Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editor's page
 Archaeological profiling and radiocarbon...
 St. Marys cordmarked pottery (formerly...
 FAS: A real treasure of Florida...
 Book reviews
 About the authors
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00088
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00088
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
notis - AAA9403

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editor's page
        Page 2
    Archaeological profiling and radiocarbon dating of the Ortona Canal (8GL4), Galdes county, Florida - Robert S. Carr, Jorge Zamanillo, and Jim Pepe
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    St. Marys cordmarked pottery (formerly Savannah fine cord marked of northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia) - A type description - Keith H. Ashley and Vicki L. Rolland
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    FAS: A real treasure of Florida archaeology
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Book reviews
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    About the authors
        Page 56
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


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MARCH 2002

I?, -16q
P6.56 7

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NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript's
subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.



Volume 55 Number 1 J
March 2002


Editor's Page. Ryan J. Wheeler 2


Archaeological Profiling and Radiocarbon Dating of the Ortona Canal (8GL4),
Glades County, Florida. Robert S. Carr, Jorge Zamanillo, and Jim Pepe 3

St Marys Cordmarked Pottery (Formerly Savannah Fine Cord Marked
of Northeastern Florida and Southeastern Georgia: A Type Description.
Keith H. Ashley and Vicki L. Rolland 25



Helen Sawyer. George M. Luer 47

John C. Van Beck. Arthur R. Lee 51


Wheeler: Treasure of the Calusa: the Johnson/Willcox Collection from Mound Key,
Florida. Randolph J. Widmer 52

Moorehead: The Cahokia Mounds. Myles C.P. Bland 54

About the Authors 56

Cover: Florida Archaeology Month poster, March 2002.

Copyright Notice: Authors retain all copyrights to materials published in this journal, other materials are copyrighted
by the Florida Anthropological Society.

Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893


This issue contains two articles, a compilation of historical
notes on FAS, and two book reviews.
The first article, by Bob Carr, Jorge Zamanillo, and Jim
Pepe presents the interesting results of their trenching and
radiocarbon dating of a segment of the Ortona canoe canal.
This work was initially conducted as a mitigation project
associated with the expansion of a sand mine operation
located near the important Ortona earthworks complex in
Glades County. I was particularly excited to hear that the
authors had successfully radiocarbon dated organic soils
associated with one of southern Florida's aboriginal canoe
canals. Attempts to replicate this work at the Pine Island
canal (see Luer and Wheeler in the June 2001 issue of this
journal) were somewhat disappointing, but confirm the
significance of the remaining segments of the Ortona Canal
system. Hopefully further expansion of the sand mine will
include preservation of part of the canal for future research-
Keith Ashley and Vicki Rolland, in the second article, sort
out the details of cordmarked pottery wares, which many of
us have found in small quantities at sites well into southern
Florida. As with previous articles by these authors, I feel the
need to reexamine collections from sites I have studied.

Ashley andRolland present a type description for one specific
form of cordmarked pottery, which they designate St. Marys
Cordmarked. They explain that this type is temporally and
morphologically distinct from what is usually called Savan-
nah Cord Marked. This is an important article and I am sure
will be useful to those working in the St. Johns area and
eastern Florida.
A special segment, titled "FAS: A Real Treasure of Florida
Archaeology," touts some of our society's accomplishments
since the genesis of FAS over fifty years ago. These include
leading roles in scholarship, preservation, and education.
This segment seemed particularly appropriate since March
is Archaeology Month. I encourage all our readers and
members to reflect on the history of FAS and take pride in
everything we have done together.
Obituaries mark the passing of two friends of Florida
archaeology-Helen Sawyer and John Van Beck. Both had
connections to the renowned Key Marco site. Helen Saw-
yer's father, Wells Sawyer, had served as photographer and
illustrator to Frank Cushing's 1896 expedition to the site,
while John Van Beck and his wife Linda excavated in the
shell mounds and middens of the site in the early 1960s.
There also are book reviews by Randolph Widmer and
Myles Bland. Enjoy!



MARCH 2002

VOL. 55(1)



'Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc., P. O. Box 450283, Miami, FL 33145
2Historical Museum of Southern Florida, 101 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33130
3Janus Research, 146 Madeira Avenue, Miami, FL 33134


This archaeological investigation recovered information
about the construction and chronology of the East Ortona
Canal (8GL4A), a remnant of an American Indian canoe canal
near the Caloosahatchee River and Lake Okeechobee in
southern Florida. The work was conducted in early 1997 as a
phase of an ongoing archaeological survey and mitigation
project conducted by the Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy (AHC) of areas affected by expansion of Ortona
Sand Mine operated by E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc.
The investigation was required by federal and state cultural
resource compliance guidelines for permit applications
affecting areas of archaeological significance. A backhoe was
used to dig five trenches across the East Ortona Canal,
exposing buried cross sections of the canal. The canal's
subsurface profiles were photographed and mapped, and
provenienced samples of carbonized material and organic soil
were collected and radiocarbon dated. The dates suggest that
the canal might have been built during the Glades I Period (ca.
A.D. 0-750). No artifacts were observed.

Project Setting

From January 4th to 8th, 1997, archaeological investiga-
tions were conducted of a 120 m (400 ft) segment of the East
Ortona Canal, located in the proposed Ortona Sand Mine
expansion area. The work was initiated pursuant to specific
conditions of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection's Environmental Resource Permit No. 222833079
and the United States Army Corps of Engineers Permit No.
198990596 (IP-ML).
The project was within a portion of the proposed mine
expansion area in Township 42 South, Range 30 East, Section
23 in Glades County, Florida (Figure 1). This area was 1.9 km
(1.2 mi) north of the Caloosahatchee River, at an elevation of
approximately 6 m (20 ft). It encompassed a transitional
upland that drained southward into a cypress forest along
Turkey Creek, which drains southeastward into the
Caloosahatchee River. The Turkey Creek basin has been
severely modified and impacted by modern ditches and
drainage canals that have channelized and re-routed water
through this historic drainage.

The project area's upland had sandy soils supporting pine
flatwoods interspersed with cypress ponds. Vegetation
included cabbage palms, oak, slash pine, and saw palmetto.
An expansion of the oak population occurred during the
twentieth century as a result of fire suppression and a decline
in the water table.
During the past 50 years, the property was used for cattle
grazing with extensive impacts from intermittent clearing,
logging, and ongoing cabbage palm harvesting by nursery
companies. The result of these agricultural activities was a
general reduction of forest and undergrowth, earth leveling,
and the excavation of ditches and canals to drain the property.
The East Ortona Canal and adjacent areas were disturbed
in recent years. The most southern portion of the canal was
cleared and leveled, with some trees along its former embank-
ments removed during clearing operations. The canal proba-
bly extended into the project area for at least 180 m (600 ft),
although only approximately 90-120 m (300-400 ft) was
visible as a narrow, shallow, dry swale that was a maximum
of approximately 30 cm (1 ft) lower than the embankments on
either side of it. The visible portion of the canal had an
orientation of 147 degrees east of magnetic north, lying
roughly northwest-southeast.
On the less disturbed, northern stretch of the canal, tree
growth was vigorous on both of the canal's embankments and
within the swale where cabbage palms, oaks, and pines were
growing. A few isolated cypress trees and cypress knees also
occurred within the swale, but rarely outside the immediate
canal area. These cypress trees represented visible markers of
areas where the water table was once near the ground surface
due to the slight swale of the canal. However, during this
assessment, no standing water was observed within any
portion of the canal and, in general, the water table was low in
the entire Ortona area because of drainage activity during the
past 75 years and because we conducted field work in early
January, well into the dry season.

Previous Research

The Ortona area's aboriginal canals, mounds, and other
earthworks were among the earliest recorded in southern
Florida. The Ortona canals are depicted on early maps, such
as one by McKay and Blake (1839) and on Tannehill's (1871)


VOL. 55(1)


MARCH 2002


2002 VOL. 55(1)



Coffee Mill

e i

'" O ona Ch.. I.


""^"-t- -'-- --
;-- -- .-

-7 x27

' /

-. 8GL4 4 -

roject area /


8GL373 23 "

.81^^ _'S V

16x. -

/ -1 -

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Map of Project Area

Twp. 42S, Rng. 30E, Section 23

Source: U.S.G.S. Goodno, Fl. (Rev. 1973) N

0 1/2 1 MILE
J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 1. Map of project area in Glades County, Florida.

--- -


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ortona Cem 8GL5/u





- .~---I~--~_



township map. Tannehill plots the largest mounds and the
adjacent canals, describing them as old canals or "fortifica-
tions" (Figure 2). Other nineteenth-century visitors to the site
included Conklin (1875:331), LeBaron (1884:779), Kenworthy
(1883:633), and Farber (1887:307-308). The last account is
the most detailed. Farber makes reference to a diagram of the
site, but the diagram was not published in his account.
In the twentieth century, other visitors followed. A
detailed description of the site was made by Wainwright
(1918). Brief descriptions of the mound complex were written
in the 1920s by physical anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka
(1922:52), botanist John Kunkel Small (1923:220), and
archaeologist Henry Collins (1929:153). In 1940, archaeolo-
gist John Griffin conducted a reconnaissance of the largest
mounds and the canals (Griffin 1940). Goggin recorded the
Ortona mound complex in 1952 in the University of Florida's
Archaeological Survey files. He wrote:

This site covers an area of about a quarter of a square mile
and according to Montague Tallant comprises about 20
mounds or ridges. The Lake Flirt Canal leads to this concen-
tration of mounds. The size of this site has attracted much
attention and is marked on many maps. A few archaeologists
have visited the site, but no excavations have been made.
Collins (1929:153) briefly describes a section of the earth
works, and reports the finding of a few potsherds. In the
summer of 1944 the site was briefly visited but only the large
mound was quickly examined [Goggin 1952].

Goggin assigned several site numbers to the various mound
and earthwork components in the Ortona site complex. These
included 8GL4 for the Ortona canals, 8GL5 for the largest
sand mound and adjoining earthworks (east of the Ortona
Cemetery), and 8GL35, 36, and 37 for various other sand
mounds in the western portion of the site. The relatively intact
and undeveloped condition of the Ortona site complex during
this period is shown in Figure 3.
In April 1974, archaeologist Robert Carr visited Ortona
during his Lake Okeechobee survey (Carr 1975). Using aerial
photographs, he located several previously unrecorded sites
near the Ortona complex, including the Pestle Earthwork
(8GL43) and the North Lake Flirt Ridge Fields (8GL55) (Carr
1974; Carr et al. 1995:242-244, Figure 14). In the 1980s,
Allerton et al. (1984:MT#41,Figures 13G and 21) reported a
post-contact period (ca. A.D. 1500-1750) silver ceremonial
tablet from 8GL35. Zooarchaeologist H. Stephan Hale (1989)
described the site's earthworks. Archaeologist George Luer
(1989:Figure 4, Table 1) presented data about the canals.
In 1990, the AHC received a Special Category Grant from
the State of Florida to help investigate the mounds in and
around Ortona Indian Mound Park, owned by Glades County
and situated north of State Road 70. In January 1991, the
AHC began archaeological field work that led to the testing,
mapping, and analysis of several mound and activity areas, as
well as development and installation of interpretive signs at
the county park explaining the significance of the Ortona site
(Carr et al. 1995; Hale 1995). Around the same time, post-
contact period artifacts from 8GL35 in the Montague Tallant

Collection were studied (Branstetter 1991, 1995).
In 1995, archaeologist Ryan Wheeler used maps and aerial
photographs to conduct a cartographic and hydrological study
of the Ortona Canals. He published a ground-level profile
across a portion of the West Ortona Canal, but did not conduct
subsurface testing (Wheeler 1995). At the same time, Luer
(1995) presented an analysis of ceramic platform pipes,
including fragments from Ortona, that appear to date to the
Hopewellian horizon (ca. A.D. 250). In 1997, Wheeler
catalogued a fragment of a copper woodpecker effigy
(MCW#4) from 8GL35, which dates to the post-contact period
(Wheeler 1997:69, Figure 2g).

Previous Research in the Ortona Sand Mine Project Area

In response to state and federal permit requirements for
proposed expansion of Ortona Sand Mine, the mine operator,
E. R. Jahna Industries Inc., initiated archaeological surveys
and investigations beginning in 1991. The work was located
south of State Road 70 in Sections 14 and 23 of Township 42
South, Range 30 East (Figures 1 and 4).
The first survey by the AHC documented four sites within
the project area, including a portion of the East Ortona Canal
(Carr et al. 1991). Another site was a sand mound (8GL83)
noted ca. 1935-1940 by Montague Tallant on a map he
sketched of the Ortona mounds and earthworks (compare
Figure 3 with Figure 6 in Carr et al. 1995). This mound,
however, was subsequently destroyed and thus was not
relocated during the initial survey. Another site, a small sand
mound (8GL81) with an associated circular borrow feature,
was discovered and recorded, and it was investigated subse-
quently during a second project (Carr et al. 1994). The mound
was peculiar because of the paucity of cultural material in it,
and an associated circular borrow-like feature that drained
southward into a cypress slough.
In a later survey of the Ortona Sand Mine expansion area
(Figure 4), two additional sites (8GL82, 8GL373) were
documented approximately 300 m (1000 ft) south of the
project area (Carr and Steele 1996). The work in January,
1997, focused exclusively on a portion of the East Ortona
Canal within the project area (Carr et al. 1997).

Project Methods

Research Design

The first major project goal was to dig trenches across a
portion of the Ortona Canal within the mine expansion area to
recover stratigraphic information to use in its chronological
and cultural interpretation. A second major goal was to
recover provenienced samples that might be used for radiocar-
bon dating. It was determined that the best way to start this
investigation was to dig backhoe trenches across the canal at
four or five locations to provide a representative sample.




/ - -.
aii no.:p


0 4LO


160 1






ro, ao.

3 ,


Survey map of Ortona Area
by Tannehill( 1871), depicting "old canal"

0 1/2 1 MILE
J.Zamanillo 2001

Figure 2. Tannehill map, 1871.

- Y-- -- -- ~----1~----"17~


2 lpo


'------'- ----- --

2002 VOL. 55(l)





Figure 3. Aerial photograph dating to 1949 showing Ortona canals near project area. Small white arrows point to




15 14

S Portion of Ortona
Canal investigated

22 23 Oice

WI 4 \ Plant Site

Proposed creek W2 \N \ W \
relocation and ... \
forested wetland. .


8GL373 lS



Ortona Sand Mine Expansion Area and Archaeological Site Locations
i Archaeological Site
I w Existing wetlands
S- Proposed mine expansion
[ Wetlands to be disturbed 0 400 Feet
I.'1 Proposed forested wetland Z lo 2001
J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 4. Ortona Sand Mine expansion area and archaeological site locations.


Field Methods

Plan View Mapping. An east-west baseline was extended
along a barbed wire fence, just south of a modern drainage
ditch, that traversed the leased Williams land in which the
canal was located (Figure 5). At 60 ft north of this line (the
grid was in feet), the datum point was set on the base of a pine
tree trunk in the southwest corner of the project parcel
(0N/400E). A transect was extended northward from the
baseline at both the 400E and 532E points, which were 132 ft
apart. These two transects provided reference points for
mapping the trenches that we dug across the canal. The east
boundary of the project parcel was a north-south barbed wire
fence on the 767E line.
A surface inspection of the canal was conducted to deter-
mine the best locations to excavate the exploratory backhoe
trenches. This surface inspection revealed that the canal was
in a state of varied preservation. The canal had been impacted
heavily near the southern end of the proposed mine expansion
area where there had been intensive clearing and ditching as
part of agricultural activities (Figure 5). Conversely, the canal
appeared to be better preserved as it extended to the northwest.
Based on these observations, five trenches were dug across
the canal at locations varying from 21-36.5 m (70-120 ft) from
one another. These locations were selected for areas that had
the least apparent disturbance as well as to sample the length
of the canal that was to be destroyed by mine expansion. The
backhoe trenches were excavated as close to a perpendicular
angle to the canal as possible. Trenches were numbered in
sequential order, starting with the southernmost (Figure 5).
The length and width of the trenches were recorded and
mapped. The orientation of each trench was recorded with a
compass in degrees east from magnetic north. This reading
aided in determining how close to perpendicular the trench
was to the canal. The orientation and width of the canal's
visible swale also were recorded and mapped.

Profile Mapping and Elevations. The trenches were
excavated up to 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth to uncover a clear cross-
section of the canal and its construction features, including the
bottom of the canal, its sloping sides or banks, and its rimming
embankments. After the trenches were dug, the southeast wall
of each trench was selected for profile mapping. The walls
were shovel-shaved and troweled to provide a better view of
soil strata and canal features.
Next, a transit and a stadia rod were used to determine the
relative elevations of the ground surface and the top and
bottom of each stratum in the profile. The transit was set up
individually for each trench, each time in a level place where
the trench was visible. We set up the transit on the north side
of the trenches, near their east ends where there was the least
amount of dirt dumped out by the backhoe. This was because
the backhoe dug the trenches from east to west, so that the east
end had fewer dirt piles from excavation and consequently was
more level and open to visibility.
In addition to the top and bottom of each stratum, eleva-
tions also were taken of the bottom or floor of the trenches,

which was the water level in some of them. The water level in
each trench varied depending on the amount of time that had
elapsed between excavation and mapping and on the amount
of caving in of the sides. Once these data were recorded, a
map was drawn on graph paper and a more detailed profile of
canal features was produced using hand tapes for exact
measurements (at a scale of 1 in = 1 ft) for the final field
profile drawings.
The arbitrary zero elevation, which was different for each
trench, was at the level of the cross-hairs in the scope of the
transit. The distance between cross-hairs and the ground
beneath the transit at Trench 2, 3, and 5 was 4.70 ft. It was
4.92 ft at Trench 4. Thus, the zero elevation was an arbitrary
plane from which to measure downward for each trench
Following the mapping of the trench walls, the profiles
were photographed using color slide film. The profiles were
photographed every 1.8 m (6 ft) to create a final, overlapping,
composite mosaic of the entire trench. Various views of the
canal and project area also were photographed with regular
color print film (Figures 6 and 7).

Sampling. Prior to profile mapping, an inspection of the
trenches was conducted to locate and to recover any remains
of carbonized material (cf. carbonized wood, which was called
"charcoal" in the field) for possible radiocarbon dating. One
sample of carbonized material was collected from Trench 2
(Table 2) and submitted for radiocarbon dating.
After profile mapping, provenienced soil samples were
collected from Trench 4 at various levels. Each sample was
bagged individually in a gallon size ziplock bag and recorded
in the field specimen log, along with the already-collected
samples of carbonized material. Two of these soil samples
were submitted for radiocarbon dating (Table 2).


The best preserved portion of the canal within the project
area extended approximately 90 m (300 ft) to the southeast of
the western boundary of the project area (Figure 5). Here, the
ground surface was less disturbed and the swale and embank-
ments of the canal were clearly visible.
Except for slight variations in depth, the following soil
sequences were fairly consistent throughout Trenches 2
through 5:

1) 0-7.5 cm (0-3 in), medium gray, loose, sandy soil with
grass and roots;
2) 7.5-68.5 cm (3-27 in), white to light gray, loose sand
with some root intrusions, particularly within the canal cross
section; and
3) 68.5-119.5 cm (27-47 in), medium tan to dark tan sand
characterized as a compact stratum, water-logged and with no
root intrusions; its upper surface (where undisturbed by the
canal) tended to be level.

This soil profile lacked a hard pan horizon, which is a




2002 VOL. 55(1)

projected western project boundary

visible canal and spoil banks

Trench 4

Trench 4

STrench 3


450N -

400N -


300N -

Trench 2

proiec'eJ Ljl rlociit:,o
no ,'ible nai.il or ;poi 1ankY

,anle leed-n1 bhed

Trench I



Darum points

disthbo d area

modem di, I

corer fence post


0 0
,,, o

Ortona Canal within Project Area

area impacted by clearing activities
and prior agricultural operations 0 50 100 Feet
J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 5. Ortona Canal within project area. Note site grid, datum point, and trench orientations.

area impacted by prior
clearing activities and
jcr-ullural oper. ior.I


'I 5N


. .,,,


Figure 6. View toward northwest from Trench 3.

dark, dense, compact zone at the top of the subsoil that is rich
in aluminum and carbon. The lack of this horizon indicated
that this soil was not a Spodosol, a classificatory group of soils
(including the Immokalee Series) that is common in the nearly
level, poorly drained flatwoods of this region of Florida.
Instead, the natural soil profiles in our trenches across the East
Ortona Canal were suggestive of Inceptisols, soils that are
characterized by weak horizon development and that are
uncommon in this region. Fortunately, the lack of a hard pan
contributed to the clear visibility of the canal in our profiles.
Its absence also appears to reduce the possibility of contamina-
tion of our soil samples by old soil carbon.
The land in the project area sloped upward very gradually
toward the north, but we did not measure this change in
elevation during our field work. As noted above (in "Project
Methods"), we measured each profile independently, without
relating them to a common elevation.

Trench 1

Trench 1 was excavated at the southern end of the visible
canal. Trench 1 ran northeast to southwest, at an angle of 50
degrees east of magnetic north, with its northwest corner at
167N/532E (Figure 5). The trench measured about 13.5-15 m
(45-50 ft) in length, 1.2 m (4 ft) in depth, and 1.2-1.5 m (4-5
ft) in width. Despite the canal appearing to be visible on the
surface, this trench did not provide a clear profile of the canal.
Although a swale was visible on the surface, this area, like the

project area to the east, had been impacted too severely to be
of much interpretive value.
In Trench 1, the soil ranged from a white to light gray sand
just below the grass and topsoil to a tan to brown sand sub-
strate into which the canal had been cut. Some portions of this
profile did have visible indications of where the bottom of the
canal had cut into a coarse, brown, sandy substrate, but other
intrusions, possibly a modern ditch, cut through or near the
canal at this location, thereby obscuring it. A profile drawing
was not made of this trench wall because of its poor condition.

Trench 2

Trench 2 was located roughly 21 m (70 ft) northwest of
Trench 1 and was oriented 60 degrees east of magnetic north,
lying roughly northeast-southwest (Figure 5). The trench was
dug to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft) and was roughly 15 m (50 ft) in
length and 1.5 m (5 ft) in width. This trench clearly shows a
cross section of the canal (Figure 8) and has distinct stratifica-
tion for comparison with profiles of other trenches. However,
this cross section of the canal was not very dramatic in the
field. The top of the canal's channel might have been as wide
as 7.6-9.1 m (25-30 ft), and the width of the canal bed that cut
into the dark subsoil was approximately 6.1 m (20 ft). The
bottom of the canal, at its center, is 60 cm (24 in) below the
existing surface of the swale (Figure 9). The canal bottom
appears to be approximately 1 m (3.25 ft) below the level of
the ground surrounding the canal (Table 1).




Figure 7. View toward northwest from Trench 5.

Approximately 4.6-7.3 m (15-24 ft) from the easternmost
end of the trench, within the filled channel of the canal, were
thin lenses of dark gray or black, organic-stained sand at about
60 cm (24 in) below the surface. These lenses (Figure 8h),
each no more than 2.5 cm (1 in) thick, swept up toward the
surface near the deepest part of the canal. A piece of carbon-
ized or "charred" material (AHC cat. no.1998.8GL4.1) was
recovered from the sweeping, dark lenses in the opposite wall
of the trench (Figure 10). This sample was at a location 4.9-
5.5 m (16-18 ft) from the east end of Trench 2 and at a depth
of approximately 50 cm (20 in) below the surface (Table 2).
Below these sweeping, dark lenses was a dark gray to black
stratum (Figure 8g), only 7.5-10 cm (3-4 in) thick, that
appeared to be infused with organic material or staining and
that was deposited directly on top of the canal bottom.
The medium to dark tan, coarse, sandy stratum that was
below the tan, sandy stratum is the substrate into which the
bottom of the canal channel was cut. Possible evidence of the
actual excavation or scrape marks associated with the digging
of the canal were visible at the top of this substrate. One
particular feature of note was in the western half of this trench
(Figure 8e). It appeared to be a deep cut or disturbance
associated with a tree, possibly removed by the Indians during
construction of the canal.

Trench 3

The northwestern end of Trench 3 was located 30 m (100

ft) to the north-northwest of the northwest corer of Trench 2
(Figure 5). Trench 3 measured 12 m (40 ft) in length, aver-
aged 1.35 m (4 ft, 5 in) in depth, and was 1.5 m (5 ft) in
width. The trench was oriented at 55 degrees east of magnetic
north, lying roughly northeast-southwest. Soil horizons in this
profile (Figure 11) are similar to those in Trench 2, except that
soil transitions within the filled canal channel are not as well-
In this trench, the buried canal banks appear to have had
steeper slopes than in Trench 2. The top of the canal's
channel appeared to be approximately 6.7-7.6 m (22-25 ft) in
width, and it cut more dramatically into the tan, coarse sand
subsoil (Figure lg) than in Trench 2. The canal bottom
measured about 4.6 m (15 ft) in width where it cut into the
subsoil, and it was more than 45 cm (18 in) below the highest
visible point of the buried western bank. The bottom of the
canal appeared to be approximately 1.07 m (3.5 ft) below the
level of the ground outside of the canal (Table 1).
In Trench 3, thin lenses of medium to dark gray sand were
present at approximately 60 cm (24 in) below the surface.
These were in the eastern portion of the filled canal channel
(Figure lj), and resembled those in the Trench 2 profile. A
thin, black, organic, sandy lens, 5-7.5 cm (2-3 in) at its
thickest point, was at the bottom of the filled canal channel
(Figure 1li). A thicker dark lens of mottled gray sand was
present about 30 cm (1 ft) below the topsoil (Figure 1le). A
large root mass (Figure 1 Ib) represented a modern disturbance
near the surface.


2002 VOL. 55(1)


46 feet

possible prehistoric tree removal

Ortona Canal Trench 2 Profile

topsoil, surface/roots
white/tan fine sand
dark tan to brown coarse sand
water table
medium grey sandy feature (area of disturbance)
medium grey surface intrusion
organic sediments on top of canal base
dark grey streaks, possible organic sediments, within tan sand
outline of canal

0 5 10 feet
0 1 2 meters

depths measured from height of transit/level

J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 8. Trench 2 profile, southeast wall. Zero elevation at 4.70 ft above ground surface near east end of trench.



Figure 9. Trench 2, southeast wall profile near center of canal outline. Note that tip of shovel is in water in bottom of trench.

Table 1. Dimensions of the East Ortona Canal, based on profiles in Trenches 2-5 (in meters and feet). See accompanying
figures showing the profiles.
Sr I

Trench Number

Approx. Width at Top of
Canal Channel

Approx. Width of Canal
Bed cut into Dark Subsoil

Approx. Depth of Canal Bottom
below Outside Ground Surface

7.6-9.1 m (25-30 ft) 6.1 m (20 ft) 1 m (3.25 ft)

6.7-7.6 m (22-25 ft) 4.6 m (15 ft) 1.07 m (3.5 ft)

7.6 m (25 ft) 5.5 m (18 ft) 1.15 m (3.75 ft)

7.6 m (25 ft) 4.9 m (16 ft) 1.2 m (3.9 ft)

Trench 4

Trench 4 was located approximately 24.5 m (80 ft)
northwest of Trench 3 and was oriented 70 degrees east of
magnetic north (Figure 5). The trench was approximately 9 m
(30 ft) in length and 1.4 m (4.5 ft) in width and depth. The
length of this trench was shorter than previous trenches. The
canal is better defined in this area and less excavation was
needed to locate the original canal cut.
Trench 4 provided the best profile of the Ortona Canal
(Figures 12 and 13). The top of the canal's channel was

approximately 7.6 m (25 ft) wide. The lower portion of the
channel was cut over 60 cm (2 ft) into the dark tan, sandy
subsoil. The width of the channel cut into the subsoil was
about 5.5 m (18 ft), with the buried western bank having a
steeper slope than the buried eastern bank. Thin, sharply-
defined lenses of medium to dark gray sand (Figure 12g, h)
were just above the canal bottom, and a thick, dark gray to
black, organic sediment layer was located on the canal bottom
(Figure 12f). This organic layer was almost 20 cm (8 in) thick
in some areas, with the densest concentration lying against the
base of the western bank of the channel. The bottom of the

2002 VOL. 55(1)



Figure 10. Trench 2, north wall. Tip of trowel points to location of radiocarbon sample (carbonized material, Beta-101512).
It was located at 4.9-5.5 m (16-18 ft) from the east end of trench and 0.5 m (20 in) below the ground surface.

Table 2. Samples submitted for radiocarbon dating from the East Ortona Canal.

canal appeared to be approximately 1.15 m (3.75 ft) below the
ground level outside of the canal (Table 1).
The dark lenses in the tan sand of Trench 4 were sampled
for possible radiocarbon dating. One sample (Table 1; AHC
cat. no. 1998.8GL4.3) was of tan sand with some thin, dark,
organic streaks at approximately 75 cm (30 in) below the
surface (Figure 12h). A large soil sample (Table 1; AHC cat.
no. 1998.8GL4.5) was collected from the dark organic
sediment on top of the canal bottom (Figure 12f).

Trench 5

Trench 5 was located 36 m (120 ft) northwest of Trench 4
and was oriented 84 degrees east of magnetic north, placing it
roughly in an east-west direction (Figure 5). The trench was
9 m (30 ft) in length and more than 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth,
placing the trench's bottom below the level of the water table.
This, and the fact that it was only about 90 cm (3 ft) in width,
made it difficult to profile and map. Except for disturbances
noted in the first 2.4 m (8 ft) from the east end of the trench,
the trench walls provided well-preserved soil profiles. Some

Trench Number AHC Catalog Profile Location Inches Below Substance
Number, 1998 Surface

2 GL4.1 Figure 8h, north wall, 16- 20 carbonized material
18 ft from east end

4 GL4.3 Figure 12h, south wall, 20 30 dark organic flecks in tan
ft from east end sand, Soil Sample C

4 GL4.5 Figure 12f, south wall, 36-44 dark sediment, Soil
20.5-21 ft from east end Sample D




dark lenses were near the eastern bank of the canal channel
(Figure 14i), but other parts of the filled channel contained
homogenous tan sand with no visible organic sediments. A
sharp definition between the white or tan sand and the
underlying dark tan or brown horizon was visible in this
In Trench 5, the top of the channel was approximately 7.6
m (25 ft) in width (Table 1). The cross section of the lower
portion of the channel that cut into the dark subsoil was about
4.9 m (16 f) in width. This lower portion of the channel was
cut approximately 45-60 cm (1.5-2 f) into the underlying dark
tan, coarse sand (Figure 14). The bottom of the canal ap-
peared to be approximately 1.2 m (3.9 ft) below the level of the
ground outside of the canal. A peculiar aspect of this profile
was an apparent second filled channel or ditch on the west side
of the aboriginal canal, suggesting the filled remnant of a
reconstructed or older canal, or possibly the remnant of a filled
modern ditch.

Interpretations of Profiles

Previously recorded data for the West Ortona Canal were
provided by Griffin (1940), Luer (1989), and Wheeler (1995).
The dimensions of the East Ortona Canal within our project
area are slightly larger than those of the West Ortona Canal
described by Wheeler (1995) and appear to be more similar to
the dimensions in the profile drawn by Griffin (1940). All
previous investigators provided canal measurements based on
visible surface topography. In contrast, our project obtained
measurements by mapping the canal's buried channel.
We found that the maximum depth of the canal's channel
varied between approximately 1-1.2 m (3.25-3.9 ft) (Table 1).
The channel in Trenches 2 and 3 was slightly shallower than
in Trenches 4 and 5. Such slight variations may not be of any
importance, and could be due to slight differences in the
original depth to which the channel was dug, or due to
differences in erosion by flowing water in the channel. As
noted by Wheeler (1995), the direction of flow in this portion
of the canal would have been to the southeast.
In the filled channel profiles, the visible staining and dark
lenses may reflect different episodes of inundation, or seasonal
changes, when pronounced rainfall or dry periods affected
water levels and amounts of organic accumulation in the canal.
A gradual trend or sequence of filling is indicated by some of
the dark lenses. The development of smaller, lateral channels
or side-channels, situated within the partially-filled original
channel, is also suggested by some of these lenses. For
example, a lateral channel seems to be indicated by thin, dark,
curved lenses near the east bank of the canal profile in Trench
2 (Figure 8h). Similarly, lateral channels appear to evidenced
near both the east and west banks of the canal profile in
Trench 4 (Figure 12h). These lenses suggest that a slightly
meandering channel might have existed within the canal as its
channel filled gradually with sand and organic material.
We also found that the original bottom of the canal in the
profiles was consistent in width throughout the trenches,
measuring about 4.6-6.1 m (15-20 ft) in width. In addition,

the top of the canal's channel varied from approximately 6.7-
9.1 m (22-30 ft), while the embankments, comprised of spoil
excavated from the channel, extended over 15 m (50 ft) in
width. In places, the outer banks of the canal may be deceiv-
ing since modern excavations or land clearing might have
affected the embankments, making them seem wider than they
originally were.
The canal embankments, described in surface profile by
prior researchers, were not visible in the subterranean portions
of any of our trenches. The reason for this may be simple:
most of the material originally excavated by the Indians to
make the canal would have been lighter-colored, white or tan
sand. This sand would have been deposited to either side of
the canal, on top ofundisturbed white or tan sand. Any darker
sand that also was deposited there would have become leached
over time. Therefore, the embankments would be visible as a
slight rise in the ground surface on each side of the channel,
but they would not be visible in the profile because they would
be characterized by the same white or tan sand that was under

Radiocarbon Dating

Table 3 lists the three radiocarbon dates that were obtained,
one from Trench 2 and two from Trench 4. All three dates are
fairly close together, and two overlap at 2 sigma. They
indicate that organic material from within the canal's channel
is approximately 1100 to 1900 calendar years old. As ex-
pected, the oldest date (a conventional age of 1800 +/- 50
radiocarbon years ago) is from the deepest sample. It is from
very near the bottom of the channel in Trench 4. The two
other dates (Table 3) are from shallower sediments, and their
younger ages are consistent with a channel that filled gradu-
ally over time.
Taken together, the three radiocarbon dates suggest that
the canal could have been dug as much as 1900 calendar years
ago, and gradually became filled with sand and organic
material. However, the canal could be slightly younger if
organic materials that filled the channel originated from old
sources. For example, it is possible that the carbonized
material from Trench 2 could be two or three hundred years
older than the actual time of deposition if it had been derived
from old cypress or pine trees. The fact that there was flowing
water in the canal's channel, coming from Turkey Creek to the
northwest, means that organic material could have been
carried from sources located upstream. However, the close
ages of the three dated samples, and their correlation of age
with relative positions in the profiles, suggest that they do
reflect general times of deposition.
Thus, a radiocarbon date from the bottom ofthe channel in
Trench 4 suggests that the East Ortona Canal could be as
much as approximately 1600-1900 calendar years old.
Shallower material from Trenches 2 and 4 date to approxi-
mately 1100-1750 calendaryears ago. The shallower material
appears to have collected in lateral channels in a partially-
filled canal, suggesting that the canal continued to carry water
for hundreds of years after it was first dug. Future researchers


2002 VOL. 55(1)


I h

Ortona Canal Trench 3 Profile

topsoil/surface roots
uprooted tree root mass in grey sand
mottled white/light grey sand lens
white/light grey loose sand
dark grey lens
light tan sand
dark tan compact sand
water table, unexcavated
dark organic sediments within canal
dark grey sandy streaks, possible organic sediments, within tan sand
unexcavated spoil from trenching
outline of canal

5 10 feet

0 1 meters

depths measured from height of transit/level

J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 11. Trench 3 profile, southeast wall. Zero elevation at 4.70 ft above ground surface near east end of trench.

= a
M c
--1 d
-- h
' ]
S .

I'" I ~IC7 ~r~

LL` ~U~L ~L~s~~c~,l~

30 feet

d 'C-14 samples

- ,4 .' -

Ortona Canal Trench 4 Profile

white/light tan to grey fine sand
dark tan/brown coarse sand
unexcavated/water level
medium to light grey lens
organic strata on canal bed
dark grey lenses, layered organic sediments, within tan sand
grey streaks, possible organic sediments, within tan sand
unexcavated spoil from trenching
outline of canal

05 10 feet

0 1 2 meters

depths measured from height of transit/level

J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 12. Trench 4 profile, southeast wall. Zero elevation at 4.92 ft above ground surface near east end of trench.

E3 a
-m d
-S e
- f
~ g
-~ h
UZ3 i

Photographic Mosaic of Trench 4 Profile
Ortona Canal

0 2 4 feet

Figure 13. Photographic mosaic of Trench 4 profile, southeast wall (east at left).

10 15
1 I I I I

25 30 f
I I I I I|

Ortona Canal Trench 5 Profile

Ma topsoil/surface/roots
Sb dark grey sand
es c whitelgrey sand
-d white/tan fine sand
e dark tan coarse sand
rZa f unexcavated spoil from trenching
g water table, unexcavated
h black organic stain
i thin lenses of black organic sediments
......** outline of canal

S5 10 feet

0 1 2 meters

depths measured from height of transit/level

J. Zamanillo 2001

Figure 14. Trench 5 profile, south wall. Zero elevation at 4.70 ft above ground surface near east end of trench.







Table 3. Radiocarbon dates from profiles across the East Ortona Canal. The measured (uncorrected) and the conventional
(corrected) dates are in radiocarbon years before present (B.P. = A.D. 1950) and state the 1 sigma age ranges. The asterisks
accompanying a C13/C12 ratio, conventional age, and calibrated date range indicate that the C13/C12 value was estimated.
The calibrated dates, based on the conventional ages, are in calendar years and were provided by Beta Analytic.

AHC Catalog Lab # Measured C14 C13/C12 Conventional C14 Calibrated Dates, 2
#, 1998 Age Ratio Age Sigma

1. GL4.1 Beta-101512 1640+/-70 -25* 1640 +/- 70* Cal AD 245-590*

2. GL4.3 Beta-145326 1320 +/- 80 -25* 1320 +/- 80* Cal AD 600-890*

3. GL4.5 Beta-101513 1880+/-50 -29.7 1800+/-50 Cal AD 110-380

should investigate these results further by collecting additional
organic samples from the canal and dating them.
The three dates reported here suggest that the East Ortona
Canal might have been dug during the Glades I Period (ca.
A.D. 0-750) (Griffin 1988:Figure 6.3), or during the time that
Sears (1982:186-189, 194-199) called "Period II" (ca. A.D.
200 to ca. A.D. 600-800) at the Fort Center site. It is interest-
ing to note that some other portions of the Ortona Site may
date to this same time and culture period, based on large
earthworks and Hopewellian-style platform pipe fragments
(Carr et al. 1995:259-260; Luer 1995:304).


Five backhoe trenches were dug along a 120 m (400 ft)
portion of the East Ortona Canal as mitigation for the pro-
posed expansion of the Ortona Sand Mine by E. R. Jahna
Industries, Inc. The archaeological work was initiated by state
and federal permits and was directed toward recovering
information on the construction and chronology of the canal.
The backhoe trenches were shovel shaved and troweled to
expose buried cross sections of the canal, which were mapped
and photographed.
Resulting subsurface profiles indicate that the canal's
channel was approximately 6.7-9.1 m (22-30 ft) wide at the
top, approximately 4.6-6.1 m (15-20 ft) wide near the bottom,
and that the bottom varied from approximately 1-1.2 m (3.25-
3.9 ft) below the level of the ground outside the canal. After
the channel had become partially filled with sand and other
sediment, there appear to have been lateral channels that
continued to carry flowing water within the canal.
Samples of organic materials were collected from within
the channel profiles, and three were radiocarbon dated. The
dates range from approximately 1100-1900 calendar years ago,
and suggest that the East Ortona Canal might have been dug
approximately 1600-1900 calendar years ago, or during the
Glades I Period (ca. A.D. 0-750).


Archaeologist George Luer encouraged us to publish our results.
He prepared the text of this paper by editing, revised, and adding to
our prior contract report, and by encouraging us to submit a third
radiocarbon sample for dating. He would like to thank soils special-
ist Sylvia Scudder for her advice about soils.
Joanne Mossa of the University of Florida (hydrology), Sylvia
Scudder of the Florida Museum of Natural History (soils), and Ryan
Wheeler of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research (archaeol-
ogy) served as reviewers and provided helpful comments. The
authors would like to thank E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc., for funding
this work and for their support and interest in the project. A
particular thanks is due their staff, especially Kevin Ruesch, Kirk
Davis, and John Bruner, for their cooperation and personal involve-

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2002 VOL. 55(1)


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P.O. Box 947544, Maitland, FL 32794-7544 4

4) Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society 13
7701 22nd Ave. N., St. Petersburg, FL 33710

5) Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Trail, Merritt Island, FL 32952

5) Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy 2
195 Huntley Oaks Blvd., Lake Placid, FL 33852 12

7) Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
4144 Torino Place, Jacksonville, FL 32244

8) Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee /
c/o The Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation '
423 E. Virginia Street, Tallahassee, FL 32301 *;.
-/ _^-

9) Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591

10) St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine, FL 32085

11) Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 2875, Stuart, FL 34995

12) Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101

13) Time Sifters Archaeology Society
P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277

14) Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32175

15) Warm Mineral Springs Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287



'University ofFlorida, 12473 Gately Oaks Lane East, Jacksonville, FL 32225
E-mail: akashley@fdn.com
2Florida State University, 1805 Twelve Oaks, Neptune Beach, FL 32266
E-mail: vickirolland@earthlink.net

During the 1950s, archaeologists like John Goggin (1952),
William Sears (1957), and Ripley Bullen and John Griffin
(1952) all commented upon the occurrence of cordmarked
pottery on archaeological sites in northeastern Florida (i.e.,
present-day Duval and Nassau counties). Based on the
previous recovery of grossly similar-looking wares along the
Georgia coast, these researchers and others (e.g., Larson 1958)
linked the cordmarked pottery of northeastern Florida and
southeastern Georgia to the north Georgia Savannah archaeo-
logical culture and identified it as Savannah Fine Cord
Marked. Building upon the signal works of these researchers,
subsequent archaeologists variously interpreted northeastern
Florida (and southeastern Georgia) cordmarked pottery as
Savannah trade wares or local products manufactured either by
Savannah immigrants or by indigenous potters copying the
Savannah pottery tradition (e.g., Ashley 1995; Deagan 1978;
Dickinson and Wayne 1987; Johnson 1988; Jordan et al. 1963;
Russo 1992; Russo et al. 1993; Saunders 1989). But often
accompanying such interpretations is the caveat that northeast-
ern Florida cordmarked wares differed, at both the type and
assemblage levels, from the traditional Savannah series
ceramic (Russo 1992:117).
Before we can begin to unravel the cordmarked pottery
mystery in northeastern Florida, we first must recognize that
two temporally and technologically distinct cordmarked wares
actually occur in northeastern Florida and southeastern
Georgia. The earlier type is a grit-tempered ware found
exclusively in St. Johns II contexts (ca. A.D. 900-1250).
Though it has traditionally been considered Savannah Cord
Marked, due to its grit tempering, the recovery of vessels with
folded rims suggests that it more closely resembles Ocmulgee
III Cordmarked pottery from the Ocmulgee-Oconee-Altamaha
river region of south-central Georgia (Snow 1977). The
second or later cordmarked type is a thin, sand-tempered ware
manufactured by Ocmulgee immigrants, who we believe
moved into northeastern Florida via southeastern Georgia
some time after A.D. 1250 (Ashley n.d.:13-26).
We propose the type name St. Marys Cordmarked for this
later cordmarked pottery, produced locally in northeastern
Florida and southeastern Georgia and dated to the St. Marys
II period, ca. A.D. 1250-1500+. In northeastern Florida, the
St. Marys II period is preceded by St. Johns II period (A.D.
900-1250), which is preceded by the St. Marys I period (500

B.C. A.D. 900), not the St. Johns I period (Ashley n.d.:7).
We further believe that the type designation is applicable to
cordmarked pottery manufactured locally in coastal Camden
County, Georgia, although its beginning date there may be a
millennia or so earlier (ca. A.D. 1100) than in northeastern
Florida. However, we urge that the St. Marys pottery designa-
tion not be extended north of the Satilla River into Glynn
County, since the cultural affiliation of cordmarked wares
there remains uncertain. The production of St. Marys
Cordmarked pottery, therefore, is restricted to coastal Duval
and Nassau counties, Florida and coastal Camden County,
Georgia, a cultural region known as St. Marys (Figure 1).
The objective of this brief paper is to forward a formal type
description for St. Marys Cordmarked. We are well aware of
the problems attending the careless addition of unwarranted
pottery type (or variant) designations to existing regional
ceramic inventories. However, we believe that a new type
name is necessary to highlight the local manufacture of St.
Marys Cordmarked pottery and to differentiate it geographi-
cally and culturally from both classic Savannah and Ocmulgee
wares in order to avoid conflating distinct types during
analysis. Additionally, despite being the dominant ware on
archaeological sites in northeastern Florida after A.D. 1250,
there presently is no cordmarked pottery category on the
Florida Master Site File form that specifically recognizes
either these wares or their proper cultural affiliation. Instead
of forcing northeastern cordmarked pottery into analytical
categories meant for other regions of Florida or relegating
them to a nondescript "other" status, the St. Marys designation
and definition will afford the pottery (and its people) recogni-
tion in time and space.


The manufacture of cordmarked pottery has a long history
along the Atlantic seaboard. On the north Georgia coast, its
production began around A.D. 800 and covered three sequen-
tial archaeological phases Wilmington, St. Catherines, and
Savannah between ca. A.D. 800 and 1300 (Caldwell and
Waring 1968; DePratter 1979, 1991). This was followed by the
production of complicated stamped and incised pottery during
the Irene phase, ca. A.D. 1300 and 1550+ (Braley 1990;
Caldwell 1971; DePratter 1979, 1991; cf. Crook 1986:37).


VOL. 55(1)


MARCH 2002


Figure 1. St Marys Region.


2002 VOL. 55(1)


Presently, there is no evidence supporting the Wilmington-St.
Catherines-Savannah-Irene ceramic sequence south of the
Satilla River in the St. Marys region. In fact, the heavily grog-
tempered cordmarked sherds from the Kings Bay locality
(Georgia), previously typed as Wilmington Cord Marked, now
appear to represent sixteenth/seventeenth-century San Pedro
pottery (Ashley and Rolland 1997a).
Radiocarbon dates from sites at Kings Bay indicate that an
essentially Woodland period ceramic assemblage that included
cordmarked pottery (St. Marys) was in use from about A.D.
1000 until some time during the sixteenth century (Adams
1985; Saunders 1989; Smith et al. 1981). Though Espenshade
(1981) has argued for a beginning date of ca. A.D. 450 for
cordmarked pottery along the southeastern Georgia coast, the
uncalibrated radiocarbon dates he draws upon are based on
materials equivocally associated with cordmarked pottery.
Northeastern Florida cordmarked sites are more-securely
dated, with 18 calibrated radiocarbon assays from 8 sites
yielding dates that range from ca. A.D. 1250 to 1500+, or the
St. Marys II period (Table 1). Though frequently assumed to
have its origin along the coast, cordmarking as a primary
decorative ware may have originally developed within the
hinterland river valleys of Georgia and subsequently spread to
the coast via the Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, and Satilla
Cordmarked pottery recovered from late prehistoric sites in
the St. Marys region has been classified in a variety of formal
and descriptive ways that include Savannah,
Savannah-derived, Savannah\Wilmington-derived, Savannah
phase or period, Savannah-like, Savannah-related, or
nondescriptly as sand, grit, and/or grog-tempered cordmarked
(e.g., Adams 1985; Ashley 1995; Cook 1977; Cordell 1993;
Crook 1986; Deagan 1978; Dickinson and Wayne 1987;
Espenshade 1981, 1985; Johnson 1988; Jordan et al. 1963;
Kirkland 1979; Milanich 1994; Russo 1992; Russo et al. 1993;
Saunders 1989; Smith et al. 1981). Lee etal. (1984), however,
rejected a Savannah cultural affiliation interpretation by
considering the sand-tempered cordmarked wares from two
Duval County sites (8DU634 and 8DU669) to be Alachua (i.e.,
Prairie Cord Marked) or some other inland pottery type.
Taxonomic problems in pottery classification stem primar-
ily from the fact that the original type descriptions for coastal
cordmarked pottery were based mainly on specimens recovered
from Chatham County in north Georgia (Caldwell and Waring
1968). These normative type descriptions have been mistak-
enly applied to pottery recovered from all areas of the Georgia
coast and beyond, overstretching the utility of the original
Savannah Fine Cord Marked definition. Archaeologists have
since begun to acknowledge both intra- and interregional
variability in coastal cordmarked wares (Braley 1983; Cordell
1993; Crook 1986; DePratter 1979; Espenshade 1981, 1985;
Milanich 1977; Saffer 1979; Smith etal. 1981). In fact, Crook
(1986:42) in his review of the late prehistoric chronology of
the Georgia coast suggests that regional variants of the
Savannah culture mark the mouth and lower course of both the
Savannah and Altamaha rivers and that a "marginal extension
of the Altamaha region" variant is found in the St. Marys

In an attempt to shed light on the taxonomic dilemma
attending coastal cordmarked pottery, Cordell (1993) per-
formed a technological analysis of cordmarked pottery from
the St. Marys region. Her methodological approach was
grounded in the use of explicit analytical terminology and
routine microscopy in order to develop replicable criteria by
which to classify pottery from the region. Cordell examined 30
cordmarked sherds from 4 sites in northeastern Florida, and 9
cordmarked sherds from 2 sites in southeastern Georgia. All
39 sherds were believed to date to the local "Savannah Period"
(ca. A.D. 800-1500). In addition, 15 problematic Savannah
Plain sherds from the St. Marys region were examined.
Finally, to explore the possibility of nonlocal production
origins for some of the cordmarked specimens, a sample of
north Georgia (Chatham County) Savannah Fine Cord Marked
(n=5) and north-central Florida Prairie Cord Marked (n=5)
sherds also were analyzed (Cordell 1993:34-36).
Cordell (1993) assigned each of the 39 cordmarked sherds
in her sample to one of four technologically defined paste
categories: Group 1) non-spiculate and non-micaceous (n=9 or
23%); Group 2) sponge spiculate (n=14 or 36%); Group 3)
micaceous (n=15 or 38%); and, Group 4) micaceous and
spiculate (n=l or 3%). The first three categories were further
subdivided on the basis of sand, grit, or grog inclusions. It
should be noted that her sponge spiculate paste category (i.e.,
Group 2) is "characterized by occasional to common sponge
spicules," and differs "from St. Johns or 'chalky ware' paste in
terms of sponge spicule size, relative abundance of sponge
spicules and quartz sand, and in lacking the tactile 'chalki-
ness' characteristic of St. Johns pottery" (Cordell 1993:42-43).
Subsequent to Cordell's (1993) work, information provided
by various projects involving shovel test surveys, stratigraphic
excavations, calibrated radiocarbon dates, or ceramic analy-
sis/reanalysis of other cordmarked pottery collections permits
us to comment upon two of her paste categories for cordmark-
ed pottery. Of greatest importance to our study is her identifi-
cation of 7 grit-tempered cordmarked sherds from the Brown
Site (8DU58) in northeastern Florida. These 7 sherds were
assigned to the GROUP 2A-GRIT paste category, character-
ized by occasional sponge spicules and common coarse to very
coarse quartz particles. According to Cordell (1993:54), "this
paste appears to conform to the pottery that Bullen and Griffin
(1952:24) and Sears (1957:24) considered similar to the north
Georgia coast Savannah Fine Cord Marked." She further
notes that all 5 Prairie Cord Marked and 4 of the 5 north
Georgia Savannah Fine Cord Marked sherds in her sample
possessed the same gritty paste. It should be noted that
Ocmulgee III Cordmarked pottery is also grit-tempered.
An important point to be made here is that all pottery
assemblages containing gritty cordmarked pottery in northeast-
ern Florida are dominated by St. Johns II types, implying that
the gritty cordmarked vessels are trade wares (or possibly local
copies). This begs the question: Were these wares originally
made by Savannah potters along the north Georgia coast? We
do not believe so since it is now known that a small percentage
of the grit-tempered cordmarked sherds recovered from



Table 1. St. Marys H period radiocarbon dates from sites in Northeastern Florida.

Site Beta # Material Measured Conventional Calibrated* Calibrated* Reference
Radiocarbon Radiocarbon 1 Sigma 2 Sigma Calibrated*
Age (BP) Age (BP) (AD) (AD) Intercept (AD)
8DU669 6633 oyster 840 +70 1250 +70 1070-1250 1025-1295 1180 Lee et al. 1984
8DU669 6634 oyster 830 + 80 1240 + 80 1070-1265 1020-1310 1190 Lee et al. 1984
8DU634 6625 oyster 720 + 50 1130+ 50 1250-1310 1200-1345 1285 Lee et al. 1984
8NA703 147516 charcoal 680 + 60 680 +60 1280-1390 1250-1410 1290 Hendryx et al. 2000
8DU5545 145293 oyster 690 + 60 1060 +60 1290-1390 1240-1420 1310 Smith et al. 2001
8DU5545 145292 oyster 650 +60 1030 + 60 1300-1400 1270-1440 1330 Smith et al. 2001
8DU634 6627 oyster 620 + 50 1030 + 50 1310-1405 1285-1430 1345 Lee et al. 1984
8NA41 44968 oyster 570 + 60 --- 1315-1425 1285-1455 1390 Saunders pers. Comm.
8DU625 84076 oyster 570 +70 950+ 70 1360-1455 1305-1500 1420 Ashley 1997
8DU634 6623 clam 540+ 50 950+ 50 1390-1445 1325-1475 1420 Lee et al. 1984
8NA703 147518 charcoal 520+ 60 520+ 60 1400-1440 1300-1460 1420 Hendryx et al. 2000
8DU634 6626 oyster 520 + 50 930 + 50 1405-1455 1345-1485 1420 Lee et al. 1984
8DU669 6628 oyster 490 +70 900+ 70 1410-1485 1335-1540 1430 Lee et al. 1984
8DU669 6631 oyster 470 + 50 880 + 50 1430-1485 1405-1520 1445 Lee et al. 1984
8NA41 44967 oyster 400 + 60 --- 1445-1530 1410-1640 1455 Saunders pers. Comm.
8NA43 109253 oyster 370 + 60 760+ 60 1490-1640 1455-1675 1485 Ashley and Rolland
8DU634 6622 oyster 350 + 60 760+ 60 1490-1640 1455-1675 1540 Lee et al. 1984
8DU634 6624 oyster 340 + 50 750 + 50 1505-1640 1475-1670 1540 Lee et al. 1984

all calibrations performed by Beta Analytic, Inc.


northeastern Florida sites have folded rims (actually rim
appliques) (Ashley 2000, n.d.; Rolland 2000). To our knowl-
edge, Ocmulgee series pottery is the only type of cordmarked
wares with folded/appliqu6 rims in the vicinity of the St.
Marys region. In south-central Georgia, Ocmulgee Cordmark-
ed consists of three areal varieties designated, from west to
east, Ocmulgee I, II, and III (Snow 1977; Stephenson 1990).
Of these, Ocmulgee III is reported to be primarily grit-tem-
pered, with a low incidence (less than 30 percent) of rim
sherds exhibiting folds/ appliques. The other two Ocmulgee
types are thinner and sand tempered, with a much higher
percentage (ca. 70%) of folded/appliqu6 rims. Regardless of
whether the northeastern Florida specimens are Ocmulgee III
Cordmarked pottery or a local St. Johns II variant, there is
little doubt that these grit-tempered cordmarked wares are
temporally and technologically distinct from St. Marys
Cordmarked, as defined herein.
The second paste category deserving comment is Cordell's
identification of 7 "Savannah Plain" and 2 Savannah Cord
Marked sherds with grog tempering from coastal Georgia.
The former, which are thicker than the Savannah (St. Marys)
Cord Marked sherds in her sample, may actually represent San
Pedro Plain, which itself is part of the San Pedro series that
characterizes sixteenth/seventeenth-century coastal Timucua
sites in the St. Marys region (Ashley and Rolland 1997a).
Thus we believe that the wide tempering variance of Cordell's
"Savannah Period" sample from the St. Marys region contains
several sherds that fall outside our definition of St. Marys
Cordmarked. Specifically, we consider her 7 gritty sherds
from 8DU58 to be Ocmulgee III Cordmarked pottery (or a
local copy ware made by St. Johns II potters) and her 2 grog-
tempered cordmarked and 7 plain grog-tempered plain sherds
from 9Cm177 to be part of the site's later and well docu-
mented San Pedro component.

St. Marys Cordmarked: A Type Description

St. Marys Cordmarked is distinguished by a combination
offormal and stylistic characteristics that contrast sharply with
the spiculate-paste, check-stamped-dominated assemblages of
the preceding St. Johns II period in northeastern Florida. It
also differs from the thicker bodied grit-tempered cordmarked
wares found within St. Johns II pottery assemblages in the St.
Marys region. The most salient attributes of St. Marys
Cordmarked pottery include sand tempering, often with mica
inclusions; consistently thin vessel wall construction; exterior
surface modification produced by twisted fiber cordage;
unburnished, yet well compacted, interior surfaces often shell
scraped; and a conservative range of simple vessel forms
(simple bowls and jars). These and other attributes are outlined
in Appendix I, and examples of St. Marys Cordmarked pottery
are depicted in Figure 2.

The Sample

Fifty sherds were randomly selected from St. Marys II sites
in Duval and Nassau counties, Florida. These include the

Quercus site or 8DU625 (Ashley 1997), Greenfield Site # 9 or
8DU5545 (Smith et al. 2001), and the Thundercrack site or
8NA43 (Ashley and Rolland 1997b). In our opinion these 50
randomly chosen sherds are "typical" of St. Marys Cordmark-
ed in northeastern Florida; an assessment that we recognize is
subjective. These sherds provide the metric data (e.g., sherd
thickness) used in the type description. We also draw upon
general observations on cordmarked pottery made by ourselves
and others working in northeastern Florida (e.g., Ashley and
Rolland 1997b:B1-B2; Ashley and Thunen 1999:59; Cordell
1993; Dickinson and Wayne 1987:5.5-5.6; Dickinson and
Wayne 1999:44-48; Lee etal. 1984:92-102, 176-201,235-242;
Russo et al. 1993:174-204; Sears 1957:24; Saunders 1989). It
should be further acknowledged that aspects of the following
St. Marys Cordmarked type description build upon the
important work of Cordell (1993:56), who established a
regional paste typology and laid a foundation for future
ceramic paste investigations in the St. Marys region.


St. Marys II potters routinely produced ceramic vessels
with clay containing fine- and medium-sized quartz particles
(.125 .50 mm) and varying frequencies of mica; coarse-sized
(.5 1.0 mm) grains are less common (Cordell 1993:39-40,
50-52). Grit inclusions, quartz grains 1 to 2 mm in size, are
rare. Occasionally, sponge spicules are observed in some St.
Marys Cordmarked wares in low frequency, but these should
be considered a commensal paste constituent; perhaps inadver-
tently added as ground raw clay was rehydrated with spring or
creek water. Grog-tempering is not a defining characteristic
of St. Marys paste, though Cordell (1993:52) reports its
presence in plain wares presumed to be associated with St.
Marys Cordmarked. But as stated earlier, these grog-tempered
sherds may actually be San Pedro Plain. Grog is occasionally
found with grit inclusions in some earlier grit-tempered
cordmarked wares from the Shields site (Rolland 2000), and
crushed sherd tempering is common in latter
sixteenth/seventeenth-century San Pedro pottery (Ashley and
Rolland 1997a).


The 50 sherds in the sample ranged in thickness from 3.5
and 7.7 mm, though the majority (76%) measured between 4.5
and 6.5 mm. The sample's mean thickness was 5.5 mm.
Cordell's (1993:48) findings were similar within her
micaceous paste category (Paste Group 3A-C), with a mean
thickness of 5.1 mm. Such thin vessels walls may have been
attained utilizing a construction process that combined coiling
and drawing or pulling techniques.

Exterior Surface Modification

Both exterior and interior vessel finishes are very consis-
tent within the type. Vessel exteriors are impressed with a
narrow or fine gauge vegetal-fiber cordage utilized in a variety




Figure 2. St. Marys Cordmarked sherds.

of forms. Cordmarking involved wrapping tightly twisted
cordage around a paddle that was pressed against wet clay.
Simple parallel impressions are observed, but overstamping is
the norm (see Figure 2). Overstamping can produce oblique
or, less often, perpendicular cross-cord impressions.
A range of variations occur in cord width, cord twist, and
impression spacing. Cordage was tightly (narrow spacing) or
loosely (wider spacing) wrapped around the paddle, though the
former is by far the most typical. Fine cordmarking (< 1 mm)
is the norm, but coarser gauged cordage (i.e., heavy cordmark-
ed) is observed infrequently. Cordmarked sherds from various
sites in northeastern Florida have been examined by the
authors and Jill Minar (1999) to identify final cord twist,
which is determined by the direction of the cord slant; a slant
in this direction (/) is referred to as Z-twist and in the opposite
direction () is S-twist(Maslowski 1973:4). The overwhelming
majority (upper 90 percentile) of St. Marys Cordmarked sherds
are Z-twist, which seems to be the most common form noticed
on Alachua, Ocmulgee, and Savannah cord marked types as
well (Minar 1999).
In relation to the lip, parallel cord impressions on vessel
bodies reveal that the paddle was most often applied at an
oblique angle, although perpendicular impressions are rarely
observed. While surface impressions are most often clear and
well executed, vague stamping is sometimes noted, but in
many cases this may have resulted from post-depositional
erosion rather than poor execution. Thus, closely spaced, well
executed, and fine cord impressions are the norm.

In addition to cordmarking, two other
forms of processed fiber have been noted
by the authors: soft, woven fabric or
open-knotted netting. Warp and weft
fabric impressions appear to be seamless
across the surface and not the result of
paddle stamping. Netting strands and
knots are often very fine and somewhat
difficult to discern without magnification
or casting (see Drooker 1992:114). Net
impressions do not overlap. Woven and
knotted fabric impressions are a minority
surface treatment noted among the more
dominant cordmarked wares (Ashley and
Rolland 1997c:25; Ashley and Rolland
1997d:24; Dickinson and Wayne
1997:113). We recommend that analysts
report these types descriptively as net-
marked, fabric-impressed, etc., rather
than under the umbrella of cordmarked.
It should be mentioned that similarly
tempered plainwares wares are typically
found in association with St. Marys
Cordmarked, although cordmarking
clearly predominates in St. Marys assem-
blages. Though we believe a
plain/undecorated counterpart of St.
Marys Cordmarked occurs as a minority
ware, it is difficult and problematic to
distinguish it from other generic-looking plain wares, particu-
larly within multicomponent middens. Conspicuously absent
or rare in contexts dominated by St. Marys Cordmarked are
sand-tempered burnished, check stamped, or complicated
stamped wares, hallmarks of the central and north Georgia
coast Savannah assemblages.

Interior Surface Modification

Vessel interiors are uniformly well smoothed, which is
accomplished by shell scraping followed by compaction with
a hard surfaced finishing tool. Evidence of shell scraping is
exhibited in the form of even and parallel fine ridges and
indentations, similar in appearance to those of a small scallop
shell. Traces of shell scraping are not always completely
obliterated by subsequent hard-tooling. Burnished lip and
interior surfaces are rare.


Rims and lips are simply finished. Rims are most often
direct and straight, but may be slightly incurvate or excurvate.
Lips may be finished as rounded, flat, or tapered, with the first
being most common. Lips do not exhibit cordmarking, and
there is no evidence of intentional rim/lip modification, such
as folding or adding an appliqud strip, as is the case with
Ocmulgee III Cordmarked pottery (Figure 3). Lips are often
finished with a stroke that smoothed the clay from the interior


2002 VOL. 55(1)


Figure 3. Grit-tempered cordmarked. Top row: Ocmulgee II Cordmarked sherds from south-central Georgia. Bottom row:
Grit-tempered cordmarked sherds from the Shields site (8DU12), Duval County, Florida.

to the exterior, commonly leaving a slight extrusion along the
exterior lip margin. This gives the lip a rather sloppy appear-
ance, at times resembling a small, poorly formed fold.

Vessel Forms

Vessel forms appear to consist of a variety of simple bowls
and jars. Unfortunately, in the authors' experience, the thin
walled nature of St. Marys vessels combined with post
depositional processes and lack of reporting has not allowed
for rim/lip reconstructions that might yield specific vessel
diameter or height information. Generally speaking, bases are
either rounded or slightly concoidal. No vessels with sharp
wall inflections (e.g. cazuela or carinated) or tightly incurving
restricted containers have been observed. Vessel appendages
such as nodes are not present. However, sherds with drilled
holes have been observed. Typically, such vessel wall modifi-
cation is thought either to be the consequence of impact
stresses on thin walls (mend holes) or to accommodate
suspension with fiber or leather straps or handles.


St. Marys sherds are most often dark gray or gray-brown in
color, indicating that vessels were routinely fired in a reduced
(low oxidizing) atmosphere. However, reddish and reddish-
yellow colored sherds do occur infrequently. After retiring

experiments, Cordell (1993:40, 55) recorded a range of
oxidized colors suggesting to her that a wide variety of clay
sources were utilized by potters.

Concluding Thoughts

The main purpose of our paper has been to present a
formal definition of St. Marys Cordmarked pottery. To a
lesser extent, we have tried to heighten awareness of the
presence of a second, and earlier, grit-tempered cordmarked
ware that occurs within St. Johns II contexts in northeastern
Florida. Over the years, St. Marys Cordmarked has been
referred to by a variety of names such as Savannah-derived,
Savannah\Wilmington, Savannah Phase or Period, Savan-
nah-like, Savannah-related, or simply Savannah to name a
few. Radiocarbon dates indicate that St. Marys Cordmarked
was produced in northeastern Florida during the St. Marys II
period, between ca. A.D. 1250 and 1500+. Its emergence in
northeastern Florida marks the intrusion of peoples from
southeastern coastal Georgia (Camden County). Though
radiocarbon dates are ambiguous and marred by mixed
contexts, the production of St. Marys Cordmarked in Camden
County, Georgia appears to have predated that of northeastern
Florida by a century or so. More chronometric dates from
secure proveniences are needed.
Of primacy to archaeologists working in northeastern
Florida is to distinguish sand-tempered (St. Marys) from grit-



Table 2. Comparison of Selected Attributes of Savannah, Ocmulgee m, and St. Marys Cordmarked.

St Marys Cordmarked1 Ocmulgee m Cordmarked2 Savannah Fine Cord Marked3

PASTE Fine texture with very fine, fine, and Coarse texture with common to frequent Medium to coarse texture. Variable-
Quartz: medium inclusions dominate; coarse angular to subangular grit-sized quartz sized inclusions, but often grit-sized
sand and grit sized particles rare. temper. Not well documented at present: particles are present.
grit/grog and sand tempering.

Mica: Very fine to medium platelets occasional Occasional to common, medium to Rare.
to frequent, larger sized mica inclusions coarse platelets visible.

THICKNESS 3.5 7.7 mm (mean = 5.1 mm, 5.5 5.1 12.5 mm (mean = 7.8 mm)4. 7.3 9.6 mm (mean range from 4 sites).

ASSEMBLAGE Fine cord impressions predominate, heavy Heavy cord impressions dominate, finer Fine cordmarking dominates; Similarly
COMPOSITION impressions less often observed. Similarly impression occasionally present. tempered check and complicated
tempered net- and fabric-impressed and Similarly tempered plain wares may also stamping and burnished plain also
plain are minority types. be present. present.

Burnishing: Occasionally observed. Not observed. Burnishing prevalent.

Shell Scraped Commonly observed. Not observed. Condition variable by location.

FIRING Typically fired in reduced atmosphere Typically fired in reduced atmosphere Wide range of oxidized colors observed.
CHARACTERISTICS (dark grays, gray, and brown colors (dark grays, gray, and brown colors
dominate); somewhat lighter oxidized dominate); well-oxidized sherds
coloration is very rare. occasionally noted.

1. Information derived from present study and Cordell's (1993) St. Marys Savannah Period Cord Marked analysis (gritty cordmarked is excluded, however)
2. Information derived from Snow (1977:39-40) and authors' observations.
3. Information derived from Caldwell and Waring's (1968:127-128) type description of Savannah Fine Cord Marked.
4. Based on sherd sample (n=207) from Shields Mound, 8DU12 (Rolland 2000:27-28, Appendix C).


tempered (e.g., Ocmulgee) cordmarked wares and avoid
combining them under the same type category (see Table 2).
Context is very important here, since the two types can occur
together on sites. In some cases, sequential St. Johns II and St.
Marys II occupations of the same site have resulted in midden
deposits that are mixed. In other instances, the co-occurrence
of St. Johns II and St. Marys II sherds is the byproduct of trade
(Ashley n.d.:13-26). More specifically, local St. Johns II
groups acquired Ocmulgee trade wares during the period A.D.
900-1250 or perhaps even produced quantities of grit-tempered
cordmarked themselves, whereas immigrant St. Marys II
groups after A.D. 1250 received nonlocal St. Johns wares from
the south via exchange. Thus, St. Marys Cordmarked was
produced locally in northeastern Florida from about A.D. 1250
until some time during the sixteenth century. It was produced
locally in southeastern Georgia as well, perhaps there as early
as A.D. 1100. Presently, the timing of the discontinuation of
St. Marys wares and the transition to San Pedro series pottery
is uncertain.
In conclusion, we believe a new typological definition is
warranted for late prehistoric cordmarked wares in northeast-
ern Florida. As defined herein, St. Marys Cordmarked is sand
tempered, and often micaceous; however, grit-sized quartz
particles occur rarely as a paste constituent in a small percent-
age of St. Marys sherds. Exterior surfaces are cordmarked,
although fabric-impressed and net-marked also occur. Vessels
are routinely thin walled, and interior surfaces are well
compacted and frequently shell scraped. Present information
suggests a limited range of vessel forms with simple bowls and
jars predominating. Although researchers continue to point
out the atypical nature of St. Marys region cordmarked
assemblages with respect to the classic Savannah series, they
persist in using the Savannah Cord Marked designation in
analyses and reporting. We hope this paper encourages
archaeologists in the St. Marys region to pay close attention to
temper and paste constituents as well as other physical
attributes, such as rim form and lip modification, when
analyzing cordmarked wares. Consideration of these charac-
teristics in concert with the context of artifact recovery should
aid in interpreting cultural affiliations, dating sites, and
identifying long distance social exchange networks.

Appendix L St. Marys Cordmarked Type Description

Type Sample: 50 randomly selected sherds from 8DU625
(n=15), 8DU5545 (n=17), and 8NA43 (n=18), along with
observations of sherds from other sites.

Method of Manufacture: coiling and drawing, with a basal
starting disc.

Paste: overwhelmingly sand-tempered; three variations have
been noted (Cordell 1993): 1) sand-tempered, nonspiculate and
non-micaceous; 2) sand-tempered, with sponge spiculate
inclusions; and 3) sand- tempered, with micaceous inclu-
sions. Abundant (20-30%) fine (. 125-.25 mm) quartz particles
dominate in all three varieties. Very fine (< .125 mm),

medium (.25-.50 mm), and coarse (.50 -1.0 mm) quartz
inclusions are observed in occasional (1-5%) to rare (<1%)
frequencies. In the past it has been suggested that grog
tempering occurs in low frequencies. This, however, appears
to have been due to the inadvertent inclusion of San Pedro
sherds in the study samples.

Thickness: the 50 sample sherds ranged between 3.5 and 7.7
mm, with a mean of 5.5 mm. The majority (n=38, 76%)
were between 4.5 and 6.5 mm.

Exterior Surface Treatment and Decoration: entire exterior
of vessel stamped with a paddle of tightly wrapped, fine
cordage; however, thick cordage (heavy) also occurs. Imprints
indicate that Z-twist cordage dominates. Cross-cordmarking
is the rule, but parallel cordmarking occurs. It should be noted
that the appearance of warp-weft patterning on some sherds
indicates that a woven fabric or textile was used to impress
some exterior vessel surfaces. Woven impressions are often
continuous over broad areas, and thus do not appear to be the
result of a textile or fabric covered paddle. Such a decoration
should be typed as fabric-impressed or net-marked, but not

Interior Surface Treatment: Interior ofvessels are uniformly
well-smoothed, which was accomplished via hard-tooling or
shell scraping. Shell scraping is very common, and interior
burnishing is rare.

Coloring and Firing Technique: Sherds most often are dark
gray or brown in color, indicating that vessels were routinely
fired in a reduced atmosphere. However, reddish and reddish-
yellow colored sherds do occur infrequently, indicating firing
in an oxidized atmosphere in some instances.

Form: a variety of simple bowls and jars, with either round or
slightly concoidal bases. No vessels with sharp wall inflec-
tions (e.g., cazuelas) have been observed, nor have vessel

Rim/Lip: Most often rims are straight, but may be incurvate
or excurvate. Lips are simple round, flat, or tapered, with the
first being most common. Lips do not exhibit cord marking.
There is no evidence of intentional rim/lip modification, such
as folding, or the addition of an applique strip. However, a
common characteristic is clay extrusion along the exterior lip
margin, resulting from the failure to fully clean (smooth) the
rim after lip formation. This gives the rim/lip intersection a
rather sloppy appearance; at times it resembles a small, poorly
formed fold.

Geographical Range: coastal Camden County, Georgia;
coastal Nassau and Duval counties, Florida. Though
cordmarking is found in Glynn County, Georgia, it is unclear
whether this is St. Marys.




Chronological Position: St. Marys II period, ca. A.D. 1250-
1500+ in northeastern Florida; possibly earlier in southeastern
Georgia (ca. A.D. 1100). Replacedby San Pedro pottery in the
sixteenth century.


SThe word forms cordmarked and cordmarking are used as de-
scriptive terms throughout this paper rather than cord marked and
cord marking, respectively. This convention is also used in the
type name St. Marys Cordmarked. However, previously defined
pottery types such as Ocmulgee Cordmarked, Prairie Cord Marked,
Savannah Fine Cord Marked, and Wilmington Cord Marked will
retain their original designations.


We would like to thank Greg Smith and Myles Bland for their
comments on a much earlier version of the paper. JoAnn Mynatt,
Angela Ashley, and Buzz Thunen deserve thanks for their help
with the figures. We also appreciate the helpful suggestions of
Ryan Wheeler and two anonymous reviewers.

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1997b Phase II Test Excavations at the Thundercrack Site
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1997d A Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Dekle
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Ashley, Keith H., and Robert L. Thunen
1999 Archaeological Survey of the Southern One Third of Big
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Braley, Chad. O.
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Crook, Morgan R., Jr.
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Deagan, Kathleen A.
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gia, Athens.


The Florida Anthropological Society (FAS) is a multi-
dimensional organization benefitting everyone interested in
Florida archaeology and Florida in general. It is simulta-
neously a professional organization as well as the central
organizing body for all interested citizens.
Through its Annual Meetings, scientific journal, newslet-
ter, affiliated chapters, and Archaeology Month celebrations,
FAS reaches thousands of people throughout the state, nation,
and world. FAS Annual Meetings, hosted by a different FAS
chapter each year, promote friendships and provide a forum for
papers reporting the latest research and discoveries. Another
Annual Meeting highlight is the presentation ofthe prestigious
Lazarus, Bullen, and Chapter awards for meritorious work.
FAS publishes The FloridaAnthropologist, one of the most
informative regional archaeological journals in the United
States. Appearing continuously for the last 54 years, the
journal furnishes an unprecedented historical record of

archaeological work as well as invaluable information about
excavations, artifacts, sites, people, and events in Florida
archaeology. Thejournal also provides outstanding leadership
by assembling thematic issues, such as about Spanish missions
(1991), the Ortona earthworks site (1995), the Miami Circle
(2000), and many more. In addition, FAS publishes a series of
scholarly monographs. All these are mailed to more than 600
FAS members and 120 libraries worldwide.
At present, fourteen chapters are affiliated with FAS
throughout Florida. Chapters have monthly meetings and
speakers, and often promote local action, such as education
programs and the stewardship and preservation of sites.
Among many significant accomplishments by chapters are
their research efforts conducted with professional archaeolo-
gists, such as at the Narvaez site in St. Petersburg by the
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society. Similarly, the
Volusia Anthropological Society has studied the Turnbull

Table 1. Annual Meetings of the Florida Anthropological Society

Year Place Date Hosts)

1947 Daytona Beach 11-13 Aug. initial organizing meeting

1948 no meeting

1 1949 Gainesville 12 Feb. Gainesville Anthropological Society

2 1950 Gainesville 25 Feb. Gainesville Anthropological Society

3 1951 Tallahassee 24 Feb. Florida State University Dept. of Anthro. and Archaeology

4 1952 Winter Park 16 Feb. Rollins College

5 1953 Gainesville 28 Feb. University of Florida, Dept. of Sociology and Anthro.; Florida
State Museum; and Florida Park Service

6 1954 Coral Gables 20 Feb. University of Miami and The Historical Association of Southern

7 1955 Rainbow Springs 19 Feb. Rainbow Springs

8 1956 Rainbow Springs 25 Feb. Rainbow Springs

9 1957 Winter Park 2 Feb. Rollins College

10 1958 Rainbow Springs 15 Feb. Rainbow Springs



MARCH 2002

VOL. 55(1)


Colony near New Smyrna Beach, and the Southeast Florida
Archaeological Society has promoted preservation of Mount
Elizabeth in Martin County. The Southwest Florida Archaeo-
logical Society has helped study the Key Marco site and mount
the Key Marco Centenary Exhibit (1996-1997) in Naples. The
Central Florida Anthropological Society has staged re-enactors
of different historical periods in an educational "Walk Back In
The annual Archaeology Month is an outreach and
education effort by FAS and chapter members, usually held in

March. A thematic poster is printed, and talks and events are
held for the public and schools throughout the state. Archaeol-
ogy Month is conducted at the request of the State of Florida,
which helps to fund it through grants to FAS from the Depart-
ment of State, Division of Historical Resources.
In a state where most people are from somewhere else, FAS
helps to provide a sense of place and a vital link to the past,
present, and future. FAS and its chapters will continue to
provide enlightened leadership in the years ahead.

Table 1. Annual Meetings of the Florida Anthropological Society, continued...

Year Place Date Host(s)

11 1959 Ormond Beach 28 Feb. William H. Sears, FAS President

12 1960 Gainesville 12 Mar. University of Florida, Dept. of Anthro.

13 1961 Coral Gables 25 Feb. FAS South Florida Chapter and University of Miami

14 1962 Orlando 24 Feb. The Central Florida Museum

15 1963 Tampa 16 Feb. University of South Florida and FAS Tampa Bay Chapter

16 1964 Cocoa 22 Feb. Indian River Anthropological Society

17 1965 Gainesville 27 Feb. University of Florida Dept. of Anthro.

18 1966 Clearwater 19 Feb. St. Pete. Jr. College, Clearwater Campus

19 1967 Ft. Walton Beach 4 Mar. City of Fort Walton Beach and Temple Mound Museum

20 1968 Melbourne 17 Feb. Florida Institute of Technology

21 1969 Crystal River 1 Mar. Ripley P. Bullen, FAS President

22 1970 Daytona Beach 28 Mar. Ripley P. Bullen, FAS President

23 1971 St. Petersburg 20 Mar. Suncoast Archaeological Society

24 1972 Winter Park 18 Mar. Central Florida Anthropological Society

25 1973 St. Augustine 17-18 Mar. John W. Griffin, FAS President

26 1974 Jacksonville 15-17 Mar. Northeast Florida Anthropological Society

27 1975 Ocala 15-16 Feb. Ben I. Waller, FAS President

28 1976 Ft. Lauderdale 27 Mar. Broward County Archaeological Society and Broward Community
29 1977 Tampa 18-19 Mar. J. Raymond Williams, FAS President; University of South
Florida; and Suncoast Archaeological Society
30 1978 Ft. Walton Beach 1 Apr. Temple Mound Museum and Northwest Florida Anthropological
31 1979 Coral Gables 21 Apr. Archaeological Society of the Museum of Science-Miami and
University of Miami
32 1980 Winter Park 8 Mar. Central Florida Anthropological Society

Table 1. Annual Meetings of the Florida Anthropological Society, continued...

Year Place Date Host(s)

33 1981 Cocoa Beach 6-8 Mar. Indian River Anthropological Society

34 1982 Tampa 2-4 Apr. Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

35 1983 Tallahassee 8-10 Apr. Apalachee Anthropological Society and Florida Division of
Archives, History, and Records Management

36 1984 Palm Beach 27-29 Apr. Palm Beach County Anthropological Society; Broward County
Archaeological Society; and Flagler Museum

37 1985 Daytona Beach 19-21 Apr. Volusia Anthropological Society and Ocali Scrub Archaeological

38 1986 Gainesville 10-12 Apr. University of Florida Dept. of Anthro. graduate students (in
conjuction with annual meeting of The Florida Academy of

39 1987 Clearwater Beach 8-10 May Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

40 1988 Winter Park 6-8 May Central Florida Anthropological Society
and Rollins College

41 1989 Jacksonville 28-30 Apr. Northeast Florida Anthropological Society

42 1990 Naples 27-29 Apr. Southwest Florida Archaeological Society

43 1991 Pensacola 8-10 Mar. Pensacola Anthropological Society

44 1992 St. Augustine 27-29 Mar. St. Augustine Archaeological Association

45 1993 Clearwater Beach 7-9 May Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

46 1994 Dania 13-15 May The Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History, and
Broward County Archaeological Society

47 1995 Sebring 7-9 Apr. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy

48 1996 Sarasota 10-12 May Time Sifters Archaeology Society

49 1997 Miami 8-11 May Arch. Society of Southern Florida

50 1998 Gainesville 22-24 May Ryan Wheeler and local FAS members

51 1999 Okaloosa Island 23-25 Apr. Eglin Air Force Base Cultural Resources Management Branch

52 2000 Ft. Myers 5-7 May Southwest Florida Arch. Society

53 2001 St. Augustine 11-13 May St. Augustine Archaeological Assoc.


Winston W. Ehrmann (the first and only Chair)
John W. Griffin
Hale G. Smith
Albert C. Holt
Frederick W. Sleight
Frederick W. Sleight

1954 Wilfred T. Neill
1955 Wilfred T.Neill
1956 Charles H. Fairbanks
1957 William J. Armistead
1958 William H. Sears
1959 John M. Goggin
1960 Marvin Brooks
1961 William C. Lazarus
1962 CliffE. Mattox


2002 VOL. 55(1)



1963 Charlton W. Tebeau
1964 William C. Lazarus
1965 Charles W. Arnade
1966 Roger T. Grange
1967 J. Floyd Monk
1968 Ripley P. Bullen
1969 Ripley P. Bullen
1970 James W. Covington
1971 Carl A. Benson
1972 William M. Goza
1973 George Magruder
1974 John W. Griffin
1975 Benjamin I. Waller
1976 Wilma B. Williams
1977 Raymond Williams
1978 George W. Percy
1979 Jerry Hyde
1980 Thomas Watson
1981 Irving R. Eyster
1982 Marion M. Almy
1983 John G. Beriault
1984 Claudine Payne
1985 Joan Deming
1986 Karen Malesky
1987 Harold D. Cardwell
1988 Harold D. Cardwell
1989 Jerry Hyde
1990 George M. Luer
1991 George M. Luer
1992 Arthur R. Lee
1993 Betty Riggan
1994 Betty Riggan
1995 Jacquelyn G. Piper
1996 Loren Blakeley
1997 Loren Blakeley
1998 Cynthia L. Cerrato
1999 Cynthia L. Cerrato
2000 Jack Thompson
2001 Jack Thompson


John W. Griffin May 1948 November 1948

John M. Goggin May 1949 November 1951

Robert Anderson June 1952 September 1953

Adelaide K. Bullen December 1953

Robert Anderson January 1954 May 1954

Adelaide K. Bullen September 1954 June 1956

Julian Granberry December 1956

Charles H. Fairbanks July 1957 March 1960

Mrs. William Massey September 1960

Charles H. Fairbanks December 1960 December 1966

David S. Phelps January 1967 December 1969

Ripley P. Bullen January 1970 September 1976

Jerald T. Milanich December 1976 December 1979

Robert S. Carr January 1980 December 1983

Louis D. Tesar March 1984 March 1992

Brent R. Weisman June 1992 September 1995

Robert J. Austin December 1995 September 1999

Ryan J. Wheeler December 1999 -present


The William C. Lazarus Memorial Award was developed
by the FAS Board of Directors in 1985. It is named for the late
William Lazarus (1911-1965), who was a magazine editor,
glider test pilot, aeronautics instructor, Army Air Force
Colonel, and civil engineer (Lazarus 1934-1935, 1942). He
wrote an authoritative history of early aviation in Florida
(Lazarus 1951) and, after 19 years of civil service, retired in
1965 as Scientific Advisor at Eglin Air Force Base. He also
made significant contributions to the literature of Florida
archaeology, site preservation, and education.
Lazarus was an active FAS member in the late 1950s to
mid-1960s, serving in the Northwest Florida Chapter and as an
FAS officer, including FAS President in 1961. He was
instrumental in helping preserve the Fort Walton Temple
Mound and in establishing the Fort Walton Temple Mound
Museum (Florida Department of State 1998; Lazarus 1962;
Lazarus 1990). His scholarly work led to recognition of the
Elliot's Point Complex (Fairbanks 1959), various studies of
aboriginal sites and artifacts in the Florida panhandle (e.g.,
Lazarus 1960, 1961, 1965a, 1965b), dating of historic period
bricks in the Pensacola area (Lazarus 1965c), and use of coins
to date some Fort Walton Period deposits (Lazarus 1964,
The Lazarus Award is designed to recognize members of
FAS who exemplify the spirit and accomplishments of William
Lazarus through their contributions to archaeology, preserva-
tion, and/or education as well as to FAS and the wider commu-
nity. Nominations for the Lazarus Award must be made in
writing by an FAS member to the current FAS President by the
date of December 15 prior to the FAS Annual Meeting. The
nominee must be a member of FAS and must not make her or


his living through the practice of archaeology. The recipient
is honored with a plaque at the Annual Banquet. The formal
criteria for qualifications and implementation of the Lazarus
Award are described in the FAS Operating Procedures Manual,
copies of which are in the possession of FAS officers and
Chapter Representatives.

Table 2. William C. Lazarus Memorial Award recipients
through the year 2001.


1. 1986

2. 1988

3. 1989

4. 1990

5. 1992a

6. 1992b

7. 1993

8. 1995a

9. 1995b

10. 1996

11. 1998

12. 2000


Yulee Lazarus

Harold Cardwell

Dan Laxson

Ben Waller

Arthur R. Lee

Tom and Mary Lou Watson

George M. Luer

John G. Beriault

Walter H. Askew

Lyman O. Warren

Elizabeth L. "Connie" Franklin

Dot Moore

References Cited

Fairbanks, Charles H.
1959 Additional Elliot's Point Complex Sites. The Florida
Anthropologist 12:95-100.

Florida Department of State
1998 Great Floridians 2000, Nomination Form and Letters of
Support; for William C. Lazarus, from The City of Fort
Walton Beach. On file, Florida Division of Historical
Resources, Tallahassee.

Lazarus, William C.
1934-1935 TheFloridian. A monthly magazine (Editor-in-Chief, W.
C. Lazarus) printed for Specialty Publications, Inc., by
Tyn Cobb's Florida Press, Inc.,Orlando.
1942 Glider Characteristics and Techniques. Published in
Waco, Texas.
1951 Wings in the Sun, the Annals ofAviation in Florida. Tyn
Cobb's Florida Press, Orlando.
1960 Human Figurines from the Coast ofNorthwest Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 13:61-70.
1961 Ten Middens on the Navy Live Oak Reservation. The
Florida Anthropologist 14:49-64.

1962 Temple Mound Museum at Fort Walton Beach, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 15:65-70.
1964 A Sixteenth Century Spanish Coin from a Fort Walton
Burial. The Florida Anthropologist 17:134-138.
1965a Alligator Lake, A Ceramic Horizon Site on the Northwest
Florida Coast. The Florida Anthropologist 18:83-124.
1965b Significance of Dimensions of Big Sandy I-like Projectile
Points in Northwest Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
18(3 [1]):187-199.
1965c A Study of Dated Bricks in the Vicinity of Pensacola,
Florida. In: Papers of the 5th Annual Conference on
Historic Site Archaeology, November 5, 1964, New
Orleans. The Florida Anthropologist 18 (3 [2]):69-84.
1965d Coin Dating in the Fort Walton Period. The Florida
Anthropologist 18:221-224.

Lazarus, Yulee W.
1990 The Temple Mound Museum: Remembering the First
Twenty Years. The Florida Anthropologist 43:116-125.


The Ripley P. Bullen Memorial Award was developed by
the FAS Board of Directors in 1981. It is named for the late
Ripley Bullen (1902-1976), an archaeologist andFAS member,
who for many years worked closely with FAS and its chapters
and members. He served as an FAS officer, including Presi-
dent in 1968 and 1969, and was Editor of the Society's
scientific journal in 1970-1976.
Bullen first worked as a mechanical engineer for General
Electric Company in New York and Massachusetts, switching
to archaeology in the 1940s. In 1948-1952, he served as
Assistant Archaeologist for the Florida Park Service. From
1952-1973, he was Curator of the Department of Social
Sciences at the Florida State Museum in Gainesville. During
those years, he did extensive work in Florida and, beginning in
1961, in the Caribbean area as well (Anonymous 1973).
Bullen was a prolific author and co-author, publishing numer-
ous papers and working with many interested citizens (Anony-
mous 1977; Bullen 1978). He showed that an archaeologist
should be a selfless servant of the public.
The Bullen Award is designed to recognize professional
archaeologists who foster the spirit of Ripley Bullen by
furthering good working relationships among avocational and
professional archaeologists in Florida. Nominations for the
Bullen Award must be made in writing to the current FAS
President by an FAS Chapter and its Representative to the FAS
Board by the date of December 15 prior to the FAS Annual
Meeting. The nominee must be a member of FAS. The
recipient is honored with a plaque at the Annual Banquet. The
formal criteria for qualifications and implementation of the
Bullen Award are described in the FAS Operating Procedures
Manual, copies of which are in the possession of FAS officers
and Chapter Representatives.

2002 VOL. 55(1)



References Cited

1973 Ripley P. Bullen. Florida State Museum Newsletter 2(5-
6):1-2, 4, 6.
1977 Ripley Pierce Bullen, 1902-1976. TheFlorida Anthropolo-
gist 30:34-35.

Bullen, Adelaide K.
1978 Bibliography of Ripley P. Bullen. In Bibliography of
Ripley P. Bullen; Source References in New WorldArchae-
ology, compiled by Adelaide K. Bullen, pp. 11-25.
Reprinted from Proceedings of the Seventh International
Congress for the Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures of the
Lesser Antilles. Florida State Museum, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Table 3.


1. 1982

2. 1983

3. 1984

4. 1987

5. 1989

6. 1990

7. 1992

8. 1993







Ripley P. Bullen Memorial Awards through the year

Nominating Chapter(s)

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

Apalachee Anthropological Society

Northeast Florida Anthropological Society

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

St. Augustine Archaeological Association

Southwest Florida Archaeological Society

Archaeological Society of Southern Florida

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society and
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historica

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

Southwest Florida Archaeological Society

St. Augustine Archaeological Association

Pensacola Archaeological Society

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society

Pensacola Archaeological Society


The Florida Anthropologist Fund was proposed to the FAS
Board of Directors on March 13, 1993, and established by
resolution of the Board on December 3, 1993. The purpose of
the Fund, also known informally as the "Endowment Fund,"
is to support production expenses (not publication costs) of the
FAS journal. Thus far, the goal of the Fund has been to grow
so that its interest income can eventually be put to use.
The 1993 resolution stated:
"BE IT RESOLVED that there be established a separate
account to be known as The Florida Anthropologist Fund to
be made up of donations from individuals, corporations,
charitable organizations and such other sources as the Board



Jerald Milanich

B. Calvin Jones

John W. Griffin

Louis Tesar

Valerie Bell

Bill Marquardt

Robert S. Carr

Bob Austin
1 Conservancy

J. Raymond Williams

Brent Weisman

Kathleen Deagan

Judith Bense

Nancy White

Elizabeth Benchley


Table 4. Some contributions to The Florida Anthropologist Fund.

Date Source Amount

1. Nov. 30, 1990 Pat and Don Randell $3,392.38

2. July 24, 1991 Pat and Don Randell 1,019.96

3. Aug. 2, 1993 Pat and Don Randell 1,276.20

4. early 1994 "Missions" book 901.24

5. mid 1996 Mahy bequest 1000.00

6. early 1997 "Missions" book 238.69

7. early 1998 "Missions" book 234.30

8. late 1998 1998 FAS meeting 1,587.57

9. 1996-1999 Dean Quigley prints 300.00

10. early 2000 "Missions" book 222.43

11. January 2001 Anne Reynolds 250.00

12. July 2001 Gordon R. Willey 100.00

In 2000, the FAS Board resolved
to strengthen the defining language
of the Fund, proposing to add a de-
scription of it to the FAS By-Laws
(Burns 2001:3-4). These additions
were approved in May 2001 at the
FAS Annual Meeting and formally
incorporated into the new 2001 ver-
sion of the FAS Operating Proce-
dures Manual. The text of this addi-
tion is presented below.
In the future, FAS members are
encouraged to seek donations and
other ways for the Fund to grow.

References Cited

Burns, David B. (Editor)
2001 Proposed By-Laws Addi-
tions: Florida Anthropolo-
gist Fund and
Monograph/Special Publi-
cations Account. Florida
Anthropological Society
Newsletter 161:3-4.

of Directors may deem appropriate, to be administered by the
Treasurer, income from which is to be used at the direction of
the Editor solely for production of The FloridaAnthropologist.
Expenditures are to be used for production-related costs other
than printing, which is covered by dues, the Monograph
Account, and grants. Withdrawals or compromise of principal
are to be made only by majority vote of the Board of Directors"
(Florida Anthropological Society, Board of Directors 1993).
During the 1990s, the Fund grew steadily. Its initial
principal consisted of stock donations (Table 4) by FAS
members Patricia and Donald Randell of Lee County, Florida
(Lee 1991). These were followed by royalties from the
University Press of Florida for the book, The Spanish Missions
ofLa Florida (McEwan 1993), which first appeared as an issue
of The Florida Anthropologist in 1991 (volume 44, nos. 2-4).
In 1996, a bequest from the estate of Richard L. Mahy, of
California, was added to the Fund. Mahy, an FAS member,
attended Florida State University and had a strong interest in
Florida history and Timucua Indians (Wheeler 1996). In 1998,
proceeds from the FAS Annual Meeting in Gainesville,
Florida, were donated to the Fund. In 1996-1999, advertise-
ments in The Florida Anthropologist attracted several donors,
who received prints of Florida Indians by artist Dean Quigley.
In addition, the Fund has grown through other sources. In
the 1990s, FAS Treasurer Jack Thompson directed some
donations, back issues sales, and proceeds from the University
of Florida Library Gifts and Exchange program to the Fund.
Interest also has accrued. As of the FAS Annual Audit on
January 31, 2000, the Fund had grown to $14,063.83.

Florida Anthropological Society,
Board of Directors
1993 Minutes to the December 3, 1993, FAS Board Meet-
ing. On file, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Lee, Arthur R.
1991 The Randells of Lee County's Pineland: Florida
Archaeology Owes Them Much. The FloridaAnthro-
pologist 44:76.

McEwan, Bonnie G. (Editor)
1993 The Spanish Missions ofLa Florida. University Press
of Florida, Gainesville.

Wheeler, Ryan J. (Editor)
1996 Richard L. Mahy Bequest toFAS. Florida Anthropo-
logical Society Newsletter 144:1.

Appendix. Addition to the FAS By-Laws, May 2001, in
"Chapter XI, Special Funds and Accounts."

Section 1. The Florida Anthropologist Fund

(1.1) Nature of Fund. The Florida Anthropologist Fund shall
be made up of donations from individuals, corporations,
charitable organizations, and such other sources as the Board
of Directors may deem appropriate from time to time. It is to
be used to defray costs necessary to the production of the
Society's quarterly journal other than printing and mailing,

2002 VOL. 55(1)



which are funded by other means. All monies that have
accumulated in the Fund under terms of a resolution of the
Board of Directors dated December 3, 1993, shall be incorpo-
rated into The Florida Anthropologist Fund.

(1.2) Administration. The Treasurer is hereby empowered to
handle routine operations incidental to the receipt, investment,
and disbursement of the Fund's assets subject to approval of
the Auditing Committee established by Article VI, Section 2,
of the Articles of Incorporation. In addition to functions
provided by the Articles of Incorporation, the Auditing
Committee shall, at least annually and also at such other times
as shall be considered necessary by the Treasurer, the Board of
Directors, or the Auditing Committee itself, review with the
Treasurer the investment strategy to be used to provide
maximum returns without risk of capital. Any major change
in types of investment shall be subject to approval of the Board
of Directors at a regular or special meeting.
Further, withdrawal or compromise of principal (funds
other than the current year's annual interest) is strongly
discouraged but, if contemplated by the FAS Board of Direc-
tors, shall be done only under the following conditions:
(a) Passage of a formal resolution of intent by the FAS
Board of Directors, followed by its publication in the FAS
Newsletter in time for the general membership to express its
views to the Board of Directors at its next regularly scheduled
meeting; and

(b) the printed notice shall be followed by a discussion of
the proposals) and all views concerning it (them) expressed by
the membership, Auditing Committee, or Treasurer at a
regularly scheduled meeting of the Board of Directors; such
deliberation is a requisite to any vote on the issue by the Board
of Directors.

(1.3) Disbursement of Fund Assets. The Treasurer shall report
to the Board of Directors on a quarterly basis the status of the
Fund, including a separate listing of interest accrued from the
Fund's capital investments. Expenditures from the interest
account requested by the Editor shall be made at the direction
of the Board of Directors, with the understanding that repeated
individual withdrawals for the same purpose will not require
individual approval by the Board, and further that they will not
be used for payment of printing and mailing. The object of
such expenditures is to ease the work load on the Editor while
improving the content and appearance of the journal. Expen-
ditures shall not be such as to imperil the Fund's capital
investments, and in approving them the Board shall keep in
mind the possible alternative of reinvesting interest accruals in
the Fund.

(1.4) Dissolution of Fund. Should at any time developments
remove the need for such a Fund, its assets shall be melded
into the Society's general operating fund, or such other funds)
or accounts) as the membership shall decide, after its formal
dissolution by vote of the membership at an annual meeting.
Such a proposal shall be advertised by the Board in the
Newsletter prior to an annual meeting.

Table 5. Chapters and Dates of FAS Affiliation



Gainesville Anthropological Society

Tampa Bay Chapter

1956-present. South Florida Chapter (Dade and Monroe counties, evolved into the Archaeological Association of Southern Florida)

1960-present. Indian River Anthropological Society

1961-present. Broward County Archaeological Society

1963-present. Central Florida Anthropological Society (Orlando area)



Northwest Florida Anthropological Society (Panama City, Fort Walton Beach, and Pensacola areas)

Suncoast Archaeological Society (St. Petersburg, Tampa)

1971-present. Northeast Florida Anthropological Society (Jacksonville)


Palm Beach County Archaeological Society

1977-present. Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society (Tampa, St. Petersburg area)



Kingdom of the Sun Archaeological Society (Ocala area)

St. Johns Anthropological Society (upper St. Johns River region)


Table 5. Chapters and Dates of FAS Affiliation, continued...

1981-present. Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (Lee and Collier counties)

1981-present. Volusia Anthropological Society

1981-1986, 1990-1993. Apalachee Anthropological Society (Tallahassee area)

1982-1985. Everglades Archaeological Society

1984-1988. Ocali Scrub Anthropological Society

1985-1988. Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council

1987-1988. Paleontological and Archaeological Research Team of Florida (Palatka area)

1987-present. St. Augustine Archaeological Association

1987-present. Time Sifters Archaeology Society (Sarasota area)

1988-present. Pensacola Archaeological Society

1992-present. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy (Sebring area)

1996-present. Southeast Florida Archaeological Society (Martin County area)

2000-present. Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee

2001-present. Warm Mineral Springs Archaeological Society

2002 VOL. 55(1)



Helen Sawyer

Helen Sawyer passed away at the age of 102 on December
10, 1999, in Sarasota. Through her friendship with the late
Marion Gilliland (Purdy 1998), Helen furnished historical
materials that add significantly to our knowledge and apprecia-
tion of the 1896 Pepper-Hearst Archaeological Expedition to
Florida. These were letters, sketches (Figure 1), manuscripts,
and watercolors by her father, Wells M. Sawyer (1863-1960),
the expedition's artist and photographer. They appear in
Gilliland's book, Key Marco's Buried Treasure (1989) and
inspired another book, DearestDaught andPopsy Wells: Two
Artists Named Sawyer (Gilliland 1995).
Helen was a painter with a long, distinguished career. She
took inspiration from "the natural world" and has been
characterized a "romantic realist" and an "American Impres-
sionist" (Corbino 1989, 1991). She is known for vibrant,
colorful paintings of still life (especially flowers), circus and
ballet performers, and landscapes acclaimed for mood-setting
skies (Corbino 1995a; Henkes 1991:154-168).
Born in Washington, D.C., Helen grew up along the
Hudson River in the New York City area. At the age of 16, she
exhibited in a juried show at the National Academy of Design
(Corbino 1989). In the 1910s, she studied with Charles
Hawthorne on Cape Cod and at the Art Students League and
the old Academy School in New York City (Sarasota Art
Association 1962). In 1918 and 1921, she and her father had
joint exhibitions at the Babcock Galleries in New York. In
1925, Helen was married to nationally-known portrait painter
Jerry Farnsworth (1895-1982), and they established the
Farnsworth School of Art in North Truro, Cape Cod (1933-
1963), with a winter branch in Sarasota beginning in 1941
(Anonymous 1999a, 1999b; Corbino 1989; Farnsworth 1963;
Gilliland 1995:77-78). In the 1930s, they also taught in New
York City, and Helen's work was shown widely, especially in
New York and Chicago (Corbino 1991, 1995a:12-17, 25-28;
Gilliland 1995:40).
Helen and her husband began to winter in Sarasota after
her parents moved there in the Fall of 1941 (Gilliland
1995:67).' The Ringling Brothers Circus,2 the area's beaches
and shores, and wild "back country" (e.g., Myakka, Fisheating
Creek) became new sources of inspiration for Helen's work.
Of her Florida landscapes, Corbino (1995a:44) writes that "Not
since the turn ofthe century when Winslow Homer and George
Inness were painting in Florida had a nationally-known artist
revealed a concern for the spiritual aura of the swamps, rivers
and beaches."

During one of their early Sarasota winters, Helen and Jerry
stayed near Roberts Bay.3 There, she was inspired by dramatic
light, clouds, and wind sweeping over the bay, which she
captured in the painting "Fishing Before the Storm" (Corbino
1995a:33-34). In 1947, Helen and Jerry built a house nearby,
on Bay Island close to Siesta Key's north end. She and her
father sketched and painted outdoors in that area, then largely
unspoiled by land development.4 One wild, picturesque place
was the wooded bayside slope of the Old Oak Site (8S051)
overlooking Sarasota Bay.5 Wells called it "The Escarpment"
and recognized it as an Indian shell midden, based on his
Tarpon Springs and Key Marco experiences some 50 years
earlier (Helen Sawyer, personal communication, 1982). Helen
also recalled (personal communication, 1981) that Wells
traveled southward to re-visit Key Marco sometime in the
1940s or 1950s6 with Sarasota friends Karl Bickel7 and Hilton
In 1950, Helen was elected a painter member of the
National Academy of Design, and she was included in a book,
Twenty Painters and How they Work, by Ernest W. Watson.
By 1962, when Helen had an exhibition at the Sarasota Art
Association, her works had been exhibited at several World's
Fairs and were in a number of major U.S. museums and public
collections, such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Art
Institute of Chicago, the Corcoran Gallery, the Pennsylvania
Academy, the Carnegie Institute, and the Library of Congress
(Gilliland 1995:76; Sarasota Art Association 1962).
In 1960, Helen's father died at the age of 97 and, in 1964,
her mother died. She and Jerry continued to teach at their
school on Siesta Key,9 but Jerry's declining health forced it to
close in 1973 (Corbino 1995a:45; Gilliland 1995:78). Around
1980, Helen met Marion Gilliland, author of The Material
Culture of Key Marco, Florida (1975), a book containing
many of Wells Sawyer's watercolors and field photographs.
Their friendship grew and, in the early 1980s, Helen entrusted
her father's Key Marco letters and manuscripts to Gilliland for
placement in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, in
Marion and Helen went together to Cape Cod to retrieve
some of her, Jerry's, and Wells' paintings. Helen donated a
collection of her father's works to the University Gallery at the
University of Florida, in Gainesville, comprised of 102 oils,
150 watercolors, 10 drawings, and 164 sketches. In 1985, 51
of these works were exhibited (Gilliland 1995:74, 78; Univer-
sity Gallery 1985). Helen also gave to Gilliland some of


VOL. 55(1)


MARCH 2002



Figure 1. The Silver Spray, an approximately 22-ton sponging schooner carrying
six sails, used by the Pepper-Hearst Archaeological Expedition, as sketched by
Wells M. Sawyer in an 1896 letter preserved by Helen Sawyer (adapted from
Gilliland 1989:88-89, Plate 16). Note the smoke from the cook's galley in front of
the main mast. The cabin is aft, and its roof served as a table for expedition
members seated on the quarter deck in the shade of an awning.

Wells' watercolors of Key Marco in 1896. Three appear as
Plates 3, 4, and 7 in Gilliland (1989). One of Wells' letters
also is pictured as Plate 16, and his letters and manuscripts are
quoted extensively (Gilliland 1989:65-114).10
Helen was gracious and gentle, yet buoyant. In her later
years, she continued to paint with refreshing spirit, play the
piano, and recite poetry. She was featured in newspaper
articles (Altabe 1987, 1999a; Buck 1999; Jacocks 1995), in a
book about ten American women artists of the 1930s and
1940s (Henkes 1991), and in a "living history" video (Commu-
nity Video Archives 1993). Helen's biography was written by
artist Marcia Corbino (1995a), and her paintings continued to
appear in shows in Sarasota, New York, and on Cape Cod
(e.g., Altabe 1999b; Anonymous 1999a, 1999b; Corbino 1989,
1991, 1995a, 1995b). In 1995-1996, some of her father's
watercolors and letters appeared in the Key Marco Expedition
Centenary Exhibit in Naples, Florida (Lee 1995a, 1995b).
Thus, Helen was acclaimed as an artist in her lifetime, and her
appreciation of her father's work benefitted archaeologists,
historians, and the public interested in the remarkable Key
Marco site.

(University Gallery 1985:#51).

1 In Sarasota, they joined a growing commu-
nity of artists and writers, who helped make
the city widely known in the 1940s-1960s
(e.g., Marth 1973:150-151).

2 The Ringling Brothers and Barnum and
Bailey Combined Circus wintered in Sarasota
from 1927 until 1959 (Buck 1995:44-48;
Matthews and McDevitt 1979:11, 50;
Plowden 1967:170-172,297-298). The circus
and associated institutions attracted many
artists. In 1949-1950, Wells Sawyer was
honored with the first one-man exhibition at
the Ringling Museum of Art (1949).

3 They stayed in the Red Rock neighborhood,
just south of the city limits. The area was
named for iron-bearing rock along the shore,
the same material that yielded human bones
observed by Joseph Willcox, Angelo Heilprin
(1887), Joseph Leidy (1889), and Ales
Hrdlicka (1907), and recorded as the
Hansen's Landing site (8S084).

4 The area was then on the southern outskirts
of Sarasota. It was joined to the mainland by
the old Siesta Key bridge (built in 1917,
demolished in 1972). Helen painted near the
foot of the bridge, before the San Remo devel-
opment was dredged and filled in the 1950s
(Helen Sawyer, personal communication,
1981), and near the Siesta Key Fish Market
(Corbino 1995a:33). A watercolor by Wells,
titled "On Siesta Key," dates to this period

S This bayside midden slope was the scene of archaeological testing
in 1973 (Luer 1977).

6 This return visit seems to have escaped mention in prior literature.
It was before Key Maio was re-platted and developed by Mackle
Brothers in 1965 (e.g., Lee 1997; Quesnell 1996).

7Karl Bickel was an international newsman, President (1922-1935)
of United Press, and a citizen active in municipal, state, and interna-
tional affairs, including the Everglades National Park Commission
(Grismer 1946:358-359). Bickel wrote The Mangrove Coast: The
Story of the West Coast of Florida (1942), a narrative in the same
genreasMarjoryStonemanDouglas' The Everglades: RiverofGrass
(1947). As a donor to the State of Florida, Karl Bickel helped
preserve part of a major archaeological site, the Madira Bickel
Mound, on Terra Ceia Island near Tampa Bay (Bullen 1951:9).
Wells Sawyer's return visit to Key Marco may be related to Bickel's
and Leech's visit to the nearby Turner River archaeological site in the
mid-1950s (Sears 1956:47, 58).

' Hilton Leech was a long-time Sarasota artist. Originally from New
York City, he was lured to Sarasota by John Ringling in 1931 to
organize and teach at the Ringling School ofArt (Corbino 1995a:33).
Leech founded the Friends of the Arts and Sciences, in Sarasota
(Altabe 1999a; Marth 1973:150). In addition to his visit to the Turner


2002 VOL. 55(1)


River Site (see prior note), archaeologist Ripley Bullen reported that
Leech, in 1954, salvaged a collection of sherds from the vandalized
Casey Key Burial Mound (8S017), part of the Palmer Site in Osprey,
Sarasota County (Bullen and Bullen 1976:48), situated across Little
Sarasota Bay from present-day Historic Spanish Point.

9Since 1949, the Farnsworth School of Art was located at 4823 Higel
Avenue (Corbino 1995a:36). It overlooked Siesta Key's Grande
Canal, a short distance southeast of Out-of-Door School.

10 In early 2001, approximately a year after Helen died, an additional
manuscript and photographs were found in a storage room in Helen's
Bay Island house at 3482 Flamingo Avenue, where she had over-
looked them. They were taken to the Florida Museum of Natural
History, in Gainesville (Randal Crick, personal communication

References Cited

Altabe, Joan
1987 Helen Sawyer: The Grand Lady of Sarasota Art. Sarasota
Herald-Tribune. April 19, Arts/Travel Section, pp. 1G-2G.

1999a Artist Colony. Herald-Tribune. July 4, Florida West
Section, pp. 1E-2E.

1999b Art community's first lady dies. Herald-Tribune. Decem-
ber 11, pp. 1B-2B.

1999a Helen Sawyer, 102. TheAdvocate, obituary. December 30,
Provincetown, Massachusetts.

1999b Helen Sawyer, 102: Artist co-founded Farnsworth School.
Provincetown Banner 5(32), obituary. December 23,
Provincetown, Massachusetts.

Buck, Pat Ringling
1995 The Ringling Legacy. Published by Pat Ringling Buck,

1999 Helen Sawyer. "In the Spotlight" interview in Sarasota
Style, Magazine of the Herald-Tribune. March edition, p.
32. Sarasota.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1951 The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication Number 3,

Bullen, Ripley P., and Adelaide K. Bullen
1976 The Palmer Site. Florida Anthropological Society Publica-
tions Number 8, Gainesville.

Community Video Archives
1993 "Helen Sawyer: A Living History, 1993." Videotape in
"Arts and Artists Anthology" series (16 minutes). Selby
Public Library, Sarasota.

Corbino, Marcia
1989 Helen Sawyer, Jerry Farnsworth. Exhibition notice,
American Scene Gallery, April 7-21. Sarasota.

1991 Helen Sawyer: An American Impressionist. Exhibition
notice, Corbino Galleries, April 12-28. Sarasota.

1995a Helen Sawyer: Memories ofa Morning Star. Published by
Corbino Galleries, Sarasota.

1995b Helen Sawyer: People and Places. Exhibition notice,
Corbino Galleries, April 7-21. Sarasota.

Farnsworth, Jerry
1963 Portrait and Figure Painting. Watson-Guptill Publica-
tions, Inc., New York.

Jacocks, Thyrza
1995 Women on the mind and in the galleries. "Art Angle"
article in Pelican Press (a newspaper focusing on Siesta
Key and Sarasota). April 20, p. 9B.

Gilliland, Marion S.
1975 The Material Culture ofKey Marco, Florida. The Univer-
sity Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

1989 Key Marco's Buried Treasure: Archaeology and Adven-
ture in the Nineteenth Century. University ofFlorida Press,

1995 Dearest Daught and Popsy Wells: Two Artists Named
Sawyer. Published by Marion Spjut Gilliland, Gainesville.

Grismer, Karl H.
1946 The Story ofSarasota: The History of the City and County
ofSarasota, Florida. The Florida Grower Press, Tampa.

Heilprin, Angelo
1887 Explorations on the West Coast of Florida, and in the
Okeechobee Wilderness. Transactions ofthe WagnerFree
Institute of Science ofPhiladelphia 1:1-134.

Henkes, Robert
1991 American Women Painters of the 1930s and 1940s: The
Lives and Work of Ten Artists. McFarland and Company,
Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London.

Hrdlicka, Ales
1907 Skeletal Remains Suggesting or Attributed to Early Man in
North America. Bureau ofAmerican Ethnology, Bulletin
33. Washington, D.C.

Lee, Arthur R.
1995a TheKeyMarcoExpedition CentenaryExhibit: 1896-1996.
Booklet and catalog to accompany exhibit at the Collier
County Museum, Naples, Florida.

1995b Cushing's Cat Figurine Star of Centennial Exhibit. The
Florida Anthropologist 48:309-310.

1997 The Newlyweds at Cushing's Court of the Pile Dwellers:
A Historical Reminiscence of the Van Becks' Excavation
at Key Marco. The Florida Anthropologist 50:139-141.

Leidy, Joseph
1889 Notice of Some Fossil Human Bones. Transactions of the
Wagner Free Institute ofScience ofPhiladelphia 2:9-12.


Luer, George M.
1977 Excavations at the Old Oak Site, Sarasota, Florida: A Late
Weeden Island-Safety Harbor Period Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 30:37-55.

Marth, Del
1973 Yesterday's Sarasota: Including Sarasota County.
Lindsay Curtis Publishing Company, Sarasota.

Matthews, Kenneth, and Robert McDevitt
1979 The Unlikely Legacy: The Story of John Ringling, The
Circus, and Sarasota. Aaron Publishers, Inc., Sarasota.

Plowden, Gene
1967 Those Amazing Ringlings and their Circus. Bonanza
Books, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1998 Marion Spjut Gilliland. TheFloridaAnthropologist 51:45-

Quesnell, Quentin
1996 Relocating Cushing's Key Marco. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 49:4-9.

Ringling Museum of Art, The John and Mable
1949 Corers in Spain, An Exhibition of Oils and Watercolors:
Paintings by Wells M. Sawyer. Exhibition catalog, Decem-
ber 18, 1949-January 6, 1950. Sarasota.

Sarasota Art Association
1962 Works of Helen Sawyer, N. A. Exhibition notice and
catalog list, February 25-March 11, 1962. Sarasota.

Sears, William H.
1956 The Turner River Site, Collier County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 9:47-60.

University Gallery
1985 Wells Sawyer: An American Realist. Exhibition catalog,
The Gallery Guild and The University Gallery, College of
Fine Arts, University of Florida, May 26-July 19.



2002 VOL. 55(1)


John C. Van Beck

Figure 1. John C. Van Beck.

Half of a husband and wife team that provided what was for
years the only major exploratory back-up to the famed Cushing
expedition at Key Marco has died. John C. Van Beck, an
avocational archaeologist, died January 14, 2001 in Tallahas-
see following heart surgery; he was 66 years old.
Van Beck and his wife Linda M., an artist, spent vacation
time between 1961 and 1963 digging three pits in the shell
mound that, until being leveled by developers' bulldozers, had
overlooked the muck pond in which Frank Hamilton Cushing
conducted a highly successful recovery operation in 1898 (Lee
1997). Their pits, having been dug on the complex before
developers planed off its upper levels, complemented the later
work of archaeologist Randolph J. Widmer who conducted a
major salvage excavation in 1995 (Widmer 1996). No
substantial exploration had been made on the site between the
two events. The Van Beck findings were reported in The
Florida Anthropologist (Van Beck 1965) along with an
analysis of bone they had recovered (Wing 1965).
Although the Van Becks continued their interest in

-I archaeology it was always on an avocational basis
and included explorations in Central America,
Mexico and some Caribbean islands; their daughter,
Sara, is a professional archaeologist.
John, on his retirement as personnel director for
the Florida Department of Labor and Employment
Security, devoted much of his time to the identifica-
tion of daffodil plants suitable to the Florida envi-
ronment and founded the Florida Daffodil Society
that has donated thousands of the flowers to public
S parks and plazas.

References Cited

Lee, Arthur R.
1997 The Newlyweds at Gushing's Court of the Pile
Dwellers: A Historical Reminiscence of the Van
Becks' Excavation at Key Marco. The Florida
Anthropologist 50:3-139.

Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck
1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 18:1-20.

Widmer, Randolph J,
1996 Recent Excavations at the Key Marco Site,
8CR48. The Florida Anthropologist 49:1-10.

Wing, E.S.
1965 Animal Bones Associated with Two Indian Sites on Marco
Island, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 18:21-28.



VOL. 55(1)


MARCH 2002


Treasure of the Calusa: The Johnson/Wilcox Collection from
MoundKey, Florida. Ryan J. Wheeler. Monographs in Florida
Archaeology, No. 1, Tallahassee. 2000. 200 pages, 28
black/white photographs, 55 line drawings, 5 maps, 27 tables,
references, index. $29.95, paper.

University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77204-5882

The archaeology of southwest Florida has a very interesting
history. Most of the major excavation was performed before or
shortly after the turn of the nineteenth century and then there
was an almost complete hiatus until the last quarter of the
twentieth century. Because of this, much of the early archaeol-
ogy was conducted utilizing outdated archaeological methods
and for antiquarian goals, most notably the collection of what
I call "OVUG (on velvet under glass) grade artifacts" for
museums and collections. Clarence B. Moore's forays into
southwest Florida best exemplify this approach. This was
stimulated by Cushing's amazing finds at the Key Marco site.
Ironically, although there is a large corpus of archaeological
data available for southwest Florida, there has been no
excavation reported on probably the most important archaeo-
logical site in the region; the Mound Key site in Estero Bay.
This site is thought to be the location of Calos, the paramount
village of the Calusa. That has all changed with the publica-
tion of Treasure of the Calusa. Do not be put off by the
sensational title of this work. This is a serious publication that
fills an important void in the early archaeology of southwest
Florida that was not filled by either Cushing or Moore.
Ryan Wheeler has written an outstanding work on this
spectacular collection of artifacts from the Mound Key site. He
provides an excellent context to this collection by first discuss-
ing the Mound Key site itself and the history of archaeological
investigation at the site. In the second chapter he places the
site in the larger cultural and political context of the Calusa.
He initially discusses the history of Indian-European contact
during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth century. This
is followed by discussion of the cultural regions within south
Florida, and the chronology of the area summarized in a table.
A map of the location of the Calusa and other ethnic groups of
Florida is provided, as well as a map of the archaeological
areas of south Florida. He then provides an archaeological and
ethnohistorical reconstruction of the Calusa to include their
material culture, settlement patterns, language, subsistence,
exchange systems, missionization, sociopolitical organization,
and women's roles. This summary is succinct, informative,
up-to-date, and provides all of the background necessary to
understand and interpret the context of the collection itself.

In Chapter Three Wheeler documents the fascinating story
of how the collection came to light. He uses letters to demon-
strate unequivocally that the collection did indeed come from
Mound Key and also the date at which it was collected. He also
notes the relationship of this collection to the earlier archaeol-
ogists that visited the area. This is important because it
independently documents the provenience of the collection as
having emanated from Mound Key. He also provides a
paragraph about recent references to the collection that have
appeared in print.
Chapter Four is the catalog of the collection, and as such,
comprises the main body of the monograph. In the introduc-
tion to this catalog Wheeler provides descriptive lists of the
artifacts in the Johnson/Willcox collection in three tables: one
from artifacts belonging to the University of Pennsylvania;
those from the Heye foundation that where later transferred to
the Smithsonian; and a group of unaccounted artifacts.
Wheeler utilizes the original catalog numbers of the two
Museums and adds an additional sequence number if there are
more than one artifact assigned to a single number. The
artifacts are divided into three classes for discussion: those
made from traditional media such as bone or shell, unmodified
European artifacts, and artifacts produced from European
media but aboriginally modified from their original European
forms. The artifacts are then subdivided according to media
within these classes and then individually described.
Information for each consists of metric data to include
weight, length, thickness, and width, a description of the
formal attributes and method of decoration of each artifact
together with an interpretation of the function and meaning
the artifact had in the larger context of south Florida archaeol-
ogy, with comparisons to similar artifacts in the region. Each
artifact is illustrated with one or more detailed line drawings
as well as corresponding black and white photographs. Only
a few shell plummets and a Tampa point lack corresponding
photographs. Many artifact categories have accompanying
tables. These tables most typically include metric and formal
attributes and type classification where appropriate, but they
also include comparative data from other archaeological sites
as well. In summary the catalog is exhaustive and it is hard to
imagine that any additional data are missing.
Chapter Five is in my mind the most important chapter in
the monograph. Here, Wheeler places the artifacts from the
collection in the context of the mortuary ceremonial complex
of southwest Florida and utilizes the term Terminal Glades
Complex for its label. Although I personally am in favor of the
term South Florida Ceremonial Complex because it is more
descriptive from a cultural and spatial viewpoint. I agree that
Terminal Glades Complex is more appropriate from a chrono-
logical point of view for the key artifacts defining it; mainly


MARCH 2002

VOL. 55(1)



reworked European metal and unmodified European artifacts.
However, the use of the Glades terminology seems to put the
focus away from the Caloosahatchee subarea where this
complex is most strongly expressed. This is a minor point and
one that is really difficult to resolve, because the need for
chronological differentiation is clearly required, but even use
of an alternative, such as Terminal Caloosahatchee Complex,
has imbedded in it exclusion of the Glades subarea. So I
suppose that the term Terminal Glades Complex (hereafter
referred to as TGC) is the best term after all, particularly if
expressed in the original usage by Goggin, which is not as
geographically restricted as it is today.
Wheeler provides a definition of the TGC by discussing it in
light of similar complexes in the southeastern United States as
well as in south Florida with a brief discussion of the shared
motifs between the two areas. Next, there is a detailed discus-
sion of the temporal position of the TGC that concludes that it
has a much later duration than previously thought, extending
into the mid-eighteenth century. This conclusion is based on
recent work that demonstrates well-dated contexts in the
seventeenth and eighteenth century and by the assumption.
now shown to be invalid, that cut crystal beads have a much
broader temporal context extending through the seventeenth
century into the eighteenth century, instead of the previously
thought late sixteenth century date. The Mound Key collection
is then dated utilizing the time ranges of the historic artifact
types. A late seventeenth century/early eighteenth century date
is established for the collection, with some curated artifacts
suggesting accumulation of the material over the life of the
individuals with which the cache was buried. This dating
brings up a very important question addressed by Wheeler
that I will discuss later.
The geographical distribution of the TGC is discussed, and
a map of 18 sites containing artifacts associated with the
complex is presented. It becomes apparent that artifacts of the
complex are broadly distributed throughout the peninsula of
Florida and that some of the variation in style might be
associated with specific cultures. TGC materials are then
compared with materials outside ofFlorida. Wheeler notes that
the metal crested woodpecker ornament at the refuge site in St.
Marks, outside of south Florida, suggests possibly that these
might personally have been brought to Apalachee rather than
through down-the-line trade, a conclusion I also endorse.
Wheeler then discusses the core imagery and artifacts of the
complex: primarily, metal tablets and the crested woodpeck-
ers:, secondarily, metal disks, kites, rectangles, metal beads,
and other zoomorphic metal objects, European artifacts to
include iron implements, glass beads, jewelry and South
American aboriginal artifacts; and finally, traditional aborigi-
nal artifacts of made of non-European media. The proveni-
ence, spatial distributions, and description of these artifacts are
presented, as is a discussion of mortuary patterns and symbol-
ism. The TGC is then divided into four phases, one prehistoric
and three protohistoric. Interestingly, the three historic
divisions are based on purely European events; contact to
1566, 1566 to 1700, and 1700 to 1763, each based on various
types of acculturation and contact.

In the last chapter, Wheeler provides a critique of previous
acculturation models and instead notes that it is the traditional
motifs and styles that are reinterpreted in a new media and
that the new media itself has important symbolic content. He
then goes on to suggest that most of the materials are actually
articles of dress and ornamentation used to denote status, rank,
and roles. I could not agree more with this assessment. Finally,
Wheeler provides some general comments about the TGC.
To me this monograph has opened up even more new and
important questions. This is the sign of an outstanding work.
Are there any phase associations with styles or artifact
associations? In my own earlier treatise on this subject I could
not come up with any resolution on this matter, and I was
hoping that Wheeler could shed some light on the subject.
Interestingly, there is no discussion of other mortuary complex
material from southwest Florida, such as Indian Old Field,
which contains only unmodified European material. Is this
because of differences in time, or because of rank or status
differences of the interments, or perhaps political differences
of the sites? Also, what is the relationship of unmodified to
modified European artifacts? Does modification involve
syncretism? Do unmodified European artifacts have even more
power and are associated with higher status because they
represent even more distant esoteric knowledge than modified
materials in traditional styles and symbols? And of course the
big unanswered question: If Mound Key is indeed Calos, then
why is it that there are not any mid-sixteenth century Euro-
pean artifacts in the collection? Is it that the burial mounds
containing this material where not excavated by
Johnson/Wilcox? I would like to have seen a discussion of this.
This is the only real omission that is specific to the collection.
In summary, this is an important monograph and is a must
read for all those interested in the mortuary, religious, and
status patterns during the late prehistoric/protohistoric period
of the southeastern United States, not just peninsula Florida.
This monograph brings to light not only a very important
previously poorly know collection of mortuary items but
provides a thorough and enlightening discussion of its cultural
context in south Florida. This monograph is timely in that it
complements the recent republication of the Cushing Key
Marco Monograph (University of Florida Press), and the
Moore excavations in south Florida (University of Alabama
Press) but goes one better by providing an up-to-date, informa-
tive, and new model for interpreting this and similar cultural
material in south Florida.


The Cahokia Mounds. Warren K. Moorehead. Edited and
with an Introduction by John E. Kelly. University of Alabama
Press, Tuscaloosa, 2000. xvii + 432 pp., appendices, plates,
figures, maps, tables, index, $29.95 (paper).

Environmental Services Inc.
8711 Perimeter Park Boulevard, Suite 11
Jacksonville, FL 32216

This paperback volume, another in the outstanding series
Classics in Southeastern Archaeology from the University of
Alabama Press, presents the account of the first excavations at
what is arguably the most famous mound complex in North
America. Charles King Moorehead (1866-1939) had an
incredible archaeological career marked by prolific authorship
and editing, which was punctuated with extensive fieldwork at
most of the major archaeological sites of his day. He exca-
vated at Fort Ancient in Ohio, led an expedition to study the
cave dwellings in the San Juan Valley of New Mexico,
directed the excavations of the Hopewell site for the World's
Columbian Exposition and Cincinnati Centennial Exposition
of 1888, and for good measure, he even managed to work at
Etowah and Chaco Canyon. He also worked at the Smithso-
nian, studied the Ghost Dance and the Sioux uprising in
Dakota's, served on the Board of Indian Commissioners for 24
years, held the position of Curator of the Museum of Ohio
State University, and founded the department of Archaeology
at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.
This 432 page text presents the results of his most famous
work, his excavations at Cahokia. Cahokia is a Mississippian
complex consisting of over 100 mounds spread over a five
square mile area. The volume is divided into five major
sections containing the bulk of Moorehead's 1922 and 1923
reports, as well as all of his 1929 report; this edition represents
the first time that the bulk of the Cahokia excavation data has
appeared in a single work. All original illustrations and
photographs are reproduced, and a new index is also provided
for the reader. While his work lacks the contextual data the
modem archaeologist is required to include, his work was
conducted more in the vein of a nineteenth century antiquarian
than a twentieth century archaeologist. His emphasis was
focused upon recovering exceptional artifacts, in quantity,
from sites that he was painfully aware were being threatened.
The first section consists of an extensive, 60 page introduc-
tion by John E. Kelly. Kelly's introduction provides an
excellent contextual backdrop. Kelly has conducted archival
research, tracing the course of each field season, and he
provides the necessary historical framework for assessing
Moorehead's work at Cahokia. Several reproductions of
newspaper headlines and advertisements provide graphic
illustration that much of Cahokia was threatened by develop-
ment in the 1920's, and that Moorehead felt there was
"something abnormal in the brain of either man or woman
who prefers to see this heritage of the ages destroyed and two
or three bungalows or a filling station or hot dog stands
erected in its place" (p.42). Ultimately, Kelly concludes that

the most significant contribution of Moorehead's work at
Cahokia was his determination that the mounds were not a
natural phenomenon, and should therefore be preserved.
Moorehead's true legacy lies in the preservation Cahokia,
which is recognized today as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The second section of this volume is drawn from
Moorehead's 1922 publication The Cahokia Mounds: A
Preliminary Paper. As preliminary reports go, at 39 pages, it
is more detailed than your average preliminary report of today.
While Moorehead employed somewhat dated, archaeological
techniques such as horse-drawn plows, it must be noted that he
produced two preliminary progress reports and a final report
on his archaeological excavations at Cahokia within a span of
only seven years. Moorehead's prompt publication record is a
model for the modern archaeologist.
Portions of The Cahokia Mounds: Part I, A Report of
Progress and Part II, Some Geological Aspects (1923)
comprise the third portion of this volume. Moorehead's second
progress report builds upon his original 1922 report, and
provides a wealth of additional information in the form of
more detailed text and additional mound discoveries. Dr.
Morris M. Leighton of the Illinois Geological Survey is the
author of the geological report; this geological report reviews
the early interpretations of the mounds, and provides a
definitive that the mounds are not a natural phenomenon.
Moorehead was one of the first archaeologists to employ
experts from outside the field of anthropology in a truly
interdisciplinary approach to understanding archaeological
sites. The use of a geologist by Moorehead foreshadows the
current emphasis placed upon geoarchaeology.
The fourth section of this work presents the final report, The
Cahokia Mounds, published in 1929. Moorehead offers more
measured interpretations in this final selection, and the text is
less choppy than the proceeding excavation reports. The
Mound Technique section by Jay L. B. Taylor offers a fascinat-
ing, daily account of attempts to determine mound stratigraphy
through augering. Taylor is painfully aware of the difficulties
inherent to testing mounds, and he laments the small size of
his augers that produce only a 0.0013 percent ample of the
entire volume of the mound. Dr. Leighton's 1923 geological
report is also included in the final report with only minor
changes; he adds only one additional conclusion to his original
list of seven conclusions. Overall, my only problem with this
section of the volume was the difficulty I had determining
where one section of text by a certain author ended, and
another section by different author began.
The fifth and final section consists of photographic plates.
Kelly has sorted through all the plates from the various
reports, making sure that all plates are included and that there
are no duplications. A key is provided so that the reader may
carefully navigate to the desired image. Overall, the graphical
reproductions are excellent. Large, fold-out maps and soil
profiles are even provided as inserts within the body of the
text, giving the book a nice, nostalgic feel.
It is difficult to "review" a book of such well-established
bona fides; a more suitable question is whether or not the text
would make a worthy addition to one's library, and to this


2002 VOL. 55(1)


question I can answer wholeheartedly in the affirmative.
There is no doubt that archaeologists, historians, and the
public will find this volume entertaining in terms of the light
it casts upon the American archaeological process during the
early twentieth century. While the text is indeed a golden
oldy, it is also still useful to the archaeologist of today. The
illustrations alone provide images of artifacts the modern
archaeologist is unlikely to excavate, and the section on mound
techniques is still germane. All in all, The Cahokia Mounds
is an excellent book, which like its namesake, has survived the
test of time.


About the Authors:

Keith Ashley is a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida and a Visiting Instructor at the University of North Florida.
He lives in Jacksonville with his family, Angela, Avery, and Kyle.

Myles C.P. Bland is an archaeologist with Environmental Services, Inc. in Jacksonville. He holds a M.A. in Anthropology
from the University of South Carolina and has conducted fieldwork throughout the southeastern U.S.

Robert S. Carr is Executive Director of the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy. He has worked as an archaeologist
for the State of Florida, the National Park Service and as Miami-Dade County Archaeologist. He excavated the 11,000-year-
old Cutler Fossil Site and has discovered and documented over 300 sites across Florida. He has served as editor of The Florida
Anthropologist, as president of the Florida Archaeological Council, and is a recipient of Florida archaeology's prestigious
Bullen award.

Jim Pepe has a bachelor's degree in English from the University of Florida and a master's degree in Anthropology from
Florida Atlantic University. His research interests include ceramics and the archaeology of southern Florida.

Art Lee is an avocational archaeologist and member of the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society.

George Luer is an archaeologist from Sarasota, Florida. He has studied shell tools, ceramics, shell middens and mounds,
and canoe canals.

Vicki Rolland is a graduate student at Florida State University. Her thesis topic is a study of St. Johns II pottery recovered
along the lower St. Johns River. She is currently involved in the excavation of the archaic shell ring located at Guana River
State Park.

Randolph J. Widmer is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Houston and has been actively engaged
in archaeological research in south Florida including excavations at the Shell Island site, Key Marco Site, and the Brickell
Point site.

Jorge Zamanillo is a Curator at the Historical Museum of Southern Florida in Miami. He previously worked as an
archaeologist with the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy. He received his bachelor's degree in Anthropology from
Florida State University in 1991. Jorge is currently working on remodeling the "First Arrivals" exhibit area in the Historical
Museum's permanent gallery, which will incorporate the data from the Miami Circle Investigations.


2002 VoL. 55(1)


Non Profit Org.
Permit No. 911
Tallahassee, FL



Archaeological Profiling and Radiocarbon Dating of the Ortona Canal (8GL4),
Glades County, Florida. Robert S. Carr, Jorge Zamanillo, and Jim Pepe

St. Marys Cordmarked Pottery (Formerly Savannah Fine Cord Marked
of Northeastern Florida and Southeastern Georgia: A Type Description.
Keith H. Ashley and Vicki L. Rolland



Helen Sawyer. George M. Luer

John C. Van Beck. Arthur R. Lee


Wheeler: Treasure of the Calusa: the Johnson/Willcox Collection from Mound Key,
Florida. Randolph J. Widmer
Moorehead: The Cahokia Mounds. Myles C.P. Bland

Copyright 2002 by the
ISSN 0015-3893

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