Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editor's page
 The blue goose midden (8IR15):...
 Beyond potsherds - A technofunctional...
 The face of change - Late Weeden...
 Abstracts of the FAS 2001 annual...
 FAS 2001 award recipients
 The Florida anthropologist...
 About the authors

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00087
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00087
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 101
    Editor's page
        Page 102
    The blue goose midden (8IR15): A malabar II occupation on the Indian River lagoon - Brent M. Handley
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Beyond potsherds - A technofunctional analysis of San Pedro Pottery from the north beach site (8SJ48) - Keith H. Ashley
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    The face of change - Late Weeden Island - Early Fort Walden transitional ceramics from the Choctawhatchee Bay area in northwest Florida - Gregory A. Mikell
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Abstracts of the FAS 2001 annual meeting
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    FAS 2001 award recipients
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    The Florida anthropologist fund
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    About the authors
        Page 193
Full Text


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'. i 7:. "

: :, ,,
: ,, ,



Volume 54 Numbers 3-4
September-December 2001


Editor's Page. Ryan J. Wheeler


The Blue Goose Midden (8IR15): A Malabar II Occupation
on the Indian River Lagoon. Brent M. Handley

Beyond Potsherds: A Technofunctional Analysis of San Pedro Pottery
from the North Beach Site (8SJ48). Keith H. Ashley

The Face of Change: Late Weeden Island-Early Fort Walton Transitional Ceramics
from the Choctawhatchee Bay Area in Northwest Florida. Gregory A. Mikell





Moore: The East Florida Expeditions of Clarence B. Moore; The Northwest Florida Expeditions
of Clarence B. Moore; The West and Central Florida Expeditions of Clarence B. Moore. Jerald T. Milanich
Hilgeman: Pottery and Chronology at Angel. Thomas E. Penders

About the Authors

Cover: Fort Walton Incised vessel from Jolly Bay (8WL15). From Clarence B. Moore's 1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of
the Northwest Florida Gulf Coast, Part 1, reprint from The Journal oftheAcademy of Natural Sciences ofPhiladelphia, Vol.
11, page 460.

Copyright Notice: Authors retain all copyrights to materials published in this journal, other materials are copyrighted
by the Florida Anthropological Society.

Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893


This issue presents three articles, along with the abstracts
of papers presented at the 2001 FAS annual meeting, profiles
of the 2001 FAS award recipients, a note on The Florida
Anthropologist Fund, and book reviews.
The first article, by Brent Handley, presents the results of
a mitigation project at the Blue Goose Midden in Indian River
County. The results of the project are noteworthy because of
the postmold and posthole patterns discovered during ma-
chine stripping of the site. Early work by Browning at the
Rocky Point 2 site in Martin County had revealed large
numbers of seemingly random postmolds and postholes, as is
often the case with sites in southern Florida. The discovery
of postmold patterns and analysis of the possible structures
they represent at Blue Goose is an important step in under-
standing Native American architecture. I was also impressed
by one of the larger, circular posthole patterns from the Blue
Goose Midden, which was around 11 m in diameter-the same
size as the Miami Circle. I think Brent's paper is going to
prove useful in interpreting that site, as well as in guiding
future studies of other sites.
I also was really impressed by Keith Ashley's study of San
Pedro pottery, presented here as the second article. Keith
moves beyond classification and looks at the vessels
represented by the sherds. I think that examination of
ceramic assemblages on this level will really let us get closer
to activities and human behavior, which is, of course, our
goal. Reading this article made we want to go back and
reexamine the ceramics from several sites that I have worked
at. I hope we will see more studies like this appearing in the
journal over the next few years.

Greg Mikell, in the third article, explores the transition
from late Weeden Island to early Fort Walton period ceram-
ics, using data from two sites in the Choctawhatchee Bay
area. I confess that I am not an expert in the archaeology of
this area, but what I found fascinating about Greg's article
was that two reviewers who have worked extensively in the
Florida panhandle had very different ideas about some of the
sherds that were discussed. I think this alone points to the
importance of studies like this that attempt to go beyond
classification and examine the changes, or lack of changes,
present within the long established ceramic sequences of
Florida. I am sure Greg's article will be of interest to others
working in the Florida panhandle, and hopefully will elicit
some interesting comments.
I would like everyone to pay special attention to the section
on The Florida Anthropologist Fund. The history of the
Fund is presented, along with some recent changes that have
helped to formalize it, as well as a list of contributors.
Contributions like this mean a lot to FAS, but are especially
meaningful to the journal editor. Thank you to all past and
future contributors.
There also are book reviews by Jerald Milanich and
Thomas Penders. Enjoy!



VOL. 54(3-4)




Environmental Services, Inc., 8711 Perimeter Park Blvd., Suite 11, Jacksonville, FL 32216
E-mail: bhandley@esinc.cc

During the winter and spring of 2000, Environmental
Services, Inc., (ESI) conducted archaeological investigations
in the northern and central portions of the Blue Goose Midden
(8IR15). This Malabar II-period site is situated on the eastern
bank of the Indian River Lagoon (Intracoastal Waterway)
approximately one mile from the Atlantic coast in northern
Indian River County, Florida (Figure 1). The central and
northern portions of 8IR15 represent separate proposed
housing developments referred to as the Bermuda Club and
Seasons properties, respectively (Handley and Smith 2000;
Handley et al. 2000). The southern portion of the site lies
within the Sea Oaks office development (Johnson and Basinet
As a result of ESI excavations, over 10,000 square meters
were investigated at 8IR15 revealing intermittent shell
deposits, structural features, and thousands of pottery and bone
fragments. Artifactual information indicates a single compo-
nent occupation with site inhabitants utilizing pottery tem-
pered with sand and varying amounts of grit. St. Johns series
pottery was also recovered, some of which contained more
sand than is common in site assemblages to the north. Such
an assemblage is typical of the Malabar II (A.D. 750-1513)
cultural tradition, first documented in the Indian River vicinity
in the 1950s (Rouse 1951).

Indian River Cultural Area

The prehistoric chronolgy for east-central Florida was first
summarized by Irving Rouse (1951). His seminal study
focused on the archaeology of an approximately 40-mile wide
coastal strip extending from near Cape Carnaveral south to St.
Lucie Inlet; a region he referred to as the Indian River cultural
area. The definition of this culture area was based on its
geographic and ecological character and its historic cultural
and linguistic uniformity (Rouse 1951:17). This region
represents the traditional homeland of the Ais, a group of
coastal Indians that established large central villages with
dispersed households or satellite camps throughout the barrier
island and mainland of the Indian River Lagoon (Sigler-
Eisenberg and Russo 1986).
Archaeologically speaking, the Indian River region has not
been subjected to intensive investigation as other coastal
counties in Florida. Goggin (1949:33) described the Indian
River cultural area as being transitional between the St. Johns
and Glades areas, noting that "it has some of the characteris-

tics of each without, however, sharing in the best achievements
of either." Rouse (1951), who conducted the first professional
work in the region, termed the Indian River culture "remark-
ably nondescript." As discussed later, much of the pottery
recovered in the region is undecorated with subtle differences
in paste.
Written almost thirty years after Rouse, an overview of
Florida archaeology by Milanich and Fairbanks (1980)
dropped the Indian River designation and incorporated the
region within the East and Central Lake Florida archaeologi-
cal district. Some researchers opposed the merger of poten-
tially discrete regions, and argued that Rouse's Indian River
region was a distinct and viable culture area (Sigler-Eisenberg
and Russo 1986). Most recently, Milanich (1994) has recog-
nized the Indian River region as a regional variant of the St.
Johns culture area.

Malabar II (AD 750-1513)

The Malabar II period began around A.D. 750, and is
recognized by the introduction of check stamping on St. Johns
chalky wares. As with the preceding Malabar I period (500
BC-A.D. 750), coastal sites are characterized by shell middens
composed mostly of oyster and bone. Along the Atlantic coast
and inland rivers, large mounds of shell refuse are common
(Goggin 1952:55). During the Malabar II period, the use of
large and small burial mounds increase, implying greater
cultural complexity compared to that of the earlier St. Johns
I/Malabar I period (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:162).
Malabar settlements are found adjacent to wetland loca-
tions in both the coastal zone and the interior. Rouse docu-
mented 57 sites with Malabar II components, of which 33 were
adjacent to the Indian River (Sigler-Eisenberg and Russo
1986). Special-use sites occupied either ephemerally or
intermittently are common in the interior. Some of these small
sites probably articulated with larger village locations. Burial
mounds are associated with some of these habitation sites
(Milanich 1994:251-252; Russo 1988; Sigler-Lavelle et al.
Subsistence activities that characterize the Malabar II-
period (AD 750-AD1513) include an emphasis on the capture
of estuarine fish and shellfish along the coast and freshwater
species along the river (Milanich 1994; Russo 1992b; Sigler-
Eisenberg and Russo 1986). Although European documents
suggests beans, squash, and maize were cultivated by native


VOL. 54(3-4)




0 100
miles 1 "'

Figure 1. St. Johns region and variant cultures in east central Florida (after Milanich 1994:244).

peoples, the consensus among archaeologists has been that
agriculture was not part of the prehistoric subsistence system
of the Indian River region (Rouse 1951; Sigler-Eisenberg et al.
Shell middens, both large and small, that indicate a range
of function and intensity of occupation, represent coastal sites
occupied by Malabar populations. The Zaremba site (8IR56),
located less than one mile east of 8IR15, was a small oyster
midden containing a series of fire pits that yielded marine
catfish, sea trout, and drum. This site was interpreted as a
special-use camp for collecting/fishing that was intermittently
occupied during spring and summer months (Sigler-Eisenberg
and Russo 1986). Futch Cove, a site in Brevard County,
appears to be a site similar to 8IR56, although seasonality data
from avifauna remains suggested occupation during the winter
(Russo 1992).

The Blue Goose Midden

The Blue Goose Midden (8IR15) is a large Malabar II site
first encountered by Hale Smith in the 1940s; however it was
not recorded until Rouse (1951) reported its general location.
Using Smith's description, "the east side of the highway 0.75
mile south of the Wabasso Beach crossroad," Rouse

(1951:219) plotted the midden near the junction of Water
Treatment Road and Jungle Trail. No professional work was
carried out at the site until 1992 when David Dickel conducted
a countywide survey for Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy, Inc. Dickel reported intermittent shell scatters
along the Intracoastal Waterway (Indian River Lagoon) and
assigned site number 8IR848 (Fishing Flat 2 Site) to the small
peninsula west of Jungle Trail. This site and 81R848A (later
designated by Lewis and Stanbridge 1995) represent what was
thought to be two additional sites. These areas are all part of
the Blue Goose Midden (Handley and Chance 2000).
Site 81R15 extends from Wabasso Road south for nearly
700 meters. Presently this area encompasses three different
properties that include, from north to south, a citrus grove
(Seasons), a nearly level mixed vegetative community (Ber-
muda Club), and a maritime oak hammock (Sea Oaks). A
Phase II investigation was recently conducted by Florida
Archaeological Services in the south end of the site within the
Sea Oaks tract, yielding an artifact assemblage similar to that
of the ESI projects (Johnson and Basinet 1999).
Investigations conducted in the central and northern
portions of 8IR15 revealed six shell and artifact concentra-
tions. Five of these were investigated by ESI, and are shown
in Figure 2 as Areas 1 through 5. The sixth concentration, an

St. Mar


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 2. Blue Goose Midden (8IR15).

area of intermittent shell midden, is located on the peninsula
formed by Michael's Creek and the Indian River Lagoon, the
dominant hydrological features in the site vicinity. This area
has only been shovel tested, though formal excavations are
planned for the near future.
With such a predominance of only brackish water near the
site, one is given cause to wonder where native groups might
have obtained freshwater. Although difficult to substantiate
because of the construction and maintenance of the Jungle
Trail Road and the nearby citrus grove, a freshwater spring
presumably existed in the northern portion of the site.
Freshwater would have been a necessity to support the exten-
sive occupations evident at the site. A likely candidate for a

freshwater source is the low-lying wetland along the north-
western boundary of the site where shallow wells may have
been dug.


Prior testing consisted of the excavation of 50-cm square
shovel tests on a 30-meter grid encompassing both the Seasons
and Bermuda Club properties. Based on the results, excava-
tion units were placed in areas with the potential to produce
information on artifact densities and spatial distribution of
cultural features. During the present investigation, 36 1-meter2
units were excavated. Specifically, Areas 2, 3, and 5 were



Figure 3. Profile of Block Excavation in Area 3.

tested with 4, 25, and 7 square meters, respectively. Units
were dug in 10 cm increments, and all soil was screened
through 6.4 mm (one-quarter inch) mesh. Artifacts and bone
remains were bagged by provenience, while non-modified shell
was quantified (in liters) by species and discarded in the field.
In addition to excavation units, all five areas of investiga-
tion were machine stripped. On the Bermuda Club property
this was carried out with a bulldozer that cut a total of 12
trenches in Areas 3 through 5, measuring four meters by 40 to
50 meters in length. In the northern portion of the site a front-
end loader was used to strip large blocks in Areas 1 through 3.
This method was utilized due to the amount of topsoil distur-
bance on the Bermuda Club property. Moreover, the identifi-
cation of a large number of postholes during unit excavations
suggested that broad-scale exposure would help delineate
structural patterns.

Excavation Units

Based on shovel testing, areas of shell and artifact concen-
trations were identified. Areas 1 and 2, and the northern
portion of Area 3 are located in the Seasons tract, while Areas
4, 5, 6, and the southern portion of 3 are in the Bermuda Club
property. Thirty-six 1-meter excavation units that formed
larger units and blocks were used to investigate three of these
areas (Areas 2, 3, and 5).
Excavations at Area 2, located in the central portion of the
Seasons tract east of a wetland associated with Michael's
Creek, consisted ofa 1 x 2-meter excavation unit placed near
the center of the shell accumulation. Underlying a thin
organic lens of dark soil and root material was a shell deposit
that measured nearly 40 cm thick. This densely packed lens
consisted mostly of whole oyster shells and loose, dark gray
soil. During excavation this one by two-meter unit produced
a large quantity of bone fragments, including a lens of shark
remains. Pottery recovered from the midden deposit included
sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, and St. Johns Check

I 10 YR 4/1 Disturbed Shell
II 10 YR 5/1 Shell Midden
III 10 YR 6/1 Gray Leaching
IV 10 YR 8/2 Pale Brown Subsoil

Stamped. Underlying the shell midden
deposit was a dark sand lens that yielded
-some bone remains, but no artifacts. It was
a thin leachate zone above the pale brown
subsoil and beach sand.
A 50-cm by four-meter unit was exca-
vated west of the 1 by 2 meter unit to ex-
tend the profile to the edge of the shell
/concentration. The profile illustrates the
thinning of the shell stratum toward the
west in the direction of the wetland. Also,
the darker lens beneath the shell was
thicker here than in the eastern portion of
the profile. The two units revealed a lower
density of potsherds than in other portions
of 8IR15, but yielded among the highest
frequencies of faunal remains.
A total of 25 square meters was contig-
uously dug in the Seasons portion of Area
3. These units were placed on the southern
end of a relic dune currently supporting citrus trees. Units
measuring one-meter square were placed on the highest
elevation of the ridge, which contained the highest artifact
counts and densest shell.
The stratigraphy in Area 3 was fairly uniform, with three
cultural strata overlying sterile subsoil (Figure 3). Stratum I
is a thin layer of crushed oyster shell in a dark gray sandy soil
extended to a depth of 6 cm below surface. Underlying the
disturbed stratum was the intact shell midden that contained
mostly oyster (Crassostrea virginica) with some quahog clam
(Merceneria mercenaria), scallop (Argopecten irradians),
clam (Myidae sp.), and whelk (Busycon contrarium) in
varying densities. The shells in stratum II were mostly
unbroken. Midden soil was gray to dark gray fine sand,
followed by stratum III that was gray fine sand. This loose
layer, approximately 5 to 7 cm thick, contained a large
concentration of faunal material and considerably fewer
artifacts than recovered from the midden deposit. The sterile
soil underlying the gray lens was yellow-brown subsoil over
beach sand.
The units in Area 3 yielded an enormous amount of pottery
and faunal material from Stratum II and III. Table 1 docu-
ments the quantity of pottery and bone recovered, as expressed
in grams, while shell is quantified volumetrically in liters.
While most sherds were undecorated, at least four different
paste types were identified that are believed to represent a
Malabar II period (A.D. 750-1513) assemblage. The faunal
remains from the block excavation numbered over 25,000
fragments, an assemblage that greatly contributes to the
understanding of prehistoric food procurement and bone tool
manufacture in this portion of the Indian River region.
Worked shell and bone artifacts included several drilled shark
teeth, bone needles, shell hammers and gouges. Limestone
and coquina stone artifacts also were recovered in various
stages of production, indicating a possible specialized activity
area in the central portion of the block.
Shell density varied throughout the block excavation, with

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


O o

Extent of Mechanical Striping

Figure 4. Features and interpreted structures in Area 3.

Q -PitFeoza
-Post Foou
" b -uCim Tre/Rob




Table 1. Artifact, bone, and shell distribution from Area 3, north portion of Blue Goose Midden.





Total 40,106.1 13,245.1 2,180.8

the largest volume removed from Units 1, 2, 7, and 13, which
constituted the north-central and northwestern portion of the
block. The lowest density of shell occurred in units dug east
and south of those mentioned above, which consistently
corresponds with higher elevations of the relic dune. In this
area the shell was noticeably less dense, although the associ-
ated soil matrix remained fairly uniform throughout the area
(approximately 20-cm thick). Shell density correlated with
artifact and bone density-units with low shell recovery exhib-
ited a similar decrease in other cultural material.
Area 5 is in the southernmost portion of the Bermuda Club
property, an area revealed through shovel testing to have
partially intact midden and subsoil. A total of seven square
meters was excavated in this portion of the study area, includ-
ing three 1 x 1-meter units and four contiguous one-meter
square units. The three isolated units revealed disturbed
strata, while deposits uncovered in the four contiguous units
were nearly intact. These units revealed a 25-cm thick oyster
midden with variable amounts of faunal remains and artifacts.
At the base of the midden, three cultural features were encoun-
tered, all of which were postmolds.

Machine Striping

After the excavation units were completed, machine
stripping was preformed in Areas 1 through 5. A total of
10,640 meters was investigated by means of machine assisted
trenching. This method was utilized in the Bermuda Club
property to expose potentially intact cultural features that
extended into the subsoil. Mechanical grading in the Seasons
tract was intended to uncover any additional features or human
remains. Local lore states human remains were uncovered
during the planting of citrus trees in the late nineteenth
century; however, no human bones have been encountered at
8IR15 to date.
As a result of machine grading in the Bermuda Club
property, a total of 1,680 meters was stripped in twelve
trenches. These trenches were located in the north, central,
and southern extent of the tract. The bulldozer removed thin
layers of the topsoil until the subsoil was completely exposed.
During this phase of the project, 156 features and an intact
shell deposit were encountered. Several pit features yielded
artifacts associating them with the Malabar II period. In
addition to these, five sets ofpostsmolds/holes forming circular











Pottery (g)










Bone (g)










Shell (L)











2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 5. Plan view of Structure 8.

patterns suggesting structural features related to cooking
activities and possible residences were uncovered.
In the Seasons tract, a front-end loader was used to
machine excavate three large blocks totaling 8,960 square
meters. This confirmed the existence of 109 additional
features. Combining feature locations from manual and
mechanical excavations revealed seven circular rings of posts
in Area 3. Machine Stripping in Areas 1 and 2 uncovered 13
features, consisting of several unrelated postmolds/holes,
refuse pits, and three cooking hearths. The hearths were all
located in the highest elevation of the site in Area 1.


The block excavations and machine grading in the central
and northern portions of 8IR15 revealed 338 subsurface
features. These include postholes and molds, cooking related
pits, and refuse pits. Several series ofpostmolds form circular
patterns that represent structural features, some of which
surround cooking pits. Recovered artifacts were few within
the features, but all appear to be associated with the Malabar
II component.

Postholes and Molds

Prehistoric postmolds/holes (n=296) were the most

frequently encountered feature type documented in all five
areas. These were documented in two forms; postmolds,
which were the most frequent, and postholes with associated
molds. These varied in size from 4.0 to 26.0 cm in diameter
and extended 4.0 to 41.0 cm in depth. Six prehistoric struc-
tures (discussed below) were defined by a series of posts, but
many postholes appeared isolated and could not be interpreted.
These apparently unassociated posts might have been the
result of repair or repositioning of structures causing overlap-
ping of the more obvious patterns. No attempt to force
postholes into a pattern was made. All post features were
bisected to reveal a profile for confirmation of form and
Many of the postholes contained artifacts, shell, or bone
suggesting that the posts were driven through the midden, and
that midden fill fell into the empty space once a post was
removed or rotted. This suggests some of the posts may have
been in place before the midden accumulation, while others
occurred after it formed.


A total of 16 hearths was encountered, and each measured
between 35 and 75 cm in diameter and 18 to 38 cm in depth.
All of these appear to have been associated with cooking
related activities. Burnt bone and shell were recovered in



S* *

S .S

Structure 8

0 2m 4m l
ONN-E: I **




Figure 6. Plan view and profile of Structure 9.

moderate to high frequencies, along with charcoal. Generally,
these features were bowl shaped and contained dark gray soil.

Refuse Pits

Seven pit features appear to have functioned as refuse pits.
These bowl-shaped cultural deposits yielded varying amounts
of faunal material and artifacts, and measured between 25 and
66 cm in diameter and extended from 17 to 35 cm in thick-
ness. These pits were defined as differing from hearths in the
relative lack of charcoal and burned remains, although they
also may have functioned in food preparation.


Thirteen structural features have been interpreted from the
layout ofpostmolds/holes in Areas 3, 4, and 5. The interpreta-
tion of these circles is speculative and includes possible
residences and circular posts surrounding cooking or roasting

pits. Many of the posts could not be associated with others to
form a series or pattern. These features may represent the
overlap or repair of structures, or they may not be related to a
The largest of the circular patterns was recorded during
machine stripping east of the block excavation in Area 3. This
structural feature, designated Structure 1, measured approxi-
mately 3.5 meters in diameter (Figure 4). Structure 1 was
defined by a series of postmolds along its northeast side, and
several widely spaced posts along its west and south sides.
The southeastern portion of the pattern was obscured by a
citrus tree and associated root system. This circular pattern
was adjacent to a pit feature that was a large dark oval stain 75
by 50-cm in dimension, and extending to 60 cm below graded
surface. The area of lowest shell, bone, or artifact density
coincided with the location of this circular pattern, supporting
our interpretation that this area served a residential function.
Structure 2 was located north of the block excavation in
Area 3 (Figure 4). This structural feature consists of possible


(10 YR 3/1)


M L]
0 20cm 40cm


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 7. Feature and interpreted structures in Area 4.

cooking hearth surrounded by four postmolds that covered an
area approximately one meter in diameter. It is believed that
this feature represents a possible drying rack, shelter, or spit
cooking area.
Structure 3 was located northwest of structure 1, and
consists of nine postmolds (Figure 4). This structural feature
measured approximately 1.5 meters in diameter. Unlike
Structure 2, this feature did not surround any pits that intruded

into the subsoil. Structure 3 may have functioned as a pen or
for storage.
Structure 4 was located south and southeast of Structures
3 and 1 (Figure 4). This structural feature was very similar to
Structure 2, as it measured approximately 1.25 meters in
diameter and consisted of a hearth pit surrounded by post-
molds. It was a small pit feature containing bone, shell, and
charcoal, and appears to have functioned as a hearth.




Trench 8

V i. ,'.*. Structure 13
",....... ,J ..+..... -0 ../. .-.
"^ 0 "--..... ... .. +

DisturtDance r

S 1 0 ,
\ o i

Dii turbance i

-' I I

truture 11 Disturbance
""!"" lb
....... ~ I, /' t ; ;
I .. .......+ T i Il s
t i

: li I I

Figure 8. Features and interpreted structures in Area 5.

Post Hole Feature
S- Pit Feature
Shell Midden

0 1 2m


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Surrounding this feature were five postmolds/holes roughly 10
to 15 cm in diameter. These posts either supported a drying
rack, shelter for the hearth, or perhaps a cooking spit.
Structure 5 was located in the southern portion of the
excavation block (Figure 4). Consisting of 11 postmolds, this
circular pattern measured approximately 1.5 meters in
diameter. It was composed of nine postmolds in a tight semi-
circular shape, with two other posts widely spaced and creating
a full circle. All of the posts except for two were similar in
dimension, ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 cm in diameter and
extending to a depth of 4.0 to 10.0 cm. Speculation about
function includes a drying rack or some sort of enclosure, such
as a pen. The closely placed posts would have been an
effective method to keep animals away from stored food.
Structure 6 was associated with a large cooking pit and
consisted of two series of postmolds surrounding it (Figure 4).
It was directly east of Structure 5. This pit was one of the
largest discovered during machine stripping, measuring 75 by
60 cm in diameter. During the investigation several posts also
were noted. These posts form a tripod formation around the
pit. Outside the circular pattern was another circle of post-
holes that may represent repair or rebuilding around the same
Structure 7 is located in the northern portion of area 3, and
consists of the only series of posts forming perpendicular lines
(Figure 4). Although the pattern is not complete, 14 posts
appear to be the remnants of a rectangular structure. Ais
chiefs were believed to dwell in square to rectangular houses,
as depicted by Swanton (1998:394).
Structure 8 is located 10-meters northeast of the block
excavation in Area 3. The posts associated with this structure
were encountered during machine stripping. Nine
postmolds/holes were encountered forming an oval shape that
measures nearly 10-meters by 8-meters in diameter (Figure 5).
No subsurface features were within the structure, and the shell
midden was less dense here than in other portions of the dune
ridge. Given the size and shape, it is speculated that structure
8 functioned as a large residence or was utilized for municipal
purposes, such as a council house.
A large trench-like feature was discovered and designated
Structure 9 during machine excavation of a trench 15-meters
south of the Seasons tract in Area 3. This 2.75-meter by 45-
centimeter anomaly consisted of very dark gray to black soil
with a large number of bone fragments (n=1473), approxi-
mately 25% of which were charred. The feature was noted at
40 cm below surface, and had a maximum depth of 62-cm
below surface. Surrounding the feature was a thin layer of
dark soil that probably represents activity during pit use. Bone
and shell tools recovered from Structure 9 include a bone
needle, a whelk hammer, and eight drilled shark teeth.
Surrounding this feature were five pairs of postholes (Figure
6). The postmolds/holes to one side of the feature were
vertical, while those on the other were nearly at a 45-degree
angle. We interpreted this as a lean-to-like structure that
presumably supported a smoking or cooking rack over a
cooking/fire pit.
In Areas 4 and 5, eight trenches were machine dug to

remove disturbed topsoil and shell. This investigation
revealed 105 postmolds/holes and 7 pit features. These were
discovered under a very dark gray/brown to black, uniform
lens with a high organic content that contained some shell. In
machine trenches 5 (Area 4) and 7/8 (Area 5) a series of
postmolds/holes was noted that may represent at least four
structures (Structures 10 through 13).
Structure 10 is made up of 13 postmolds/holes that form a
semi-circle (Figure 7). The postmolds/holes averaged 30 cm
in diameter, and ended at a depth of 58 to 65 cm below
surface, approximately 18 to 25 cm below the cultural lens.
Only the eastern half of the circle could be uncovered due to
severe disturbances to the west. Structure 10 appears to have
been approximately 10 meters in diameter. In addition to the
semi-circle, a line of five posts appears inside the structure.
None of the posts from Trench 5 yielded any artifacts, while
the pit features in close proximity to the structure yielded a low
density of bone and pottery.
Structures 11, 12, and 13 were discovered in Trenches 7
and 8, located south of Trench 5 (Figure 8). Structure 11 was
another series of postmolds/holes forming a semi-circle
believed to represent a large prehistoric structure measuring
11.25 meters in diameter. The entire circle could not be
uncovered due to subsurface disturbances caused by previous
construction. Within the semi-circle several other
postmolds/holes were discovered that do not have any
discernable relationship to Structure 11.
Structure 12 is located in Trench 7 and 8, and appears to
share a post with Structure 10; these structures are speculative.
Structure 12 is approximately four meters in diameter and has
a slight oval shape. No features were noted within this ring,
and no artifacts were recovered from the associated features.
Structure 13 is located northeast of Structure 11 and east
of Structure 12. This is the smallest of the post rings, which
measures 2.85 meters in diameter and comprises six posts. In
the center of the ring is Feature 79, one of the few pit features
discovered during machine striping. Feature 79 appeared at
first as refuse pit, but midway through excavation the soil
texture changed to hard clay, suggesting possible use as a
cooking area that was surrounded by posts.

Radiocarbon Results

Two shell samples were sent to Beta Analytic, Inc. to
derive absolute dates from the occupation of the Blue Goose
Midden. Calibrations for the two oyster shell samples were
made using current radiocarbon database (Stuiver et al. 1998).
The first sample was taken from Feature 36, a refuse pit in
Area 3. This feature was encountered beneath a thin gray
stratum that underlay the midden deposit. A corrected
radiocarbon age of 1370 +/- 70 BP (Beta-145384) with a 2
sigma calendar date of A.D. 890 to 1180 was returned.
The second radiocarbon sample was recovered from the
midden deposit in Unit 7 of Area 3. This sample returned
with a corrected radiocarbon age of 1190 +/- 60 BP (Beta-
145383) with a 2 sigma calendar date of A.D. 1060 to 1300.
Based on the radiocarbon results, the features found within the



Table 2. Pottery recovered from Blue Goose Midden.

Artifact Classification Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Area 5
sand-tempered plain 6 254 4,740 1 332
St. Johns series
St. Johns Plain 23 301 1 69
St. Johns Check Stamped 14 289 37

Table 3. Distribution of pottery types from Area 3.

Statagraphic Level St. Johns Plain St. Johns Check Sand Tempered
Stamped Plain
Stratum I 38 30 561
Stratum II 191 196 2,825
Stratum III 49 47 1,257
Features 23 16 97

aforementioned gray soil predate the overlying midden

Artifact Assemblage

The dominant artifacts from the central and northern
portions of the Blue Goose Midden were sand-tempered plain
ceramics, constituting nearly 70 percent of the pottery assem-
blage. Other artifacts included sand and grit-tempered pottery,
St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped pottery, bone and shell
tools, and worked limestone. The following sections will
describe the artifact types recovered from the site.

Pottery Analysis

A total of 17,618 pottery fragments was recovered from
this portion of the Blue Goose Midden. Of these, 11,551
sherds (or 66%) were diminutive in size (less than 2 cm).
These were counted and not subjected to further analysis. The
remaining sherds (n=6,067, or 34%) represent two different
paste types: St. Johns chalky paste and sand-tempered plain
(Table 2). All indications suggest that slightly incurvate bowls
predominated. The assemblage lacks diversity in ceramic type
and form, and appears to reflect a limited range of functions
related to food storage, preparation, and serving.
The majority of the pottery recovered from excavations was
sand-tempered plain. Plain sand-tempered wares accounted
for 68.7% of the 4,170 analyzed sherds larger than 2 cm.
Nearly 20 percent (n=1,163) of this assemblage was noted as
having large grit inclusions. Lip forms for this paste type were
primarily flat with slightly incurvate rims, although rounded
lips on incurvate rims were also noted. This pattern of sand-
tempered plain pottery dominating the Blue Goose Midden

assemblage also was apparent in the southern portion of the
site (Johnson and Basinet 1999), and is characteristic of
Malabar sites in general (Milanich 1994; Rouse 1951; Sigler-
Lavelle et al. 1982).
St. Johns pottery numbered 734 sherds and accounted for
12.1% of the assemblage. St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped
pottery with chalky paste was most common (n=660), although
74 sandy St. Johns Plain and Check stamped pottery sherds
were also recovered. The latter consisted of St. Johns paste
with larger inclusions of sand temper. Only three checked
stamped sherds with sandy paste were present in the assem-
The pottery recovered was primarily from midden deposits,
with only a few sherds present within sub-midden features
(Table 3). Both midden and sub-midden deposits contain the
same range of ceramic types, which indicates that the site
reflects a single component, but multiple episodes of occupa-
tion during Malabar II is possible. The pottery assemblage is
similar to others associated with the early Malabar II cultural
period (Johnson and Basinet 1999; Rouse 1951; Sigler-Lavelle
et al. 1982).

Worked Stone

Lithic remains constitute the lowest percentage of recov-
ered artifact types within the central and northern portions of
the Blue Goose Midden, and the assemblage contains no
flaked chert tools or debitage. Instead, stone utilized at 8IR15
was limited to limestone. A total of 20 fragments of at least
two limestone varieties (chalk and coquina, as defined by
Chesterman 1993; Puri and Vernon 1964) were recovered with
some signs of modification.
Many of the 17 chalk limestone specimens appear to have
been smoothed by natural effects, but were either partially or


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 9. Drilled coquina limestone.

completely drilled. Several cylindrical shaped stones have
numerous drill-holes started along one side. Given the size
and shape of these stones and the location of the partial drill
holes, they may have been used to hold sticks steady during
fire starting or drilling. Another example of limestone use at
the Blue Goose Midden is two cylinder-shaped pieces of
naturally formed limestone with a hole apparently drilled
through the center. The function of the artifacts is unknown,
but one of similar form was recovered from Mount Royal by
Moore (1894:11). He speculated that the object was used as a
The other limestone variety utilized at 8IR15 was coquina
stone, a porous and poorly cemented organic limestone
composed of crushed mollusk shells (Chesterman 1993). The
Anastasia coquina stone formation in Florida occurs on the
Atlantic barrier islands from St. Augustine south for about 150
miles (Puri and Vernon 1964:282). A total of three artifacts

Modified bone artifacts (n=40) included four
types: ornaments, drills, needles, and a coarse
sanding tool. From a functional perspective, these
appear to have been used in fishing, decoration,
and tool manufacturing activities.
Drilled shark teeth (n=28) were recovered from
the midden and feature fill in Areas 3 and 5. In
each, a small perforation approximately 2 mm in
diameter is located in the calcified portion of the
tooth above the enamel. The drilling was meticu-
lously done, presumably with another tooth
(Brown 1994). These specimens were identified as
tiger (Galeocerdo cuvieri), dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus),
bull (Carharhinus leucas), and lemon (Negaprion brevirostris)
sharks. It is speculated that the drilled shark teeth were used
as ornaments, while some undrilled shark teeth appear to have
been modified and exhibit evidence of wear, possibly from
being used as drills (Figure 10). One of these teeth had been
tapered at the end, while the other has been completely worn.

The use of shark teeth has been documented throughout the
Atlantic Coast of North and South America and on Pacific
islands (Kozuch 1993). Usage includes tuber graders, fish-
hooks, projectile points, cutting and drilling tools, and
decorations. The likelihood of shark products coming from
carcasses washed onto the shore is low because sharks sink
when they die (Lineaweaver and Backus 1984:23). Thus,
exchange or shark fishing was evidently successfully carried
out at or near the Blue Goose Midden. Shark teeth as an

fashioned from this material was recovered from
the block excavation in Area 3. Two flat stones
are oval in shape, measure approximately 14 cm by
6 cm, and are 1 cm thick. One of the artifacts has
a single hole drilled through it at one end, while
another hole was attempted at the other end (Fig-
ure 9). The other similarly shaped artifact has one
hole attempt at one end. These might be net-
sinkers in different stages of completion. Approxi-
mately 150 miles north of this site, two coquina net
sinkers were documented at the North Beach Site
(8SJ48) in St. Johns County (Ashley and Rolland
1997:61-62). The design of these artifacts differs
from those recovered at 8IR15, as they were
rounded with a worn groove around the mid-
The third coquina artifact is a round, fist-sized
fragment with one flat side. The flattened side
appears to have been smoothed through use as a
coarse surface for sanding or grinding. Johnson
and Basinet (1999) reported the recovery of six
coquina fragments from the southern portion of
8IR15, located in the Sea Oaks Tract. Two of
these fragments were described as having been
utilized either as choppers or hammerstones.

Bone Artifacts




Figure 10. Shark teeth drills (top); drilled shark teeth (bottom).

exchange good have been documented throughout south
Florida, and have been implicated as an indicator of less
nomadic lifestyle (Kozuch 1993).
Four modified long bone fragments were classified into a
category that includes fids and needles. These long, narrow
needle-like forms probably were manufactured from the tibia
or femur of a deer or other medium to large mammal (Jona-
than Francis, personal communication 1993). The specimens
recovered from Area 3 were probably used for making and
repairing fishing nets and other textiles.
Also recovered from the Blue Goose Midden were four
bone objects that appear to have been modified for decorative
purposes. These possible porpoise vertebrae have been
modified into a rectangular shape with two holes drilled from
the dorsal to anterior side, as illustrated in Figure 11. The
holes, which range between 1.5 and 2.5 mm, are naturally
formed foramen that had been widened on the dorsal and the
anterior sides. The vertebrae fit closely end to end, with the
largest presumably at one end and the smallest at the other.
When placed end to end, these modified bones give the
impression of having been part of a necklace or other decora-
tive item.
A single fragment of coral with evidence of use was
recovered from the midden lens of the block excavation in
Area 3. This large fragment measures approximately 14 cm
long, 9 cm wide, and is 6 cm thick. This artifact is cylindrical
in shape, except for one side that has been flattened from use.
This surface appears to have been used as an abrader or
perhaps a scraper.

Shell Tools

A total of 15 shell tools was collected during excavation in
Areas 3 and 5. Forms included polished hammers, an adze, a
dipper, and some form of pendent or polished potter's tool
(Figure 12). All tools were made from Busycon gastropods.
The hammers were recovered from excavation units, and were
easily discerned by the amount of wear exhibited throughout

the specimens, as well as use wear on the siphonal
beak. These artifacts are similar to those described
from the Caloosahatchee area (Luer et al. 1986;
Marquardt 1992).
The shell adze was formed from the body of the
gastropod with the wider end beveled to form a
cutting edge. The creation of such a tool would
have made it possible to chisel wood effectively.
Another tool was formed from a cross-sectioned
Busycon. It is a complete ring approximately six
cm long by 3.5 cm wide. This artifact has been
polished, perhaps for the purpose of smoothing
pottery or for hide preparation, though its precise
function is unknown.
Three mended fragments from a possible shell
receptacle were recovered from the shell midden
in Area 5. A finely grained and polished whelk
body appears to have functioned as a dipper, plate,
or bowl.

Zooarchaeological Analysis

Bone (n=35,700) and shell remains were recovered from
the midden deposits and features in all areas of investigation.
This analysis is preliminary and was conducted in three stages.
The first stage involved quantifying (in liters) shell by species
in the field and discarding it unless it exhibited modifications
or use wear patterns. The second and third stages dealt with
the enormous amount of bone remains recovered from midden
deposits and features. Stage two involved the bone and teeth
collected from all units, which were subjected to a basic
analysis by class (bird, fish, mammal, reptile) and family
representation. The final stage was a more detailed analysis
of the faunal assemblage taken from features and select
midden deposit that were fine screened (1/16'1 inch). This
sampling technique has proven to be an effective means of
determining the number of individuals from the sample size.
Excavation of formal units in Areas 2, 3 and 5 produced
nearly 4,000 liters of shell. This deposit was comprised mostly
of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) with some quahog clam
(Merceneria mercenaria), scallop (Argopecten irradians),
clam (Myidae sp.), and whelk (Busycon contrarium). Also
noted were species that occurred too infrequently to quantify.
These included a variety of moon shell (Naticidae), periwinkle
(Littorina sp.), and cerith (Cerithiidae). Nearly 97% of the
total assemblage consisted of oyster shells.
The cursory analysis of the bone assemblage provides
quantitative information pertaining to different classes of
vertebrates. Of the total bone (32,123) recovered from
excavation units, 18,264 (or 56%) could be classified by family
group, or genus and species. Families and species identified
are presented in Table 3.
The classes with the fewest identified specimens include
bird (n=92) and mammal (n=496). These fragments were
generally long bone elements or vertebrae. No species
determinations were made for the bird class, but raccoon, deer,
and porpoises were represented in the assemblage. A single


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 11. Drilled mammalian vertebra.

human tooth was recovered in the midden deposit in Area 3.
This heavily worn molar appears to have been lost in life; no
other human remains were identified. Reptiles were repre-
sented by a total of 1,330 fragments, which included sea turtle
and terrapin carapace and cranial fragments. Many of the
carapace fragments were burned.
Fish remains constituted the most frequently occurring
vertebrate remains in the assemblage. A total of 16,327
fragments was recovered, of which 10% were further identified
into ten species. Five of these species are cartilaginous fish
that include tiger, dusky, bull, sharpnose, and lemon sharks,
and skate or ray. At least four species of bony fish were
identified, which include drum, sea catfish, sea trout, and a
species of sea bass. Teeth, all of which were drilled, repre-
sented the dusky, tiger, and bull shark. Both teeth and
vertebral centrums identified the other shark species. Some of
these teeth were drilled, while others remained unmodified.
A total of 19 crustacean remains was identified in the
faunal assemblage. These fragments represent blue and
possibly stone crabs. All the remains identified were the
proximal ends of the claw. Although easily distinguishable,
this element often fragments during roasting, making such
remains difficult to recover during screening.

% I I

It i

To better understand the subsistence
pattern that characterized the Blue
Goose Midden occupation, a four-liter
sample was taken from the shell mid-
den in Area 3, along with soil from 51
features, and was fine screened. As a
result, a total of 3,577 bone and teeth
fragments were recovered and analyzed.
Of these, 1,748 (or, 48.8%) could not be
identified. Those classified at least to
the class level totaled 1,768, and those
identified beyond that category num-
bered 61. Minimum number of individ-
uals (MNI) with regard to the entire
assemblage totaled 42. MNI was calcu-
lated for each context (i.e., features and
shell midden) and represents the lowest
number of individuals for each species
within the assemblage.
Bird (n=5), fish (n= 1,803), mammal
(n=3), reptile (n=15), and crustacean
(n=3) represented 51.2% of the total
identifiable bone fragments. Identified
species included tiger shark
(Galeocerdo cuvier), dusky shark
(Carcharhinus obscurus), lemon shark
(Negaprion brevirostris), saltwater
catfish (Ariidae sp.), drum (Sciaenidae
sp.), raccoon (Procyon lotor), sea turtle
(Chelonidae sp.), terrapin (Malaclemys
sp.), and blue crab (Callinectes
sapidus). All of these species would
have been available year-round in this
portion of the Indian River Lagoon.

Summary and Discussion

As a result of excavation and data recovery, over 17,000
artifacts were recovered from the central and northern portion
of the Blue Goose Midden, including pottery, worked coquina
and limestone, bone tools, and modified shell. In addition to
the cultural material, 338 features were discovered. These
features, which consisted primarily of postmolds and some
cooking pits, included the outlines of a series of structures
(n=13) including possible domestic residences and drying
racks related to food preparation.
Four large structures considered residences were located in
the main midden portions of Areas 3, 4, and 5. All four
partially complete rings of posts are situated on a level portion
of the site. Although dense midden and artifacts were recov-
ered in these portions of the site, excavation units within the
structural remains yielded the lowest density of faunal re-
mains, shell, and artifacts. This suggests that the living
quarters were kept relatively clear of debris, while refuse
accumulated along side the structure. These structures
measured roughly 3.5 meters to 13-meters in diameter.
Structures 8, 10, and 11 are the largest in diameter, parallel in



-. -u^~ "s--- "- 'I
7 w


Table 4. Species identified from the north portion of the Blue Goose Midden.

Common name Scientific Name

Tiger Shark Galeocerdo cuvieri
Dusky Shark Carcharhinus obscuru.
Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas
Lemon Shark Negaprion brevirostris
Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Rhizoprionodon terrae
Skate/Ray Rajiformes
Drum Sciaenidae
Sea Catfish Ariidae
Sea Bass Serranidae
Sea Trout Cynoscion sp.
Raccoon Procyon lotor
White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus
Porpoise Delphinidae
Sea Turtle Cheloniidae
Terrapin Turtle Malaclemys terrapin
Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus
Stone Crab Menippe mercenaria

size to the Miami Circle (Carr and Ricisak 2000).
Ethnohistoric accounts by European visitors to the Indian
River region have described houses, or cabins, as small bent
poles covered top and bottom with palm leaves (Dickinson
1945:24-26). Illustrations depicting Timucuan village life by
the first European explorers suggests circular structures served
as residences, while large roasting pits with associated posts
were constructed to dry or cook meat (Lorant 1946).
In addition to the present studies, another recent investiga-
tion of the Blue Goose Midden site has been conducted by
Florida Archeological Services in the southern (Sea Oaks) part
of the site (Johnson and Basinet 1999). Considered together,
the results derived from investigations at 8IR15 provide a
comprehensive picture of life at a Malabar II occupation dating
ca. A.D. 750 to 1513. The following discussion provides a
summary of data recovered from the site, with an emphasis on
site formation processes, ceramic use, and economic aspects of
life at the site.
Based on its large size and the dense, homogeneous nature
of cultural deposits, the Blue Goose Midden site appears to
represent either a village occupation or a series of short term
intermittent occupations that span nearly 400 years. As
defined thus far the site covers an area measuring nearly 700
meters northwest to southeast, and varies in width from 150
meters or less at the northern and southern extremes to
approximately 530 meters across the central part of the site.
Extensive horizontal exposures during the investigations at the
site have revealed no human burials.
Site formation processes reflect the accumulation of
midden refuse related to the collection, processing, and
consumption of fish and shellfish remains. Occupational



St. Johns series pottery constitutes
15.3% of the ceramic assemblage from
8IR15. St. Johns Plain and St. Johns
Check Stamped pottery with chalky paste
has been most common, although St.
Johns sherds with sandy paste have also
been recovered at the Bermuda Club and
Seasons portions of the site.
The majority of the pottery at the Blue Goose Midden site
is sand-tempered plain. Rim forms for this ware were primar-
ily flat lipped and slightly incurvate, although rounded lips on
incurvate rims were also noted. This pattern of plain pottery
dominating the Blue Goose Midden assemblage is characteris-
tic of Malabar sites in general. It should be noted that three
unidentified decorated sherds (2 incised, 1 check stamped)
were recovered in the southernmost portion of the site (John-
son and Basinet 1999:43).

Economic Considerations

In addition to pottery, shell and bone artifacts were
recovered. The shell artifacts consisted of whelk hammers and
composite digging tools. Bone artifacts included needles and
drilled shark teeth. The teeth were identified as tiger, dusky,
and bull sharks, which were not represented by post-cranial
remains as other shark species were, suggesting exchange or
special processing was conducted in obtaining the teeth from
these larger and potentially more dangerous sharks. Research
conducted in southern Florida has suggested the use of shark
teeth, particularly those of the bull shark, as a commodity
(Kozuch 1993). Whether exchange was conducted with
southern groups is unknown; however, form and function of
both whelk and shark tooth artifacts are identical to those
documented in the Caloosahatchee and Glades cultural
Faunal material collected from pit features and shell
midden provides information on resource availability, diet, and
food preparation. Unequivocally, shellfish and fish were the

midden varies in thickness across the site,
and in some cases suggests that low areas
were filled in order to level the landscape.
Additionally, the quantity of diminutive
potsherds recovered from these deposits
suggests that some amount of intentional
filling of wet areas may have taken place
to create additional habitable space adja-
cent to wetlands. Diminutive sherds
(smaller than 2 cm in diameter)
accounted for 50.2% of the assemblage in
the central Bermuda Club portion of the
site (Handley and Chance 2000:43), 67%
in the Seasons tract (Handley et al. 2000),
and 68.9% in the southernmost Sea Oaks
area (Johnson and Basinet 1999:44).

Ceramic Use


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)

Figure 12. Busycon artifacts. Left: hammer; Center: "potter's stone;" Right: receptacle.



dietary staple, with the majority of the fish species identified
as saltwater varieties. All species present in the faunal
assemblage could have been available in the lagoon, indicating
this location was suitable for both shellfish harvesting and
fishing. These species could also have been available in the
lagoon most of the year, indicating this site may have been a
permanent, year-round occupation.

Recommended Approach to Similar Sites

While shell midden is a primary characteristic of 8IR15,
cultural components do extend below and outside the confines
of the shell deposits. This was especially evident during data
recovery operations in the Bermuda Club property (Handley
and Chance 2000:22-28). Several pits and structures were
encountered beyond the sheet midden accumulations that
suggest subsistence related activities and domestic occupation
were common in these locations. Investigation of such areas
is important to our understanding of prehistory and can be
revealed in a timely manner through the use of mechanical
Results from the Bermuda Club monitoring project
(Handley and Smith 2000) and the Seasons Tract investigation
mirror those from Broad Reach (Mathis 1993), and have
significant implications for the interpretation and treatment of
coastal shell midden sites in the future. Unless broad horizon-
tal areas are exposed at large coastal shell midden sites, there
is no way to adequately assess the distribution, nature, and
significance of subsurface cultural remains, in a timely
manner. Not all sites are good candidates for mechanical
stripping. This technique should be utilized after adequate
sampling has been done or in instances where extensive
disturbance to shell middens has been demonstrated through
manual testing.


The Blue Goose Midden (8IR15) represents one the largest
known Malabar II sites in the vicinity of Indian River Lagoon.
Radiocarbon dating indicates the site was occupied by A.D.
890 to at least 1300. Whether this site was contiguously
occupied as a village, or the result of smaller, short-term
occupations over 400 years is unknown. No ceremonial aspect
to village life, such as burial of the dead, is evident at any
portion of the site excavated to date; however, other activities
are represented that provide significant information. Excava-
tions revealed large and small structures suitable for housing
single families and larger groups perhaps for municipal
purposes, as well as cooking areas, food processing areas, and
specialized areas for tool manufacturing.


Several individuals and groups need mention for contributions to
this report. The first are M-R Homes Ltd. and the Bermuda Club
Group for sponsoring the investigations at the Blue Goose Midden.
I would also like to thank Marsha A. Chance and Greg C. Smith, who
served as principal investigators for the Seasons and Bermuda Club

projects, for information, resources, and edited earlier drafts of this
paper. Brian Floyd and Sean Taylor contributed to the graphics,
while Brian Floyd conducted the daunting task of analyzing the
pottery sherds. Thanks also to the field crew: Michelle Caldwell-
Cremer, David Cremer, Steve Ferrell, Greg Hendryx, Tony Kuhner,
and John Landum. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge Environmen-
tal Services, Inc. for the use of materials and time to prepare this

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County, Florida. Ms on file, Division of Historical Re-
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Brown, Robin C.
1994 Florida's First People. Pineapple Press, Sarasota.

Carr, Robert S., and John Ricisak
2000 Preliminary Report on Salvage Archaeological Investiga-
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1945 Jonathan Dickinson's Journal or, God'sProtecting
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Handley, Brent M., and Greg C. Smith
2000 Archaeological Monitoring, Testing and data Recovery in
a Portion of the Blue Goose Midden Site (8IR15) Bermuda
Club Development Indian River County, Florida. Manu-
script on file, Division of Historical Resources, Tallahas-

Handley, Brent M., Greg C. Smith, and Marsha A. Chance
2000 Data Recovery of the North Portion of the Blue Goose
Midden Site (81R15) Seasons Development Tract Indian
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Kozuch, Laura
1993 Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South Florida.
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Lewis, Scott P., and Ruth Stanbridge
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from US AIA to the Winter Beach Bridgehead Indian
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Luer, George, David Allerton, Dan Hazeltine, Ron Hatfield, and
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1986 Whelk Shell Tool Blanks from Big Mound Key (8CH10),
Charlotte County, Florida: With Notes on Certain Whelk
Shell Tools. The Florida Anthropologist 39(3): 92-124.

Marquardt, William H.
1992 Shell Artifacts from the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture
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William H. Marquardt, pp. 191-227. Monograph No. 1.
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1993 Broad Reach: The Truth About What We've Missed. Site
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1969 The Geomorphology ofthe FloridaPeninsula. Bulletin 51,
Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee.



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Pottery has long been of interest to archaeologists since it
is often the most common type of artifact found on archaeolog-
ical sites. Yet, until very recently, southeastern archaeologists
had asked relatively little of the potsherds they have recovered.
For much of the twentieth century, the fragmentary pieces of
earthenware ubiquitous to so many prehistoric sites were
collected and quantified primarily for purposes of culture-
historical reconstruction-that is, to develop site and regional
chronologies, to map geographical distributions, and to
identify exchange relations between peoples (Dunnell 1986:26-
32; Gibson 1993; Watson 1990:43-44). With some notable
exceptions (e.g., Binford 1965; Holmes 1903:24-103; Linton
1944; Matson 1965), archaeologists placed little emphasis on
understanding either the function of ceramics in past cultures
or the human behaviors involved in their manufacture. But
the past two decades have witnessed a profusion of new
approaches, methods, and sophisticated research involving
ceramic analysis, leading some archaeologists, both regionally
and worldwide, to demand more of the pottery they recover
(see Orton et al. 1993; Rice 1987, 1996a, 1996b).
Of emerging popularity in both archaeology and
ethnoarchaeology are technofunctional approaches to the
analysis of pottery (e.g., Aronson et al. 1994; Braun 1983;
Hally 1983, 1986; Pauketat 1986; Shapiro 1984; Steponaitis
1982:9-78, 1984; Schiffer and Skibo 1987; Skibo 1992; Skibo
et al. 1989). Such studies are concerned with whole vessels as
units of analysis and focus on the interrelatedness of the
physical properties of fired clay and vessel morphology and
function. This paper summarizes the results of a
technofunctional study of sixteenth/early seventeenth-century
San Pedro pottery from the North Beach site (8SJ48) in
northern St. Johns County, Florida (Figure 1). Though aspects
of the ceramic technology of San Pedro pottery have been
briefly touched upon (Ashley and Rolland 1997a, 1997b;
Herron 1986), this represents the first concerted study of the
form and function of San Pedro vessels from a single site.
Beyond pottery analysis, this paper attempts to inform upon
the behaviors involved in the production and use of San Pedro
pottery at the North Beach site. While the findings are site
specific, they contribute to a regional technofunctional
database on San Pedro vessels.

Form and Function: Building Pots from Sherds

Technofunction refers to the relationship between the

ceramic technology of a vessel and its function or use.
According to Rice (1996a:139), vessel function refers broadly
to the "roles or activities or capabilities" of a ceramic container
in a culture, whereas vessel use speaks more specifically and
actively of how a container was employed to perform a
particular task. From a utilitarian standpoint, ceramic vessels
function for purposes of storage, processing (e.g., cooking),
serving, and transport (Rice 1987:208). Among living groups,
it has often been shown that vessels used to cook foods are
different than those involved in storage, processing, or serving.
But this is not always the case, since a single vessel can serve
multiple functions over its use life.
Archaeologists have traditionally employed a straightfor-
ward sherd count and/or sherd weight strategy in the analysis
of pottery. Sherd-based analyses tend to impart considerable
bias into the pottery samples due to differential rates of
breakage (e.g., large pots break into more sherds than small
pots) and recovery (Orton et al. 1993:169). Moreover, to
effectively examine an archaeological sherd assemblage from
a functional perspective, the unit of ceramic analysis neces-
sarily must shift from the sherd to the vessel. The use of
vessel units of analysis also facilitates comparisons among
assemblages. Over the past three decades, archaeologists have
developed various techniques to estimate the size and shape of
vessels from archaeological sherds (e.g., Egloff 1973; Nelson
1985; Orton et al. 1993; Plog 1985; Smith 1985, 1988).
Underlying most form-function interpretations is an
uniformitarian assumption that similarities in forms stem from
similar uses in both the past and the present (Ericson et al.
1971:89-91; Pauketat 1987:3; Smith 1985, 1988).
In the early 1980s, a "pots as tools" approach was brought
to bear on the study of archaeological ceramics by David
Braun (1983). He argued that ceramic vessels are conditioned
by their mode of manufacture, paste composition, shape, and
size to fulfill a set of utilitarian roles. For Braun (1983), an
understanding of these "mechanical performance characteris-
tics," as he termed them, is essential for determining pottery
function. Indeed, several studies have shown that the me-
chanical performance characteristics of ceramic vessels can
vary with function (e.g., DeBoer and Lathrap 1979; Hally
1983, 1986; Hendrickson 1990; Hendrickson and McDonald
1983; Rice 1987; Rye 1976; Schiffer and Skibo 1987; Skibo
In recent years archaeologists have turned to both the
living world and the experimental laboratory as sources of


VOL. 54(3-4)




inference to enhance interpretations of past ceramic technol-
ogy and use. Archaeologists have long relied on ethnographic
information as a source of inference, but only recently have
they begun to conduct ethnographies themselves (e.g., Binford
1968, 1978; Gould 1980; Kramer 1979; Yellen 1977).
Ethnoarchaeology avails archaeologists to a pool of observed
human behaviors that may account for conditions revealed in
the archaeological record. Several ethnoarchaeological
investigations have been undertaken explicitly for the purpose
of documenting the ceramic technology of a living group (e.g.,
Arnold 1991; David and Hennig 1972; Deal 1985; Deal and
Hagstrum 1994; DeBoer and Lathrap 1979; Gosselain 1992,
1994; Longacre and Skibo 1994; Skibo 1992; Stanislawski
1978, 1987; Stark 1993). Collectively, these studies have
garnered variety offirst-hand information on clay acquisition
and processing, techniques of pottery production, firing
conditions, vessel use and use-life, discard, and reuse.
Additionally, Skibo (1992) has provided a detailed assessment
of vessel use alteration by focusing analysis on direct traces of
use (e.g., surface attrition, carbon deposition, absorbed
Experimental studies also provide archaeologists with
valuable insight into aspects of ceramic technology (e.g.,
Bronitsky and Hamer 1986; Schiffer 1990; Schiffer et al. 1994;
Skibo et al. 1989, 1997; Young and Stone 1990). In these
instances, either ceramic vessels or clay briquettes are manu-
factured and tested under controlled laboratory conditions in
efforts to demonstrate causal relations between certain mor-
phological or physical characteristics (e.g., temper size and
type, surface treatment, surface texturing) and performance
efficiency (e.g., impact strength, abrasion resistance, heating
and cooling effectiveness, thermal shock resistance). How-
ever, it must be remembered that the results of these studies
are conditioned by the laboratory environment in which they
are conducted, so their actual relevance to ceramic assem-
blages outside the experimental context remains to be demon-
strated rather than assumed a priori (Rice 1996a:142).
While ethnoarchaeological and experimental studies have
yielded meaningful information on the characteristics of
vessels with known functions, they also have generated
ambiguous and at times contradictory results (Orton et al.
1993:222; Rice 1996a:142). In other words, while a certain
physical parameter (e.g., highly permeable walls) may have a
positive effect on one mechanical performance characteristic
(e.g., thermal shock resistance), it may at the same time have
a somewhat negative impact on another characteristic (e.g.,
heating efficiency). This suggests that there may be no
absolute correlation between the shape or composition of a
vessel and its use. So while a vessel may have been designed
for a certain function, potters had to strike a balance between
technological and performance concerns and use, conditions
that may have been guided or constrained by the social,
cultural, or environmental context of the potter. Thus, as Rice
(1996a:191) has noted, doingig ceramic analysis has always
required of its practitioners an enormous tolerance of ambigu-
ity." Nevertheless, when considered with caution, elements of
ethnoarchaeological and experimental studies can continue to

provide valuable insights in evaluating past human behavior.
In the following technofunctional analysis, I move beyond
sherds and focus on whole vessels as units of study. To this
end, I draw upon multiple sources of information including the
ceramic vessels themselves; the archaeological context of the
North Beach vessels; the regional ceramic database on San
Pedro pottery; and the wide-ranging ethnoarchaeological and
experimental studies literature on ceramic technology, me-
chanical performance, vessel morphology, and use alteration.
The ultimate objective of the study is to comment upon pottery
use at the North Beach site with respect to food preparation
and consumption activities and to site use in general.

San Pedro Pottery

Although San Pedro pottery has only recently been named
and formally defined, its archaeological occurrence has been
reported for almost fifty years (e.g., Bullen and Griffin
1952:45; Borremans 1985; Espenshade 1985; Goggin 1952:57,
112; Jones 1967; Kirkland 1979, n.d; McMurray 1973;
Milanich 1971, 1972). Its formal type description is as

A fine-to-coarse sand paste with crushed grog (prefired clay).
Grog particles are most often angular and range in size from
medium (.25 .50 mm) to granule (2 4 mm). Particle size
combined with the frequent presence of flat-sided clay
inclusions suggest that crushed sherds were the primary
tempering agent. As a tempering agent, the grog has been
retired, therefore its texture may appear denser and more
vitrified than the surrounding clay body. Grog inclusions
include a variety of colors, such as gray, buff, salmon, and
deep red (Ashley and Rolland 1997b:53).

This description, however, was based on a grab sample of
distinctly grog-tempered sherds from various sites, since at the
time it was uncertain whether or not sand-tempered types
lacking grog belonged to the San Pedro series. Subsequent
analysis of sherd assemblages from secure site contexts has
confirmed that a small percentage of San Pedro wares are
sand-tempered, with no or rare grog inclusions (Ashley and
Rolland 1997a:61; Ashley and Thunen 1999:59).
In general, San Pedro pottery was manufactured by
building up coils, though some vessels exhibit a rather "rough"
appearance in both form and decoration, particularly compared
to that of other coeval pottery types such as San Marcos (Otto
and Lewis 1974; Saunders 2000; Smith 1948). Exterior surface
treatments include plain, check stamped, cob-marked, cord-
marked, textile-impressed, and complicated stamped. Often
stamped and impressed decorations are vague and haphazardly
applied. Another common characteristic of San Pedro pottery
is the intentional obliteration, to varying degrees, of the
exterior surface design by the potter. Soot is frequently
observed on sherd surfaces suggesting that vessels were
applied directly to fire (e.g., Herron 1986:39). Although a
detailed analysis of vessel forms is lacking, preliminary
observations have suggested that most were simple bowls of
varying sizes.


2001 VoL. 54(3-4)



Atlantic Ocean



Sidal marsh

Figure 1. The North Beach site (8SJ48) vicinity.



Table 1. Radiocarbon data, 8SJ48.

Conventional Intercept of 2 sigma
Lab # Measured "C Radiocarbon Radiocarbon Age2 1 sigma Calibrated Calibrated Date
Beta- Provenience Age* Age' (Calibrated) Date Range' Rangez

63069 Unit 5, Area 1 280 + 50 BP 675 + 55 BP AD 1655 AD 1600- 1685 AD 1515- 1715

Unit5. Level 2,
63070 Area 2 460 + 60 BP 855 + 65 BP AD 1470 AD 1435 1515 AD 1400 1610

Unit 7. Level 2,
63071 Area 2 340 + 50 BP 735 + 55 BP AD 1580 AD 1515 1655 AD 1475 1680

Unit 8, Level 2.
63072 Area 2 510 + 50 BP 905 + 65 BP AD 1445 AD 1410 1480 AD 1340 1525
1. corrected for C13/C12 using regional estimation.
2. in calendar years.

In terms of its sociocultural context, San Pedro pottery was
made by the Mocama-speaking Timucua of extreme northeast-
ern Florida and southeastern Georgia during the sixteenth and
early seventeenth centuries. It is most frequently recovered at
Spanish missions and other related archaeological sites.
Although specifics are unclear, current data suggest that San
Pedro emerged abruptly and supplanted the late prehistoric St.
Marys pottery series (formerly referred to as Savannah [Ashley
and Rolland n.d.]) some time during the sixteenth century,
possibly prior to European contact in the 1560s. There is little
doubt, however, that its appearance in the St. Augustine
vicinity is a mission-period phenomenon that resulted from the
movement of nonlocal Timucua vessels or people from the
mission districts of San Pedro and/or San Juan in southeastern
Georgia and northeastern Florida, respectively (Ashley and
Rolland 1997b:53; Dickinson and Wayne 1985, 1987; Jones
1967; Milanich 1971, 1972; McMurray 1973). Beside the
North Beach site, San Pedro pottery in the St. Augustine
locality has been recovered from the Fountain of Youth site
(8SJ31) and on the adjacent La Leche Shrine property, on
which the Mission Nombre de Dios was originally located
(Seaberg 1951; Merritt 1977, 1983; Chaney 1987; Cusick
1993; Deagan 1992; Gordon 1992; Herron 1986; Shtulman

The North Beach Site

Location and Environment

The North Beach site (8SJ48) is a multicomponent shell
midden located along the Atlantic coast of northeastern
Florida, approximately two miles north of St. Augustine. The
narrow barrier peninsula on which the site is situated consists
of a series of alternating dune and swale complexes, between
the North River (Tolomato River or Intracoastal Waterway) on
the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Live oak,
magnolia, and red cedars cover most of the site, with dense,
wind-pruned and stunted growth coastal strand vegetation

bordering to the east. Saw palmetto, shrubs, vines, and other
herbaceous growth such as poison ivy comprise the understory
and ground cover. Expansive tidal marshes are located both
directly across the river and within 300 meters to the north,
and the beach itself lies less than a kilometer to the east. The
site's proximity to both tidal marsh and beach front resources
was reflected within excavated shell middens that contain
estuarine species like oyster, quahog clam, and stout tagelus,
as well as beach surf species such as coquina.

Archaeological Testing

The North Beach site was originally recorded by John
Goggin, who made a cursory inspection of it in 1951. Forty-
one years passed before archaeologists were again called to the
site. In 1992, Stan Bond (1993, 1996) of the Historic St.
Augustine Preservation Board excavated 46 posthole tests (15
cm) and 8 one-meter-square units at the site. As a result, a
series of discrete and overlapping shell middens along with
numerous aboriginal artifacts were discovered covering an
area of approximately 5 hectares. Testing, however, was
restricted to a single parcel of land, so site boundaries corre-
spond to modern property boundaries. Bond's (1993) investi-
gation further identified a late prehistoric St. Johns II compo-
nent and a later mission-period San Pedro component. In one
unit, shell from an oyster-dominated St. Johns II midden was
radiocarbon dated to A.D. 1435-1515, while shell from an
overlying coquina midden with San Pedro pottery was dated to
A.D. 1600-1685. Two additional radiocarbon assays on shell
from other areas of the site reinforce these dates for the two
components (Table 1). Across the site, the St. Johns II and
San Pedro components correspond to shell midden deposits
dominated by oyster and coquina, respectively.
Building upon Bond's investigation, Environmental
Services Inc. (ESI) and students from the University of North
Florida (UNF) jointly undertook more extensive testing in the
summer of 1997 (Ashley and Rolland 1997a). The ESI-UNF
project focused on three site loci considered likely to contain

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



Figure 2. Excavation Loci, North Beach site.

intact deposits, living areas, and/or features, based on the
results of Bond's earlier work.
Because Bond (1993) had previously dug Units 1 through
8, units dug during the field school were numbered sequen-
tially beginning with Unit 9. Two 2 m square units (Units 9
and 10) and a four-by-five-meter block (Units 11-16) were
excavated. In an attempt to isolate and sample temporally

distinct occupational components, all units were dug in one-
meter-square quadrants using 5 cm levels. In addition to these
formal units, a 5 m by 75 cm section of shell midden exposed
along the edge of an eroding dune was systematically removed
and screened in order to reveal a clean dune profile; this locus
was referred to as the Road Cut Midden (RCM). A total area
of approximately 30 m2 was excavated during the ESI-UNF




project (Figure 2).
Testing exposed oyster and clam shell middens, coquina
middens, hearths, postmolds, and a black earth midden. A
total of 1802 fragments of pottery was recovered. Of these, 935
(51.9%) were sherds smaller than two centimeters in size and
not identified as to type. The remaining 867 sherds were
analyzed and included 334 late prehistoric St. Johns specimens
and 533 sand- or grog-tempered San Pedro sherds (Ashley and
Rolland 1997a). These are the same pottery types reclaimed
by Bond (1993) during his earlier investigation. The 533 San
Pedro pottery fragments (grog- and sand-tempered) recovered
during the ESI-UNF project constitute the sherd sample used
in the following technofunctional study.
Despite being limited in number, the range of non-ceramic
artifacts from the North Beach site is typical of a coastal site
where fishing and shellfish gathering were the primary means
of food procurement. Items from unequivocal San Pedro
contexts included whelk shell blanks and various shell tools;
cut and polished bone fragments; a net weight of coquina rock
and another of worm shell; and drilled shark teeth. A stone
projectile point, and miscellaneous fragments ofcoral, coquina
rock, and pumice were retrieved from mixed contexts. While
a seventeenth-century Native American component is repre-
sented at the site, no European artifacts have yet been recov-
ered (Ashley and Rolland 1997a).

Interpreting the San Pedro Component

Data suggest that the North Beach site was first occupied
during the fifteenth century by local St. Johns II groups and
then again during the seventeenth century by nonlocal
Timucua who made mostly grog-tempered pottery. San Pedro
pottery seems to have been originally produced by Timucua
groups inhabiting the San Pedro mission district of southeast-
ern Georgia, and the San Juan mission locality in northeastern
Florida (Ashley and Rolland 1997b; Herron 1986; Jones 1967;
Milanich 1971, 1972); however, the ware may have a pre-
mission sixteenth century origin in extreme northeastern
Florida and southeastern Georgia. Thus, the North Beach site
appears to have been occupied briefly by native groups from
the north visiting St. Augustine, the "ecclesiastical, military,
economic, and cultural center" of the Spanish La Florida
during the early mission period, ca. 1587-1650 (Deagan
Although no distinct structural patterns were delineated,
work areas related to mission-period domestic activity were
encountered in Unit 10 and in Block A. The dune on which
Unit 10 was placed may have served as a living or activity
area, based on the identification of a possible fire pit, two
small shell midden deposits, and a concentration of 7 knobbed
whelks that suggests a domestic cache of shell tool blanks. In
Block A, a dark organic midden with scattered oyster and
coquina shells partially overlaid a shell midden that contained
both St. Johns and San Pedro wares. The preponderance of
San Pedro pottery within the organic midden suggests it was
formed during the mission period. Bond (1993) also encoun-
tered the same midden and suggested it represented a food

processing or kitchen area. Indeed, this feature combined with
a shallow fire or roasting pit and several possible postmolds
suggests the existence of a mission-period living floor or
activity area (e.g., cooking and/or food processing) on the dune
Zooarchaeological data indicate that the mission-period
Timucua at North Beach fished the shallow grassy tidal creeks
that wind through the saltmarshes of the intracoastal waterway
to the west. Identified fauna show that spot, mullet, kingfish,
silver perch, catfish, and seatrout were the most commonly
exploited species (Ashley and Rolland 1997a:66-76; deFrance
1992; Richter n.d.). While some fish may have been taken
with baited hook, mass capture fishing methods (e.g., fine
mesh seines or cast nets) appear to have been most commonly
employed. Few reptilian and mammalian species were
recovered. With regard to shellfish, coquina from the beach
surf to the east was the most heavily exploited species,
although oyster and other estuarine shellfish species were
gathered in fewer quantities. Seasonality measurements on
impressed odostomes and coquina indicate that the latter was
collected in the late summer, while oyster was harvested in
autumn, and possibly into winter. Thus, available data suggest
the site was inhabited seasonally for short periods of time. The
possibility exists that it was occupied only once during the
mission period, from late summer to winter, although addi-
tional data are needed to confirm or refute this.
While the specifics of interaction are unclear, there seems
to be little doubt that the nonlocal Timucua residing at the
North Beach site were somehow tied to the St. Augustine
mission of Nombre de Dios, located approximately one and a
half miles to the south on the west side of the Intracoastal
Waterway. Nombre de Dios was a Spanish mission estab-
lished at or very near the native Timucuan village of Seloy,
most likely between 1572 and 1587 (Gannon 1965:27; Hann
1996:426-427). The North Beach vicinity provides the only
high ground fronting the Intracoastal Waterway within 5 miles
to the north of St. Augustine. Such a location would have
provided easy access for native or Spanish watercraft traveling
to and from St. Augustine. Furthermore, its location placed
nonlocal Indians close to Nombre de Dios and its Christian
Indian occupants, yet it positioned them a distance from the
Spanish soldiers and administrators who resided within the
colonial town boundaries of St. Augustine.
In 1606 it was reported that the "Saltwater Timucua" from
Nombre de Dios north to San Pedro de Mocama on Cumber-
land Island were all ruled by Dona Maria Melendez (Deagan
1978:103; Hann 1996:164-165). In addition to the coastal
Timucua, those in the hinterland of southeastern Georgia were
also subject to Dona Maria (Deagan 1978:98; Bushnell
1994:165; Hann 1996:173). Although baptized at Nombre de
Dios, she supposedly spent most of her time at San Pedro
(Hann 1996:262). At that time, Nombre de Dios was a
subordinate village (jurisdiction) and San Pedro was the
paramount village in the Mocama Province. With the two
regions closely tied politically, a connection Deagan
(1978:103) refers to as "the San Pedro to St. Augustine
confederacy," there may have been a considerable amount of


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


population movement between the two regions, with the North
Beach site representing a probable example of such interac-

Technofunctional Study

The Sherd Sample

The North Beach sample selected for study consisted of
533 potsherds, the entire San Pedro collection recovered
during the ESI-UNF project (Ashley and Rolland 1997a).
These include grog-tempered (n=423 or 79.4%), sand-temper-
ed (n=77 or 14.4%), and sand/grog-tempered (n=33 or 6.2%)
sherds associated with the site's mission-period San Pedro
component. With respect to surface treatment or condition the
sample consists of check stamped (n=241), plain (n=222),
unidentified or eroded (n=52), scraped (n=14), complicated
stamped (n=3), and simple stamped (n=l) specimens.
Interestingly, the North Beach assemblage is marked by the
absence of cob-marked wares, generally viewed as the hall-
mark of the San Pedro series (Ashley and Rolland 1997b;
Milanich 1971, 1972). This stands in contrast to assemblages
from the Fountain of Youth Park site (Mission Nombre de
Dios), a mile and a half to the south, where plain and cob
marked San Pedro sherds were by far the most frequently
reported (Seaberg 1951:44; Merritt 1977:117; Chaney 1987;
Deagan 1992; Gordon 1992; Shtulman 1995). Suchapredom-
inance may indicate that such pottery was made only at
missions and other villages were corn was grown or processed,
and cobs were available. This, however, remains speculative.
A breakdown of San Pedro collection from the North Beach
site by temper and surface treatment is presented in Table 2.
For the most part the grog-tempered specimens in the
sherd sample match the paste definition of San Pedro pottery
quoted earlier in this paper, though the North Beach collection
displayed a great variety of grog size and frequencies. Of the
423 grog-tempered sherds, the overwhelming majority (n=418)
contained exclusively non-spiculate grog, although five did
possess some spiculate grog inclusions (i.e., crushed St. Johns
pottery). The 33 sand/grog-tempered sherds contained sparse,
spiculate grog within a non-spiculate sandy paste. The amount
of grog was far less frequent in these latter sherds than in the
typical San Pedro specimens.
While grog is the overwhelming tempering agent in sherds
from the North Beach site, some vessels were tempered solely
with sand. Grossly, the sand-tempered sherds in the North
Beach sample shared the same paste and surface treatment
characteristics as the grog-tempered and sand/grog-tempered
specimens, though sand-tempered vessels were typically
thinner. Microscopic examination by Vicki Rolland confirmed
that sand particles were consistently in the fine-to-medium-
size range for all three paste categories (Ashley and Rolland
1997a). The uniformity in paste and surface treatment along
with their contextual association argues that grog-, sand-, and
sand/grog-tempered wares comprise the San Pedro ceramic
series; the former is by far the predominant temper type. This
trend has been noted at other northeastern Florida sites

including the recently excavated Armellino site (8DU631) near
Jacksonville (Ashley and Thunen 1999). Thus, the North
Beach sample affords the opportunity to examine a range of
tempering agents and vessel types associated with a San Pedro
assemblage at a single site, something that has yet to be


The goal of the technofunctional study was to redefine the
sherd sample described in the previous section to represent
individual "pots" for use in making inferences about vessel
form and function at the North Beach site. In doing so, the
primary unit of analysis shifts from the sherd to the vessel, or
more specifically the "vessel lot." I define a vessel lot as all
sherds thought to belong to a single vessel. The intent of such
sorting was not to assign every sherd to a specific lot, but
rather to document the range of vessel forms represented by
the sherd collection. Admittedly, assigning sherds to a specific
vessel lot can be, at times, subjective. In the end, 45 separate
vessel lots were identified, each ranging from one to 17 sherds.
No whole or nearly complete vessels were reconstructed.
The sorting process began by removing sherds from their
curation bags and labeling each with ink as to provenience.
Initially, each rimsherd was temporarily assigned to a separate
vessel lot. Next rim fragments were refitted when possible and
lots considered to be part of the same vessel were combined
based on shared characteristics, such as rim form, lip shape,
and thickness. This was a rather straightforward stage of
analysis that resulted in a confident identification of 26 vessel
lots. Next, body sherds were combined with already estab-
lished vessel lots by direct mending or on the basis of compa-
rable attributes such as exterior and/or interior surface treat-
ment, surface color, and wall thickness. During this stage of
sorting, 19 new vessel lots were created, and the sherd count
of some previously established lots was expanded. In a few
instances, recovery provenience was used to identify distinct
vessel lots. Sherds comprising vessel lots were reassessed on
several occasions to ensure that each recognized vessel was
recorded only once.
After establishing individual lots, certain qualitative and
quantitative vessel attributes were recorded. Within each
vessel lot, temper type (e.g., sand, grog) was identified and
assigned a relative abundance value according to the relative
size and density of temper inclusions. The three arbitrary
categories used in this study followed the quantity of inclu-
sions charts provided by Rice (1987:348) and included
occasional (1-3%), frequent (3-5%), and common (5-10%). It
is important to note that in some instances the quantity of
grog inclusions varied from sherd to sherd within the same
vessel. This is thought to be due to differential mixing of clay
and temper during the vessel forming process. In addition to
temper, individual vessels were described by exterior surface
treatment, such as check stamped, complicated stamped, or
plain. Evidence of check stamping on any of the sherds within
a given vessel lot resulted in the vessel being identified as
check stamped. In addition to the exterior surface decoration,



Table 2. San Pedro Pottery Totals' from North Beach site (Ashley and Rolland 1997a).

Unit -9 Unit -10 Unit- II Unit-12 Unit-13 Unit-14 Unit-15 Unit- 162 Fea. 5 Road Cut Total

San Pedro Plain 8 7 14 46 14 4 40 8 28 7 176

San Pedro Check Stamped I 9 3 36 27 22 22 14 34 3 201

San Pedro Simple Stamped -

San Pedro Complicated St I I 2

San Pedro scraped 3 3

San Pedro
eroded/umdeniified I I 4 1 8 8 40

Sand Tempered Plain I 5 2 I 6 6 3 24

Sand Tempered Check
Stamped 2 3 2 -3 7 9 3 29

Sand Tempered Comp.
Stamped -

Sand Tempered shell
scraped I I

Sand Tempered scraped 0 10

Sand Tempered unidentfied 5 3 1 1 1 12

Sand Tempered Plain (with
rare grog) -22 22

Sand Tempered Check
Stamped (with rare grog) 9 2 11

Total 16 17 72 105 44 26 76 45 113 19 533
I. Except for Feature 5. Unit totals include shards those from Features.
2 Unit 16 incorporated Bond's (1993) jnit 8
NOTE: Units 9-12. 15, 16 are each 2 x 2 m units. Unit 13 and 14 arc I x 2 m units


Figure 3. San Pedro Check Stamped (Vessels 7, 1, 35). Note sooting below rim.

the interior surface treatment (e.g., shell scraped, smoothed, or
hard-tooled) of each vessel was recorded.
Rimsherds were described as to profile direction, such as
straight (s), incurvate (i), or excurvate (e), and lips were given
a designation based on their shape (e.g., flat, round, beveled,
or tapered). Both lip and vessel wall measurements were taken
in millimeters (mm) with a digital caliper. Vessel wall
thickness readings were taken at a set point below the apex of
the lip in all cases to ensure standardization. Initially, the
point was set at 3 cm, but was moved to 2.5 cm in order to
include all rims in the sample. A rim chart was used to
measure the arc of rim sherds in order to estimate vessel
orifice diameter (Egloff 1973; Rice 1987:222-223). In most
cases, orifice diameters were recorded only if a minimum of
5% of the projected rim diameter was demonstrated. Because
San Pedro vessels appear to have been similar in shape with
roughly circular orifices, rim diameters are considered
appropriate proxies of overall vessel size since "there is usually
a direct linear relationship between rim diameter and vessel
volume" in vessels of like form (Mills 1999:106). Rim profiles
in conjunction with body and basal sherds, if present, were
used to assess and classify the shape and size of certain
Finally, each sherd was examined for wear patterns or
other direct traces of vessel use. Particular attention was
focused on rims, inside walls, and the interior and exterior of
basal sherds, since these locations have been shown
ethnographically to display spalls, pits, scratches and other
signs of use alteration (Skibo 1992). Common to many vessels
in the North Beach collection was the presence of sooting
and/or carbonized food residues on sherd surfaces. Consider-

ation also was given throughout analysis to the identification
of evidence of sherd recycling or reuse. During analysis, it
was noted that some sherds within vessel lots displayed areas
of black staining on their interior and/or exterior surfaces.
This staining was absorbed into the vessel body and was not
soot, carbonized food residue, or the result of a reduced firing
atmosphere. This staining, possibly the results of
postdepositinal factors, will be explored later in the study.

Results of Investigation

The sorting process resulted in the identification of 45
vessel lots, and the analytical data generated for each lot are
presented in Table 3. Of the 533 sherds in the San Pedro
sherd sample, 191 (35.8%) contributed to the identification of
45 vessel lots, each consisting of between one and 17 sherds
(mean = 4.2 sherds) (Table 4). The low percentage of success
in assigning sherds to vessel lots was due to the tremendous
similarity in paste and surface decoration among sherds and to
the lack of vessel form diversity in the assemblage. The 45
vessel lots should be taken as a minimum number of vessels,
and it is thought to be a conservative estimate of the actual
number of vessels in the sherd collection. Of the 45 vessel
lots, 41 (91.1%) are grog-tempered and 4 (8.9%) are sand-
tempered. Check stamped vessels (n=35) are by far the most
common type in the sample followed by plain (n=8) at a
distinct second. Complicated stamped and scraped surface
treatments are each represented by a single vessel. Select
check stamped sherds are depicted in Figure 3.
Check stamped vessels comprised over seventy-five percent
of the vessel lots, but check stamped sherds were identified in



Table 3. Vessel lot data.

1 10,12 3,4,6 10 G C CS F S 7.3 9.9 LB 54 SS S SR B upper part of bowl; scalloped rim
2 F5,13 5 3 G O CS WS shell scraping under smoothing
4 10 5 3 G F CS SS
5 RCM 2 S C CS R S 7.6 9.6 RS attrition along int. rim; pedestaled temper
6 RCM 1 G O P R I 6.3 8.9 MB 40 SS R R B soot limited; reduced atmosphere
8 1116 1--4 10 G O CS F S 10.7 11.4 MB 36 SS B E black stain (ext); fire-damaged base; scallop
9 F5 5,6 5 G F CS WS B I black staining (int), but residue restricted
10 13,15 4,5 2 G F CS Be S 11.8 12.3 SS
11 F5,12,1! 3 3 G F CS R I 9.7 10.6 WS slightly flattened lip; oxidized base
12 12 5 1 G C CS R I 6.2 8.6 WS black staining
13 11,14 3,4 5 G F CS F S 4.2 7.8 SB 18 SS possible serving bowl; small grog inclusions
14 12 5 2 G O CS F S 5.2 8 HT
15 F5 11 4--6 5 G F CS WS B B B extensive black staining; soot/residue limited
16 F5 2--6 4 G C CS SS S B extensive black staining
17 15 5 1 G F P F S 5.6 8.8 LB 49 WS R B soot limited; reduced atmosphere
18 F4 3 7 G C CS F S 6.4 MB 34 SS R E int. surface missing; black staining ext.
19 F4,F5 3 6 G C P WS R I thermally damaged base; oxidized patch
20 15 2 2 G C CS F S 7.2 8.4 SB 17 SS B rim is flat to slightly beveled
21 15 4,5 2 G O CS F S 6.3 9.5 SS
22 11 6 1 G F P F S 5.9 8.2 SS
23 16 4 1 G O CS F S 8.1 8.7 WS 1
24 11 4,6 5 G C CS F S 9.2 10.3 SS SB B check stamped lip
25 14 3 1 G F CS Be 1 5 8.4 WS

Table 3. Vessel lot data, continued.

26 16 3 3 G O CS WS S shell escaping visible under smoothing
27 F10 2 G F CS F S 5.4 8.4 WS ashy deposits adhering to both sides
28 11 6 1 S C CS ST S check stamped on both sides
29 12 4 4 G F CS SS S B exterior black staining
30 F5 3 G C CS SS S B deep shell scraping (interior and exterior)
31 F5 1 G F P T I 6.5 10 LB 41 SS R R B black staining; direct to incurvate (warped)
32 F4,12,1 3 10 G F CS Be S 9.4 11 MB 30 HT B heat damaged base (oxydized)
33 F5 6 G F P WS B B thermally damaged base; int. striations
34 F4,11,1 3 3 G F CS SS S
35 11,13,14 3--6 17 G F CS F S 6.5 8.9 SS R S B black staining; oxydized exterior base
36 12 3,6 4 G F CS WS S B extensive interior black staining
37 11,12 3,5 5 G O CPS SS B B rare grog; black staining on margin
38 13 5,6 9 G C CS SS B some basal heat damage (exterior)
39 11 3,5 3 S F S R I 5.4 7.2 SB 18 SS slight incurve; rounded tapered lip
40 F4,15 23,4 5 G C P R S 9 10 SS R B round lip, flattened in areas
41 11 StainA 3 S F CS R S 4.5 6.1 WS R RS B black staining; round to flat lip
42 12 23 6 G O CS Be I 6.3 8 SS S B
43 F5,11,1 3--6 10 G F P WS B B I oxydizedbase
44 12 5.6 8 G C CS R S 7.4 10 LB 35 SS R R I scalloped rim
45 15 2 2 G C CS F S 8.7 8.2 40 SS B black staining

# of Sherd: Number of Sherds
TEMP: Temper: G=grog; S=sand
TEMP ABUND: Temper Abundance: c-common; frequent; O=occasional
SURF TRT: Surface Treatment: CS=check stamped; P=plain;
CPS=complicated stamped; S=scraped
LIP: F=flat; r=round; Be=beveled exterior; T=tapered
RIM: D=direct; I=incurvate; E=excurvate
LIP THK: Lip Thickness in mm

WAL THK: Wall Thickness in mm
VES SHP: Vessel Shape: LB=large bowl; MB=medium bowl; SM=small bowl
ORF DIA: Orifice Diameter in cm
INT SURF: Interior Surface: SS=shell scraped; WS=well smoothed; HT=hard tooled
SOOT: S=side wall; R=rim; B=base
RES: Carbonized Residue: S=side wall; R=rim; B=base


Table 4. Inventory of San Pedro Vessel lots.

# of # of Mean
Pottery Type Vessels Sherds Sherds Per Vessel

San Pedro Check Stamped 32(71.1%) 146(76.4%) 4.6
San Pedro Plain 8(17.8%) 31 (16.2%) 3.9
San Pedro Complicated Stamped 1 (2.2%) 5 (2.6%) 5.0
Sand Tempered Check Stamped 3 (6.7%) 6 (3.1%) 2.0
Sand Tempered Scraped 1(2.2%) 3 (1.6%) 3.0
TOTAL 45 (100%) 191 (99.9%) 4.2

50.1% of the sherd sample (excluding eroded and unidentified
types). Moreover, while plain sherds made up 46.2% of the
sherd sample, plain vessels comprised only 17.8% of the lots.
At least two factors contribute to this discrepancy. First, there
is a bias against plain sherds due to their high degree of visual
similarity. It is much easier to recognize a surface decorated
sherd as a unique or distinct vessel than a plain or undecorated
sherd. Second, some of the pottery fragments typed as plain
during the original sherd-based analysis were actually vaguely
applied, eroded, or obliterated check stamped sherds that
appeared undecorated. Thus, a higher percentage of the sherd
assemblage may have been check stamped than originally
reported, as suggested by Ashley and Rolland (1997a:61). In
fact, during vessel lot sorting, check stamped and "plain"
sherds were occasionally refitted with one another; the latter,

under further scrutiny, often turned out to display either
obliterated or barely discernible checked stamping. Intermit-
tent and haphazard obliteration of stamped or impressed
exterior surface decorations is a characteristic of San Pedro
pottery (Ashley and Rolland 1997b:53).

Vessel Tempering

Temper here refers to the aplastic inclusions added
intentionally to clay by the potter. It functions to "correct
stickiness, increase porosity, reduce shrinkage, decrease drying
time, reduce deformation in drying, and improve firing
characteristics" (Rice 1987:74). Temper also has an affect on
vessel performance (Braun 1983; Steponaitis 1982, 1984). In
the sample, 41 (91.1%) vessels were recognized as grog-

Figure 4. Spalled sherds (Vessel 1B) showing grog tempering.

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



tempered, whereas 4 (8.9%) were classified as sand-tempered.
A breakdown of the 41 grog-tempered vessels on the basis of
grog abundance is as follows: 19 frequent, 13 common, and
9 occasional to rare. Of the 4 sand tempered vessels, 2 had
frequent and 2 had common fine to medium sand particle
Of the 27 vessels for which wall thickness data are avail-
able, grog-tempered vessels (n=24; mean = 9.0 mm) are
thicker on the average than sand-tempered vessels (n=3; mean
= 7.6 mm). But the sample size is quite small, particularly
with respect to sand-tempered vessels. As would be expected,
the size of grog particles corresponded with vessel thickness,
with thicker vessels having larger particle inclusions than
thinner vessels. Those vessels with common large grog
inclusions typically possessed hummocky surface contours and
a contorted paste texture. Figure 4 depicts 2 spalled sherds
that each reveal abundant grog inclusions.
Vessel lot reconstructions also occasionally resulted in the
mending of sherds with some degree of temper abundance
variance. As stated earlier, all sherds in the sample displayed
a sand paste that may or may not have included ground
potsherd tempering. In a few cases, sherds typed as sand-
tempered or sand-tempered with rare grog mended with others
typed as grog-tempered. In at least one case, a sand tempered
sherd was refitted with a sand/rare grog-tempered fragment,
the latter of which mended with a distinctly grog-tempered
sherd. This variance at times made the assessment of relative
temper (grog) abundance challenging, since it could vary from
sherd to sherd within a given vessel lot. In such cases, an
overall abundance assessment was made. The variance is
undoubtedly a reflection of how much grog was added to the
plastic clay during the manufacture process as well as how
thoroughly the clay was folded, kneaded, or wedged after the
grog tempering had been added.

Interior Surface Treatment

Interior surface treatment can provide valuable insight into
both method of manufacture and vessel function (Rice
1987:138; Shepard 1995:187-191). Techniques of interior
surface finishing observed in the vessel sample included shell
scraped (n=25; 55.6%), smoothed (n=17; 37.8%), hard-tooled
(n=2; 4.4%), and check stamped (n=l; 2.2%). The latter
(Vessel Lot 28) is an anomaly, with check stamping clearly
applied to both the interior and exterior vessel surfaces; it is
represented, however, by only one sherd. It is worth noting
that no polished or burnished interior or exterior surfaces were
observed in the vessel or sherd samples. Additionally, no
evidence of resins or other sealants was recognized on the
surface of the vessels (unless the black staining discussed in a
subsequent section turns out to be a sealant of some sort).
Finally, while a few vessels were blackened due to a reduced
firing atmosphere, there was no unequivocal evidence of
smudging, as defined by Hally (1983:9).
The three primary interior surface treatments seem to
represent finishing stages marked by different degrees of
surface compaction. Shell scraping appears to be most basic,

and it involved the evening out of the vessel surface while the
clay was still in a plastic state. Smoothing appears to have
followed shell scraping, with the still wet, shell-scraped
interior wiped over with either a hand or a relatively soft and
pliable material such as cloth or leather (Shepard 1995:188).
Several vessels with smoothed interiors retained small traces
of shell scraping (i.e., parallel channels or grooves), attesting
to the sequencing of the two treatments. While these interiors
are well smoothed, they are neither compacted nor lustrous.
Hard tooling is a type of smoothing that involves the use of a
"hard" (e.g., wood) rather than soft tool. It produced the most
compacted of the San Pedro surface finishes, but such finishes
are not nearly as compacted or sealed as those achieved via
burnishing. Hard tooling is represented by only two vessels,
but it was observed on other sherds not assigned to vessel lots.
Little correlation was observed between the degree of interior
compaction and exterior sooting. Therefore, it appears that,
for the most part, little time or effort was put into producing
well compacted and sealed surface finishes during the manu-
facturing process of San Pedro pottery at North Beach.

Vessel Forms and Sizes

The sample of 45 vessel lots contains no completely
constructed vessels, and none of the lots provided enough
evidence to adequately ascertain precise vessel shape or height.
Of the 45 lots, 27 (60%) contain rimsherds, but only 12
(26.7%) were of sufficient size to estimate vessel orifice
diameter (Table 3). However, some information on vessel
shape can be gleaned from the 27 lots that contain rimsherds
as well as from those lots containing body and basal frag-
ments. Taken collectively, rimsherd and body sherd curvature
data strongly suggest a rather redundant collection of simple
bowls of various sizes. Unfortunately, the size of the vessel
sample imparts considerable statistical limitations, but the
interpretive drawbacks of such a small collection of vessels is
offset to some extent by the existence of other lines of archaeo-
logical evidence from the site, such as settlement and subsis-
tence data.
Rim profile direction and morphology showed a high
degree of uniformity (Figure 5). Of the 27 vessel lots in which
form was recorded, 20 (74.1%) are straight and 7 (25.9%) are
incurvate (Table 5). Two of the incurvate rims (Vessel lots 12
and 25) flare outward just below the lip (restricted orifice).
Vessel lips were usually flat (n=14, 51.9%) or round (n=8.
29.6%), although beveled (n=4, 14.8%) and tapered (n=l,
3.7%) varieties occurred as well (Table 6). Flat rims may
indicate that pots were designed with some sort of lid coverage
in mind. Thickness data were recorded for all 27 rim lips,
with a range of 4.2 11.8 mm anda mean of 7.1 mm. Thus,
most vessels in the sample had simple, direct rims with
flattened or round lips. Figure 6 shows rim forms associated
with four different vessels.
The majority of vessel lots either possessed rimsherds of
inadequate size or lacked them altogether, precluding orifice
diameter determinations. Twelve of sufficient size were
divided into three arbitrary size categories: large (n=5),




Table 5. Frequency of vessel rim form by pottery type.

Pottery Type Straight Incurvate Total

San Pedro Check Stamped 15 4 19
San Pedro Plain 3 2 5
Sand Tempered Check Stamped 2 2
Sand Tempered Scraped -1 1
TOTAL 20 7 27

Table 6. Frequency of vessel lip shape by pottery type.

Pottery Type Flat Round Beveled Tapered Total

San Pedro Check Stamped 12 3 4 19
San Pedro Plain 2 2 1 5
Sand Tempered Check Stamped 2 2
Sand Tempered Scraped -1 1
TOTAL 14 8 4 1 27

medium (n=4), and small (n=3). Orifice diameters ranged
from 40-54 cm (mean = 46.8 cm) for large; 30-36 cm (mean
= 33.8 cm) for medium; and 17-18 cm (mean = 17.7 cm) for
small. The orifice curvature of several vessels with large
rimsherds or rim sections (e.g., Vessel Lot 1, 44) was some-
what distorted, presumably due to slumping or warping of the
walls of these very large vessels during the drying process.
Grog-tempered vessels occur in all size classes, but only one
of the four sand-tempered was assessed as to size (small bowl).
With regard to rim profiles, large vessels included three
straight and two incurved; medium vessels are exclusively
straight; and small vessels included two straight and one
incurved. The combined data suggest the vessels are similar,
with round bottoms, relatively straight sides, and maximum
diameters at the orifice (i.e., unrestricted). Available rims
profiles indicate two variations: straight and incurvate.
Straight rim bowls are by far the most prevalent. All told, the
vessel assemblage consists of bowls that vary from 17 to 54 cm
in diameter.
Vessel thickness was measured for 26 of the 27 vessel rims
in the sample, at a point 2.5 cm below the apex of the lip in all
cases (Table 7). A reading was not taken for Vessel Lot 18
due to a medial fracture that removed much of the rimsherd's
interior surface; therefore, it is not included in Table 6. The
thickness of the 26 measured vessels ranged from a minimum
of 6.1 mm to a maximum of 12.3 mm, with a mean of 9.16
mm and a standard deviation of 1.39. In terms of the thick-
ness of the various sized vessels, large bowls (n=5) range
between 8.2 10.1 mm; medium bowls (n=3; one not included)

range between 10.2-11.4 mm; and small bowls (n=3) range
between 7.2 8.7 mm. For the most past, small bowls are the
thinnest, but the three measured medium bowls are thicker
than the 5 large bowls. A section of a large bowl (Vessel 1) is
shown in Figure 7, while sherds representing small bowls
(Vessels 13, 20, 29) are depicted in Figure 8.

Vessel Use Alteration

Traces of surface wear, carbon deposition, and absorbed
residues are among the strongest and most direct indicators of
actual vessel use (Hally 1983, 1986; Heron and Evershed
1993). Clearcut evidence of attrition was minimal within the
vessel lot sample. The vast majority of rimsherds had no trace
of wear, and the same is true of lips; Vessel Lot 5, which
showed a worn interior rim with pedestaled sand inclusions,
was an exception. No obvious and consistent patterning of
pits, scratches, or striations was observed on the interior of any
vessels. Some random nicks and scrapes were recognized but
these appeared to have occurred postdepositionally.
The most conspicuous damage to vessels was found on the
exterior of some vessel bases (Vessel Lots 8, 19, 32, 33), which
demonstrate spalls in association with patches of orange-
colored oxidation. Similar damage was noted on other basal
sherds not assigned to vessel lots (Figure 9). This appears to
represent heat-induced degradation caused by pots being
repeatedly heated. Schiffer et al. (1994:107) report that spalls
"caused by steam 'blowing' off vulnerable places" often form
on the exterior base of vessels and originate at large particles


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


V -22





V -35










V= Vessel Lot
1 cm

Figure 5. Selected San Pedro vessel rim profiles.




Figure 6. Selected San Pedro vessel lips/rims. Top: Vessel 17, Vessel 8; Bottom: Vessel 1, Vessel 31.

in the paste.
Of the 45 vessels, 11 (24%) exhibit sooting along the
exterior base and/or rim; 25 (55.6%) have varying sized areas
of carbonized residue on interior wall surfaces; and 9 (20%)
displayed evidence of both effects. Over 60 percent (n=28) of
the vessels bore evidence of either interior carbonized residues
or exterior sooting, indicating use in cooking. This should be
considered a conservative estimate, since each vessel lot

represents only a small proportion of the actual vessel.
Soot or exterior carbon is "caused by the deposition of the
by products of wood combustion" (Skibo 1992:152). During
analysis, black patches were identified as soot when a "crazed"
carbon appearance with surface relief was demonstrated. The
locational patterning of soot on the exterior of a given vessel
signals its use over, rather than within a cooking fire (Hally
1983:7-10; Skibo 1992:157-162). A few vessels demonstrated

Table 7. Vessel wall thickness (mm) data.

Total Large Medium Small
Sample Bowl Bowl Bowl
n 26 5 3 3
mean 9.16 9.18 11.0 7.90
standard deviation 1.39 .80 .69 .75
minimum 6.10 8.20 10.20 7.20
maximum 12.30 10.10 11.40 8.70


2001 VoL. 54(3-4)


Figure 7. Large bowl (Vessel 44), San Pedro Check Stamped.

oxidized patches proximate to sooting, suggesting that over its
use life it was set both into and above hearths. Herron (1986)
also reported a high incidence (76%) of sooted grog-tempered
San Pedro sherds in her sherd-based study of pottery from the
Fountain of Youth Park site (8SJ31; Nombre de Dios), leading
her to suggest that these mission-period wares were used for
cooking. It is unknown how many actual vessels were repre-
sented by her sherd sample.
As stated above, traces of burnt or charred food residues
were found on over 50% of the vessels in the sample. It was
observed at different points on the vessel wall, but most often
occurred along the lower inside walls and base of vessels. In
some instances, encrustations were thickly deposited and
horizontal coverage was extensive (Figure 10). Because these
residues hold a high degree of promise for determining vessel
use, future chemical analysis of samples of the carbonized
residues is highly recommended. Such data should provide
valuable information on what plant and/or animal foods were
being cooked or processed at the site.
An unidentified black staining was found on the interior
and/or exterior of 27 (60%) of the 45 vessels (Figure 11). On
20 vessels it is visible on both the interior and exterior vessel
surfaces; on 5 vessels it is only on the inside; and on 2 vessels
it is only on the outside. On 21 vessels it co-occurs with either
soot or carbonized food residues. The staining is absorbed into

the vessel body, but does not represent fire clouding (Shepard
1995:92) or soot or residue since it lacks relief. The staining
may represent remnants of a resin or sealant, but this is
unproven at this time. Alternatively, it could be some sort of
compound absorbed into the body during vessel use, which
may have involved the heating of animal or plant products for
subsistence or non-subsistence purposes. Or it could have
resulted from postdepositional absorption.
Finally, with regard to the 12 vessel lots identified by
vessel form, 8 (4 medium and 4 large) demonstrated evidence
of either sooting or carbonized residues. None of the three
small vessels displayed any evidence of use over or in fire,
suggesting that they may have functioned as serving vessels.
The large vessel (Lot 45) that lacked soot or burnt organic
remains did, however, exhibit black staining on both its inside
and outside walls. The sample is too small for statistical
analysis, but intuitively it appears that a correlation between
vessel form (small, medium, and large) and presence of
soot/residue exists, with small bowls not having soot/ residue;
medium bowls having it; and large bowls having it in most

Vessel Recycling and Reuse

Ethnographic studies consistently show that cracked,




Figure 8. Small bowls. Top: Vessel 13; Left: Vessel 39; Bottom: Vessel 20.

broken, and fatigued pots frequently assume other functions
once their use life as a pot had ended. Accounts indicate that
damaged vessels or sherds are reused as storage containers,
construction materials, lids, ladles, scoops, pot stands or props
(fire dogs), animal watering/feeding bowls, potter's tools, and
other ad hoc purposes (Deal and Hagstrum 1994:115;
Stanislawski 1978:221-224, 1987). Following a
uniformitarian line of reasoning, it is highly probable that they
were used similarly throughout prehistory. Evidence of reuse
at North Beach was limited to a few sherds from Vessel Lots
15 and 37, which displayed extensive black staining that
extended from the interior to the exterior, across the broken
edge of the sherd. It is unclear what tasks the sherd could
have performed to bring about the staining. Alternatively, and

more likely, the staining might be the result of
postdepositional sherd absorption unrelated to reuse (Orton et
al. 1993:225).
Another well-documented use of old pots or sherds that has
a direct bearing on the North Beach site is as a source of
temper (Stanislawski 1978:222, 1987:13; Deal and Hagstrum
1994:115). The size and flat-sidedness of the grog particles in
San Pedro pottery indicates that they are ground pottery pieces
intentionally added as a tempering agent. San Pedro pottery
from North Beach contained mostly non-spiculate grog, with
spiculate grog being rare. St. Johns pottery is unique in that
it contains microscopic sponge spicules. Thus, the rarity of
spiculate grog (i.e., crushed St. Johns sherds) in San Pedro
pottery indicates that potters had a preference for recycling


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 9. Spalling on thermally fatigued basal sherds.

their own pots as a source of temper. This is not surprising,
since stockpiling broken vessels or sherds for this purpose
would have been less burdensome than mining old shell
middens for sherds.


Vessel Contexts and Distributions

Now that vessel lot data have been presented, let us turn to
their distribution at the North Beach site. The ESI-UNF

excavation project focused on four site loci, three of which
yielded mission-period vessels (Table 8). Unit 9 was dug into
a thick oyster and clam shell midden at the base of a dune.
This 2-m square produced mostly St. Johns II pottery types,
abundant vertebrate bone, and more than 1000 pounds of
oyster and quahog clam shells. Sixteen small San Pedro sherds
were recovered from this 2-m square, but none provided
adequate information to establish a vessel. Unit 10, a 2-m
square placed on dune top 11 meters east of Unit 9, yielded
little shell, bone, and pottery. However, four features attrib-
uted to the site's San Pedro component were encountered that




Figure 10. Interior carbonized residues. Top: Vessel 15, Vessel
Vessel 33, Vessel 41.

included two small coquina shell and bone refuse deposits, a
possible fire pit, and a cache of seven large whelk shells. Two
vessels (Lots 1, 4) were derived from this excavation locus,
which appears to represent a dune-top habitation area dating
to the mission period. Four vessels (Lots 3, 5, 6, 7) were
recognized among the pottery fragments from the Road Cut
Midden, a large concentrated refuse area containing shell,
bone, and artifacts.
The majority of vessels (n=39, 86.7%) in the sample came
from Block A (4 x 5 m), which is expected since it was the
largest excavation area (Units 11-16). Block A was positioned
on a low dune, approximately 70 meters southwest of Unit 9,
to seek features associated with the suspected kitchen and/or
habitation area revealed by Bond (1993). The dune was
intensively utilized by both St. Johns II and mission-period
groups. Testing revealed a thin black earth midden with
scattered shell; an underlying, low to moderate-density shell
midden within a slightly lighter gray sand matrix; and a dense
band of shell midden immediately to the south along the dune-
top edge and slope. While the dark gray to black earth midden
dates to the mission period, the thicker shell refuse deposits
were mixed and contained large quantities of both San Pedro

and St. Johns pottery. Shell from a St. Johns II
context was radiocarbon dated to A.D. 1410-
1480. The black earth midden appears to
represent a mission-period domestic locus of
food processing and cooking that was kept
somewhat clean of shell refuse. The majority
of shell refuse appears to have been dumped to
the south along the dune edge. Although a
series of postholes of ambiguous cultural affili-
ation and function were revealed, no distinct
pattern was discerned.
Of the 12 vessel lots for which vessel form
was estimated, one large bowl (Lot 1) is from
Unit 10; one large bowl (Lot 5) is from the
Road Cut Midden; and 3 large bowls (Lots 17,
31, 45), 4 medium bowls (Lots 8, 18, 32, 44),
and 3 small bowls (Lots 13, 20, 39) are from
Block A. All three of the small bowls lack any
indication of direct use over fire, whereas all
but one of the medium and large bowls possess
such evidence. The one exception was a large
bowl (Lot 45) with both interior and exterior
black staining. Though the sample is small,
vessel data suggest that both cooking and non-
cooking (e.g., serving) activities took place on
the Block A dune, as discussed in the next

Mechanical Performance, Vessel Function,
and Human Behavior at North Beach

On the basis of the preceding discussions it
24; Bottom: can be stated with certainty that San Pedro
pottery from the North Beach site was low-
fired and constructed via coiling. Moreover,
vessels were most frequently grog-tempered, although sand-
tempering does occur. Projected vessel forms consisted
exclusively of simple bowls that were arbitrarily divided into
three sizes (small, medium, and large). Though samples are
limited, medium (n=4) and large (n=5) vessels are frequently
thick and associated with soot, whereas small (n=3) vessels are
thinner and lack soot. It should be made clear, however, that
regardless of function, larger vessels need thicker walls for
structural stability. While small bowls were used for tasks
unrelated to cooking, such as serving, most medium and large
bowl were structurally designed for utilitarian tasks involving
heat-processing or cooking.
Though cooking seems to have been a primary function of
most of the medium and large bowls in the sample, as evi-
denced by the presence of soot and/or carbonized residues,
none specifically possess the "ideal" morphology of a cooking
pot. Linton (1944:370) defined a cooking pot as "any pottery
utensil which is structurally adapted to boiling food by the
process of bringing the utensil into contact with fire." He
indicates that bowls are best suited for short-term cooking,
warming, or reheating, but are not well designed for sustained,
long-term boiling, since their broad orifice promotes rapid


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 11. Exterior black staining (Vessel 36).

evaporation of liquids. He considers an efficient heating
design to consist of a proportionally short and squat pot, with
flaring rim, constricted orifice, and round bottom. Subsequent
studies largely corroborate the design efficiency of such pots,
but indicate that cross-culturally there is great variability in
cooking pot morphology (Hendrickson and McDonald 1983;
Mills 1986; Woods 1986).

Certain technological properties such as temper (type,
shape, size, and density), porosity, permeability, and vessel
wall thickness directly affect the heating efficiency and
thermal shock resistance of a ceramic vessel (Braun 1982,
1983; Bronitsky and Hamer 1986; Rye 1976; Schiffer 1990;
Schiffer et al. 1994; Skibo et al. 1989, 1997). Thermal shock
refers to the damage inflicted when a vessel is exposed to




Table 8. Distribution of vessel lots by excavation loci.

Pottery Type Unit 9 Unit 10 RCM1 Block A Total
San Pedro Check Stamped 2 2 28 32
San Pedro Plain 1 7 8
San Pedro Complicated Stamped -- 1 1
Sand Tempered Check Stamped -1 2 3
Sand Tempered Scraped 1 1
TOTAL 2 4 39 45

1. RCM Road Cut Midden

sudden changes in temperature. For instance, grog, which is
fired clay, has the same thermal expansion coefficient as the
clay body, so when heated the two should theoretically expand
at the same approximate rate (Braun 1983; Bronitsky and
Hamer 1986; Rice 1987:229; Rye 1976:115-118). All else
being equal, this condition should reduce the stress a vessel
undergoes and enhance thermal shock resistance.
In addition, larger particle size is believed by some to
bestow a vessel with a high resistance to failure due to thermal
shock (Braun 1982:184, 1983:122-125; Steponaitis 1982:38-
46; 1984:95-108; contra Bronitsky and Hamer 1986:96; Wood
1986). Temper of coarse size also promotes the release of
absorbed water in the ceramic body, thereby increasing clay
drying rate prior to firing (Skibo et al.1989:134). Larger
particles are known to help curtail crack propagation, yet
vessels with coarse tempering are less resistant to fracture
initiation than those with finer particles (Braun 1982:184,
1983:123: Rye 1976:114). Braun (1983) reports that thin
walls are more efficient for heating (i.e., cooking), but
Hendrickson and McDonald's (1983) compilation of cross-
cultural ethnographic data shows that cooking pots are often
thick bodied. Steponaitis (1984:108) argues that over the long
run a "coarsely tempered pot would probably have been more
resilient and longer lasting as a cooking vessel."
Some researchers also have suggested that stamped or
textured surfaces were better suited for cooking than plain-
wares since their greater exterior surface area increased the
rate of heating. For example, Herron (1986) noted a high
correlation (62.2%) between sooted cooking wares and check
stamped exterior vessel surfaces among St. Johns pottery at the
nearby Fountain of Youth Park site (8SJ31). To test her
hypothesis that checked stamped pots were used primarily for
cooking, she designed a laboratory experiment that tested the
heating and cooling rates of check stamped and plain sherds.
Her findings indicated that check stamped sherds heated more
quickly than plain sherds, leading her to conclude that the
former were more efficient cooking wares in that they saved
both time and fuel (Herron 1986:38). In contrast, however,
recent experimental tests on replicated plain and corrugated
vessels suggests that the two heat at essentially the same rate
(Schiffer 1990; Young and Stone 1990). Thus, it appears that

a vessel's relative amount of exterior surface area is not as
crucial to the transfer of heat as originally suspected (Rice
With regard to surface treatment, permeability appears to
play a more important role in heating effectiveness (i.e.,
transfer of heat) than relative surface area (Schiffer 1990;
Schiffer et al. 1994). Ceramic pots with more permeable
surface finishes allow water to penetrate the vessel wall and
cool the ceramic body, thereby either precluding or delaying
the boiling of contained liquids (Schiffer 1990; Schiffer
1994:204). Although high permeability reduces heating
effectiveness, it increases thermal shock resistance. Modifica-
tion of vessel surfaces (e.g., smudging, polishing, adding
sealant) can lower permeability and increase heating effective-
ness, but it can also reduce thermal shock resistance. As is the
case with temper selection, potters are constantly faced with
situations that require a trade-off between technological
alternatives. In other words, potters must balance their
technological choices in accordance with the benefits and risks
of the various mechanical performance properties under the
situational conditions of manufacture and use (Braun
How does this information relate to the use of San Pedro
bowls? Thick walls and heavy grog tempering appear to have
rendered San Pedro vessels well suited for cooking or heat
processing in general. Due to poorly compacted (i.e., perme-
able) vessel walls, however, none of the bowls are ideal for
sustained boiling or steaming, which is necessary for the
cooking of comestibles such as corn and beans. But this may
not be completely true of all vessels. The thick and broad
layers of carbonized residues found on several of the vessels
may have served as a sealant and allowed the boiling of liquid
contents. But again, the large orifice of the bowls would have
promoted rapid evaporation of liquid contents, hindering long-
term boiling, unless covered with a lid. The vessels, therefore,
appear best suited for simmering, which involves far less
evaporation. As Reid states (1989:169), "simmering tempera-
tures are ideal for the stewing and souping of meat." Thus the
larger San Pedro pots may have been covered for prolonged,
low-temperature cooking offish- and/or shellfish-based stews,
chowders, or thick soups.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Seasonality data suggest that the North Beach site was
occupied for a short period of time by nonlocal Timucua
groups from the north during the mission period (Ashley and
Rolland 1997a:66-76). On arrival potters may have quickly
produced quantities of mostly large, simple multipurpose
vessels along with some smaller serving bowls. There is a
conspicuous absence of vessel types or forms that would have
promoted long-term storage. The size of the medium and
large bowls suggests they were used to prepare foods in large
amounts. Studies have shown that there is often a positive
relationship between vessel volume and consumer group size
(Hendrickson and McDonald 1983:631-632; Shapiro
1984:631). Thus, thick stews may have been prepared in large
quantities for communal consumption. If males were engaged
in labor activities in St. Augustine, they would have been
"coming and going," so stews may have been left in pots over
low heat or reheated as needed. We might then conclude that
the small San Pedro bowls, with no sooting, may have per-
formed specific functions such as serving, whereas the larger
vessels were multipurpose, with cooking being a primary


During the mission period the North Beach site was the
locus of a temporary nonlocal Timucua occupation outside the
garrison community of St. Augustine. This interpretation is
supported by the recovery of cookwares, faunal remains, and
other cultural debris in association with distinct activity areas
and features dating to ca. 1600. Instead of being a seasonal,
task-specific camp utilized by local Timucua people, the site
was a short-lived home for a group of nonlocal Timucua who
made mostly grog-tempered pottery. Because of the nature of
the occupation, the vessel assemblage at North Beach may not
be fully representative of what was typically manufactured and
used at the missions or other related settlements normally
occupied by these groups. From a regional perspective, bowls
appear to have been the dominant San Pedro vessel form,
although on the whole they may have been smaller in size than
the North Beach bowls. This preliminary study, marked by
small sample size and incomplete vessel reconstructions,
represents a first step toward an understanding of the ceramic
technology and human behaviors involved in the manufacture
and use of San Pedro pottery in La Florida.


An earlier version of this paper was written for a ceramic studies
class taught by Ken Sassaman at the University of Florida. I thank
Ken for enriching my knowledge of pottery analysis and for his
comments on this paper and the earlier class paper. I appreciate
Vicki Rolland's keen insights on technological aspects of San Pedro
pottery as well as her suggestions for the paper. Thanks go to Stan
Bond for introducing me to the North Beach site; to Marsha Chance
and ESI for allowing me access to the collection; to Greg Smith for
his editorial critique; to Heather Shute for photographing the San
Pedro sherds; to JoAnn Mynatt for her help with tables and graphics;
to Ryan Wheeler for his editorial suggestions; and to the UNF
students for their help in digging the site.

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There are many sites in coastal northwest Florida where
both Late Weeden Island and Fort Walton ceramics co-occur.
Generally, these sites are shell middens or mixed component
sites where separation of these ceramic complexes is often
impossible. The relationship between Late Weeden Island and
Fort Walton ceramics (and the people who made them),
although not entirely clear, certainly appears to be one of
connectivity. So similar are the coastal settlement and
subsistence patterns of the Late Weeden Island and Fort
Walton cultures, that the "face of change" may be discernable
in the particular ceramic assemblages (when they can be
sorted), but in little else. While inland riverine settlement sites
may offer more variables within the continuity that bridges
Late Weeden Island and Fort Walton, there appear to be no
notable changes in coastal settlement and subsistence practices
between ca. A.D. 800 and 1500.
Initially, it was deemed that there was no evolutionary
relationship between the two. That is to say Fort Walton
replaced that Weeden Island and there was no transitional
period or relationship between them (Willey 1949:580-582).
More recently, however, a transitional aspect has been recog-
nized for the Apalachicola Valley (Brose and Wilkie 1980;
Scarry 1980, 1981, Tesar 1980; White 1982). Although there
are a few instances in northwest Florida (e.g., Lazarus 1987)
where there may be evidence that "Weeden Island peoples
were clinging to the old ways, moving further into remote
areas to maintain their way of life as, presumably, Fort Walton
people were pressing Weeden Islanders to extinction" (Thomas
and Campbell 1993:579), it is generally accepted that Fort
Walton culture grew out of the existing Weeden Island culture
throughout northwest Florida (Brose 1984, 1985; Brose and
Percy 1978; Milanich 1994:358; Tesar 1980:124, 131-154;
White 1982). It would then stand to reason that a transitional
component exists and should be recognizable (Mikell 1992,
1993, 1995; Thomas and Campbell 1993:579-604), but it
appears that no clearly defined pertinent variant or phase can
be defined unless it is defined solely on ceramic assemblage
Recent excavations conducted at two sites located on
Choctawhatchee Bay (Figure 1), 8WL61 (the Clay Creek site)
and 8WL543 (the Little's Bayou West site) have documented
certain transitional characteristics of ceramic assemblages
dated to the transitional Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton
timeframe. Radiocarbon dated ceramic assemblages from
8WL61 and 8WL543 indicate that the transitional period
occurred between ca. A.D. 800 and 1000, whereas mature Fort

Walton on Choctawhatchee Bay occurs after about A.D. 1200
(Mikell 1992, 1994, 1995b). For the Choctawhatchee Bay
area, the transitional period was preliminarily termed the
Little's Bayou phase (Mikell 1993, 1995b), but it remains so
ill-defined and preliminary in nature that I do not regard it as
a useful term, despite the fact that it is a more concise term
than "Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton transitional period."
This paper examines the evidence from sites 8WL61 and
8WL543 and defines attributes of the ceramic assemblage
recently recovered from 8WL61.

Background Issues

Weeden Island

The hallmark of the Middle to Late Woodland on the
northern Gulf Coast of Florida is the Weeden Island period,
which has been traditionally dated from as early as A.D. 400
to about A.D. 1000. Weeden Island is best known for its
exotic, non-utilitarian pottery and mortuary rituals, which
included the construction of burial mounds. Willey (1949)
defined Weeden Island ceramic assemblages as including
"carry-overs" of some earlier Santa Rosa and Swift Creek
types as well as numerous new and distinctive types of sand
tempered pottery. Common northwest Florida Weeden Island
types include: late varieties of Swift Creek Complicated
Stamped; Weeden Island Punctated, Incised, Zoned Red-
Painted, and Plain; Carrabelle Punctated and Incised; Indian
Pass Incised; Keith Incised; Tucker Ridge Pinched; Papy's
Bayou Incised and Punctated; West Florida Cord Marked; and
the seemingly ever-present Wakulla Check Stamped.
Research has indicated that Weeden Island refers to several
distinct regional ceramic series, if not cultures, that shared
similar basic ceramic and ceremonial complexes related, in
northwest Florida to the Yent-Green Point complex continuum
(Sears 1962). The basic Weeden Island ceremonial complex
may have been related to specific social and political patterns
leading to the advent of chiefdoms (Milanich 1994), but not all
Weeden Island traits are found within all regions of the
Weeden Island culture area, which extends from the Mobile
Bay area to the Tampa Bay area and beyond on the Gulf Coast.
Many Weeden Island "related" and Weeden Island "period"
cultural complexes are found along the Gulf Coast and inland
on major rivers as far from the coast as the upper Alabama
River and the middle Chattahoochee River.


VOL. 54(3-4)




Figure 1. 8WL61 and 8WL543 Location Map.

Several researchers cite evidence of increasing centraliza
tion of authority and economic power during Weeden Island;
this is especially true of evidence recovered from some of the
larger ceremonial centers (Sears 1956; Milanich 1994). This
interpretation closely follows that of Percy and Brose (1974),
who postulated that changes in Weeden Island settlement
patterns were a result of increases in population and an
increasing reliance on horticulture that led to a more central-
ized system of authority and economic control, but did not give
rise to ranked chiefdoms where authority and political office
were inherited.
Weeden Island can be described as a dynamic cultural
complex (best known by its ceramics) that represents a
widespread acceptance of a basic cultural and ideological

framework, which spread over the entire northern Gulf Coast
of Florida. The elaboration of earlier Woodland ceremonial,
mortuary, and exchange traditions as seen in Weeden Island
reflects a basic sociopolitical pattern that was associated with
a hunting-gathering-horticultural-fishing adaptation to the
Gulf Coastal Plain Gulf Coast region. These sociopolitical
practices were reinforced by a set of religious beliefs involving
various ceremonies and practices, including examples of
archaeologically reconstructed burial mound mortuary treat-
ment (Milanich et al. 1984; Moore 1901, 1902, 1908; Sears
1956; Walker 1885). Between approximately A.D. 700 and
A.D. 1000, for reasons that are currently not well understood,
Weeden Island culture or at least Weeden Island mortuary
ritual and the production of exotic pottery declined and


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)

.... ....
Sand Bar -- .

S Choctawhatchee Bay --

~ I-- --

\\ ,to9 8 7 6 5 1 2 3 4

14 1,3 ... "-"

50cm x 50cm Shovel Test with recovery
o 50cm x 50cm Shovel Test, no recovery
a 2m x 2m Test Unit With recovery 0 40
... Shell midden

Figure 2. 8WL543 Site Map (from Mikell 1993).

Figure 3. 8WL61 Site Map.


Table 1. Reclassification of ceramic artifacts recovered at 8WL543 (does not include ceramics recovered in shovel tests).

Test Unit # 1 2 3 3
Level: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Fea.
Fort Walton Series 1 Total
Lake Jackson Plain 1 -- 1 4 1 4 12
Lake Jackson Incised -- -- 1 -- 1
Fort Walton Incised -- -- 1 1
Pensacola Incised 1 -- 1
Mississippi Plain -- -- -- 1
Totals 1 1 1 7 1 5 16

Weeden Island Series
Wakulla Check Stamped 1 27 8 1 2 8 2 1 1 -- 51
Weeden Island Plain 4 1 1 2 1 4 -- 13
Carrabelle Incised 1 -- -- 1
Carrabelle Punctated
(fingernail) 1 -- 1 -- 2
Totals 1 33 9 1 3 11 1 6 1 1 67

Undifferentiated sherds
Sand tempered plain 2 2 1 1 2 -- 2 1 1 4 1 2 26
Sand tempered eroded 1 -- -- -- --
Grit temperedplain 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 1 2 7 26
Sand/grog temp. plain -- -- 1
Totals 3 6 2 1 4 4 5 2 1 6 1 3 9 47
Grand Totals 5 39 11 2 7 16 5 2 2 12 3 4 14 130

disappeared, during an apparent influx of Mississippian
cultural and ideological influences evident in emerging Fort
Walton and Pensacola ceramic complexes and early mound
The Weeden Island period has been traditionally divided
into early and late subperiods (Willey 1949), or as many as
five subperiods (Percy and Brose 1974). For the purposes of
this paper, and because there is no solid evidence for further
division of the Weeden Island period into more subperiods or
phases in the Choctawhatchee region, the early-late division is
used. Despite the fact that Thomas and Campbell (1993:587)
and Mikell etal. (1989) had distinguished three phases (early,
middle, and terminal) for northwest Florida Weeden Island
culture, and although I find the classification valid, I now
disfavor the use of the "Terminal Weeden Island phase"
because it implies a dead end rather than a transition.
Late Weeden Island is defined here as the major manifesta-
tion of Late Woodland culture in the Choctawhatchee Bay
area. In the study area, Late Weeden Island is primarily
represented by the occurrence of sites with ceramic assem-
blages dominated by check stamped and plain sand tempered
pottery, with smaller amounts of incised, punctated, and
fingernail punctated ceramics. Complicated stamped ceramics
are conspicuously absent from Late Weeden Island ceramic

assemblages and although elaborately decorated types (incised
and/or punctated) common to early Weeden Island assem-
blages occasionally occur, less ornately decorated pottery is far
more common.

Fort Walton/Pensacola

The Mississippian stage is represented in the project area
by the closely related and sometimes inseparable Fort Walton
and Pensacola variants of northwest Florida and lower
Alabama. The Fort Walton and Pensacola periods in north-
west Florida date to between about A.D. 1000 and 1700, with
the majority of dated sites falling between A.D. 1200 and
1500. Fort Walton sites are common to the Choctawhatchee
region and east to the Tallahassee Red Hills. Pensacola sites
are common along the coast from the Choctawhatchee Bay to
west of Mobile Bay and up the Mobile, Tensaw, lower
Tombigbee, and lower Alabama Rivers. The basic difference
in the closely related ceramic traditions is tempering agents
used in pottery production and the prominence of Mississip-
pian "Cult" design motifs in Pensacola assemblages. I agree
with the view that in northwest Florida, early Fort Walton is
coeval with and influenced by early Moundville and Rood
phase developments, while Pensacola is a later "Moundville-



S Feature #4

EZZ Unit 6 & 8 extension 0 .25 .50 8WL61 Block A
___ |- Feature 4 below shell midden
meters Excavation Plan View at 40cm

Figure 4. Plan of Excavation Block A and Feature 4.

derived ceramic veneer overlapping the late, most westerly
manifestations of Fort Walton" (Brose 1985:161; also see
Brose 1984; Brose and Percy 1978:100-103; Knight and
Mistovich 1984; Mikell 1992; Schnell et al. 1981). For the
Choctawhatchee Bay region, "Fort Walton is both early and
mature Mississippian, while ... Pensacola is late Mississip-
pian" (Brose 1985:162), yet both have Protohistoric aspects
(Fuller 1985, 1998; Fuller and Stowe 1982; Mikell 1994,
1995a, 1995b).
Although one hallmark of Mississippian culture is inten-
sive reliance on efficient agriculture, there is little evidence for

this form of subsistence in northwest Florida outside the
Tallahassee Red Hills region and the Apalachicola Valley.
Despite this "missing ingredient," the coastal and marginal
interior area manifestations of Fort Walton and Pensacola are
clearly linked to the Mississippianization of the Gulf Coast
region. In fact, Willey (1949) associated Fort Walton with
other Mississippian cultures and described it as a coastal
adaptation or variant since the type site (80K6: Fort Walton
Temple Mound), like several other large Fort Walton and
Pensacola sites, is located on the coast. Willey also defined the
Fort Walton ceramic series as including the following types:

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



West Profile

- Dark greyish brown humus (Strat 1)
- Oyster & Clam midden (Strat 2)
- Grey to light grey leaching zone (Strat 3)
- Whole oyster midden
- Feature #4 material :
-- Grey to light grey lens
S- Mixed oystr/clam midden
S- Whole oyster lenses
S- Dark grey/dark greylsh brown sandy midden mail
Charcoal rich ayrter/clam midden
Mottled grey/white sand
- White sand (Strat 4)
- Brownish yellow coarse sand (Strat 5)

0 20 40


Units 6 & 7
Block A/Feature #4

Figure 5. Profile of Feature 4 on west wall of units 6 and 7.

Lake Jackson Plain and Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Point
Washington Incised, Marsh Island Incised, and the incised and
plain varieties of the Pensacola series. Major Pensacola types
include several varieties of D'Olive, Mound Place,
Moundville, and Pensacola Incised, and varieties of Bell Plain
and Mississippi Plain. Moundville derived ceramics, such as
Moundville Incised and Moundville Engraved types are
common to Fort Walton and Pensacola assemblages.
Pensacola ceramics tend to increase in frequency in later Fort
Walton ceramic assemblages from sites located west of the
Apalachicola Valley. Such an increase likely represents

increasing social and economic influence from the Mobile Bay
region late in the period (Brose and Percy 1978; Mikell 1992).
Brose and Percy (1978) note that Fort Walton sites located
west of the Apalachicola Valley are found primarily along the
coast from St. Andrew Bay to Mobile Bay. These Fort Walton
sites consist of a few ceremonial centers along with a number
of small villages and campsites. Brose and Percy conclude
that Fort Walton west of the Apalachicola appears to be a
continuation of the Weeden Island socio-economic pattern
with the addition of Mississippian social organization as
derived from earlier Fort Walton developments in the








Table 2. Radiocarbon dates discussed in text.

Site Provenience/context Radiocarbon age' 2 sigma calibrated result Sample #
81tL61 Block A, EU 9/Feaure 4 830+60 YBP A.D. 1040-1285 Beta 139436
81r 543 TU 3, level 3/Feature 1 930+50 YBP A.D. 1010-1220 Beta 54894
81VL543 TU 1, level 3/midden 1440+50 YBP A.D. 870-1050 Beta 54893
'C13/C12 ratio estimated 2 Data based used: INTERCAL98 (Stuiver et al. 1998)

Chattahoochee/Apalachicola Valley, Tallahassee Red Hills,
and Mobile Bay/lower Alabama River regions. I have previ-
ously attempted to define three phases of the Fort Walton
variant on Choctawhatchee Bay (Mikell 1992, 1995b): Little's
Bayou (A.D. 900-1200). Indian Bayou (A.D. 1200-1450), and
Fourmile Point (A.D. 1450-1700).
Fuller (1985, 1998), Milanich (1994), and Stowe (1985)
view Pensacola as a Moundville-derived coastal manifestation
or variant. The area encompassed by the Pensacola variant
includes the northern Gulf Coast from Choctawhatchee Bay
west to the Pascagoula River in Mississippi and up the
Tombigbee and Alabama River to about Jackson and Camden,
Alabama, respectively. Three phases have been defined:
Andrews Place (A.D. 1000-1200), Bottle Creek (A.D. 1200-
1500). and Bear Point (A.D. 1500-1700).
Late Weeden Island and Fort Walton sites are similarly
distributed on Choctawhatchee and St. Andrew Bays, both
sharing a subsistence economy based on estuarine fishing and
terrestrial hunting and gathering (Mikell 1993; Mikell et al.
1989; Milanich 1994: Thomas and Campbell 1993). Nearly
identical settlement and subsistence patterns alone imply that
on the northwest Florida Gulf Coast, Late Weeden Island and
Fort Walton are related cultural entities, if not the same people
separated by a few generations, but bound by continuity. This
relationship is evident not only in settlement and subsistence
patterns, but also in the pottery left behind.

8WL543 (The Little's Bayou West site)

During the winter of 1992, test excavations were conducted
at the Little's Bayou West site (Figure 2), which is located in
a hardwood hammock and isolated between two bayous along
the southeastern shoreline of Choctawhatchee Bay in Walton
County (Mikell 1993). Details of the results of test excava-
tions have been presented previously in The Florida Anthro-
pologist, but a summary is pertinent here. The site consists of
scattered, fairly thin and small shell middens containing light
to moderate densities of artifacts, prompting my suggestion
that the Little's Bayou West site is the remains of small, and
perhaps, seasonal or intermittent settlements (Mikell 1993:17).
Three distinct, but apparently temporally related shell middens
were tested, resulting in the recovery of a mix of Late Weeden
Island and Fort Walton ceramics, faunal remains, and charred
botanical remains. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from
shell and charcoal samples taken in two of the three shell
midden deposits, indicating that a transitional period occupa-
tion or occupations were present there around A.D. 1000. The

8WL543 Late Weeden Island and Fort Walton ceramic
assemblage and radiocarbon dates were the initial documented
evidence of the Little's Bayou phase on Choctawhatchee Bay.
The inhabitants of 8WL543 left behind an interesting
ceramic assemblage. The ceramics were typical of Late
Weeden Island sites in northwest Florida except that a small
number of Fort Walton ceramic types also were present. There
were no distinct Weeden Island and Fort Walton deposits
within the individual shell middens and overlapping radiocar-
bon dates from two distinct shell middens suggested the
middens represent temporally related depositional episodes.
Late Weeden Island ceramics clearly dominated the shell
midden deposits encountered by each test unit, except TU 3
where Fort Walton ceramics were somewhat more numerous,
especially in a small pit feature encountered below the shell
midden (Mikell 1993:16 and Table 1). Fort Walton types
made up 12.3 percent of the assemblage at 8WL543 and Lake
Jackson Plain sherds were consistently recovered in direct
association with Weeden Island ceramics. A curious mixing
of Weeden Island and Fort Walton tempering traditions not
usually seen in "pure" Weeden Island and Fort Walton
assemblages was also evident in plain and check stamped
ceramics where combinations of fine sand, coarse sand,
granulated quartz or quartzite (grit), and grog tempering were
found in individual sherds and vessels. The 8WL543 ceramic
assemblage, with its mixture of Fort Walton and Weeden
Island "types" and ware characteristics certainly appeared
Recent recalibration (Table 2) of the radiocarbon dates
obtained in 1993 (930+50 and 1440+50 radiocarbon YBP)
indicate that the dates for the apparent transitional occupation
of 8WL543 fall between A.D. 870 to 1220 at 2 sigma (A.D.
870-1050 and A.D. 1010-1220). Although the overlap in the
dates is not as great as previously thought and spans a wider
range than I reported for 1 sigma calibration in 1993, the
middens from which the dates were obtained were deposited
during the transitional Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton
period. The midden deposit which produced the later date
produced more Fort Walton ceramics and sherds with Lake
Jackson ware characteristics than the earlier dated midden, but
each midden deposit contained both Weeden Island and Fort
Walton ceramics. The recalibrated dates (Table 2) indicate,
again, that the Little's Bayou West ceramic assemblage is
consistent with those proposed for the transitional Wakulla
and Chattahoochee Landing phases in the Apalachicola Valley
(Brose 1984, 1985; Brose and Percy 1978; Percy and Brose
1974; Scarry 1980, 1981).


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


8WL61 (The Clay Creek site)

In contrast to 8WL543, site 8WL61 is an extensive,
multicomponent site with a Late Archaic lithic scatter compo-
nent as well as village midden associated with Late Weeden
Island through Late Fort Walton period occupations. Deep
shell midden and features filled with dense deposits of cultural
remains characterized this site. 8WL61 is situated 3.5 km
west of 8WL543 on the southern shoreline of Choctawhatchee
Bay. Like Little's Bayou West, 8WL61 is situated in a
hardwood hammock, 8 to 10 feet above the bay, on a landform
that is somewhat isolated by Clay Creek Bayou and adjacent
wetlands (Figure 3).
I began excavations at 8WL61 with a group of volunteers
during the fall of 1995, after Florida development of the site
area had begun. Despite the fact that the site was considered
significant as early as 1961, when William C. Lazarus
recorded it as the Eden Park I site with the Florida Master Site
File, and again when I updated the file in early 1995, wetlands
and construction permits were approved for an access road and
bridge crossing the head of Clay Creek Bayou, seawall
construction and construction of a "cottage." If it were not for
the cooperation of the landowner and the volunteer efforts that
went into its excavation, yet another important site would have
completely slipped through the cracks in state and county site
preservation and protection programs and would have been
lost. It should be noted that prior to 2001, Walton County had
no historic preservation ordinance, which furthered the
problem of archaeological resources loss to development.
Although over 120 square meters have been excavated at
8WL61 and an impressive collection of data is in the slow
process of unfunded processing and analysis, an expanded 2m2
excavation unit (Block A) and the large refuse pit it encoun-
tered (Feature 4) will be the focus of the 8WL61 data presented
here. Figure 3 illustrates characteristics of the site area,
including topography, the location of Block A and other
excavation units and the development layout plans as of the
winter of 1999. Figure 4 illustrates the excavation plan of
Block A and Figure 5 provides a profile illustration of Feature
4 along the east walls of units 6 and 7. A discussion of the
excavation methods and procedures and a detailed description
of Feature 4 follows.
Block A began as a 1 x 2 m test unit (units 6 and 7). A
thin mantle of humus (Stratum 1) and a 30 to 40 cm thick
shell midden (Stratum II) were hand excavated and screened
using '/4 inch mesh. The midden deposit included a distinct
lens of whole oyster and midden debris along the western
portion of the unit. At the base of the midden deposit at 40
cm, in virtually all of unit 6 and the northwest /2 of unit 7, an
ashy, gray to light gray lens of midden material was encoun-
tered. The southwestern portion of unit 7 contained light gray
to white sand (Stratum IV). The ashy midden lens would
prove to be the upper portion of a large pit feature (Feature 4)
that would eventually measure nearly 2 m in diameter,
extending beyond unit 6 to the north and units 8 and 9 later
excavated to the west. The white sand encountered in unit 7
also would prove to be significant as it appeared to be cultur-

ally sterile sand associated with a relict dune formation (Figure
3). Units 6 and 7 were then excavated to 120 cm with the
contents of Feature 4 excavated separately. This created a
nearly complete profile of the pit feature along the west wall
of the 1 x 2 m unit, but unit 6 had to be enlarged (50 cm) to
the north and east in order to expose the entire feature. The
pit extended to a maximum depth of 116 cm, where it seemed
to truncate at the interface of the white sand (Stratum IV) and
a sterile layer of brownish yellow sand (Stratum V). The
northern extension of unit 6 also encountered an additional
layer of gray to light gray sand (Stratum III), which was a
leaching zone below the midden that transitioned into Stratum
IV. Units 8 and 9 were then excavated to 40 cm and with a 50
cm northern extension of unit 8 and the remainder of Feature
4 was exposed and a plan view reconstructed. The pit mea-
sured 2.1 m (NE to SW) by 1.8 m (E to W) at 40 cm. Units 8
and 9 were then excavated to 120 cm and flotation, charcoal,
and bulk matrix samples were taken from Feature 4, as it was
excavated separately from the surrounding matrix. Distinct
strata, which appeared to be discrete dumping episodes noted
in the profile of the pit (Figure 5) also were excavated and
sampled separately.
Aside from the interesting array of ceramics, faunal
remains, charred wood and other plant remains recovered from
both the sheet midden zone (Stratum II) and the refuse pit
(Feature 4), the apparent size of the pit and questions about its
function were driving forces behind the desire to excavate it
completely, along with the possibility of its impending
destruction. Based on the fact that the pit appeared to truncate
at the interface of Stratum IV and Stratum V (see Figure 5), it
seems evident that the pit was dug in order to extract the white
sand layer (Stratum IV) within the pit. The pit, which
constituted a rather large hole in the midst of a village, was
then utilized as a refuse disposal pit. Assuming the open pit
would present a potential hazard, it was likely rapidly filled
with refuse over a short period of time, creating a sort of time
capsule. As such, the contents of Feature 4, offered an
outstanding opportunity to glimpse into the past, regardless of
its age. As it turned out, it just so happened that Feature 4 was
created during a time, as we see it today, when ceramics, and
perhaps culture, were in a period of transition between two
well-established and distinct norms that we call Late Weeden
Island and Fort Walton.
Whether or not the pit was excavated down through an
existing shell midden is not entirely clear, but it is clear that
there is no evidence of materials associated with either that
predates Late Weeden Island (e.g., Early Weeden Island or
Santa Rosa Swift Creek). The midden lying above Feature 4
contained both Weeden Island and Fort Walton series ceram-
ics, but the upper portion of the midden contained both a
higher density of Fort Walton ceramics and shell tempered
sherds (Pensacola). No shell tempered ceramics were recov-
ered from Feature 4, implying that the pit and the midden
above it are temporally distinct deposits.


Table 3. Ceramic artifacts recovered at 8WL61 in Excavation Block A (units 6-9, unit extensions, and Feature 4).

Level Level Level Level Level Feature
Fort Walton Series 1 2 3 4 5 4 Total
Lake Jackson Plain 26 28 5 2 -- 26 87
Lake Jackson Incised 14 11 2 -- 19 46
Fort Walton Incised 6 13 4 -- -- 11 34
Cool Branch Incised -- -- -- -- 6 6
Pensacola Incised 3 4 -- 1 -- -- 8
Mississippi Plain 8 5 5 -- -- -- 18
Bell Plain 11 3 1 -- -- -- 15
Totals 68 64 17 3 62 214

Weeden Island Series
Wakulla Check Stamped 2 16 21 26 2 58 125
Weeden Island Plain 4 18 32 25 1 79 159
Carrabelle Incised -- -- -- -- -- 23 23
Carrabelle Punctated (fingernail) 2 -- 18 22 1 28 71
Carrabelle Punct. (reed/tooled) 1 2 -- 12 -- 15 31
Ruskin Dentate Stamped -- -- -- -- -
Englewood Incised -- -- -- -- -- 1 1
West Florida Cord Marked (late) -- 2 -- 2 -- 4
Papy's Bayou Punctated (reed) -- -- -- 2 3 -- 5
Totals 9 36 73 87 9 205 419

Undifferentiated sherds
Sand tempered plain 24 28 38 31 5 85 211
Grit tempered plain 29 19 6 2 1 27 84
Sand/grog tempered plain 4 4 3 1 1 1 14
Grog tempered plain 6 2 -- 1 -- -- 9
Temperless plain (Papy's Bayou) 1 -- -- 2 1 1 5
Sand tempered incised 3 4 10 12 -- 3 32
Sand/grog tempered incised 2 1 -- 1 -- 1 5
Totals 69 58 57 50 8 118 360
Grand Totals 146 158 147 140 17 385 993

Although artifact density in Block A was high, a fairly
limited range of ceramic types and domestic refuse artifacts
were recovered from the shell midden and Feature 4. Pottery
(n=993 sherds and 47 sherdlets), a few pieces of chert (n=3)
and quartzite (n=4) debitage, a deer metalpodial awl fragment,
vertebrate (mammal, turtle, and fish) and invertebrate (oyster,
Rangia, and quahog) faunal remains, and charred botanical
remains (wood charcoal and persimmon seeds) were recovered
from the midden and pit feature. The pit feature contained a
high density of materials, including several large sherds. In
fact, the density of pottery in Feature 4 was quite high as 385
sherds, or 38.8 percent of the Block A assemblage, were
recovered from the 4.46 cubic meters of feature fill. Table 3
presents the ceramic types and counts for the recovered
specimens, but does not include those undecorated sherds less
than /4 inch in size.

The 8WL61 Block A Ceramic Assemblage

Sorting criteria for the 8WL61, excavation Block A
ceramic assemblage was based on established typologies
(Fuller and Stowe 1982; Sears 1967; Scarry 1985; Willey
1949), but did not consider type/variety taxonomies (Fuller and
Stowe 1982; Scarry 1985) since none has been developed for
Weeden Island series ceramics generally, or for Fort Walton
series assemblages specific to the project area. Ceramics were
sorted by a combination of exterior surface treatment or design
element and tempering agents. Similar sets of criteria were
applied to sorting the 8WL543 assemblage during reanalysis,
making comparisons between each site assemblage more
compatible (Table 1). Sherds that were straight-forward "fits"
with defined types were classified as such and ware character-
istics were noted. Undifferentiated specimens were sorted
using the same ware characteristic criteria. Ware characteris-


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


tics noted include grit (visible angular, assumed to have been
crushed, quartzite or quartz granules) versus coarse sand
(visibly rounded larger sand particles) and fine sand (smaller
rounded or granulated sand), and grog or sand/grog tempering
Virtually all Weeden Island series sherds in the assemblage
are sand and/or coarse sand tempered sherds, many with a
micaceous paste. Smoothed and burnished exterior plain
vessel body sherds with these characteristics were classified as
Weeden Island Plain. Fort Walton ceramics are primarily
sand and sand/grit tempered wares and all shell tempered
sherds are considered "Pensacola" types. Classification placed

shell) and are not noted separately in Table 3 from their type
Rim sherd morphology, as defined by Willey (1949) also
was a sorting criterion, especially in the separation of sand-
tempered Weeden Island Plain and Lake Jackson Plain. All
grit tempered plain sherds were classified as either Lake
Jackson Plain or undifferentiated grit tempered plain and are
considered to be Fort Walton-related. Although many re-
searchers identify pinched or fluted rim treatments as later
Jefferson Ware attributes, in the Choctawhatchee Bay area
sand tempered Lake Jackson Plain pinched or fluted rims are
common to Fort Walton assemblages and were recovered in

Table 4. Percentages of ceramic artifacts recovered in Excavation Block A (units 6-9, unit extensions, and Feature 4).

Level Level Level Level Level Fea. Sample
Fort Walton Series 1 2 3 4 5 4 Total
Lake Jackson Plain 2.6% 2.8% .5% .2% 2.6% 8.7%
Lake Jackson Incised 1.4% 1.1% .2% -- -- 1.9% 4.6%
Fort Walton Incised .6% 1.3% .4% -- 1.1% 3.4%
Cool Branch Incised -- -- -- -- -- .6% .6%
Pensacola Incised .3% .4% -- .1% -- .8%
Mississippi Plain .8% .5% .5% -- -- 1.8%
Bell Plain 1.1% .3% .1% -- -- -- 1.5%
Totals 6.8% 6.4% 1.7% .3% 6.2% 21.4%

Weeden Island Series
Wakulla Check Stamped .2% 1.6% 2.1% 2.6% .2% 5.8% 12.5%
Weeden Island Plain .4% 1.8% 3.2% 2.5% .1% 8.0% 16.0%
Carrabelle Incised -- -- -- -- -- 2.3% 2.3%
Carrabelle Punctated (fingernail) .2% -- 1.8% 2.2% .1% 2.8% 7.1%
Carrabelle Punct. (reed/tooled) .1% .2% -- 1.2% -- 1.5% 3.1%
Ruskin Dentate Stamped-- -- -- -- .1%
Englewood Incised -- -- -- -- -- .1% .1%
West Florida Cord Marked (late) -- .2% .2% -- .4%
Papy's Bayou Punctated (reed) -- -- -- .2% .3% -- .5%
Totals .9% 3.6% 7.3% 8.7% .9% 20.6% 42.0%

Undifferentiated sherds
Sand tempered plain 2.4% 2.8% 3.8% 3.2% .5% 8.6% 21.2%
Grit tempered plain 2.9% 1.9% .6% .2% .1% 2.7% 8.4%
Sand/grog tempered plain .4% .4% .3% .1% .1% .1% 1.4%
Grog tempered plain .6% .2% -- .1% -- .9%
Temperless plain (Papy's Bayou) .1% -- .2% .1% .1% .5%
Sand tempered incised .3% .4% 1.0% 1.2% -- .3% 3.2%
Sand/grog tempered incised .2% .1% -- .1% -- .1% .5%
Totals 6.9% 5.8% 5.7% 5.0% .8% 11.9% 36.1%
Percent of Grand Totals 14.6 15.8 14.7 14.0 1.7 38.7 99.5%

emphasis on design and ware characteristics, respectively, but
a few Weeden Island (n=4), Fort Walton (n=5), and Pensacola
(n=l) sherds included grog as a tempering agent (with sand or

Feature 4 and Block A at 8WL61. The presence of pinched or
fluted Lake Jackson Plain rim decorations in clearly defined
Fort Walton assemblages (Jones and Penman 1973:80-81;



Mikell 1995a: 108), demonstrates that such rim treatments
predate the Late Fort Walton to early historic or Mission
period. As Willey (1949:484-485) illustrates, similar rim
decoration is common to Safety Harbor ceramics as well.
Although it should be recognized as a possibility, there was
no evidence ofpre-Weeden Island material recovered in Block
A. As a consequence, all check stamped vessel body sherds
are classified as Wakulla Check Stamped. A small number of
temperless sherds also were recovered (n=10) and are classi-
fied as Papy's Bayou Punctated and temperless (Papy's
Bayou?) plain.
A quick breakdown of the Block A ceramic assemblage
(Table 4) indicates the following characteristics. To begin
with, 21.4 percent of the assemblage is classified as Fort
Walton and Pensacola types, with 42 percent identified as
Weeden Island types and 36.2 percent classified as undifferen-
tiated. The most common types are Weeden Island Plain,
Wakulla Check Stamped, fingernail and reed/tool punctated
sherds classified as Carrabelle Punctated, and Lake Jackson
Plain. The most common undifferentiated categories include
sand tempered plain, grit tempered plain, and sand tempered
incised. As previously noted, a small number of grog, sand
and grog, and shell and grog tempered sherds were recovered,
which include 19 undifferentiated sherds (Table 3), as well as
sherds classified as Lake Jackson Plain (n=4), Carrabelle
Punctated (n=3), Carrabelle Incised (n=l), Cool Branch
Incised (n=l), and Mississippi Plain (n=l). Otherwise, 72.3
percent of the ceramics are fine or coarse sand tempered, 19.9
percent are grit tempered, 4.0 percent are shell tempered, and
.9 percent are temperless.
A significantly higher proportion (61.7 percent) of the Fort
Walton and Pensacola ceramics were recovered from the upper
20 cm of the shell midden (levels 1 and 2), including all shell
tempered sherds. Comparatively, barely 6 percent (6.2
percent) was recovered from the feature and 2 percent from
levels 3 and 4 (20-40 cm). The same is virtually true for
undifferentiated grit tempered sherds, which are assumed to be
Fort Walton-related ceramics, as 57.1 percent were recovered
in the upper portion of the shell midden. Conversely, identi-
fied Weeden Island sherds are more concentrated in the middle
to lower portion (10-50 cm) of the shell midden (20.5 percent)
with 42 percent recovered from Feature 4. The concentration
of Fort Walton ceramics in the upper portion of the shell
midden and Weeden Island ceramics in the middle and lower
portion indicate that, as expected, the shell midden was, in
part contemporaneous with, and certainly post-dates the pit
feature (Feature 4) encountered below it.
Nearly 40 percent (38.7 percent) of the Block A ceramic
assemblage was recovered from Feature 4. The Feature 4
assemblage (n=385) is made up of the following ceramic types,
ranked by the proportion of the feature assemblage: Weeden
Island Plain, Wakulla Check Stamped, Carrabelle Punctated,
Lake Jackson Plain, Carrabelle Incised, Lake Jackson Incised,
Fort Walton Incised, Cool Branch Incised, Ruskin Dentate
Stamped and Englewood Incised. Unidentified sherds account
for 30.6 percent of the Feature 4 assemblage, with undifferen-
tiated sand tempered and grit tempered plain sherds constitut-

ing 95 percent of the undifferentiated pottery in the feature.
Feature 4 contained what I would consider, on the surface, to
be a transitional ceramic assemblage. But there is more,
including a radiocarbon date and characteristics of the ceramic
assemblage yet to be described.

The 8WL61 and 8WL543 Ceramics and Their Context

Excavation Block A at 8WL61 serves as an excellent
example of how shell middens with mixed ceramic compo-
nents do not compare well with temporally isolated features,
such as Feature 4 at 8WL61, or even single component shell
midden sites such as 8WL543. In Block A, despite the fact
that the ceramics were pretty much where they were supposed
to be in the shell midden, with Fort Walton and Pensacola
pottery concentrated to a large extent above Weeden Island
ceramics, there was still considerable mixing of the two series
types. The occurrence of shell tempered Pensacola types
indicates that the shell midden is, at least in part, a later
depositional event relative to the filling of Feature 4, which
contained no Pensacola ceramics. This implies that the shell
midden has been disturbed to some extent by human activity
and bioturbation. Hence, specific data from the shell midden
is less likely to be as reliable as that from an undisturbed
feature and would potentially contain more noise than a single
component site. Having stated the obvious, I would like to
continue with considering Feature 4 at 8WL61 as a time
capsule and the 8WL543 data as reliably single component.
The relatively high density of Late Weeden Island ceramic
types and the smaller amount of Fort Walton pottery recovered
from Feature 4 certainly suggests a transitional period time-
frame for the filling of this particular refuse pit. With the shell
middens at 8WL543 dated between A.D. 900 and A.D. 1200,
a calibrated radiocarbon date for Feature 4 was expected to fall
between A.D. 1000 and A.D. 1200. To my delight, Beta
Analytic, Inc. returned a date of 830+60 radiocarbon YBP,
which calibrates at 2 sigma to between A.D.1040 to 1285
(Table 2). The date was obtained from a sample of charcoal
recovered from the sloping lens of charcoal-rich oyster and
clam midden deposited in the pit along the southern end of the
pit near its base (Figure 5). The radiocarbon date firmly
establishes that the assemblage is associated with the transi-
tional Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton transitional period.
The radiocarbon date from Feature 4 at 8WL61 also overlaps
with both dates obtained from 8WL543 (Table 3) and compli-
ments the findings at 8WL543.

The Ceramic Complex as the Face of Change

I will not attempt to define the transitional ceramic
complex in terms of type percentages or in terms of the
minutia of sand or grit tempering size. There is simply too
much continuity between, and variability within, Late Weeden
Island and the earliest Fort Walton ceramics. It is not until
after A.D. 1200-1300 that later Fort Walton ceramic assem-
blages are clearly distinct from earlier Late Weeden Island-
derived assemblages. In later Indian Bayou and Four Mile


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 6. Wakulla Check Stamped rim sherds recovered from Feature 4.

Figure 7. Weeden Island Plain rim sherds recovered from Feature 4.




Figure 8. Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, and Ruskin Dentate Stamped sherds recovered from Feature 4. Top
row: Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctated (fingernail), Ruskin Dentate Stamped. Bottom row: Carrabelle Incised
(1-3), Carrabelle fingernail Punctated (4-6), Carrabelle reed Punctated (7).

Figure 9. Lake Jackson Plain and Incised rim sherds recovered from Feature 4. Top row: Lake Jackson Incised with
node, Lake Jackson Plain with strap or loop handle, Lake Jackson Incised with node. Bottom row: Lake Jackson Plain
with node, Lake Jackson Plain, Lake Jackson Plain with notched rim lip, Lake Jackson Plain with fluted rim treatment.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Figure 10. Lake Jackson Plain rim sherds recovered from Feature 4. Left: pinched rim treatment, right: fluted rim

Figure 11. Cool Branch and Fort Walton Incised sherds recovered from Feature 4. Top row: Cool Branch Incised.
Bottom row: Fort Walton Incised.




'c 5
M -cm
,- *.m

Figure 12. Weeden Island Punctated rim sherd with Fort Walton-like punch and drag incised "looping scroll" design

Figure 13. Weeden Island or Carrabelle Incised rim sherd with Cool Branch or Moundville Incised-like "arches and
embellishing lines" design motif.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Point phase assemblages Point Washington Incised, Marsh
Island Incised, later varieties of Fort Walton Incised (e.g., var.
Choctawhatchee; Scany 1985:218-219), and Pensacola
ceramics become widespread and obviously important. The
transition was a slow process and apparently Weeden Island
ceramic types, such as Wakulla Check Stamped, persist until
ca. A.D. 1200 and are commonly found in Fort Walton
assemblages from the Choctawhatchee and St. Andrew Bay
areas (Mikell 1995b; Mikell et al. 1989; Thomas and Camp-
bell 1993). Yet, by no later than A.D. 1300, Weeden Island
ceramics are no longer found in Fort Walton assemblages.
Apparently the transition was not as long-lived to the west of
the Choctawhatchee Bay-St. Andrews Bay region on Mobile
Bay, where Weeden Island ceramics disappear by A.D. 1000-
1100 in Early Salt Creek and Andrews Place complexes
(Fuller 1998:24-25).
Beginning with a list of Weeden Island types normally
associated with Late Weeden Island manifestations and adding
Fort Walton types found at 8WL543 and 8WL61, a general-
ized transitional Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton ceramic
assemblage begins to take shape. The following types are
considered significant transitional period types and several
examples are illustrated in Figures 6 through 13:

Most common types:
Wakulla Check Stamped
Weeden Island Plain
Carrabelle Punctated

Carrabelle Incised

Lake Jackson Plain
Lake Jackson Incised

Common to occasional types:
Cool Branch Incised
Fort Walton Incised
Weeden Island/Papy's Bayou
Weeden Island/Papy's Bayou
West Florida Cordmarked
Englewood Incised
Ruskin Dentate Stamped

The pottery types subsumed by the list above are generally
characterized by the following criteria. The vast majority of
Weeden Island ceramics and up to 80 percent of the Fort
Walton ceramics are sand tempered and often have a mica-
ceous, granular to laminated compact paste. Globular bowls,
collared bowls and jars, and occasional beakers with both
simple and folded straight, everted, and incurvate rims are the
most common vessel forms. Surface smoothing varies and
occasionally vessels are burnished. Plain and check stamped
ceramics are in the majority and Wakulla Check Stamped and
Weeden Island Plain are the most common Weeden Island
types, followed by Carrabelle Punctated and Incised. Compli-
cated stamping is absent and typical Weeden Island Incised
and Punctated designs and fine-pasted zone painted, zone
punctated, and highly burnished wares are rare, as less refined
ceramics form the vast majority of transitional assemblages.
Cord marking and dentate stamping may occasionally occur as
exterior surface decorations.
A small percentage (ca. 20 percent) of early Fort Walton
ceramics are grit tempered (granulated or crushed quartz or
quartzite particles) and have compact to lumpy and contorted
paste that is occasionally be micaceous. Collared bowls and
jars and occasional beakers with straight, everted, and occa-

sional incurvate thickened rims are the most common vessel
forms. Vessel rims may have appliques, such as loop or strap
handles or nodes common to early to middle Mississippian
assemblages in Alabama and Georgia, and are commonly
notched along the lip of the rim. Lake Jackson Plain and
Incised rims are often pinched or fluted. Vessel exterior
smoothing varies, but burnishing is extremely rare and plain
ceramics are most common. The majority of decorated
ceramics have generally simple, rim and collar-oriented
incising. Lake Jackson Plain and Incised, Cool Branch
Incised, and simple forms of Fort Walton Incised are the most
common Fort Walton types in transitional assemblages. Cool
Branch Incised may be considered a marker of transitional to
early Fort Walton phases since it, and its shell tempered
counterpart, Moundville Incised, are generally considered
early Mississippian ceramic types. Transitional or early Fort
Walton ceramics will exhibit greater variability in rim modes
and rim notching relative to later assemblages, especially later
mortuary vessel assemblages. Shell tempered ceramics are
non-existent to rare and, if present, may be intrusive materials.
Grog, sand and grog, and/or grit and tempering and
temperless pottery is occasionally present in both transitional
Late Weeden Island and early Fort Walton ceramics, but
generally constitutes a small minority of assemblages.
Transitional period assemblages potentially exhibit greater
variability in tempering agents with grit and shell tempered
ceramics becoming more common later in the phase (Mikell
1992, 1993, 1995a, 1995b). Sizable portions of transitional
assemblages (30 to 50 percent) are most likely classified as
undifferentiated plain, primarily sand or grit tempered, due to
high densities of plain wares in these assemblages.
A few additional characteristics should be noted here as
well. The 8WL61 assemblage indicates that Carrabelle
Punctated (fingernail) and Incised (simple rows of offset
(angled) and vertical lines) are common Late Weeden Island
and transitional period types. In fact, fingernail punctated
pottery, while common throughout much of the Weeden Island
period, may increase in popularity to the point of being a
marker of the Late Weeden Island to early Fort Walton
transition period on the Choctawhatchee. While White (1982)
outlines problems with the establishment of Fort Walton
phases, "early" Fort Walton types, such as Cool Branch
Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, and Lake Jackson Incised with
lugs and strap handles, appear to be derived from or related to
early to middle Mississippian phases such as the Rood phase
in the Chattahoochee Valley (Caldwell 1955; Schnell et al.
1981) and the Cayson, Yon, and Lake Jackson phases of the
Apalachicola Valley and Tallahassee Hills (Brose 1984; Brose
and Percy 1978; Jones and Penman 1973; Scarry 1984, 1985).
A curious combination of Weeden Island and Fort Walton
exterior decorative traits also may be found on ceramics from
transitional period sites. Two rim sherds recovered at 8WL61
illustrate this point very well (Figures 12 and 13). Both are
typical fine to medium sand tempered, micaceous paste sherds
with typical Weeden Island rim morphology, but each is
decorated with a design that is, at the very least, reminiscent
of designs more commonly associated with later Mississippian



The first example (Figure 12) is a rim sherd from a
globular bowl with an incurvate, folded rim with a pointed lip,
and a punch and drag decorative line along the center of the
thickened and smoothed rim fold. The vessel type, rim form,
and ware characteristics are basically Weeden Island, yet the
design is a band of running scrolls guillochee) superimposed
on a field of punctations typical of certain variations of Fort
Walton Incised. Aside from the scroll being divided by a
punch and drag line and a variation in which the scrolls loop
into one another, the design is very similar to those found on
many later Fort Walton Incised collared vessels and their later
"cousins," Ocmulgee Fields Incised (e.g., Scarry 1985:216,
224; Willey 1949:492, 494). Similar design elements are
present in Safety Harbor ceramics (e.g., Willey 1949:482-484).
This sherd appears to be Fort Walton Incised, but the folded
rim, highly micaceous paste, and punch and drag incising are
typical of Weeden Island ceramics. I suggest that this sherd is
a "transitional hybrid."
The second example (Figure 13), which would normally be
classified as either Weeden Island or Carrabelle Incised,
appears to be an unusual version of Cool Branch Incised on a
rim sherd from a globular bowl with an incurvate, folded rim
with a rounded lip. The rim form and paste on this vessel are
characteristic of Weeden Island ceramics. The design, how-
ever, may be akin to Moundville Incised var. Moundville or
Cool Branch Incised var. Fort Gaines (Scarry 1985:212-214)
where the "embellishing" incised lines radiate downward from
the incised arcades, as opposed to upward from them. A
similar sherd also was recovered in Feature 4 at 8WL61
(Figure 11).

Summary and Conclusions

Two sites, 8WL61 and 8WL543 have provided invaluable
data associated with the transitional period between what is
clearly Late Weeden Island (no defined phase) and mature Fort
Walton (Indian Bayou phase), tentatively termed the Little's
Bayou phase (Mikell 1993). During the period of A.D. 800-
1200, it is apparent from certain characteristics of the ceramic
assemblages that the indigenous Weeden Island folk who
inhabited the Choctawhatchee Bay area began to accept
outside influences and incorporate new ideas into their
material culture. The main source of these outside influences
appears to be the Chattahoochee/Apalachicola Valley and the
Tallahassee Hills region where similar ceramics occur in
Wakulla, Chattahoochee Landing, Rood, Cayson, and Lake
Jackson phase contexts, rather than Andrews Place or other
Moundville-derived contexts from the Mobile Bay area.
The ceramic assemblages from 8WL61 and 8WL543 are
indicative of the transitional nature of culture during the A.D.
900-1200 timeframe on Choctawhatchee Bay. In the ceramic
assemblages, the transition is clearly a slow movement from
the more mundane Late Weeden Island assemblages domi-
nated by check stamped, fingernail punctated, and plain
pottery to the more stylistically sophisticated and standardized
ceramic assemblages of the mature Fort Walton Indian Bayou

and Four Mile point phases. During the transition, Fort
Walton ceramics slowly become part of the potter's repertoire
and eventually dominate and then completely replace Weeden
Island tradition ceramics by A.D. 1200 to 1300.
Definition of the transitional period is not complete and
refinement will surely come. Perhaps one day the Little's
Bayou phase will be clearly defined. To begin with, as
analysis of the volumes of materials recovered from 8WL61
continues, more data pertinent to the phase will be generated.
For now, however, the 8WL61 data drawn from the excavation
of a single self-contained and undisturbed large refuse pit, has
presented a unique opportunity to examine a time capsule of
sorts. Within the pit were the remains of daily life gathered
for disposal and deposited over what is assumed to be a short
period of time. Itjust so happens that such a seemingly minor
event took place at the right time to allow us examine the Late
Weeden Island-Fort Walton transition at 8WL61. The face of
change is a little clearer as a result.


An early version of this paper was presented at the 2000
Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Macon, Georgia. I would
like to thank the 8WL61 property owner, Mr. Robert Capps for
allowing me and my intrepid volunteers (Bill and Jean Lucas, Bob
Nagle, Paula Cook, and Steve Rabby-Smith) to work on such an
important site. I also want to point that if it were not for the labor of
such volunteers, much good work in northwest Florida would not be
accomplished. I would also like to thank the FA reviewers whose
suggestions improved the clarity of this paper.

References Cited

Brose, David S.
1984 Mississippian Period Cultures in Northwest Florida. In
Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory, edited by Dave D.
Davis. University Presses of Florida.
1985 "Willey-Nilly" or the Archaeology of Northwest Florida
and Adjacent Borderlands Revisited. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 38:156-162.

Brose, David S., and George Percy
1978 Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian Settle-
ment Patterns, edited by Bruce Smith. Academic Press,
New York.

Brose, Davis, S., and Duncan C. Wilkie
1980 A Fort Walton Camp Site (8Ja201) at the Scholz Steam
PlantParking Lot. TheFloridaAnthropologist 38:156-162.

Caldwell, Joseph R.
1955 Investigations at Rood's landing, Stewart County, Georgia.
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Fuller, Richard S.
1985 The Bear Point Phase of the Pensacola Variant: The
Protohistoric Period in Southwest Alabama. The Florida
Anthropologist 38:150-155.
1998 Indian Pottery and Cultural Chronology of the Mobile-
Tensaw Basin and Alabama Coast. Journal of Alabama
Archaeology 44:1-51.

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



Fuller, Richard S., and Noel R. Stowe
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Investigations 42.

Lazarus, Yulee W.
1987 The Case of the Face-Down Burial: A Possible Explanation
for a Unique Burial from Site 8BY39, Bay County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 40:321-327.

Mikell, Gregory A.
1992 The Fort Walton Mississippian Variant on the Northwest
Florida Gulf Coast. Southeastern Archaeology 11(1): 51-
1993 The Little's Bayou West Site: Evidence of the Late Weeden
Island-Fort Walton Transition in Northwest Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 46:12-19.
1994 8WL38, A Protohistoric Village Site on Choctawhatchee
Bay. The Florida Anthropologist 47:233-268.
1995a Bell and Brooks Street: Two Fort Walton Village Sites on
Choctawhatchee Bay. The Florida Anthropologist 48:97-
1995b Choctawhatchee Bay Fort Walton, the West Side Story.
The Florida Anthropologist 48:120-132.

Mikell, Gregory A., Janice L. Campbell, and Prentice M. Thomas
1989 Archaeological Site Recording and Testing at Tyndall Air
Force Base, Florida. New World Research, Inc. Report of
Investigations 183.

Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology ofPrecolumbian Florida. University Presses
of Florida.

Milanich, Jerald T., A. Cordell, V. Knight, Jr., T. Kohler, and B.
1984 McKeithen Weeden Island, the Culture of Northern
Florida, A.D. 200-900. Academic Press, New York.

Moore, Clarence B.
1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Coast, Part 1. Journal of the Academy ofNatural Sciences
ofPhiladelphia 11:42-97.
1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Coast, Part 2. Journal of the Academy ofNatural Sciences
ofPhiladelphia 12:127-358.
1908 The Northwest Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of the
Academy of Natural Sciences ofPhiladelphia 16:513-597.

Percy, George W., and David Brose
1974 Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistence, and Village Life in
Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th Annual
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Wash-
ington, D.C.

Scarry, John
1980 The Chronology of Fort Walton Development in the Upper
Apalachicola Valley, Florida. SoutheasternArchaeological
Conference Bulletin 22:38-45.
1981 Fort Walton Culture: ARedefinition. Southeastern Archae-
ological Conference Bulletin 24:18-20.
1984 Fort Walton Development: Mississippian Development in
the Lower Southeast. Ph.d. Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleve-
1985 A Proposed Revision of the Fort Walton Ceramic Typology:
A Type-Variety System. The Florida Anthropologist

Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Gail S. Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee: Archaeology ofaMississippian Ceremo-
nial Center on the Chattahoochee River. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Sears, William H.
1956 Excavations at Kolomoki, Final Report. University of
Georgia Series in Anthropology 5.
1962 Hopwellian Affiliations of Certain Sites on the Gulf Coast
of Florida. American Antiquity 9:25-73.
1967 The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. TheFlorida Anthropolo-
gist 20: 25-74.

Tesar, Louis D.
1980 The Leon County Bicentennial Survey Report: An Archaeo-
logical Survey of Portions of Leon County, Florida. Bureau
of Historic Sites and Properties, Division of Archives,
History, and Records ManagementMiscellaneous Project
Report No. 19. Florida Department of State, Tallahassee.

Thomas, Prentice, and Janice Campbell (editors)
1993 Eglin Air Force Base Historic PreservationPlan. Technical
Synthesis of Cultural Resource Investigations at Eglin,
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and Walton Counties Florida. New
World Research, Inc. Report of Investigations 192.

Walker, S. T.
1885 Mounds and Shell Heaps on the West Coast of Florida.
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute for 1883.

White, Nancy M.
1982 The Curlee Site (8Ja7) and Fort Walton Development in
the Upper Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley.
Ph.d. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Case
Western Reserve University, Cleveland.







Southeast Florida Archaeological Society -
P.O. Box 2875, Stuart 34995-2875
Indian River Anthropological Society
272 Terrace Shores Dr., Indialantic 32903
Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach 32175
St. Augustine Archaeological Association -
P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine 32085

rtheast Florida Anthropological Society
44 Torino PI., Jacksonville 32244

Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola 32591

Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee
2032 Longview Drive, Tallahassee 32303

Central Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 261, Orlando 32801-0621

Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
7701 22nd Avenue N., St. Petersburg 33710

Time Sifters Archaeology Society
P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota 34277
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological & Historical Conservancy
80 Bear Point Lane, Lake Placid 33852

Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples 34101

Broward County Archaeological Society
6720 Nova Drive #7-102, Davie 33317

Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35" Ave., Miami 33142


The Cuban Fishing Ranchos of Southwest Florida: Who
Were the "Spanish Indians?"
The ethnicity of the Native Americans known as "Spanish
Indians" who worked at the 18" and 19t-century Spanish-
Cuban fishing ranchos along the West Coast of Florida
remains uncertain. While using travelers' diaries, customs
collectors' records, maps, and ethnohistorical reports of Indian
tribes, this paper compares accounts of the Spanish Indians
with descriptions of the Calusa, Creek, Seminole, and Mission
Indians in an attempt to determine which groups may best fit
the description of the Spanish Indians. Aspects of their
locations and culture are compared and it is concluded that the
Spanish Indians were originally Calusa; in later years Semi-
noles replace them. However, archaeological research will be
required to confirm this theory.

Update on Excavations at the Fountain of Youth Park
(8SJ31), St. Augustine
Excavations at the Fountain of Youth Park, 8SJ31, in St.
Augustine, Florida have been intermittently conducted since
the 1970's revealing the traces of wall foundations, a Spanish
barrel well, several large post molds and hundreds of Spanish
and Native American artifacts dating to the 16h century.
These findings in conjunction with information obtained from
historical documents, suggest this is the site of the original
settlement of St. Augustine founded by Pedro Men6ndez de
Aviles in 1565. Excavations under the direction of Dr.
KathleenDeagan were most recently undertaken in the Spring
of 2000 and 2001 in an effort to learn more about this first
Spanish settlement and to gain a better understanding of the
relationship between the Spanish settlement and the neighbor-
ing Timucua Indian village. Details of these recent excava-
tions will be incorporated with previous findings to aid in
understanding the initial colonization of St. Augustine and La

Discovery and Management of a Deepwater Historic
Shipwreck in the Gulf of Mexico
This oral presentation will include a ten-minute video of
the discovery of the deepwater shipwreck and how the wreck
was discovered 33 miles offshore in 808-meters (2,652 feet) of
seawater, by an oil and gas company while laying a gas
pipeline. The presentation will also discuss the recovery,

initial analysis and conservation of wood, lead and copper
artifacts from this historic sailing vessel by the Minerals
Management Service (MMS), and provide a summary of what
we know about the wreck to date. Finally, four deepwater
archaeological resource management strategies will be
discussed along with the selection of the appropriate manage-
ment strategy for this shipwreck in the Gulf by the MMS.

The Ins and Outs of Population Movement: Two Case
Studies from Northeastern Florida
Prehistoric peoples, like people today, migrated across the
landscape for a variety of social and political reasons. Migra-
tion studies are currently undergoing renewed popularity in
archaeology, spurred in part by an increased interest in
historical process. This paper briefly addresses the general
concept of migration and explores two northeastern Florida
case studies. The first involves the movement of certain St.
Johns II groups out of the St. Johns River heartland and into
the far northeastern corner of the state around A.D. 900. The
second comprises the southward expansion of St. Marys II
peoples from southeastern Georgia, who crossed the state line
and moved into the region of Nassau and Duval counties about
A.D. 1250.

The People of Colonial Pensacola
Over the past several years faculty and students at the
University of West Florida Archaeology Institute have been
investigating colonial life ways in Pensacola by focusing on
households. This paper will provide the context for a series of
UWF papers by discussing Pensacola's colonial history and
archaeology, and introducing recent archaeological investiga-

Going Digital in Archaeology: No More Film
Taking images is one of the primary means of documenta-
tion in archaeology. Archaeologists have consistently applied
advancements in image technology, and it is now time to "go
digital." Recent advancements in digital imaging hardware
and software make the switch relatively easy and affordable.
This presentation will include both a discussion and demon-
stration of user-friendly image technology and software, along
with guidelines for image management throughout a typical
archaeology project.


VOL. 54(3-4)




Establishing a Ballast Typology System
This report is presented with an aim at establishing a
ballast typology with the formulation of various rock ballast
modal types. The ballast pile is approached not only as a major
archaeological feature, but as an artifact as well. As an artifact,
the ballast pile was constructed by humans and served in
having a definite purpose. Modal types of ballast will be
established with considerations relating to human behavior
patterns regarding the placement of ballast within a vessel.
Problems associated with the sampling of ballast and the
consideration of various sampling techniques are addressed.
The modal types are designed so as persons inexperienced in
rock identification can utilize the system to gather a large
amount of data in a limited amount of time with the least
amount of errors. The data for this report was acquired from
underwater survey and excavation work done on the U.S.S.
Alligator (1820-1822) site that lies off of Alligator Reef near
Islamorada, Florida.

Geoarchaeological Testing of a Floodplain in Georgia
The rapid accumulation of flood borne sediments within
riverine flood plains of the Southeast is a double-edged sword
for the archaeologist. While sites are indeed protected by this
alluvium, they are also obscured. This paper examines a
geoarchaeological, deep testing program that was systemati-
cally implemented within Georgia. This project relied upon
several techniques to locate sites, including laser topographic
maps, infrared photographs, aerial photographs, historical
research, and alluvial geoprospecting. Numerous sites were
located with this testing methodology, at depths in excess of
one meter. These sites include a large, previously unrecorded,
Mississippian mound complex, an Early Archaic site, a Middle
Archaic quarry reduction site, and numerous other sites. This
paper reviews the technological aspects of this multidiscipli-
nary approach and its implementation, and briefly summarizes
the cultural components encountered at each site.

Brooms, Boxes and Ballast Stones: Archaeological Investi-
gations of the Santa Rosa Island Shipwreck
The University of West Florida Archaeology Institute will
conduct a major underwater archaeology project at the site of
the Santa Rosa Island shipwreck during the summer of 2001.
Located in Pensacola sound near Fort Pickens, this Colonial
period shipwreck has been dated to the late 17th or early 18"t
century. Preliminary investigations conducted in 1998 and
1999 strongly suggest that this ship was associated with the
first permanent European settlement in Pensacola (Santa
Marie de Galve, 1698-1719). To date, only 30 percent of the
site has been excavated, but more than 400 artifacts were
recovered from the bow of the ship. Among the remarkably
well preserved hull remains were intact spirit bottles, wooden
rigging sheaves, Oaxacan pottery fragments, delicate sweeping
brooms and a nearly-complete wooden box filled with iron
spikes. Investigations in the mid and stern sections promise to

reveal a far richer assemblage and exciting ship construction
techniques. Wood samples taken in 1998 and 1999 indicate
that this ship was built entirely out of New World hardwoods.
This fact, combined with its early date, makes the Santa Rosa
Island wreck an exceptionally rare find for the world of
nautical archaeology.

Rudder and Gudgeon Remains from the Blackwater River
J. "COZ" Cozzi
In 1999 a local resident reported finding a bronze rudder
gudgeon in the Blackwater River at Bagdad in northwestern
Florida. He informed nautical archaeologists at the University
of West Florida (UWF) Archaeology Institute, in hopes that it
might lead to efforts to find and document other submerged
remains. Archaeology Institute staff and students surveyed the
gudgeon site as well as another site reported to contain two
rudders. The results of this investigation offer insights into an
essential piece of ship's equipment and point to the types of
vessels that visited Bagdad, which became a leading lumber
milling center in the nineteenth century.

Of Ships and Shifting Sands: The Geoarchaeology of St.
George and Dog Islands and its Relation to the Shipwreck
Previous surveys for H.M.S. Fox (1799), known to have
sunk off the East End of St. George Island, along the far
northeastern Panhandle coast of Florida have been unsuccess-
ful. This summer, students of FSU's Field School in Under-
water Archaeology will test if this may be due to the migration
of the island over the wreck site. The dynamic growth,
migration, and submergence of barrier islands such as this are
factors to be considered when attempting the discovery and
inventory of historic shipwrecks in near coastal settings. This
paper will illustrate some of these problems and present results
of our investigations by reviewing historic maps and previous
geological studies, core-sampling and assessing radiocarbon
controls. The evolution of these kinds of islands by both wind
blown and coastal forces, in combination with historic sea
level fluctuation can provide archaeologists with models of
how and where ships would have been drawn in, and how and
why they may have sunk. St. Vincent, St. George, Dog Island
and Dog Island Reef (a relict barrier island), are excellent
examples for this kind of geoarchaeological research and

Predicted Sea Level Changes, Florida Gulf Coast over the
Past 21, 000 Years
Presented here is a preliminary history of sea level rise over
the past 21,000 years for the West Central Florida Gulf Coast
between 26 degrees and 30 degrees-north latitude. Beginning
at the Late Wisconsin Glacial Maximum low stand of approxi-
mately -120 meters (-400 feet), the sea rose in a series of rapid
spurts alternating with still stands. Between 5000 and 7000
years ago, it reached close to modern levels and has since
oscillated up and down a few meters some 7 to 8 times.

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



Currently the sea is rising in response to the present warming
cycle. Factors affecting the post-glacial rise and how the curve
is constructed are discussed. Sub-sea depths and locations of
possible 500 to 1000 year long still stand shorelines, along
with the implications to early inhabitants of their rapid
inundation are mentioned. The affects of the oscillations over
the past 7000 years on Florida's low gradient coasts are

Subsurface Testing at the Castro Site: Results of Prelimi-
nary Investigation
The Castro Site, a possible 17th century Spanish mission
located about 15 miles southeast ofTallahassee, has undergone
broad-scale subsurface testing by the Florida State University
Field Schools during the Spring and Fall of 2000. Of a total
of 1429 tests, 381 yielded cultural materials, including
aboriginal and historic ceramics, worked stone, nails, and
glass. This paper presents a discussion of the distribution of
artifacts recovered during the testing and mapping phases of
preliminary site investigation. The artifact distribution is used
to predict possible concentrated areas of cultural activity
relating to the mission as a basis for future research at the site.

A Clovis-like Suwannee point tool kit from the Ryan-
Harley site (8JE1004) in the Wacissa River, North Florida
The Suwannee point assemblage from the Ryan-Harley site
(8Jel004) resembles the Clovis tool kit in several respects.
The resemblance includes the presence of occasional fluting or
flute-like basal thinning as well as occasional overshot flaking
of lateral margins on the projectile points. Suwannee projectile
points from the site are of the waisted or recurvate variety. The
site has also produced a variety of uniface tools. The uniface
tool kit includes well-crafted, mostly ovoid scrapers, snub-
nosed end scrapers, and various flake and blade-flake tools.
Conspicuously absent from the Ryan-Harley Suwannee tool kit
are Dalton and Aucilla adzes, Hendrix and Edgifield scrapers
as well as the triangular-shaped, hafted end scrapers, spoke
shaves and Waller knives that are associated with Late
Paleoindian Dalton and Early Archaic Bolen assemblages. The
Ryan-Harley tool kit suggests the site is likely to represent the
older end of Middle Paleoindian.

Current Research within the West Central Florida Gulf
Coast: Geomorphology and Archaeology
Presented here is a summary of field research conducted
over the past five years within the West Central Florida Gulf
Coast. Fundamental and systematic archaeology site location,
identification and evaluation work plus regional and specific
geomorphological research has revealed some of the strengths
and weaknesses of geo-cultural modeling. The inherent power
of periodic high-energy water movement on archaeological
sites within a generally low gradient coast will be discussed
along with a summary of what's being preserved and why.

The presenter will also discuss the current application of geo-
cultural modeling along the Florida Gulf Coast between the
Withlacoochee and Aucilla Rivers.

Prehistoric Archaeology on the Offshore: Developments of
the Paleo-Aucilla Prehistory Project
During recent years the Paleo-Aucilla Prehistory Project
has demonstrated the feasibility and necessity of expanding the
studies of Florida's prehistoric archaeological resources to
incorporate not only the submerged components of lakes and
rivers, but also the areas of the state that have been inundated
by sea level rise. This paper will present the details of recent
research efforts at the J&J Hunt site (8JE740), a multi-compo-
nent site yielding early and middle archaic diagnostics. This
paper will focus on the research plan and it's implementation
through the excavation of test units, mapping, and core
sampling during the last three years. These methods have
allowed for the thorough investigation of the J&J Hunt Site, as
well as the successful testing and survey of targeted areas out
to nine miles offshore. Investigations have yielded material
that demonstrates conclusively that archaeological data can be
recovered from offshore environments, providing researchers
with a glimpse at a previously unknown archaeological region.

The Other Side of Town: Preliminary Results of a Study of
Colonial and Antebellum Households
This paper will present the preliminary results ofinvestiga-
tions of colonial and antebellum households in present-day
downtown Pensacola. The study includes multiple households
on one block in the eastern section of historic Pensacola. The
historical context of these households will be presented along
with the archaeological fieldwork that has been conducted in
the area over the past two decades.

Who's your Daddy, Baby? Studying Intrapopulation
Variation at Windover (8Br246), Florida
Intrapopulation variation within the Windover (8BR246)
site was examined using the multivariate model establishedfor
comparing two or more temporally and geographically distinct
populations. A total of forty-three craniometric variables were
analyzed from sixty-three individuals from Windover includ-
ing subadults and adult males and females. Using cluster and
discriminant analyses, seven subgroups of between four and
fourteen members were revealed based on similarity of
craniofacial features. It is hypothesized that the individuals
within these groups have a greater degree of shared genetic
heritage and, in effect, represent the lineages within the
Windover population. DNA analysis, as well as other analyti-
cal methods, may be used to test this hypothesis.

Discovering the Next Generation of Archaeologists:
Marketing for the Future of the Past
Getting high school students involved in archaeology is a


unique program offered by the Boy Scouts of America.
Venture/Exploring Program. Venture Crew 604, Florida
History/Archaeology, has successfully involved 15 students for
the past two years in a field normally reserved for college
students and professionals. Successful marketing is a necessity
with young adults. Members plan and operate VC 604 with
guidance from adult advisors while interacting with profes-
sional archaeologists, land managers, government officials,
and various individuals during the planning stage and field
work of an expedition. This can often direct a student into a
future career never considered until then. In addition to
learning leadership skills, team building, public speaking,
project planning and self confidence, the ultimate goal of VC
604 is to have this generation come to appreciate their cultural
heritage and eventually become involved in its preservation
when they become politically and socially active adults.

New Plantation Information Acquired During a Recent
Archaeological and Historical Survey at Faver-Dykes State
Archaeological work during 2000 at Faver-Dykes State
Park, St. Johns County confirms Euro-American occupation
and use of the area during the First Spanish Period, British
Period, Second Spanish Period, and Territorial Period. While
the Buena Suerte plantation owned by Joseph Hernandez was
already well documented, historical and archaeological
research unveiled the British plantation of John Moultrie and
the Second Spanish plantation of Hepworth Carter, as well as
other grants and leases. The artifact assemblage included
olive jar remains, San Luis polychrome, tin-enameled earthen-
ware, pearlware, creamware, military items, and iron pots.
Building foundations were excavated and other building
remains were located. A beginning was also made on land use

Prelude to Stabilization and Reconstruction: Recent
Archaeological Investigations of St. Augustine's Colonial
The preservation of St. Augustine's history is of paramount
importance to the community. That effort includes not only
protecting standing historical structures, but also bringing to
life the city's unique cultural heritage to more than 2.5 million
overnight visitors annually. Currently, two projects are
underway that will protect and further public awareness of the
city's colonial defenses: the stabilization of the terreplein (gun
deck) at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, and
reconstruction of the 1808 Santo Domingo Redoubt that
occurred along the Cubo Line-an earth-and-wood fortifica-
tion that extended from Castillo one-half mile west to the San
Sebastian River. Prior to these efforts, however, archaeologi-
cal investigations where undertaken by the City of St.
Augustine to assess the nature of the cultural deposits present,
to determine how those historical deposits would be impacted
by construction activities, and to make the necessary recom-
mendations to ensure that these two historical features are

preserved and properly interpreted. This paper describes: 1)
the results of those investigations and how new information
provides a more comprehensive picture of building practices
associated with colonial fortifications, and 2) the impact
archaeology has on planning the stabilization and restoration
of historical structures.

Human Interaction in the Lake Okeechobee Basin: A GIS
Few archaeological sites in the Lake Okeechobee Basin and
Everglades date to the earliest periods of human occupation.
Southern Florida may have offered fewer resources than those
found along the coast prior to the formation of the Everglades
system. What is known about the Lake Okeechobee Basin is
that human occupation more than likely occurred during the
late Archaic (3000 B.C.) when environmental conditions
stabilized and resembled modern conditions. The earliest
permanent habitation sites have been dated to 500 B.C. in the
Okeechobee Basin. These habitation sites and their successors
consist of a number of unique earthworks situated along
watercourses (rivers and sloughs) that are associated with the
Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee. One of the goals for
this research project is to hypothesize factors that influenced
site location. Sophisticated spatial analyses utilizing GIS have
provided a unique opportunity to investigate the human and
environmental dynamics of the region.

Martin's Island (8NA703): An Archaeological Overview
An archaeological survey of Martin's Island, located in
Nassau County, evidenced a multi-component prehistoric and
historic occupation across the 105-acre island. Ten distinct
cultural components were recognized during the investiga-
tions, including eight prehistoric and two historic. The
prehistoric components include, Orange, Deptford, Swift
Creek, St. Johns, Weeden Island, St. Marys II, San Pedro, and
San Marcos. The historic components include that of a late
18h or early 19"-century occupation, as well as a discrete early
20th century component. Excavation at the island illustrated
areas of intensive use, indicated by dense shell midden
deposits, prehistoric and historic structural remains, and
associated activity areas. This paper presents an overview of
the findings, and focuses on land usage patterns, artifact
recoveries, artifact distribution, and new radiocarbon data.

Florida State University's Continued Archaeological
Investigations: The Dog Island Shipwreck Survey
In the summer of 2000, Florida State University's Program
in Underwater Archaeology continued the Dog Island Ship-
wreck Survey. This is a multi-year research project initiated
to locate, catalogue, and investigate submerged cultural
resources on and around Dog and St. George Islands. These
investigations focused on two shipwrecks in the area, the
French merchant brig Le Tigre (1766) and the H.M.S. Fox
(1799). This paper addresses these research activities and

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



presents preliminary results of the 2000 field season as well as
our commitment to public outreach and education.

Lake Monroe Outlet Midden (8VO53): A Mount Taylor
Period Freshwater Shell Midden on the Shores of Lake
Monroe and the St. Johns River
The Lake Monroe Outlet Midden Site (8VO53) is a Mount
Taylor period freshwater shell midden located at the western
end of Lake Monroe where the St. Johns River exits. Mitiga-
tive excavations were conducted because the site will be
impacted by the proposed replacement of the I-4 bridge over
the river. Testing revealed a complex stratigraphic sequence
as well as special-use activity areas. A lithic workshop
associated with the manufacture and/or utilization of micro-
liths is one of the activity areas. The recovery of steatite, non-
local chert and coral, Strombus gigas celts, and a variety of
saltwater shellfish and shark teeth indicates trade and/or
contact with other areas. Unlike many Mount Taylor middens,
this midden consisted primarily of apple snail and mussel
rather than pond or mystery snail. Analysis of the faunal,
botanical, and geomorphological data was conducted by the
Environmental Archaeology Laboratory of the Florida Mu-
seum of Natural History.

Preliminary Investigations at the Couse Midden
The Couse Midden is a recently identified Kissimmee-Lake
Okeechobee habitation site located on the northeastern edge of
the Everglades. Ceramics recovered from the site indicate that
it was occupied mainly during Period II (ca. AD 200-600) of
the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee cultural sequence with at
least some use during Period III (ca. AD 600 to 800-1200 to
1400). The Couse Midden is probably related to several
nearby sites, including White Belt #3 (8PB222) and White
Belt #4-Conical Mound (8PB223). The Couse Midden was
identified through work conducted by Janus Research in the
year 2000. This presentation provides the results of prelimi-
nary work at the site as well as a brief discussion of how the
Couse Midden may relate to other sites in the vicinity.

The Quest for Lamar at the Yon Mound and Village Site in
the Apalachicola Valley
During the summer of 2000 the University of South Florida
field school returned to the Yon Mound and Village site (8LI2)
in the middle Apalachicola River Valley in northwest Florida.
Previous work had examined the earlier Fort Walton occupa-
tion and temple mound construction. This project aimed to
find later Fort Walton Lamar village deposits east of the
mound and try to date this component. Lamar is characterized
by complicated-stamped pottery similar to that of the mission
period in Tallahassee but so far no historic association with it
is known in the Apalachicola Valley. Puzzling results of this
project are summarized, as the search to understand the late
prehistoric and protohistoric continues.

New Insight into Frank Hamilton Cushing's Florida
Investigations from His Unpublished Journals of 1895 and
The unpublished Florida journals of Frank Hamilton
Cushing from 1895 to 1896 give insight into Cushing's
character and significant new information concerning his
initial reconnaissance and the Pepper-Hearst expedition. The
"Big Freeze" of 1894-1895 afforded Cushing a view of the
topography that others that followed him, such as C.B. Moore,
did not have. Numerous sites, recorded and unrecorded,
Cushing described in detail, as he surveyed the landscape and
formulated hisKeyDweller theory. The last journal written in
Maine in 1896 reveals his "missing" Florida manuscript. This
paper discusses Cushing's observations that are important to
new research and interpretation, and not disclosed in his 1896
preliminary report at the American Philosophical Society

Two Case Studies of Geophysical Investigation of Buried,
Sub-Beach, Wrecksites on the East Coast of Florida
Since the early 1980's Wondjina Research Institute (WRI)
has conducted reconnaissance geophysical investigations
(VLF-EM, Radiometrics and Magnetics) of various sites from
St. Augustine to Cape Canaveral National Seashore in search
of sites associated with the 1565 French Ribault expedition to
Florida. In 1995, Mr. Richard Lundin of WRI worked with
Dr. Charles Hoffman of Archaeology International (AI) and
Ms. Patricia Montgomery of Northern Arizona University on
a survey requested by the National Park Service of a suspected
wrecksite. These reconnaissance surveys have been focused to
examine areas of reported pre-1600 artifacts or ferrous metal
poor sites that are deeply buried under beach and back-beach
deposits. Detailed information on two of these surveys is
presented and contrasted with existing terrestrial and airborne
data. The usefulness of these types of surveys is evaluated as
far as cost-effectiveness for operation, capital expenditures,
crew training requirements and impact on the environment
will be presented.

Reconstructions and Revelations: Rebuilding Mission San
Ongoing 17th-century reconstructions at Mission San Luis
have provided a unique test of many long-held assumptions
about native architecture, social change, and community
organization at Florida missions. This paper reviews the
research base, reconstructions, and recent findings from this

Archaeological Investigations on the St. Marks River at
Spanish Landing
The St. Marks River system has been an important vehicle
of trade and communication throughout the history of La


Florida. For both indigenous populations and early European
colonists this river offered a faster, cheaper, and/or easier
alternative to land transport. Just how important the St. Marks
River was in systems of exchange can be seen in the artifact
assemblage from 8WA247 or "Spanish Landing". Archaeo-
logical evidence at this site suggests a long and prosperous use
by both Native Americans and the Spanish. This study is an
attempt to contribute to the knowledge of the St. Marks River's
role in systems of trade through a survey of its written history
and archaeology.

Excavation of the Vale, a Norwegian lumber bark lost in
1899 at Dog Island, Florida
The 554-ton bark Vale was built and registered in Kragero,
Norway in 1878. It is known that from as early as 1896 until
her demise she visited Dog Island (off the coast of Franklin
County) every year, participating in North Florida's thriving
lumber trade. Early in the morning of August 1, 1899, the
Vale and as many as twelve other large ships from Norway,
Finland, Spain, America, and elsewhere were anchored in the
shallows around Dog Island, offloading ballast and taking on
cargoes of pine timber. Suddenly, a tremendous hurricane
swept Apalachicola Bay, devastating the towns of Carrabelle
and Apalachicola, the international lumber fleet, and the local
infrastructure for some time to come. All of the vessels were
wrecked, though all but five were re-floated. Vale was one of
the foreign ships considered a total loss. A century later, the
sunken remains of this vessel (8FR814) were all but forgotten.
In 1999, as part of Florida State University's Dog Island
Shipwreck Survey, the remains of the Vale were re-located and
partially excavated. This paper discusses the findings of that
excavation, which, along with research carried out in Norwe-
gian archives, has reliably identified the hull remains as those
of the Vale.

Paddling Through Time: The Canoe Story from Lake
Pithlachocco, The Place of Big Boats
Recent drought conditions in north Central Florida lowered
water tables, causing many lakes and water bodies to shrink or
dry up. As a result, more than ninety whole and partial dugout
canoes were discovered along the north and east shore of
Newnans Lake (referred to in 1823 by Vignoles as Lake
Pithlachucco and by present-day Seminoles as Lake
Pithlachocco) in Alachua County. An intensive survey around
6km of the newly exposed lakebed revealed the largest
collection of dugout canoes known. GPS locations were
recorded for 93 canoes, and 53 canoes were uncovered,
measured, drawn, photographed, and reburied. A wood
sample was taken from each excavated canoe for radiocarbon
dating and wood species determination. C14 dates range from
500 to 5000 BP, with 70% older than 3000 years. Most canoes
were made from pine, but several were of cypress. Stylistic
patterns, building techniques, and wood types will be discussed
and compared to other known Florida canoes. Hypotheses will
be suggested to account for the unusual concentration of

canoes, and possibilities for future interpretation and research
will be discussed.

The Archaeologist-A Late Victorian-Age Predecessor of
Archaeology Magazine
In 1892 several members of the fledgling American
Archaeological Association founded a popular "primer-like
journal" which would "educate the beginning collector," as
well as "the curiosity seeker so that he will become a student
of the ennobling science of archaeology." After several
months the AAA failed, and a corporation was founded to
continue the monthly magazine with non other than Warren
K. Moorehead as editor. Despite an advertising policy that
encouraged ads from artifact dealers, the magazine ceased
publication as an independent and was subsumed by Popular
Science News, continuing into 1902. During the decade it was
published theArchaeologist printed several articles on Florida,
including serialized excerpts from C.B. Moore's 1894 St.
Johns River reports and marvelous descriptions of the Crystal
River site's Spanish Mount and other Gulf coastal shell

"Dr. Fanshaw" Digs Some Mounds: Thomas
Featherstonhaugh's Work in Central Florida in the Late
Nineteenth Century
Thomas Featherstonhaugh (pronounced "Fanshaw")
carried out excavations at several mounds near Lakes Apopka
and Butler in the 1880s and 1890s. He donated artifacts from
the sites to the Smithsonian Institution, along with some
photographs and drawings. Featherstonhaugh wrote several
papers about his findings, and while they are wildly specula-
tive from our perspective, they demonstrate that he had read
the available background literature and conferred with
specialists (includingFrank Hamilton Cushing). Biographical
details and interpretation of his results in light of present
knowledge are discussed.

Stately Accommodations: the History and Archaeology of
the SS Florida
The side-wheel steamer Florida was built in New York
City in 1851 and provided transportation from Charleston and
Savannah to Jacksonville. In January of 1856, the steamer was
re-enrolled at New Orleans and began monthly trips to Key
West, Florida carrying passengers, cargo and mail. On the
morning of August 26, 1856 the Florida departed her home-
port for Key West with a number of planned stops along the
way. As the vessel approached Apalachicola, the heavy
breakers drowning Cape San Bias prevented its entry into the
West Pass of ApalachicolaBay. Captain W.L. Cozzens choose
to wait out the building storm in the protected waters of St.
Joseph's Bay. To his dismay, the strong winds and waters
forced the vessel aground near the eastern tip of St. Joseph's
Peninsula where the vessel was eventually lost. At the request
of St. Joseph's Peninsula State Park, the University of West


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


Florida Archaeology Institute recently recorded the visible
remnants of the vessel's hull and steam machinery. This
paper will outline the vessel's short history and propose
recommendations for future archaeological work in conjunc-
tion with Booker T. Washington High School's Archaeology

Massage Cream, Maritime Economy and Vessel Use
Patterns: A Turn of the Century Snapshot
A late 19t century schooner was excavated in the shallows
of Pensacola Bay during the summer of 2000 under a grant
from the University of West Florida. The identity of this
schooner remains a mystery though vessels of this size and
type were most often involved in Pensacola's lucrative red
snapper fishing industry. However, lack of fishing associated
artifacts makes the schooner's use uncertain. The artifacts
recovered from the site include a surprising assemblage of
personal items and galley wares kept on board and analysis of
the site suggests how and when the schooner was wrecked.
This paper reviews the archaeological results of the 2000
excavation and analyzes the role that mid-sized schooner type
vessels played within the maritime economy of a port town on
the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. This regional use-analysis provides an historic
context in which to place the operation of this vessel and
provides a baseline for studies of vessel usage and development
within specific maritime economies. In addition, such
analyses help to study broader issue such as associations
between land-use and vessel type.

Geomorphological Analysis of St. Augustine Inlet: The
Impact and Implications for Archaeological Research
In 1995 the first research oriented survey of the waters off
of St. Augustine was undertaken. The first step was intensive
comparative cartographic analysis to clearly define the
geomorphological processes affecting St. Augustine Inlet. The
approach channels to this inlet change rapidly, as did the
actual coastline of both the barrier islands and the mainland.
Defining this process led to a highly successful predictive
model for marine survey and also brought a new insight to the
study and investigation of terrestrial site location. This
methodological approach continues to be highly successful and
can be applied to other locations with comparable results.

Cultural Continuity and Change: The Historical Archaeol-
ogy of A Spanish Creole Family in Antebellum Pensacola
This paper explores the cultural transition from a Spanish
colony to an American territory at the household level through
the historical and archaeological study of a Spanish Creole
family in Antebellum Pensacola. The paper will describe the
archaeological assemblage of the Celestino Gonzalez family,
and address theories concerning the maintenance of ethnic
identity in a multicultural frontier environment

Blockade Runners, Privateers and the Civil War at Sea: A
Florida Perspective
The maritime history of Florida spans from the advent of
dugout canoes traversing the Florida straits to naval ships
loading troops and equipment for Operation Desert Storm.
Between these two chronological events lies the American
Civil War. Florida's maritime Civil War history includes
coastal blockades, river gunboats and commerce raiding. This
paper will focus on the life and exploits of Louis Coxetter and
the investigation of the ship that he commanded the Confeder-
ate privateer C.S. Jefferson Davis. This paper will chronologi-
cally examine the history of the ship from its beginnings as a
commercial trader to its final voyage as a Confederate priva-
teer. The vessel's elusive Captain, Louis Coxetter in a short
span of three months made a mockery of Union Naval attempts
to locate and destroy the C.S. Jefferson Davis. Louis Coxetter
was known as a skilled pilot and ocean master long before the
war broke out. These traits would prove invaluable to the
southern cause. The tactics and skill of Coxetter caused havoc
with the enemy and lead Union forces to reported sightings of
his ship from the coast of New England to the Virgin Islands.
The C.S. Jefferson Davis' final battle was not with a Union
warship but with the sea itself. On a bar off St. Augustine
inlet lies her remains unseen since August 18th 1861. Today
the underwater investigation continues to locate this important
part of Florida maritime history.

A Look at Two St. Johns Site Complexes at Faver-Dykes
State Park, St. Johns County
Recent archaeological investigations at Faver-Dykes State
Park in St. Johns County identified two site complexes that
were affiliated with St. Johns I and II habitations. Each
complex contributed information about the settlement patterns
maintained by these groups. Preservation of faunal remains in
a culturally-stratified spatial context provided an opportunity
to study what appears to have been changing food selection
practices during the St. Johns I and II periods.

The Village People: Life on the 18th-Century Spanish
The University of West Florida has recently completed a
five-year research project at the First Pensacola site, the 18th-
century Spanish presidio Santa Maria de Galve, located on
present-day Naval Air Station Pensacola. Excavations
unearthed three components of the settlement: the fort, the
church, and the village. The focus of this presentation is a
house and trash pit excavated in the village area in 1998.
Artifacts indicate these remains may have belonged to a
middle to upper class household and offer a glimpse into daily
life on the frontier of La Florida.

Time and Tide Wait for No One: Archaeological Investiga-
tions of the Shipwreck Rhoda


During the summer of 2000, the University of West Florida
(UWF) began preliminary investigations of the Rhoda, a late
nineteenth century English bark. The shipwreck 8ES1899 was
first recorded in 1991 by the Florida Bureau of Archaeological
Research (BAR) during their Pensacola Shipwreck Survey.
BAR recommended further investigations to determine the
vessel's means of propulsion. Consequently, UWF elected to
record the many exposed features of the site as part of a
summer course in maritime fled methods. In the total span of
four days, UWF students began the arduous task of mapping
the ship's ballast pile and associated cultural deposits. Even
though local fishermen attempted to augment the site with
modern debris such as tires, commodes and a shopping cart,
much of the vessel's wooden hull was found preserved under
the sand along with many iron components. The Rhoda has
the potential to yield significant data relevant to Pensacola's
Maritime Expansion Era and information concerning period
ship construction. This paper will outline the vessel's histori-
cal background, UWF's fieldwork and present recommenda-
tions for future work in the upcoming field season of 2001.

The Pottery that C.B. Moore Missed: Excavations at the
Shields Site (8DU12)
St. Johns II and Ocmulgee II pottery were recently
recovered from a dense shell midden associated with the
ceremonial complex at Shields Mound, Jacksonville, Florida.
Radiocarbon intercept dates suggest that the midden contents
were deposited between A.D. 975 and A.D. 1030. The
quantity and condition of the potsherds afford the opportunity
to record and study a variety of stylistic and functional
characteristics. This paper presents a preliminary assessment
of the relationship found between vessel size and form with
surface treatment; functional evidence such as areal abrasion
and sooting; and, the presence of various forms of ground iron
oxide. This paper will also describe the south-central Georgia
pottery series Ocmulgee III, which was observed throughout
the excavations. The Shields data provide insights into a
ceramic assemblage and the activities associated with a
ceremonial staging area during the St. Johns H Period (A.D.
900-1250) in extreme northeastern Florida.

Investigations at the Guana River Shell Ring
No mapping, testing, or excavations has ever been con-
ducted at the Guana River Shell Ring (9SJ2554). This paper
will report the preliminary results of field investigations begun
in February 2001, concentrating on the shape, size, and
periods of construction and occupation of the site. Investiga-
tions will focus on resolving three possible scenarios for dating
the Guana River Shell Ring: (1) it dates to the Late Archaic
and is related to the nearby Rollins Shell Ring (8DU7510); (2)
it dates to the St. Johns I period and is related to the nearby
Grand Site (8DU1); or (3) it is a structure that differs in date
and affiliation from either of these sites.

Chelonian Zooarchaeology: The Trouble with Turtles

Chelonian zooarchaeology is the archaeological study of
the remains of testaceous reptiles, which are often found at
sites. Insight may be gained from this study into the interrela-
tionships between prehistoric humans and turtles. Past
patterns of human utilization of chelonians may be seen in the
diets, mythology and belief systems of prehistoric people.
Change of ecology and fluctuation of chelonian populations or
distributions may also be extrapolated from this data. The
identity and condition of chelonian faunal remains in the form
of artifacts, skeletons or shells fragments, can provide vital
information about past subsistence utilization and humans
impact on the environment. Additionally, seasonal abundance
and movements of turtles can provide a basis upon which to
theorize temporal site occupancy. Problems inherent in
chelonian zooarchaeology include lack of comprehensive
records, incomplete (UID turtle) or misidentifications, bias
toward larger faunal remains (from past screening practices)
and the submergence of early coastal sites.

Eglin AFB Cultural Resources investigations of 8WL58, a
circular shell midden site in Northwest Florida
Eglin Cultural Resources division (EMH) conducted
excavations at the Old Homestead site, 8WL58, in 1995. This
project was initiated when a routine examination of the area
revealed that a significant amount of damage had occurred to
the site due to shoreline erosion. The site, a semi-circular shell
midden situated along the shore of Choctawhatchee Bay, has
been the subject of archaeological investigations since 1959.
The majority of materials obtained during these investigations
are representative of the Santa Rosa Swift Creek culture. A
summary of Eglin's investigation will be presented along with
a review of previous work.

The Florida East Coast Shipwreck Project, 1982-2001: Two
Decades of Investigations
For the past two decades the State of Florida and Mel
Fisher Enterprises (formerly Cobb Coin Co. Inc.) have worked
in concert to administrate certain shipwrecks occurring along
the East Coast of Florida. These shipwrecks represent the
known sites of the 1715 Plate Fleet. First relocated by the
private sector in e late 1950s and early 1960s these wrecks
have been investigated and excavated ever since. In 1982
State of Florida officials and representatives from the private
sector salvage community began working cooperatively under
an Admiralty Court mandated settlement to produce archaeo-
logical guidelines under which recoveries could be conducted.
Also started was an ongoing historical and archaeological
investigation of the finds that were being recovered. This was
and is known as the Florida East Coast Shipwreck Project.
These reports are both yearly progress and assemblage
inventories. These reports also reflect the developing field of
underwater archaeology and an awareness of the private sector
salvage community to the concerns of historic preservation.
Through the years a growing attempt has been made to collect

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



and collate the enormous amounts of information being
gathered for the purpose of archaeological and historical
interpretation. This paper will provide an overview of that
effort, the progress of technology in the accurate positioning
of these scattered shipwreck remains and the current status and
contributions being made by the private sector in the discovery
and understanding of Florida's unique underwater cultural

Walking a Fine Line at the Griffin Site, St. Augustine,
Archaeological work surrounding the John Griffin home-
stead south of St. Augustine has yielded remains from the Late
Archaic through Second Spanish periods. This area corre-
sponds with the reported location of an Indian town called San
Julian that included a 1566 Spanish blockhouse (casafuerte),
as identified by Eugene Lyon. Intact features that appear to
date to the First Spanish period were uncovered directly along
the property line separating the Griffin outparcel from a
residential development. It is unclear whether the features are
associated with the Spanish blockhouse, the San Julian
mission village and doctrine, or the Spanish plantation of San

Riotous Roscommon: Irish Tenant Farmers, Public Archae-
ology and the Ballykilcline Project
Since 1994 the Department of Sociology and Anthropology
of Illinois State University has brought North American
archaeologists and students to work with Irish historians,
geophysicists, artists and musicians in the study of the tradi-
tional culture of rural Ireland. Under the direction of Charles
E. Orser, Jr., the summer field school has recovered artifacts
which reveal the daily lives of the farming families who
worked the fields of County Roscommon, Ireland during the
years immediately preceding the Great Hunger of 1846-1852.
This paper focuses on the Ballykilcline Archaeological Project,
the educational and public programs, and the process of
inquiry shared between the excavation team and the Irish

Fort Caroline Deconstructed: History and Site Formation
The French built Fort Caroline in 1564 to defend their
colonial interest in the greater Southeast. The Spanish overran
the fort in 1565 and renamed it, Fort San Mateo. The fort was
abandoned within four years and disappeared into the archaeo-
logical record. This paper explores the historical record,
current excavations at other forts, Spanish settlements, and site
formation processes for clues to its location and state of

The Ponce De Le6n Inter-Island Trade Network and the
Discovery of Florida: Documentary and Archaeological

Customs documents from the Island of Puerto Rico for the
period spanning 1512-1517 document the first inter-island
trade in the New World and many of the crews, individuals,
and organizations participating. Among these groups was the
Ponce de Le6n political and trade organization which carried
out the initial colonization and conquest of Puerto Rico. Two
of the vessels owned by Ponce de Le6n involved in this trade
were used during the voyage of discovery to Florida. Docu-
ments for both the inter-island journeys and the voyage of
discovery survive making a fascinating comparison in the
manner these vessels were manned for the different voyages.
The examination oftwo early sixteenth century shipwreck sites
located along the inter-island trade route and their comparison
with the Highborn Key and Molasses Reef Wrecks makes a
complementary archaeological comparison between the two
kinds of voyages.

From Mega-mammals to Muskrats: The Faunal Evidence
from the Ryan-Harley Site (8Je1004) in the Wacissa River
The Ryan-Harley site is believed to represent apost-Clovis,
Suwannee point campsite now located a little deeper than I m
below the present low water stage of the Wacissa River. The
site is important because bone as well as stone has been
preserved. The faunal remains from the site reflect a varied
diet, consisting of some of the last of the late Pleistocene
mega-fauna along with other mammals, birds, reptiles,
amphibians and fish. These remains reflect a strong reliance
on mammals, especially deer, but also the exploitation of
reptiles, especially turtles and alligators, and fish. The fauna
assemblage is rich in wetland as well as mixed wetland and
upland species. The Ryan-Harley site has expanded our
understanding of Paleoindian subsistence patterns on a local
and regional level and provides the opportunity to compare
these data to continent-wide hypotheses regarding Paleoindian
subsistence strategies.

Sixteenth Century Fort, or Sixteenth Century Blockhouse?
An Update on the Excavations at the Nombre de Dios Site
Site 8SJ34, located on the grounds of the Nombre de Dios
mission, has been identified as the probable location of the
first Spanish fort built in St. Augustine in 1565, as well as
being the location of the seventeenth and eighteenth century
Nombre de Dios mission. Excavations conducted intermit-
tently since 1985, and most recently during the Spring of
2001, have uncovered a number of sixteenth century features,
including a possible moat, as well as features dating to the
mission period occupation of the site. One research goal of the
2001 field season was to better understand the relationship of
this site to the 1565 Spanish campsite located approximately
250 meters to the north at the Fountain of Youth Park. This
presentation will discuss not only this relationship, but also the
function of the site as the possible location of the first fort of


St. Augustine and/or the subsequent 1566 blockhouse.

Treasure of the Calusa: The Johnson/Willcox Collection
from Mound Key, Florida
Archaeologists and historians believe that Mound Key is
Calos, the ancient capital of the Calusa Indians. This is a
magnificent site, with over 125 acres of shell mounds, shell
ridges, sunken water courts, and canals, covered with tropical
foliage and surrounded by mangroves and the waters of Estero
Bay. Frank Johnson made his home here in the late nineteenth
century, and while farming on one of the shell mounds he and
his sons found a veritable treasure of Indian and Spanish
artifacts. The collection includes glass and crystal beads,
ornaments of gold, silver, and copper, and items of bone, shell,
and stone. With the help of fossil collector Joseph Willcox,
the collection became part of the University of Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. The subject of a
recent monograph by the author, the collection is placed
within the broader archaeology and history of the Calusa and
their neighbors.

Knock, Knock Who's There?: Preliminary Interpretations
of the Compound Located Near Fort San Miguel de
This paper will focus on the archaeological investigations
and historical context of a colonial compound located just west
of Fort San Miquel de Panzacola. Historic maps dating to
1764 reveal several structures within present day Plaza
Ferdinand in downtown Pensacola. UWF excavations during
the summer of 2000 revealed architectural and refuse pit
features associated with one of the structures. While the
architectural features represent a First Spanish age structure,
the refuse pits include primarily of British artifacts. While
there are some clues as to who might have built the structure,
historical research has yet to identify the specific occupants or
function of the compound. This paper will discuss the
archaeological data and the historical framework for interpret-
ing the site.

New Data from the Daugherty Mound Complex (8HG3),
Highlands County
In 1999, areas adjacent to and within the Daugherty mound
complex (8HG3) were investigated by Janus Research during
the Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Gulfstream
Natural Gas System Pipeline. No systematic professional
testing of the Daugherty complex had previously been per-
formed and, therefore, there was no clear understanding of the
extent of this site. For this reason, a specific strategy was
developed for testing the proposed Gulfstream pipeline
corridor, which runs along U.S. Highway 98 between several
mounds and a possible borrow pit. This testing resulted in the
identification of an isolated flake and a newly recorded midden
and artifact scatter (8HG965), the latter of which is located
approximately 850 feet west of the Daugherty site. Addition-

ally important was that, aside from the isolated flake, no
cultural material was recovered within the project corridor in
the immediate vicinity of the mounds and the borrow pit.

A Stroll through the Garden: A Cultural Resource Assess-
ment of the 18th Century Plantation Home of Jesse Fish
El Vergel (The Garden) was once the plantation home to
Jesse Fish, a prominent English businessman who lived in St.
Augustine from the 1730's till his death in 1790. The ruins of
his once extensive plantation are situated on what is today
known as Fisher's Island. Still visible are the foundations of
the main house, a well, a wharf, a guardhouse, and other
associated historic structures. Although the site was included
on the National Register in 1972, Fisher's Island had never
been subject to any archaeological investigation until the
spring of 2001. Under the direction of the City of St.
Augustine Archaeology Program, the entire island was
surveyed for its archaeological potential. Results reveal not
only historical areas relating to the plantation site, but also
uncover evidence of several Native American occupational
periods. This paper discusses the history and archaeological
integrity of the property and outlines the scope of future work.

Richardson's Hammock Whelk/Conch Shell Midden on St.
Joe Bay, Gulf County
Large whelk and conch shells and remains of other aquatic
animals characterize Richardson's Hammock, on the southeast
side of St. Joseph peninsula in northwest Florida. The
extensive Fort Walton occupation was investigated by the
University of South Florida field school in 2000. Black
features in the white dune sand suggested repeated habitation,
and one interesting feature was an arc of sunray shells. A
deeper, earlier (Middle Woodland) Swift Creek-early Weeden
Island occupation with microtools is associated with the looted
burial mound at the north end of the site. Our work will help
public interpretation and management, as the land was
recently acquired by the state.

Who Owns the Past? Cultural Preservation on Indian
One of the most contentious elements of the field of
Cultural Resource Management today involves the implemen-
tation of Federal laws that confirm the rights of federally-
recognized Indian Tribes to "come to the table" in order to
protect their material culture heritages in ways that have not
been available to them previously for social, political, and
economic reasons. Rather than providing ground for partner-
ships and coalition building, however, legal terms such as
"consultation," "consulting parties," "government to govern-
ment relations," "undertaking," and "culturally unidentifiable
remains" have become code words for intercultural power
struggles. Florida has all the elements necessary to take center
stage in this national cultural drama. But will state archaeolo-
gists and anthropologists embrace pluralism and intercultural


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


understanding, as they have the opportunity to do, or will
cultural chauvinism and territoriality set the pattern for
Florida's future?

Electronic Media, Virtual Tours of Cultural Resources at
Eglin AFB, Florida
Federal agencies hold in trust for the American people
numerous historic properties. Security restrictions often
prevent the public from visiting these sites. Eglin Air Force
Base in an attempt to make the public aware of archaeologi-
cally and historically significant properties that it holds is
utilizing electronic means of communication to present its
heritage resources. Eglin has developed virtual tours of
selected historic properties and made these available for public
access on the Internet. This presentation will demonstrate the
use of this electronic media as a means of sharing historic
resources in restricted zones.


EDITOR'S NOTE: This year, two Bullen Awards were presented.


Dr. ElizabethD. Benchley was presented the Bullen Award
for her encouragement and training of avocational archaeolo-
gists in the Pensacola area. She was given a plaque for
"furthering cooperation among professional and avocational
archaeologists." She was nominated by the Pensacola Archae-
ological Society (PAS).
Dr. Benchley came to the University of West Florida in
1996 after managing the contract archaeology program at the
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee for almost 30 years. She
now serves as Managing Director of the Archaeology Institute
at the University of West Florida, where she teaches and
conducts research. In addition, she is an active member of
PAS and serves on the chapter's Board and several commit-

Figure 1. FAS President Jack Thompson presents the Bullen
Award to Elizabeth Benchley.

Some of Dr. Benchley's most outstanding abilities and
contributions are in public archaeology. Her enthusiasm for
archaeology draws people of all ages and interests to her

There were no nominations for the William C. Lazarus Award.

projects. Members of PAS and the general public enjoy
working and learning from her, both in the field and in the
lab. Her patience and concern for people shows in all her
endeavors, and she has made a huge positive difference in the
Archaeology Institute's public archaeology program. Re-
cently, Dr. Benchley made it possible for PAS members to
enroll in a class of laboratory procedures, including cataloging
and analysis. The result will be a group of trained volunteers
who can handle phases of work from excavation to data entry.
There is one special thing about a senior archaeologist who
goes out of her way to encourage participation by avocational
archaeologists and the public ... she does not have to do it. Dr.
Benchley does it because she wants to and knows that it is the
right thing to do.


Dr. Nancy Marie White was presented the Bullen Award
to recognize her outstanding work with the public. She was
given a plaque for "furthering cooperation among professional
and avocational archaeologists." She was nominated by the
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society.
Dr. White has been a professor of anthropology at the
University of South Florida, in Tampa, for many years. She
has authored several books and monographs, and numerous
journal articles and technical reports, about archaeology in
northwestern Florida, especially the Apalachicola River
Valley. In addition to teaching at the university, Nancy gives
many talks to schools, civic groups, and archaeological
societies. She organizes meetings and functions that bring
professional and avocational archaeologists together.
During summers when Nancy has conducted field schools
in the Florida panhandle, many avocational archaeologists
have joined her. She has taught participants how to work in
the field and in the lab. Nancy explains the importance of
record keeping when artifacts are found, how to write about
what is being found, and proper ways to document sites. The
relationships Nancy has forged have led many citizens to feel
comfortable and to share their knowledge with students and
professional researchers. Each summer, Nancy holds an
"Archaeology Day" with the purpose of encouraging citizens
to bring artifacts that they have found so that she and her
students can offer insights and learn more about the area's
archaeological resources. Nancy has co-authored booklets
about the archaeology of Florida and the panhandle so that the
public can have more information.
Dr. White is constantly communicating the importance of


VOL. 54(3-4)




protecting our archaeological resources. As busy as she is, she
always will stop and answer questions about archaeology. She
will identify artifacts and stress the importance of document-
ing archaeological resources. Nancy Marie White is a perfect
recipient for the Bullen Award.

Figure 2. Bullen Award recipient Nancy Marie White
(center), with Lee Hutchinson-Neff (left) and Terry Simpson



The Southeast Florida Archaeological Society (SEFAS) was
honored as the third recipient of the FAS Chapter Award. At
the Annual Banquet, SEFAS was presented with a plaque for
"outstanding achievements in field work, site preservation,
education, and work with local government."
These achievements are especially impressive because
SEFAS is a relatively young chapter, having been founded in
1996. Centered in the area of Hobe Sound, Stuart, St. Lucie
Inlet, and Fort Pierce, SEFAS was briefly called the "Treasure
Coast Archaeological Society." By early 2000, SEFAS had
grown to approximately 80 members.
SEFAS has been active in site preservation. The chapter
successfully lobbied in Tallahassee for a grant submitted by
Martin County to stabilize Mt. Elizabeth (8MTI), a large shell
midden in Indian RiverSide Park. Chapter members have

worked on a nomination to list Mt. Elizabeth in the National
Register of Historic Places, and were instrumental in having
the City of Ft. Pierce take responsibility for the Fort Pierce
Mound. SEFAS helped list the Herman's Bay site in the
Florida Master Site File and supported purchase of the site by
Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge. The chapter has
expressed support for land acquisition on Hutchinson Island
that would protect archaeological sites.
SEFAS has worked closely with professional archaeolo-
gists. Dr. Harry Iceland, a lithics expert and Adjunct Professor
of Archaeology at Florida Atlantic University, is a SEFAS
member. In May 1999, SEFAS helped National Park Service
archaeologist Dr. Mike Russo (Southeast Archeological
Center, Tallahassee) and Ryan Noel (Hobe Sound National
Wildlife Refuge) excavate four units in the Joseph Reed Shell
Ring (8MT13). In February 1999 and May 2000, SEFAS
assisted in field work at the South Florida Water Manage-
ment's DuPuis Reserve Area in Palm Beach County with Dr.
Ryan Wheeler of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological
Chapter members have taught school students, boy scouts,
Daughters of the American Revolution, and other community
groups about southeast Florida's heritage. SEFAS has worked
on an archaeological display at Hobe Sound Nature Center,
and helped draft art work and text for archaeological interpre-
tive signs in Peck Lake Park. Hundreds of volunteer hours
were given to remove Brazilian pepper bushes from Mt.
Elizabeth, as well as to monitor recent construction and
landscaping on the site. Martin County encouraged SEFAS to
write a brochure, "Archaeology and History of Mt. Elizabeth,"
for the ground-breaking ceremony at Indian RiverSide Park on
October 21, 2000. SEFAS also has begun work with Martin
County to help draft a preservation ordinance. These are just
some of SEFAS's achievements.


Individual FAS chapters and the FAS Board of Directors
honor members for outstanding service in furthering archaeol-
ogy and preservation. President Jack Thompson presented the

Central Gulf Coast
Archaeological Society


CGCAS is proud to recognize Jody Brinton, who has
contributed quietly to preservation and recording of archaeo-
logical sites in central and southern Florida. His interest has
led him to visit numerous sites all over Florida. In the early
1990s, he helped Janus Research by supplying information for
their survey of the City of Gulfport, where Jody lives. He has
taken a great interest in the Safety Harbor area, researching
and visiting site locations in that heavily urbanized area.
As a devoted member of CGCAS, Jody took part in the first


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)



Figure 3. Jack Thompson presents the FAS Chapter Award to Gloria Fike of
the Southeast Florida Archaeological Society.

Archaeology Day event held in Boyd Hill Park in St. Peters
burg in 1993. Later that year, when CGCAS hosted the FAS
annual meeting, Jody supplied refreshments and helped in the
chapter's tour of the Narvaez Site. He helps at all CGCAS
events, lending assistance wherever it is needed. Jody supplies
the chapter newsletter with clippings and announcements of
the latest happenings in the archaeological world.
Jody also is a member of the Southwest Florida Archaeo-
logical Society and played an important role in enabling the
Calusa Land Trust and Nature Preserve of Pine Island, Inc., to
purchase some of the last remnants of the Pine Island Canal.
He also has supported efforts at the Pineland Site and given
financial support to the John W. Griffin Award presented by
the Florida Archaeological Council. These are just a few of
many things that Jody has done over the years, and our
recognition is long overdue.


Outstanding CGCAS member Mac Perry began making the
first of many remarkable contributions to Florida archaeology
in 1993 with publication of his well-known book, Indian
Mounds You Can Visit. Along with Faye, his wife and partner
in all his endeavors, Mac produced a four-part documentary
series for local television in which he visited 15 aboriginal
sites in the Tampa Bay area. These half-hour presentations
acquainted viewers with the area's rich heritage that often goes
unnoticed for lack of markers, even in city and county parks.

In 1998 and 1999, Mac published two novels
or "historical adventure" books. Black Con-
quistador tells the story of Estevanico of the
Narvaez expedition, and Children of the Sun
is an account of Cabeza de Vaca's trek.
As CGCAS Education Director, Mac has
arranged and served as guide for several
weekend field trips. He has volunteered on
several CGCAS excavations, including at his
own house atop the Bayshore Homes shell
midden. Not only did Mac help us dig up
his beautifully landscaped yard, he provided
food and entertainment in incomparable
style! He has spoken about archaeology and
preservation at public events and to many
civic organizations and school groups. With
the help of fellow CGCAS member Bob
Austin, Mac recently secured protective
measures for middens and mounds in two
city parks, where interpretive signs also will
be installed.
Mac continues to amaze us with his
boundless energy and creative and organiza-
tional abilities. He is the driving force be-
hind our newly constructed "Indian Village,"
a replica with components of various Florida
cultures on a half-acre at The Science Center
of Pinellas County. Mac designed the vil-
lage, directed construction of two mounds,

two thatched structures, and a small creek. It includes a
cook's hut, dugout canoe, Indian garden, plaza, and a repli-
cated midden, excavation unit, and sixteenth-century Spanish
camp. The village will be toured by school children and, at
special events, it is transformed into a living history exhibit
when volunteers and members of CGCAS demonstrate hands-
on skills. We really cannot say enough about this gifted,
charming, bawdy, flute-playing, and prolific email-writing
member of our chapter, but we are pleased to recognize and
congratulate him on all these exceptional accomplishments
and contributions to Florida archaeology.

Pensacola Archaeological Society


Martha Ridlehoover has been a member of PAS for some
ten years. During that period, she has served as President for
2 years, Secretary for 3 years, and as a member of the Board of
Directors for 6 years, including at present. During her terms
as President, PAS grew and prospered, engaging in most of the
archaeological activities in the area. In addition to her offices,
Mrs. Ridlehoover served as the banquet arrangement chair for
most of her time as a member of PAS, and she has been in
charge of meeting arrangements for an equally long period.
She has volunteered in all the terrestrial archaeological
projects conducted by the University of West Florida, serving
in the field and as a "sorter" in the laboratory.



John Crane has been a member of PAS for approximately
8 years. During that period, he has served for 3 years on the
Board of Directors, including a current term. He has been on
various committees and, for most of his time as a member, he
was Auditor of PAS. John has volunteered for EVERY major
terrestrial archaeological project conducted by the University
of West Florida. He is an accomplished field and laboratory
worker, serving in both capacities numerous times.

Kissimmee Valley Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy


The KVAHC would like to honor Gordon Davis. Gordon
is a science teacher at Walker Memorial Junior Academy. For
the last 5 years, he has been a member of KVAHC and has
involved his students in our chapter activities. The students
did extra credit work and research papers to attend our
meetings, labs, field trips, and excavations. They have been
given field training and have taken curation seminars. Not
only are the students diligent in the field, they are interested in
many aspects of science. They have cleaned, sorted, and
weighed specimens, and logged them into a database that they
set up as an after-school activity. Last year, the students
presented papers to their school's National Board of Governors
about what they were doing in archaeology. The students will
be allowed to take a course in archaeology and receive credit,
and their school was made a national model for other Seventh
Day Adventist schools.
When Gordon was praised for his work with these students,
he said that he tried to be the teacher he wished he had had.
His philosophy is "We do it, we don't just read about it." His
students also analyze lakes in their area and maintain a
museum in their school. In the field, they look for interesting
specimens of flora and fauna for their collections. Gordon
believes that his schoolwork is relevant and has meaning in
real life. The students are eager to learn, and in the process
we have learned from them.
Education is one of KVAHC's priorities. These students
have learned valuable lessons not only in science, but in
history, ecology, preservation, and conservation. We wish that
all students could have a teacher like Gordon Davis. We are
fortunate to have Gordon and his students as part of KVAHC.
They are truly an asset to us and their community.

Florida Anthropological Society
Board of Directors


The FAS Board would like to recognize our own First Vice
President, Sheila Stewart. Sheila has served as Chair of the
Florida Archaeology Month Committee for the last two years.

In this capacity, she has demonstrated her leadership qualities.
By working closely with State personnel this year, she has
greatly improved their working relationship with the Commit-
tee. One product was the attractive 2001 Florida Archaeology
Month poster.
Sheila is also an active member of the Central Gulf Coast
Archaeological Society. She is the new manager of the
Weedon Island Education Center recently created by Pinellas
County. Sheila holds an undergraduate degree in education
and an M.A in Applied Anthropology, with a specialty in
cultural resource management and museum methods, from the
University of South Florida.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


The Florida Anthropologist Fund was proposed to the FAS
Board of Directors on March 13, 1993, and established by
resolution of the Board on December 3, 1993. The purpose of
the Fund, also known informally as the "Endowment Fund,"
is to support production expenses (not publication costs) of the
FAS journal. Thus far, the goal of the Fund has been to grow
so that its interest income can eventually be put to use.
The 1993 resolution stated:
"BE IT RESOLVED that there be established a separate
account to be known as The Florida Anthropologist Fund to
be made up of donations from individuals, corporations,
charitable organizations and such other sources as the Board
of Directors may deem appropriate, to be administered by the
Treasurer, income from which is to be used at the direction of
the Editor solely for production of The FloridaAnthropologist.
Expenditures are to be used for production-related costs other
than printing, which is covered by dues, the Monograph
Account, and grants. Withdrawals or compromise of principal

are to be made only by majority vote
of the Board of Directors" (Florida
Anthropological Society, Board of
Directors 1993).
During the 1990s, the Fund grew
steadily. Its initial principal con-
sisted of stock donations (Table 1) by
FAS members Patricia and Donald
Randell of Lee County, Florida (Lee
1991). These were followed by roy-
alties from the University Press of
Florida for the book, The Spanish
Missions of La Florida (McEwan
1993), which first appeared as an
issue of The Florida Anthropologist
in 1991 (volume 44, nos. 2-4). In
1996, a bequest from the estate of
Richard L. Mahy, of California, was
added to the Fund. Mahy, an FAS
member, attended Florida State Uni-
versity and had a strong interest in
Florida history and Timucua Indians
(Wheeler 1996). In 1998, proceeds
from the FAS Annual Meeting in
Gainesville, Florida, were donated to
the Fund. In 1996-1999, advertise-
ments in The FloridaAnthropologist
attracted several donors, who
received prints of Florida Indians by
artist Dean Quigley.

In addition, the Fund has grown through other sources. In
the 1990s, FAS Treasurer Jack Thompson directed some
donations, back issues sales, and proceeds from the University
of Florida Library Gifts and Exchange program to the Fund.
Interest also has accrued. As of the FAS Annual Audit on
January 31, 2000, the Fund had grown to $14,063.83.
In 2000, the FAS Board resolved to strengthen the defining
language of the Fund, proposing to add a description of it to
the FAS By-Laws (Burns 2001:3-4). These additions were
approved in May 2001 at the FAS Annual Meeting and
formally incorporated into the new 2001 version of the FAS
Operating Procedures Manual. The text of this addition is
presented below.
In the future, FAS members are encouraged to seek
donations and other ways for the Fund to grow.

Table 1. Some contributions to The Florida Anthropologist Fund.

Date Source Amount

1. Nov. 30, 1990 Pat and Don Randell $3,392.38

2. July 24, 1991 Pat and Don Randell 1,019.96

3. Aug. 2, 1993 Pat and Don Randell 1,276.20

4. early 1994 "Missions" book 901.24

5. mid 1996 Mahy bequest 1000.00

6. early 1997 "Missions" book 238.69

7. early 1998 "Missions" book 234.30

8. late 1998 1998 FAS meeting 1,587.57

9. 1996-1999 Dean Quigley prints 300.00

10. early 2000 "Missions" book 222.43

11. January 2001 Anne Reynolds 250.00

12. July 2001 Gordon R. Willey 100.00


VOL. 54(3-4)




References Cited

Burns, David B. (Editor)
2001 Proposed By-Laws Additions: Florida Anthropologist
Fund and Monograph/Special Publications Account.
FloridaAnthropological Society Newsletter 161:3-4.

Florida Anthropological Society, Board of Directors
1993 Minutes to the December 3, 1993, FAS Board Meet-
ing. On file, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Lee, Arthur R.
1991 The Randells of Lee County's Pineland: Florida
Archaeology Owes Them Much. The FloridaAnthro-
pologist 44:76.

McEwan, Bonnie G. (Editor)
1993 The Spanish Missions ofLa Florida. University Press
of Florida, Gainesville.

Wheeler, Ryan J. (Editor)
1996 Richard L. Mahy Bequest to FAS. Florida Anthropo-
logical Society Newsletter 144:1.

Appendix. Addition to the FAS By-Laws, May 2001, in
"Chapter XI, Special Funds and Accounts."

Section 1. The Florida Anthropologist Fund

(1.1) Nature of Fund. The Florida Anthropologist Fund shall
be made up of donations from individuals, corporations,
charitable organizations, and such other sources as the Board
of Directors may deem appropriate from time to time. It is to
be used to defray costs necessary to the production of the
Society's quarterly journal other than printing and mailing,
which are funded by other means. All monies that have
accumulated in the Fund under terms of a resolution of the
Board of Directors dated December 3, 1993, shall be incorpo-
rated into The Florida Anthropologist Fund.

(1.2) Administration. The Treasurer is hereby empowered to
handle routine operations incidental to the receipt, investment,
and disbursement of the Fund's assets subject to approval of
the Auditing Committee established by Article VI, Section 2,
of the Articles of Incorporation. In addition to functions
provided by the Articles of Incorporation, the Auditing
Committee shall, at least annually and also at such other times
as shall be considered necessary by the Treasurer, the Board of
Directors, or the Auditing Committee itself, review with the
Treasurer the investment strategy to be used to provide
maximum returns without risk of capital. Any major change
in types of investment shall be subject to approval of the Board
of Directors at a regular or special meeting.
Further, withdrawal or compromise of principal (funds
other than the current year's annual interest) is strongly

discouraged but, if contemplated by the FAS Board of Direc-
tors, shall be done only under the following conditions:
(a) Passage of a formal resolution of intent by the FAS
Board of Directors, followed by its publication in the FAS
Newsletter in time for the general membership to express its
views to the Board of Directors at its next regularly scheduled
meeting; and
(b) the printed notice shall be followed by a discussion of
the proposals) and all views concerning it (them) expressed
by the membership, Auditing Committee, or Treasurer at a
regularly scheduled meeting of the Board of Directors; such
deliberation is a requisite to any vote on the issue by the Board
of Directors.

(1.3) Disbursement of Fund Assets. The Treasurer shall report
to the Board of Directors on a quarterly basis the status of the
Fund, including a separate listing of interest accrued from the
Fund's capital investments. Expenditures from the interest
account requested by the Editor shall be made at the direction
of the Board of Directors, with the understanding that repeated
individual withdrawals for the same purpose will not require
individual approval by the Board, and further that they will not
be used for payment of printing and mailing. The object of
such expenditures is to ease the work load on the Editor while
improving the content and appearance of the journal. Expen-
ditures shall not be such as to imperil the Fund's capital
investments, and in approving them the Board shall keep in
mind the possible alternative of reinvesting interest accruals in
the Fund.

(1.4) Dissolution of Fund. Should at any time developments
remove the need for such a Fund, its assets shall be melded
into the Society's general operating fund, or such other funds)
or accounts) as the membership shall decide, after its formal
dissolution by vote of the membership at an annual meeting.
Such a proposal shall be advertised by the Board in the
Newsletter prior to an annual meeting.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


The East Florida Expeditions of Clarence B. Moore. Edited
and with an Introduction by Jeffrey M. Mitchem. University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 1999. viii + 432 pp., tables,
illustrations, indices. $39.95, paper.

The Northwest Florida Expeditions of Clarence B. Moore.
Edited and with an Introduction by David S. Brose and Nancy
Marie White. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 1999.
ix + 525 pp., tables, illustrations, indices. $49.95, paper.

The West and Central Florida Expeditions of Clarence B.
Moore. Edited and with an Introduction by Jeffrey M.
Mitchem. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 1999. viii
+ 411 pp., tables, illustrations, indices. $39.95, paper.

Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL 32611-
E-mail: jtm@flmnh.ufl.edu

Had Philadelphia native Clarence Bloomfield Moore not
arranged for ceramic vessels he excavated from Florida's
panhandle to be deposited in the Philadelphia Academy of
Natural Science, I doubt that Gordon Willey would have ever
written Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. [Ultimately
those and other of Moore's collections were purchased by
George Heye for his New York-based Museum of the Amer-
ican Indian; today they are curated at the Smithsonian Institu-
tion's Museum of the American Indian.] Had Moore never
published on his archaeological investigations in northeast
Florida's middens and mounds, John M. Goggin probably
would not have published Space and Time Perspective in
Northern St. Johns Archeology, Florida. As these three
volumes-reprints of Moore's entire Florida oeuvre of thirty-
five papers and monographs-make amply clear, much of
Florida archaeology is built atop the artifacts Moore dug up
and the site locations he recorded. The University of Alabama
Press is to be congratulated for their successful efforts in
reprinting Moore's valuable publications. Likewise, David
Brose, Jeffrey Mitchem, and Nancy White deserve kudos for
their introductions intended to help readers understand the
contexts of Moore's Florida discoveries and to aid in making
Moore's reports more user friendly.
Was Moore a pot-hunter, albeit a sophisticated and well-
published one? Alas, he was. There is no doubt he focused on
mounds and their contents, especially elaborate ceramic
vessels (he was not too interested in plain ones). After his
work in shell middens on the St. Johns River in the early
1890s (he actually made forays into that region in 1873 and

1879), Moore's efforts in Florida were spent finding, excavat-
ing, and hauling away ceramic vessels and other artifacts from
mounds. During all or part of thirteen field seasons in 1893-
95, 1900-06, and 1918, Moore excavated mounds from Nassau
County down the Atlantic coast to Martin County (sans Indian
River and Flagler, but including the non-coastal counties
adjacent to the St. Johns and Oklawaha rivers of Clay,
Putnam, Marion, Lake Seminole, Orange, and Osceola), as
well as Dade County. Along the Gulf coast he hit mounds in
every county from Monroe in the south to Escambia in the
westernmost panhandle, as well as the inland counties of
Washington, Jackson, Gadsden, Liberty, and Lafayette. His
modus operandi, using steamboats as traveling field laborato-
ries/dormitories and to gain access to sites, spared mounds in
interior Florida counties not reachable from the coast by water
(e.g., the mounds at the Lake Jackson site in Leon County or
the earthworks at Fort Center in Glades County).
Tables compiled by Brose, Mitchem and White correlating
Moore's site names with Florida Master Site File numbers
provide the smoking gun: in his search for pots Moore
attacked approximately 420 mounds in Florida! That is an eye-
popping statistic. No wonder we modern archaeologists love
Moore for his publications on Florida, but find discomfort in
what might have been. It is humanly impossible for any
individual to excavate an average of thirty-two mounds per
field season and do anything other than rip artifacts out of
context. Moore and his field crews, as many as two dozen
people at a time, must have destroyed huge amounts of data.
But again, at least we have Moore's publications, with lists,
drawings, photographs, and even paintings of artifacts, in
addition to his published maps showing the locations of sites
and some site plans. The illustrations, well-reproduced by the
University of Alabama Press, are simply spectacular. If you've
never sat down and leafed through one of Moore's Florida
reports, you must.
In addition to the visual record, we also have Moore's
published excavation narratives and his unpublished field
notes and journals. Willey, Goggin, and others have shown it
is possible to use these sources to construct taxonomies for
Florida's precolumbian past. New generations of archaeologists
continue to mine Moore's data to address a host of interesting
problems, everything from funerary rituals to belief systems,
social stratification to trade.
Even so, in one sense Moore beguiled us. Except for his
early investigations in St. Johns drainage shell heaps, the data
Moore left us comes from sand mounds, not village sites. As
a consequence, our information for the central and northern
peninsula Gulf coast, for example, is based largely on pottery
from mounds. Vessels of the familiar Weeden Island, Fort


VOL. 54(3-4)




Walton, and Safety Harbor ceramic series abound in mounds
in that region, but are often remarkably absent, or nearly so,
from any village assemblage. No wonder Jesse Fewkes could
not reconcile the Weeden Island culture mound on Pinellas
County's Weedon Island with the adjacent village site; he was
presented two seemingly unrelated ceramic assemblages. Had
Moore dug village sites along the way, archaeology may not
have had to wait for William Sears's 1973 article "The Sacred
and the Secular in Prehistoric Ceramics" to begin to sort out
the taxonomic situation along the peninsula coast north of
Tampa Bay.
That is an interesting thought. What might the state of
Florida archaeology be if Moore had dug middens throughout
the many sections of the state in which he investigated
mounds? Read Moore's five "Certain Shell Heaps of the St.
John's River...," papers (reprinted in the East Florida volume)
and you will come away impressed with the results of his
earliest field work. If only he had given us more such midden
data. But in 1893 he turned to mounds, ignoring middens and
their contents and providing modern scholars with a preju-
diced view of Florida's archaeology. Oh, to have data from
both middens and mounds. But we do not. Moore's influence
on Florida archaeology-good and, perhaps, not so
good-should never be doubted.
The three introductions to these University of Alabama Press
reprints do Moore's work justice. Following their shared
organizational plan, each places Clarence Moore in the context
of his time, providing brief overviews of the history of archae-
ological research for the various sections of the state repre-
sented, e.g., northwest and northeast Florida. Modern cultural
chronologies are presented in narrative or tabular form along
with the lengthy tables that correlate Moore's hundreds of sites
with modem site numbers. Included in David Brose and Nancy
White's table are the cultural affiliation for each of the sites
along with pertinent, post-Moore references.
The latter tabular citations make clear the extent to which
Gordon Willey relied on Moore in preparing his 1949 Gulf
coast overview. Not surprisingly, in the very late 1940s and
early 1950s, John Goggin and others then used both Moore
and Willey's site information when first assigning Florida site
numbers. Typed on many of Goggin's original 5 by 8-inch site
cards now filed at the Florida Museum of Natural History are
site parameters taken directly from Moore and Willey (who
relied on Moore). Often the only information on a card comes
from Moore via Willey. Goggin even went so far as to cut up
a copy of Willey's Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast and
paste pertinent sections on the appropriate site cards. All
together, some several hundred site numbers can be attributed
to Moore and Willey.
In the East Florida and West and Central Florida volumes
Jeffrey Mitchem also gives his readers the cultural affiliations
for sites along with pertinent references to recent research,
choosing to do so in two well done and comprehensive
narratives that help to place Moore's sites in the context of
modern archaeology. Moore's respective itineraries for his
various field seasons also are detailed in all three volumes.
Where was he when? Modern users of Moore's Florida data

will find the three "guides to Moore's sites" valuable tools
The introductions also contain several bonuses. Brose and
White's introduction includes a guide to Moore sites in
northwest Florida that one can visit today. And I love their site
photographs. Just as charming are Mitchem's anecdotes about
Moore. The quotation (in the West and Central Florida
volume) from Frederick R Swift's 1903 book Florida Fancies
recounting Swift's encounter with Moore's expedition on the
Oklawaha River in the 1890s is priceless. It also paints a vivid
picture of how untamed interior Florida was at the time.
How aboutMoore's thirty-five publications themselves? How
well did he do? If one is expecting the equivalent of modern
site reports, you will be sorely disappointed. Moore was never
trained as an archaeologist, few Americans were by the 1890s,
and he never recorded the types of data we would today. But,
as I noted in my introduction to Famous Florida Sites: Mount
Royal and Crystal River (1999), Moore did understand stratig-
raphy and he looked for depositional patterns within the sites he
excavated. He sought similarities between his sites and artifacts
and those found elsewhere in the United States and he read the
pertinent literature, including, for east Florida, accounts like those
left by the French in the 1560s and the narratives of John and
William Bartram from the late eighteenth century. And, as
Mitchem notes, Moore published site maps, took accurate mea-
surements of mound heights, and had excellent illustrations and
photographs taken of his artifacts (presumably as an accomplished
photographer he took the photographs himself, most likely aboard
his steamboat lab). Even so, Moore was no archaeologist.
Over time Moore's reporting of his excavations became less
detailed. His most comprehensive work was his earliest, the
expeditions in the 1890s in east Florida. As noted above, his
reports "Certain Shell Heaps of the St. John's River...," are not
bad for the time. Look at Notes A-C at the end of the first
"Certain Shell Heaps" paper (1892). Those are some percep-
tive observations. Parts I and II of "Certain Sand Mounds of
the St. Johns River, Florida," (1894, reprinted in East Florida)
similarly are good pieces of reporting. But later in time
Moore's reports became little more than verbatim field
observations. Comparing his earliest report on the Crystal
River site (1903, reprinted in West and Central Florida) with
his 1918 (second) revisit to the site (reprinted in Northwest
Florida) makes the point. I think perhaps he became bored.
After a quarter century, what was one more site and another
shelf of pots?
Only five years ago my mental image of Moore was of a
hands-on field excavator with dirt beneath his nails and a
shovel in hand, leaping ashore from the deck of his steamboat
to attack another site. The last several years have altered that
image. My revised view of Moore has been emerging from a
research collaboration with Lawrence Aten (thus far Larry has
done nearly all the work). I now visualize Clarence Bloomfield
Moore as a well-to-do, eccentric dilettante who probably never
got dirty. Once on board his steamboat, I doubt he left it to
actually work at a site.
In my mind's eye the field work is being done by hired
crews, while much of the field data, especially information

2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


about human burials, is being recorded by Moore's long-time
companion, Milo G. Miller, who also draws the site plans. [At
least occasionally, Moore was not even in the field while his
crew was demolishing a mound.] In the early evening the day's
finds are brought on board the steamboat where they are
cleaned and then perused by Moore and marveled at by the
several guests from Philadelphia who always accompanied his
outings. Some of the pots are selected for illustration or
photographing. Later, back in Philadelphia, Miller guides the
reports through publication and handles the correspondence
and arrangements necessary for the next field season.
Over the decades Moore's own interest in reporting his
archaeological endeavors might have waned as he became
more enamored with the unique identity he derived from being
an excavator of pots and a museum patron. Certainly the
earlier Florida reports are much thicker than the later ones. I
wonder how much his own health problems were a part of his
evolving persona.
The accuracy of my emerging vision remains to be deter-
mined. There is much still to learn about Clarence Moore and
his fieldwork. On the other hand, I have no doubt that the
University of Alabama Press's reprinting of Moore's publica-
tions already is speeding that learning process along.
My only caveat about the series is very picayune and I
hesitate to make it. But here it is: I wish the volumes were
published in hardback. I understand the economics of publish-
ing and the desire to keep costs to consumers down by using
paper binding. But these are whopper books that require at
least two hands to read. The Northwest Florida volume with
more than 530 pages and measuring 10 by 14 by 1.25 inches
is just too big for paper backing. The books are not going to
wear well with use. When I received a copy of East Florida
from The Florida Anthropologist's book review editor, it
already was a bit dog-eared (hey, isn't he doing a dissertation
on east Florida?). By the time I finished reviewing it, it was
positively beaten-up.
Perhaps the UAPress could offer a "by prior pre-paid
subscription only, one-price-buys all," complete set of hard-
back editions. Expensive, yes, but wouldn't it be worth it? In
the meanwhile, you can order a set of the Moore Florida
reprints by logging on to www.uapress.ua.edu and printing out
an order form or by directly contacting the Press's fulfillment
department: Chicago Distribution Center, 11030 S. Langley,
Chicago, IL 60628 (telephone 773-568-1550; fax 773-660-
2235). Buy them all; though the paperback editions may not
last a life time, the spectacular illustrations alone are worth
even a short-term investment.

Pottery and Chronology at Angel, Sherri L. Hilgeman 2000.
The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. xi, 294 pp.,
references, appendices, index, $29.95 (paper).

Penders Consulting Services, P.O. Box 787, Titusville, Florida
E-mail: pendarch@yahoo.com

The Angel site is a large Mississippian Period town site
located in Vanderburgh County, Indiana. The site was exca-
vated from 1939 through 1989, but a cultural chronology was
never formally established. A goal of the author's research is
to create a detailed ceramic chronology, cross-referenced with
radiocarbon dates. This chronology provides a time scale to
show not just stylistic changes in the pottery, but to document
the rise and decline of Angel. Another goal is to discuss the
Angel site and ceramic assemblage in a regional context.
Overall the book is well presented and organized, with seven
chapters and five appendices.
Chapter One is an introduction to the Angel site, including
a summary of the excavations and findings after 50 years of
archaeology. It is a good overview of the site, previous
research, and regional context. One problem with the research
is that cord-marked and fabric-impressed sherds are grouped
with undecorated ceramics and apparently not included in the
research (pp. 2-3). I do not understand the reasoning for this,
and there is no explanation in the book. Is not cord-marked or
fabric-impressed considered a decorative style of ceramics?
There are also problems with the format of Chapter One. The
linear features indicated in Figure 1.3 were not easily distin-
guishable, and the table summarizing the excavations is
located in Appendix A. Referring to the table would have been
easier if it was located in the chapter for ready comparison to
the figure and text.
Chapter Two gives an overview of previous Mississippian
Period ceramic studies in the region and existing chronologies.
The author discusses previous research on the ceramics and
the place of the Angel assemblage within the Lower Ohio
River Valley. In this chapter, cord- and fabric-impressed
ceramics are clearly identified as a hallmark decorative style
associated with a specific period. Yet the author does not see
this as contradictory. Again I had to ask, are these ceramics a
decorative style or not? I found the methodology section
somewhat lacking. As an archaeologist who has worked
primarily on preceramic sites, I would have liked to have seen
more detailed explanation of the methodology.
Chapters Three and Four are two of the best sections of the
book. Chapter Three is well presented and organized. Each of
the five ceramic forms (bottles, plates, bowls, pans and jars) is
described with regard to function, manufacturing technique,
decoration, and type. There are plenty of tables and illustra-
tions to support the text and all fit perfectly together. Chapter
Four is another excellent section of the book. This chapter
discusses handle types. Again, the author presents the func-
tions, manufacturing techniques, decorations, and types in a
well-organized manner. The illustrations and tables are
invaluable visual aids.
I found Chapter Five (Angel Negative Painted Plates) very
interesting and well presented. The use of replication experi-
ments to understand the possible manufacturing process of this
decorative technique is excellent. Each method is described
along with the outcome. The author then goes on to discuss
morphology, style and decoration variations, and possible
functions of the plates. Dr. Hilgeman presents the theory that
these vessels were for ceremonial use. She considers the use of


Negative Painted Plates both at Mississippian sites in the
southeastern United States and in early ethnographic accounts
from the eastern United States. She also discusses the volume
of these ceramics recovered at Angel.
Chapter Six summarizes ceramic chronologies from other
Mississippian sites within the region, which includes ceramics
types and radiocarbon dates. This information is used to
identify three phases at Angel. Again, the issue of cord-
marked or fabric-impressed ceramics appears. In the earliest
phase (Stephan-Steinkamp), the author clearly identified cord-
marked ceramics as marker (p. 224). Obviously, the author
had distinguished this type from the other ceramics. The
author demonstrates stylistic changes through the three phases
of Angel based upon shape, handle style, and other decorative
motifs. One of the strong points of the chapter was Figure 6.7
(p. 228) showing the complete assemblage for each phase. I
liked the comparison of the phases, ceramics, and what is
known of the Angel site archaeologically.
In Chapter Seven, Angel's place in local and regional
cultural chronology is discussed and compared to other sites in
the area. The Kincaid site is mentioned throughout the book,
and according to the author the two sites may have been
polities. The chapter is an excellent blend of previous research
at Angel and other sites and a new regional view as a whole.
The author presents the data and her conclusions quite clearly.
The book concludes with a statement of the objective, short
summary of findings, and a caveat that this is a preliminary
chronology which further research should refine.
As a whole, this is a good reference for professionals
interested in Mississippian ceramics of the Midwest and Lower
Ohio River Valley. It would be useful for anyone interested in
ceramic typological studies. The illustrations are excellent and
useful for identifying ceramics found at sites in the region.
Chapter Five should be a good source of information for
Midwestern and Southeastern archaeologists.


2001 VOL. 54(3-4)


About the Authors:

Keith Ashley is a Ph.D. candidate in Anthropology at the University of Florida. His dissertation focuses on the changing
social landscape of north Florida and south Georgia during the late prehistoric period.

Brent Handley received his undergraduate degree at the University of Southern Maine in Anthropology/Geography, and his
graduate degree at the University of Connecticut. He has been working as an archaeologist for the last two years for
Environmental Services, Inc., specializing in the southeastern United States.

Gregory Mikell is a professional archaeologist with Panamerican Consultants, Inc. based in Pensacola. He is a graduate of
Florida State University (1983) and Wake Forest University (1986). Having spent the majority of the past 15 years in the
Fort Walton Beach and Pensacola areas, Mr. Mikell has conducted a great deal of research on the prehistory of the
Choctawhatchee River and Bay area and has published several papers in The Florida Anthropologist that describe his work.

Jerald T. Milanich is a Curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville.

Tom Penders received his B.S and M.S. degrees in Anthropology from Florida State University. He has 17 years of experience
in archaeology and has worked in Hawaii, the Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and Plains areas of the United States, and in
Central America. His interests are wet site archaeology, Archaic and Orange Periods, and the archaeology of East-Central
Florida. Mr. Penders is the owner and Principal Investigator for Penders Consulting Services, a CRM consulting firm located
in Titusville, Florida.

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