33568. Only a limited number of prints are available. Please specify first and
Journal of a Visit to the Georgia Islands of St. Catherines,
Green, Ossabaw, Sapelo, St. Simons, Jekyll, and Cumberland,
with Comments on the Florida Islands ofAmelia, Talbot, and
St George, in 1753. Jonathan Bryan. Edited by Virginia Steele
Wood and Mary R. Bullard, Mercer University Press/The
Georgia Historical Society, 1996. 103 pp., illustrations,
bibliography, index, $22.95 (cloth).
JAMES G. CUSICK
P.K. Yonge Library ofFlorida History
Department of Special Collections
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
With the publication of Jonathan Bryan's 1753 journal about
a trip through the Georgia coastal islands, the Georgia Histori-
cal Society has made generally available a brief but valuable
addition to the travel literature on early Georgia and First
Spanish Period Florida. It is unfortunate for historians of Florida
that Bryan did not extend his trip very far below the St. Marys
River, but his observations nonetheless fill a gap in eye-witness
accounts of the area for the period between Oglethorpe's raid of
1740 and the observations of the Bartrams in 1765 and 1773.
In fact, by the time John and William Bartram visited Florida in
1765, Bryan's development of plantations in Georgia had
already reached Cumberland Island.
The journal also provides additional information on the life
of one of South Carolina's and Georgia's foremost planters,
which has been comprehensively covered in Alan Gallay's The
Formation ofa Planter Elite. Jonathan Bryan, born September
12, 1708, was the fourth child of Joseph Bryan and Janet
Cochran and grew up in a family of Indian traders and planters.
The sharp business practices of his father, combined with
encroachment on Indian land, common among the settlers of the
Port Royal area, contributed to the outbreak of the Yamassee
War in 1715. Hostilities hurt the family fortunes and ended
Joseph Bryan's role as an Indian trader, but both he and eldest
son Hugh soon recouped their losses through acquisition of
land. Jonathan Bryan's early experience of the Yamassee War,
as well as his later travels among the Creeks, convinced him
that a pacificatory policy towards relations with the Indians was
the only productive one, and in contrast to his father he re-
mained a lifelong advocate of peaceful coexistence with the
Southeastern Indian nations. Influenced by the Evangelical
preacher George Whitefield, the Bryan family came to espouse
religious instruction and education for slaves; however, while
they advocated the reform of slavery, they did not support its
abolition. With the expansion of family interests into Georgia in
the 1740s, the Bryans led the push for legalization of slave labor
in that colony.
In 1729, Bryan gained first-hand knowledge of the region
between the Savannah and St. Johns rivers as part of a recon-
naissance party. He visited Frederica in the 1730s and accom-
panied Oglethorpe on the 1740 expedition against St. Augus-
tine. Bryan later criticized the failure of this expedition, charg-
ing that Oglethorpe had not aggressively pressed the attack.
Bryan's 1753 journal recounts his 23 days of travel through the
coastal islands during the month of August, at a time when his
economic and political fortunes in Georgia were thriving. The
death of this brother Hugh in January 1753 left Jonathan in
charge of the Bryan family interests around Port Royal. He
seems to have undertaken the trip along the coast to provide the
new governor of Georgia, John Reynolds, with an assessment of
the colonies' natural resources and commercial opportunities.
Joining Bryan on this trip were William De Brahm, the cartog-
rapher, and William Simmons and John Williamson, South
Highlights of the journey include Bryan's stop at the
abandoned settlement of Frederica and his description of the
ruin of Fort William at the south end of Cumberland Island. Bad
weather prevented him from crossing to Amelia Island in
Spanish Florida, but he reported the remains of a brick building
and orange grove in the old Spanish settlements.
The journal is short, and missing pages for August 16' to
18t; however, as one of relatively few accounts of south
Georgia and North Florida, even Bryan's somewhat terse
descriptions are of interest. Like many a traveler after him,
notably Bernard Romans, Bryan was quick to promote the
defensive importance of settlement on the barrier islands; in
particular, he felt Frederica should be reoccupied. He was also
favorably impressed with St. Catherine's and Sapelo islands,
which he thought excellently suited for rice, indigo, and corn.
Others apparently agreed, for as William Bartram was to report
in 1773, "the soil of these islands appears to be particularly
favourable to the culture of indigo and cotton, and there are on
them some few large plantations for the cultivation and manu-
facture of those valuable articles."
The utility of the journal is enhanced by the explantory text
of the editors Virginia Steele Wood and Mary R. Bullard. In
their introduction and in footnotes the editors provide biograph-
ical data on the people mentioned in the journal and information
on the locations of houses and settlements visited by Bryan's
party. Bellin's Carte de la Nouvelle Georgie (1764) is provided
as an illustration of the region covered and the choice of other
illustrations contributes to the text by providing, for example,
depictions of a peragua, the boat most likely used by the
expedition, and images ofFrederica and Ft. St. Andrews.
Snapshots Of The Past. Brian Fagan, Altamira Press, 1996.
163 pp., map, guide to further reading, no index, $32.00 (cloth),
1 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Chinese astronomers, Brian Fagan tells us, recorded all but
two of the 30 appearances of Halley's Comet over a 2300-year
time span. And he was surprised to learn that Bronze Age home
8 991 Voo 51(3)
1V ITHE FIAWRIDA ANTHRM t I
owners in England needed to keep a nice fire going to keep their
houses warm so the thatch roofs would not rot in the damp
climate. And by the way, modem experiments indicate Paleo-
indians could have used dogs to pull a travois with a 23-kg (50-
pound) load all day at about 3 or 4 km per hour.
It is a toss-up whether Fagan's greatest strength is his
omnivorous curiosity or his happy gift of being able to translate
complex, specialist topics into accessible English. He can
reduce a statistical study of Inka beer and maize production and
the role of women in that society to a one-one-half-page
summary. Both strengths are on show in Snapshots, which
consists of reprints ofFagan's "Timelines" column in Archaeol-
ogy magazine. Included are 29 pieces originally published
between July, 1988, and August, 1995, plus two extra essays
written as a little lagniappe for this collection.
Fagan, Professor of Anthropology at the University of
California, Santa Barbara, has grouped his collection around
four themes. "Early Lifeways" is made up of eight articles which
range across topics as diverse as the stone-working technology
of early hominids and the extraordinary waterlogged, Bronze
Age landscape preserved at Flag Fen in England, complete with
tons of cut timber.
"Commoners, Camels, and Great Lords" includes seven
pieces on topics illuminated by what Fagan calls "document-
aided archaeology," and others call "historical archaeology."
These essays focus on the lives of ordinary people in the Egypt
of the Pharaohs; the society created in seventeenth- century
Brazil by escaped slaves; and the growth of our knowledge of
early American ship types.
"Issue in Contemporary Archaeology" is another seven
pieces that start with a critique of current theories on how the
world was populated. It continues with a review of ancient
cannibalism and ends with two broadsides at professional
archaeologists. The first lambasts "The Arrogant Archaeologist"
who pays too much attention to narrow career concerns and not
enough to the conservation and management of archaeological
resources. The second reveals "Archaeology's Dirty Little
Secret:" too many archaeologists are amassing lots and lots of
data, but they are not sorting them out and publishing.
The final section, "Archaeology and Society," presents seven
essays that mostly discuss the vulnerability of the archaeological
record to modem society, whether in the form of a dam in the
Mayan heartland, crowds of tourists at the amphitheater at
Epidauros, or looters with a bull dozer at Slack Farm, Kentucky.
"When historians look back at the history of archaeology in the
late 20th century, they will be struck by a tragic irony. The
seventies and eighties were the decades when archaeologists
finally developed the scientific technology to attack fundamental
questions about the past Yet the same scientists were powerless
to stem the tidal wave of destruction that swept away the very
data they could now study to its full potential," writes Fagan.
Each section comes with a thoughtful introduction which
serves as a framework for the discussions that follow. In effect,
they are vehicles for Fagan to review why the topics and issues
he has written about are important, which is useful for readers
unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Floridians aware of the painstaking effort it takes to recon-
struct the lifeways of vanished Timucua, Calusa, or their
predecessors by measuring seasonal growth rates of oyster
shells, may feel a sense of collegial recognition when reading of
the same techniques being used in Japan. There, Fagan reports,
archaeologists also are picking away at shell middens and
measuring the growth rings of mussels left behind by the Jomon,
who lived there from about 10,00 B.C. to about 300 B.C.
Specialists in the individual topics discussed by Fagan will
probably gripe that essays going back in some cases 10 years
are starting to get a little musty. But Fagan has the gift of being
able to sketch out in broad terms the questions that still need to
be answered about topics as varied as the peopling of the
Americas, the domestication of animals, and the cult of the
Mother Goddess. The questions are not going to be answered
quickly. His book is perfect, therefore, for someone who wants
an overview of some of the interesting work being done today.
Fagan is a great tour guide.'The reading guide he provides for
those who want to explore further is also helpful. Paying $32.00
for Snapshots of the Past is a bit steep, but the $14.95 paper
edition is a bargain.
m., m,,~~. r~~~mc~M rr~~r
Tired of digging for that hard to find reference?
Dig no more...back issues of
The Florida Anthropologist
are available from
The Graves Museum of
Archaeology and Natural
481 South Federal Highway
Dania, FL 33004
Sole agents for back issues of The Florida Anthropologist.
Florida's history is long: it goes back 10,000
years to people who hunted mammoth with
It is colorful: 7,000 years ago, Florida's Native
Americans wove cloth as fine as a T-shirt.
It is unique in the world: around 800 years
ago, some Floridians had a civilization so
complex that they built long canoe-canals and
huge pyramid-shaped mounds of shells and
You can be part of it! New pages of this story
are being written every week. Teams of
amateur and professional archaeologists
together are making fascinating discoveries in
the field and in the lab.
You can help save it! Florida's rapid develop-
ment puts many valuable sites in jeopardy.
Amateur and professional archaeologists,
elected officials and planners, and just plain
concerned citizens are working together to
save this history in the soil.
How do you put yourself into this picture? By
joining the Florida Anthropological Society
(FAS) or one of its chapters, or both, as many
interested citizens do!
Each spring, an FAS chapter hosts a state-
wide meeting attended by members of FAS
and its chapters, and the public. Both pro-
fessionals and amateurs deliver papers about
their activities and investigations. A banquet
features a guest speaker who is usually
nationally-known in the field of archaeology
or anthropology. FAS elected officers are
instated at a business session.
During the year, the FAS Executive Board
holds several meetings. FAS chapters have
monthly meetings, field trips, and other
1. FAS publishes a scientific journal, THE
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, four times a
year. Both professionals and amateurs con-
tribute articles about investigations in Florida
and nearby areas. These articles keep FAS
members up-to-date on many aspects of
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and pre-
servation. Many libraries around the nation
and world subscribe to the journal.
2. FAS publishes a newsletter four times a
year which keeps FAS members abreast of
IAS chapter activities and of pertinent events
and news around the state and wider region.
,,,, ,,,,i \/x, A "."1- ,.': m:=q \ jj]\ V]
FAS has chapters throughout Florida
which are open to the interested public. By
joining FAS and one of its chapters, citizens
can take an active part in helping to study and
preserve Florida's heritage. Activities include
meetings, field trips, and archaeological digs
supervised by professionals.
Write your area's chapter for membership informa-
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Ave., Miami, FL 33142
Broward County Archaeological Society
481 S. Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004
Central Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 261, Orlando, FL 32801-0261
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682
Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological & Historical
13300 U.S. 98, Sebring, FL 33870
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
10274 Bear Valley Road, Jacksonville, FL 32257
Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32085
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 33941
Time Sifters Archaeology Society
PI.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, F, 34277
Treasure Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 2875, Sliiart, I., 34995 2875
Volusia Anthropological Society
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FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Indian River Anthro. SOC. 3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Volusia Anthro. SOC. P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32175
St. Augustine Arch. Assoc. P.O. Box 1987, St Augustine, FL 32085
Northeast FL Anthro. Soc. 10274 Bear Valley Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32257
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TPensacola Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591 .
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Central FL Anthro. Soc. P.O. Box 261, Oriando, FL 32801-0261 3 """ -
Central Gulf Coast Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682 F
Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons. 13300 U.S. 98, Sebg, FeL 33870
Time Sifters Arch S. P.O. Box 2542, Sarasota, FL 34277 49 LN h A M F
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Southeast Florida Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 2875, Stuart, FL 34995 \ i
Southwest FL Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 9965,Naples, FL 33941
Broward Co. Arch. Soc. 481 S. Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004
Arch. Soc. of Southern FL 2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142 c
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About the Authors:
ChristopherM. Stojanowski was a graduate student in the Department of Anthropoloo. Florida State I niv er'itr
and is currently enrolled in the Biological Anthropology doctoral program at the rni\ crsit\ of New Mce\ico
Glen H. Doran is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at 1 lorida State I university. T'allahasce
Dana Ste. Claire received his M.A. in anthropology from the I nixersit\ of South Flonda in 1982 I Ie current%
is Curator of History and Anthropology and directorr of the Divi ion of Anthropological Research at the ihuleum
of Arts and Sciences in Daytona Beach. He is the author of 7Tire \uetives.: l'7orida 's Fir-t People. ( ra.kckr: The
Cracker Culture in Florida History, and Borders of Paradise: A. History of Flornda thr h elou If .lii.t I ;"
(with Peter Cowdrey).
Dorothy L. (Dot) Moore is Immediate Past Secretary of the Florida Anthropological Society and xwa- an t AF
Director-at-Large from 1993 to 1995. From 1992-1993 she served as Archaeological Consultant to Voluia
County's Planning Department. As an avocational archaeologist she has worked on nmncrous archaeological
projects in Florida and South Carolina and has also conducted archival research on British plantations in Flonda
Robert W. McKinney has a Ph.D. in chemistry and fonnerl\ worked for the W.R. racee Co ul Marn land before
retiring to Florida. He is a member of the Florida Anthropological Society and has, worked on ,ecral
archaeological projects in New Smyrna and St. Augustine.
Robert L. Knight is a consulting environmental scientist and lives in Gainesville. Florida. 1 e receive ed his Ph 1)
in systems ecology from the University of Florida in 1980. He is an active member of the American Societ tfor
Amateur Archaeology and has participated in excavations at sites in Florida. South Carolina. Illtmoi-. I cxa-. and
New Mexico. As a river diver in Florida he actively participates in the Isolated Finds program.
James G. Cusick is Curator of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida Ilistory. Department of Special Collection-.
Smathers Libraries, University of Florida. Gainesville.
Simon Barker-Benfieldis a writer for the Florida Times-i union in Jacksonville w ith an interest in archaeoloel and
I V t I I