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Volume XXIV, No. 3
Loyola Beach: an example of aboriginal adaptation
Thomas Roy Hester ............
Excavations at the Hope Mound
Samuel D. Smith ..............
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LOYOLA BEACH: AN EXAMPLE OF ABORIGINAL ADAPTATION
TO THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER TEXAS COAST
Thomas Roy Hester
In August, 1967, I conducted archaeological reconnaissance in Kleberg
and Kenedy Counties on the lower Texas Gulf coast (Fig. 1). A report on
the results of this work (Hester 1969a) has been published through the archeo-
logical program of the Texas State Building Commission. One of the several
sites found during the survey, and visited several times since, is the Loyola
Beach site (41 KL 13) located on the north side of Vattman Creek, just west
of its confluence with Grullo Bay (Fig. 2). Preceramic and late prehistoric
ceramic-bearing components are represented in the surface collections. The
site seems to have occupied a very favorable position with regard to the ab-
original exploitation of the local environment.
The Area and Environment
Eastern Kleberg County (in which the site is situated) lies within the
West Gulf Coastal Plain as defined by Fenneman (1938). It is a flat prairie
with the mean elevation above sea level generally between 10 to 30 feet. The
area is dotted with numerous small ephemeral freshwater ponds. Vegetation
is dominated by thorny brush (primarily mesquite, which has invaded the
prairie only in relatively recent times), prickly pear cactus, and a variety of
prairie grasses, all characteristic of subclimax vegetative zones.
Grullo Bay is immediately to the east of the site. It is a shallow and
highly saline estuary fed by several tributaries (Vattman, San Fernando and
other creeks) entering along its western shore. The bay is a northern ex-
tension of Baffin Bay, the largest bay opening on to the Laguna Madre (Fig. 2).
There is a restricted interchange of water between the Laguna Madre and Baf-
fin Bay, which coupled with the small inflow of water into the bay from inland
have made both Baffin and Grullo Bays hypersaline (Hedgpeth 1954: 210; Sim-
mons 1954: 159). Both bays have muddy bottoms and are shallow, with maxi-
mum depths of 8 to 15 feet (Breuer, 1957).
Grullo Bay is bordered by bluffs averaging 10 to 20 feet in height. Many
of these bluffs are eroded clay dunes scattered along the west side of the bay,
and often rising 30 to 40 feet above sea level. The clay dune phenomenon has
,-,1 -* -1 A -_ A1
I 1 1 rI A I I-
been treated in detail by Huffman and Price (1949) and Price (1963). Briefly,
they are knolls formed by the accumulation (and subsequent compaction) of
tiny clay pellets which develop in dried, sun-baked lagoon or bay bottoms
during late summer, and which are blown landward by the prevailing south-
east winds. These dunes are common along the coastline of southern Texas
and northeastern Mexico, but are also known in other areas of the world.
The region has a semiarid climate, with megathermal temperatures.
Campbell (1960: 147) has summarized it thusly:
"The winters on the Texas coast are notably mild but there are
occasional sudden drops in temperature when cold air masses
succeed in penetrating as far south as the Gulf. The summer
temperatures are somewhat lower than farther inland. In late
summer and early autumn, the whole coast is subject to violent
hurricanes from the Gulf ".
The area is included within the Tamaulipan biotic province which is
characterized by the vegetational patterns mentioned earlier and a varied
land fauna, consisting of 61 species of mammals (Blair 195Z), 36 species of
snakes, 19 lizard species, 2 land turtle species, 3 urodele species and 19
The bay and bayshore environments support (or have supported in the
past) a variety of wildlife. There are a variety of fishes in Baffin and Grullo
Bays, including sea catfish (hardhead), tidewater silverside, mullet, pin
perch, spotted sea trout, redfish, and black drum (Rounsefell 1954: 508).
The mullet is most common, and adjusts to the changes in salinity and water
temperature. This fish congregates in large numbers in the more shallow
waters of the bays. Redfish occur in large schools during October and Sept-
ember. The black drum is very common, and its importance to the aboriginal
economy is discussed in greater detail in a later section of this paper.
Because of the salinity and bottom conditions, few molluscs grow in
Grullo and Baffin Bays now. Breuer (1957: 148) feels that the increased
salinity in the bays during the 1940's eradicated a large portion of the mol-
luscan population. However, there was undoubtedly a variety of molluscs in
the bays in prehistoric times.
The Loyola Beach site (Fig. 2) is located at the mouth of Vattman Creek,
near the confluence of that creek and Grullo Bay. It is situated on a small
clay dune which extends for about one-half mile along the northern edge of
Vattman Creek, just southwest of the town of Loybla Beach. There is an
Fig. 1. Map of southwest Texas coast locating
Loyola Beach site in Kleberg County.
ephemeral freshwater pond adjacent to the landward side of the dune (Fig. 2).
Occupational debris has been exposed on the southern flank of the dune by sheet
and gully erosion, and on the northern side by cultivation. The surface is
littered with quantities of land snails (occasionally in localized concentrations
eroding out of gullies on the southern edge of the dune), marine shells, fish
and mammal bones, stone-working debris (as well as finished artifacts of
stone), potsherds, bts of asphaltum and lumps of baked clay which may re-
present scattered hearths (Fig. 3). Vegetation on the uncultivated part of the
site consists primarily of small mesquite bushes, prickly pear cactus, and
clumps of salt grass (Fig. 4).
1 1 1
Fig. 2. Map of Grullo and Baffin Bays, Loyola Beach shown as 41KL13.
At present, all of the archaeological materials from the Loyola Beach
site have been obtained from the surface. The bulk of the studied specimens
are in private collections; controlled collecting at the site was impracticable
due to the mixture of the materials through cultivation and erosion.
Figs. 3-4. Eroded southern flank and surface of Loyola Beach site.
Mr. Ronald Tate of Kingsville, Texas, generously made available his
collections from the Loyola Beach site. Other materials from the site were
provided by Mr. J. L. Tunnell and the late Mrs.. Lotta Tunnell (also of Kings-
ville), and Mr. Tom Bird of San Diego, California. Detailed descriptions of
most of the artifact forms mentioned below have been published by Hester
(1969a). Pottery and projectile point typologies are derived from Suhm,
Krieger and Jelks (1954) and MacNeish (1958). In some instances, artifact
totals are noted in parentheses.
Chipped Stone Artifacts. Dart points are primarily triangular and ovate
forms, including Matamoros (20; Fig. 5, a-b), Catan (2) and Desmuke (1;
Fig. 5, c). Stemmed forms (not typed) are represented by only 2 specimens.
Arrow points are much more numerous and include Perdiz (30; Fig. 5, d-h),
Starr (12; Fig. 5, i-o), Scallorn (2; Fig. 5, r) and Cliffton (I) types. Tri-
angular arrow point forms (grading typologically from Fresno to Cameron)
are abundant (45; Fig. 5, s-ee). Other arrow points are a series of 10 sub-
triangular convex-base specimens (Fig. 5, kk, 11), a few trianguloid con-
cave base specimens, a large serrated triangular arrow point (Fig. 5, mm),
and a stemmed arrow point made on a blade.
Non-projectile point bifacial tools include small endscrapers and mis-
cellaneous small bifaces. One ovoid biface has heavily dulled lateral edges
(Fig. 5, k). Several small exhausted core nuclei are present, and a small
polyhedral core nucleus has also been found.
One tool form from the site is the Olmos biface described initially by
Hester (1969a: 29-30) and in more detail by Shafer and Hester (1970).
Fourteen specimens are present; they have triangular outlines with one steeply
beveled edge. One specimen has a burin facet at one corner, and 3 others ex-
hibit a specialized distal-to-proximal trimming or resharpening technique
(Shafer and Hester 1970). The Olmos biface is found at other Grullo Bay
sites and is distributed in a narrow band (70 to 80 miles wide) from these bay-
shore sites to central Webb County in the interior of southern Texas.
Unifacial tools are very common, with the largest category composed of
several hundred retouched (or utilized) flakes exhibiting varying degrees of use
and wear. Also frequent are small unifacial end-scrapers (one is made on a
blade) which are often dulled from use (Fig. 5, p-q). One and two edge side-
scrap rs made on flakes are present, along with concave-edge scrapers (or
spokes'haves), very small ovoid unifaces (Fig. 5, hh-ii), and a number of
miscellaneous unifacial tools. There are 11 unifacial perforators (Fig. 5,
w-z) characterized by thick cross sections and steeply beveled shafts. A few
are reminiscent of the Jaketown perforators found on Poverty Point sites in
Louisiana (Ford and Webb 1956: 79-80). Several pointed flakes (possibly
gravers) are also present, and the tips of these are often heavily dulled from
e f g
x y z
cc dd ee
Fig. 5. Artifacts from Loyola Beach site.
a-c, dart points; d-j, 1-o, r-v, aa-ee, kk-mm, arrow points; k, biface; p-q, end
scrapers; w-z, perforators; ff-gg, blades; hh-ii, ovate unifaces; jj, shell scraper;
nn-oo, shell beads; pp, perforated tooth; qq, shell adze; rr-uu, Rockport ceramics.
Ten prismatic blades (Fig. 5, ff-gg) have been recognized in the Loyola
Beach collections. All have been utilized along one or both lateral edges.
Four still retain some cortex, but all show various flake removals on the dor-
sal surfaces; these flake scars parallel the long axis of each blade. Other
evidence of a blade industry on the lower Texas coast has been noted at the
Kirchmeyer site near Corpus Christi (collections at the Texas Archeological
Research Laboratory, Austin) and at sites along Chiltipin Creek, San Patricio
County (C. K. Chandler, personal communication).
The entire chipped stone assemblage (with the exception of some of the
dart points and bifaces) is characterized by 2 major attributes. First of all,
the artifacts are uniformly small, with lengths ranging between 10 and 30 mm.
Secondly, nearly all of the flint recovered from the site has been modified in
some manner, and many artifact forms show evidence of heavy use and sub-
sequent resharpening. Both of these attributes are no doubt related to the
fact that flint (or any other suitable stone material ) is absent along the coast
and had to be obtained from the interior of southern Texas, perhaps through
trade or occasional flint-collecting expeditions. Each piece was therefore
quite important and had to be utilized to its maximum potential.
Ground Stone Artifacts. Fragments of 2 tubular sandstone pipes have
been found. Similar pipes from other sites in the vicinity have been noted by
Hester (1969a: 35-36). Also present are smoothed fragments of small thin
sandstone slabs, and smoothed and/or faceted pebbles (some of which may
have functioned as pot-polishing tools).
Shell Artifacts. Several shells of the Sunray Clam (Macrocallista
nimbosa Solander) have been chipped along the ventral edge (Fig. 5, jj);
these were often resharpened, forming a concave cutting or scraping edge
Two fragments of conch (Busycon sp.) whorl adzes are present (Fig. 5, qq).
These tools appear to be diagnostic of Archaic assemblages on the central
Texas coast. Other shell artifacts are circular and rectanguloid shell beads
(Fig. 5, nn-oo) and a disc cut from conch whorl.
Bone Artifacts. A perforated animal canine (Fig. 5, pp; probably coyote)
and the tip of a highly polished bone awl are the only modified bones from the
Ceramics. Several hundred potsherds have been collected, with most
being small eroded specimens of Rockport ware (a ware which is character-
istic of late prehistoric culture on the central Texas coast). These sherds
have a sandy paste (with some bone inclusions) and often have scored or as-
phaltum-coated interiors (Calhoun 1961: 320-325). Surface colors are gen-
erally gray or buff, or occasionally reddish-brown to pink. Sherds of Rock-
port Black on Gray (Fig. 5, rr) have been found, as has a single sherd of
Rockport Incised (Fig. 5, ss). A number of thicker, bone-tempered sherds
have been found, and these are quite similar to the Leon Plain type of central
and southern Texas (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks 1954: 386-388),but several are
reminiscent of Goliad Plain (Mounger 1959: 164-173). There are also some
bone-tempered sherds with a reddish-brown slip on the exterior surface.
Pottery discs (shaped from Rockport ware) have also been found.
The Faunal Remains
Erosion and cultivation at the Loyola Beach site have exposed consider-
able quantities of land snails (Bulimulus sp.), a trait common to most sites in
the region. Undoubtedly, the large quantities indicate that they may have been
collected as a food item. As was mentioned earlier, they are present in lo-
calized concentrations at the site. At nearby site 41 KL 30, a stratum of land
snails 15 to 20 cm. thick is eroding out of a gully face, with bits of charcoal
mixed with the snails. Clark (1969) has recently discussed the implications
of land snails in prehistoric sites, and treats at length the question of whether
or not snails were gathered for food.
Also present in the surface collections from Loyola Beach are a variety
of marine shells, including Oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), Southern
Quahog (Mercenaria campechiensis Gmelin), Heart Clam (Dinocardium ro-
bustum Solander), Ponderous Ark (Noetia ponderosa Say), Sunray Clam (Ma-
crocallista nimbosa Solander; the most common shellfish at the site), Light-
ning Conch (Busycon perversum Linne), Bay Scallop (Aequipecten irradians
amplicostatus Dall), Disk Shell (Dosinia discus Reeve) and Olive Shell
(Oliva sayana Ravenel). Crustaceans are represented by clams and other
fragments of crab (probably Blue Crab). Most of the shellfish could have
been collected from bay or lagoon-marine habitats. If the shellfish were
collected from Grullo and Baffin Bays, then both bays must have been much
less saline in prehistoric times than now. The Heart Clam (Dinocardium
robustum) would have to have been obtained from the Gulf, 25 miles to the
Marine biologists working in the Baffin Bay area have been perplexed
by the presence of oyster shells on the aboriginal campsites, since oysters
no longer occur in the saline, muddy-bottomed bays today. Breuer (1957:
138) believes that the presence of the oyster shells indicates a much lower
salinity in Grullo and Baffin Bays in the past. He also notes that the current
muddy bottoms of the bays could not support the weight of an oyster, and adds
that the mud is the result of heavy siltation in recent years. Serpulid (worm
tube) reefs are also present in Baffin Bay, and Hedgpeth (1957: 716) believes
that their presence, as well as the presence of oyster shells in the Indian
middens, suggests low salinity conditions in the bays within the last 2000-3000
Vertebrate remains collected from the surface at Loyola Beach include
burned and unburned fragments of deer bone, fragments of land turtle cara-
pace, and great numbers of fish bone and otoliths. Most of the otoliths are
of the Black Drum (Pogonias cromis). This fish is quite common in the nearby
bays at certain times of the year, and local observers note that they often con-
gregate at the mouths of the tributary creeks following heavy rainfall. Breuer
(1957: 151) has stated that the Black Drum ". .. is by far the most important
food fish of the area". Today, the Black Drum is sought by fishermen in the
period between January and March and it is possible that this period may have
been a favored time for perhistoric exploitation. Certainly, the quantity of
Black Drum remains at Loyola Beach suggests that this fish was a major food
source in the aboriginal economy.
The other fish remains at the site are unidentified; an earlier section of
this paper noted fishes which may have been available in the area. Unexpected
fish harvests may have been provided in the winters, with the passage of "cold
fronts". In 1951, heavy frost conditions killed several million pounds of fish
along the Texas coast; in 1947, an estimated 16 million pounds of fish died
(Brongersma-Sanders 1957: 949, 978).
The occupations at Loyola Beach were conditioned by a number of factors.
That it served as a campsite for lengthy periods of time (perhaps on a seasonal
basis) is evidenced by the quantity and variety of refuse at the site. The clay
dune on which the site is located offered several advantages, including a well-
drained, relatively high elevation ideal for occupation, as well as a pond on
its landward side which could provide the inhabitants with potable water.
The location of the dune is such that its prehistoric occupants could easily
exploit the shellfish, crustaceans, and fish once present along the margins of a
less saline Grullo Bay, and perhaps Vattman Creek. Since the site is at the
mouth of the creek it was ideally located for taking full advantage of the large
numbers of Black Drum which congregated at the creek mouth following heavy
rainfalls. This may have been one of the primary attractions of the site, as
suggested by the large quantity of Black Drum otoliths. As indicated earlier,
the Black Drum may have also been an important source of food from later
Winter into early Spring.
Deer and other land mammals could be hunted either along the creek and
its environs or in the nearby inland prairie foraging areas; plant foods (such as
prickly pear pads and tunas) could also be harvested there. A major food-
gathering activity was probably the gathering of land snails, and remains of
land turtles at the site indicate that they, too, were part of the diet. Bird
remains were not recognized at the site, though there were numerous species
in the area, some of which must have occurred in abundance.
Hearth areas do not appear to have been restricted to any one section of
the Loyola Beach site, though erosion and cultivation have somewhat obscured
Fig. 6. Baked clay lumps, and plan of hearth.
the presence of such intrasite features. Hearths may have been made by the
placement of a number of clay lumps (Fig. 6, a-g) in an oval arrangement.
The clay lumps which constituted these hearths are common features on heavily
eroded sites in this area as well as on the central Texas coast (Campbell 1960:
154-155). Corbin (1963: 29) has suggested the following hypothesis to account
for the formation of these clay lumps:
"...all the evidence points to open fires built on the
surface as the major explanation for the fire-hardened
clay lumps. Several times I have found these lumps
eroded from black, ashy areas along with charcoal,
burned bone, and burned shell. Recently, I observed
a modern camp fire being destroyed by erosion, and clay
lumps identical to those collected in archaeological sites
were eroding out from the hearth. The lumps were
darker in color and harder near the center of the hearth,
getting lighter and softer towards the perimeter of the
burned area. The color of the lumps seems to be de-
termined by the amount of oxygen that can reach the
clay while the fire is burning. "
However, close examination of the clay lumps and intact hearths
(Fig. 6, h) in Kleberg County sites leads me to suggest two alternate hypo-
theses. First, these lumps may have been formed from moist clay (stick
or grass impressions and possibly fingerprints can still be seen on some ex-
amples) and then were fired, with the core turning black. Once they were
baked hard, the lumps were used to construct oval hearths. In essence, they
were stone substitutes, in an area where stone does not occur naturally (for
a discussion of a similar hypothesis dealing with California baked clay ob-
jects, see Heizer 1937: 41; baked clay balls or "artificial cooking stones"
are common at the Poverty Point site, Louisiana; see Ford and Webb, 1956:
39). Stones, when available, may have constituted a minor part of some
hearths, since highly-burned rock fragments were noted in one clay lump
hearth at sit- 41 KL 30.
The second hypothesis is that the clay lumps were formed from moist
clay, were then baked hard, and finally heated for use as "boiling stones",
by being placed in some sort of container, perhaps a skin or pottery vessel.
If this boiling activity happened to be conducted in a specific area, this might
account for the localized concentrations of the baked clay lumps at many sites.
Similar baked clay nodules have been found in southeast Texas sites, and
Shafer (1968: 74, 77) and Aten (1967: 39-40) have discussed their possible
origins and uses. Jackson (in his field notes on the excavation of the Oso
cemetery site, Nueces County) suggested that the baked clay lumps in the
Corpus Christi area were the result of shellfish having been encased (and
then cooked) in mud., Examination of baked clay lumps from Oso Creek
(the area studied by Jackson), as well as specimens from Kleberg County,
reveal no evidence to support his hypothesis.
No burials have been found at Loyola Beach. However, just a few hun-
dred yards upstream on a peninsula extending into Vattman Creek, there is a
rather extensive cemetery site (41 KL 14: Dietz site). At least 30 burials
have been found, with associated tubular stone pipes and tubes made from
human long bone (Hester 1969a: 40; 1969b). It is conceivable that this site
served as a specialized burial locality (there is no midden present) for in-
habitants of the Loyola Beach site at some period during that site' s occupation.
Based on correlations with data presented for the central Texas coast,
it seems that occupation of Loyola Beach was heaviest in late prehistoric
times. Campbell (1947: 69) and Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954: 125-128)
have defined the Rockport complex (or "focus"); and most of the materials at
the site are characteristic of this complex. Some of the artifacts, especially
the very small Cameron and Starr points, and the clamshell scrapers are in-
dicative of the Brownsville complex of the Rio Grande delta area (MacNeish
1947; 1958). A mixture of artifacts from these 2 complexes is not surprising,
since the Loyola Beach site lies almost midway between the areas for which
each is defined. Earlier preceramic (Archaic) occupations of the site are
probably represented by the several triangular and ovate dart points (Mata-
moros, Catan, Desmuke) and perhaps by the conch shell adzes. These occu-
pations were probably sparse and intermittent.
As mentioned at the first of this paper, Loyola Beach is one of a number
of sites recorded along Grullo and Baffin Bays (Hester 1969a). Most are camp
sites along the margins of the bays, and are usually situated on high elevations
(which are often stabilized clay dunes). All of the sites are badly eroded,
making it extremely difficult to delimit intrasite features. Oyster heaps
present at some sites in the 1940' s have now been obliterated through ero-
sional processes. Two sites have burial areas, and there are 2 cemetery
sites (Hester, 1969b).
Inland, there are camp sites along creek banks and on low eroded hills
and terraces bordering the streams. At least 2 sites (one of them quite ex-
tensive) are known on the edges of the small inland freshwater ponds. Most
of these sites have both Archaic and late prehistoric components, with the late
prehistoric materials usually predominant (Hester 1969a: 55-56). Archaic oc-
cupations were almost certainly quite brief and intermittent, reflecting sub-
sistence patterns of continual movement (perhaps seasonal rounds) with rather
minimal exploitation of the local resources.
The abundant late prehistoric remains in both areas, on the other hand,
may indicate a more sedentary lifeway in later times. With the advent of the
bow and arrow, as well as ceramics, people may have been more successful
in utilizing the many resources provided by bayshore-maritime environments.
As indicated by the ethnographic evidence, treks inland were probably made at
certain times of the year to take advantage of rich, short-term plant food
In concluding, it should be pointed out that the pattern of bayshore ex-
ploitation suggested for the inhabitants of Loyola Beach has also been recog-
nized in more sophisticated subsistence studies by Story at the Ingleside Cove
site in Nueces County, central Texas coast. He (Story 1968: 37) states that
the aboriginal groups at Ingleside Cove "... appear to have largely confined
their marine food-collecting trips to low-salinity oyster reefs, to bay and
lagoon margins, and to inlet or inlet-influenced areas. As a group, these
environments share a proximity to shore. They appear to have been produc-
tive, easily reached areas which could have been exploited with no techno-
logical apparatus ". As at Loyola Beach, major vertebrate fauna were
whitetail deer and fish. However, the Ingleside Cove inhabitants appear to
have exploited a wide range of salt-water species (Story 1968: 38), while the
major fish at Loyola Beach was the Black Drum. The Ingleside Cove mol-
luscan sample includes 19 species, and that of Loyola Beach, only 9; this may
in part reflect the more diverse shellfish population in the Ingleside Cove area
(Story 1968: 34).
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Society, vol. 48, pt. 2. Philadelphia.
Mounger, Maria A.
1959 Mission Espiritu Santo of Coastal Texas: an example of historic
site archeology. M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Austin.
Price, W. Armstrong
1963 Physicochemical and environmental factors in Clay Dune genesis.
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 33. pp. 766-778. Tulsa.
Rounsefell, George A.
1954 Biology of the commercial fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery
Bulletin, Fish and Wildlife Service, vol. 55. pp. 507-512.
Shafer, Harry J.
1968 Archeological investigations in the San Jacinto River basin,
Montgomery County, Texas. Papers of the Texas Archeo-
logical Salvage Project, no. 13. Austin.
and T. R. Hester
A technological study of certain bifacial tools from southern
Texas. Manuscript accepted for publication, Texas State
Historical Survey Committee. Austin.
1957 Ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas.
Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, The University
of Texas, vol. 4, no. 2. pp. 156-200. Austin.
1968 Archeological investigations at two central Texas Gulf Coast
sites. State Building Commission, Archeological Program,
Report No. 13.
Suhm, Dee Ann, A.D. Krieger, and E. B. Jelks
1954 An introductory handbook of Texas archeology. Bulletin of
the Texas Archeological Society, Vol. 25. Austin.
EXCAVATIONS AT THE HOPE MOUND WITH AN ADDENDUM
TO THE AFFORD MOUND REPORT
Samuel D. Smith
The results of Frank H. Cushing's 1896 excavation of the Safford burial
mound at Tarpon Springs, Florida, --while enroute to Key Marco-- were pre-
sented in a previous issue of The Florida Anthropologist (Bullen et al. 1970).
At that time it was noted that a future report was planned for the nearby Hope
mound, which was also dug by the Pepper-Hearst Archaeological Expedition.
Both the Hope and Safford collections were originally sent to the Bureau
of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. where
Cushing was employed. Death prevented him from writing a final report, but
the two mounds were mentioned in the Key Marco paper (Cushing 1897: 352-54).
Sometime later the collections were moved to the University Museum, Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. In 1957, most of this material was sent to
John M. Goggin at the University of Florida. Following Goggin's death in 1963,
it was transferred to the Florida State Museum where it has been analysed in
preparing this, and the previous, report.
Once the sorting of the Hope mound material was completed, it became
obvious that, through no fault of the previous writers, some Safford artifacts
had not been included in the earlier article. A discussion of this material,
which had been stored with the Hope collection, is included as an addendum to
the present report.
While the Safford mound excavation was carried out under Cushing's
personal supervision, work at the Hope mound was directed by Wells M. Sawyer,
the expedition' s artist and photographer. Since publication of the Safford re-
port an important new source of information has come to light. The Univer-
sity of Florida' s P. K. Young Library of Florida History was given a collection
of manuscripts and miscellaneous papers formerly belonging to Sawyer, who
later in life achieved considerable fame as an artist. Among these there is
a letter (dated November 16, 1904) to Sawyer from W.W. Holmes, Chief of
the Bureau of American Ethnology, stating that an allotment had been made
for the purpose of allowing Sawyer to prepare for publication a "catalogue" of
the expedition' s work. Why no such publication ever appeared is not certain.
Fortunately, however, Sawyer' s hand written rough-draft of this proposed
publication is present. In addition the collection contains a catalogue of ne-
gatives of photographs taken by the expedition, a complete (but faded) set of
the photographs, and several other notes and letters about the project. These
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 24, no. 3, September 1971
sources of information, when combined with those at the Florida State Museum,
make it possible to document the work at the Hope mound to a degree uncom-
mon for nineteenth-century Florida excavations.
Sources at the Florida State Museum consist of the Cushing "field cata-
logue" (Bullen et al. 1970: 82), a set of notes made by Ripley P. Bullen on a
group of vessels which were retained by the University of Pennsylvania, copies
of three 1896 newspaper articles about the excavations, and a group of photo-
graphs developed at the Smithsonian Institution, including one of a diagram of
the mound. Figures 3, 5, 6, 7, and vessels a and b in Figure 4 were com-
posed from some of these Smithsonian photographs.
It seems appropriate that Wells M. Sawyer' s own manuscript (with ne-
cessary editing) should be cited wherever pertinent. Sawyer might well de-
serve inclusion in the list of outstanding nineteenth-century Florida archaeo-
logists (Willey 1949a: 15-21). The following quotation is illustrative of this
S. had the mound [Safford] been undisturbed previous
to the excavations conducted by Mr. Cushing, it is not
improbable that practically all of the parts of the ves-
sels would have been found.
In this respect the possibility of improving
methods of excavation is suggested. Articles distri-
buted on any given horizon may be recovered and seg-
regated by developing that horizon independently --
this method of excavation was so far as I know ori-
ginally inagurated by me at the Hope mound and the
results justified the additional labor. All objectswere
permitted to remain in situ and recovered only when the
group was completely developed. By this method of ex-
cavation the original arrangement on the surface was
brought to light and the shards of vessels broken over
the mound at a given time easily assembled (Sawyer,
SITE DESCRIPTION AND EXCAVATION
According to a contemporary news article (Anon. 1896), work began
at the Safford mound on December 15, 1895, and "while the work was pro-
gressing here a camp was established at Finley's Hammock, or Hope's
Grove, a few miles north of the Anclote River. (Fig. 1). Cushing (1897:
353) states that the mound was on the property of a Captain Hope of the little
community of Anclote. Sawyer (Ms. : 55-57) describes it as follows:
Fig. 1. Location of the Hope mound in Finley Hammock.
The mound was situated near the base of two hills,
was covered by old trees, and was a little over 12 feet
high at its greatest height from the lower edge. On the
upper edge the mound abutted the hill side. It was some
80 to 90 feet in diameter, nearly circular in form, and
contained three strata of burials.
Unlike the Safford mound, which was apparently
not connected with a camp site, the Hope mound was
upon the edge of one. The sand for its construction
seemed to have been taken from the lower level in front
of the mound and carried to the hill side. The camp
site at the Hope mound was a typical shell settlement
any portion of which produced surface finds of the usual
types including shell hoes, flint, and shell implements.
This shell hammock land was extensive and was under
cultivation as an orange grove. The kitchen middens
were productive and, after slight excavation had been
made, a large slab of mica was found.
In both the Cushing catalogue and Sawyer's manuscript reference is
made to an "upper horizon," a "middle horizon, and a lowermostt level. "
The diagram of the mound (Fig. 2) indicates two stages of mound con-
struction resting on an old humus zone on the slope of the hill. Near the
center of the flat projection is what appears to be an L-shaped trench, a por-
tion of which is visible in one of the photographs taken of the excavation.
Probably it is this cut which was made into the pre-mound surface which is
referred to as the lowermostt level. "
The photograph of the original diagram was developed on a scale con-
siderably smaller than the original. This has made it difficult to decipher
many of the notations which were placed on the diagram, and some of those
that can be read are not clear as to their meaning. In Figure 2, only those
things that have been interpreted with a reasonable degree of certainty have
been included. While 44 burials are shown, the actual number may have been
closer to 50. Unfortunately, Sawyer does not make this number clear in his
manuscript. On the diagram some of the burials are also marked with an
M, L, or H, but no way has been found to determine their exact meaning.
They might indicate different horizons, but such does not seem to conform
with other data.
Using the Cushing catalogue, it has been possible to sort most of the
artifacts according to general provenance. There are four categories of
known location for the mound, one category of items from the mound but of
uncertain location, and the material collected from the village midden.
0 10 20 30 40
Fig. 2. Diagram of the Hope mound.
THE UPPER HORIZON
Relatively few of the artifacts are indicated to have come from this
horizon. These include 4 complete vessels which are located at the Univer-
sity Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Pictures of these vessels are in-
cluded here, and they may be described as follows:
Gushing field number 302 (Fig. 3, f) A small Dunns Creek Red pot
with a protruding rim and basal "kill" hole, outside rim diameter 4 1/2 inches,
mouth diameter 21/2 inches, and height 3 inches, found at a depth of 16 inches
on the extreme northern end of the mound.
Number 303 (Fig. 3, h) A spherical St. Johns Plain vessel, 4 inches
high by 4 inches in diameter with a basal "kill" hole, found east of the center
of the mound.
0 3 6 9
Fig. 3. Hope mound vessels of St. Johns
d, f, g, h, Upper Horizon; a, b, k, "Effigy Sacrifice";
Horizon; i, Lower Horizon.
Number 305 (Fig. 3,
4 inches in diameter and 2
sides of the rim, probably
center of the mound.
c, e, i, j, Middle
d) A small St. Johns Plain hemispherical bowl,
1/2 inches deep, with 2 drilled holes on opposite
for suspension, basally "killed, found near the
Number 310 (Fig. 3, g) A large small-necked Dunns Creek Red vessel
resembling a gourd, minimum neck diameter 2 inches, maximum body dia-
meter 10 inches, height 12 inches, also "killed, found south of center of the
The only sherds, not directly associated with burials, which are defini-
tely from this horizon, are a rim and matching body section from a large, open
St. Johns Plain vessel and 2 large rim sherds of Oklawaha Incised (Fig. 4, n-o).
These last are painted red on their exterior surfaces, a trait predicted by
Goggin (1948: 6), though not known from the original type specimens. It seems
probable that other sherds were actually found in this horizon and are perhaps
mixed with the middle horizon material.
Only 1 non-ceramic artifact can unquestionably be placed in this horizon.
This is a spheroidal piece of hard sandstone which is approximately 1 1/2
inches in diameter, is smoothly polished, and has a shallow groove on one
side (Fig. 6, a). It was found in the north portion of the mound with a group
burial. Some of the non-ceramic artifacts which have been placed in the "lo-
cation uncertain" category obviously came from this horizon, but it is im-
possible to say exactly which ones.
Sawyer (Ms.: 57) states that burials were thickly deposited on the 12
inch level of the mound and that most of them were secondary burials. Appar-
ently most of those in the concentration shown in Figure 2 on the north edge of
the mound were of this upper horizon. It is specifically noted that one of the
skulls in this group had several large sherds placed over it as a covering
ibidd.: 57). There is also a photograph of this example and at least 5 other
secondary or single-skull burials on the same plane.
At least one primary, extended burial was found in the upper portion
of the mound ibidd.: 63). The photograph is rather poor, but several large
sherds are resting on the skeleton's mid-section.
The most interesting single example found in this horizon was a dis-
membered burial, surrounded by a row of sherds, with a bowl broken over
the central portion (Figs. 2 and 5). According to Sawyer ibidd.: 62-63):
the skull had been placed at the end of the femurs
which were placed in a continuous line. Over the ends
of the bones, at the middle of the burial, a small ves-
sel had been broken. The entire figure had been out-
lined with shards a portion of which were removed by
the man who was doing the excavation (contrary to the
orders he had received).
This last is marked out, but a gap in the ring can be seen in Figure 5.
The material from this burial was in a separately marked box and consists of
8 pieces of human bone, a flint chip, and 44 sherds. The vessel broken at
the center of the burial was apparently a Dunns Creek Red specimen. Sherd
types are as follows:
Body Rim Total
Dunns Creek Red 13 2 15
St. Johns Plain 9 1 10
Pasco Plain 8 1 9
Pasco Red 1 1
Sand-tempered plain 7 2 9
THE "EFFIGY SACRIFICE"
As a direct result of Sawyer's horizontal stripping technique, an un-
usual configuration of skulls and artifacts was found near the center of the
mound. These were apparently arranged on the surface of the primary stage
of mound construction at a depth of about 4 1/2 feet. Each item, or group
of items, was given a separate field number. Although it will be discussed
independently, this configuration should also be considered a feature of the
Gushing (Ms.: 1007) was extremely speculative about this find, stating
that the artifacts were "found laid out along a common horizon of mound over
and around remains of skulls, in a symbolic figure resembling lines of a gi-
gantic extended but flexed human figure. Sawyer (Ms.: 58) seems to have
been skeptical about this interpretation, noting only that the items were "so
distributed as to suggest the purposed location of each....." His own des-
cription, which has been keyed to the photograph he had planned to use in the
publication (Fig. 7), is as follows:
Below the small vessel [a] are grouped 44 fragments of
a black vessel [b]. Next at either side over the outside
limits of the large shards are arranged two conch shells
[c-d] which show indistinctly in the photograph. Between
these shards was a single shard of dark color [e]. To the
north from this were portions of a large pan shaped vessel
If], arranged so as to form a curve. North from here were
other shards from which the arrangement divided into two
extensions. The easterly one of these was composed of a
worked rubbing stone [g], shards of pottery [h], and at the
extreme northern end a skull [i] surrounded by pot shards.
The westerly one was composed of a grinding slab lying on
a conch shell [j], a skull covered by a conch shell [k], parts
of a vessel , a complete vessel [m], and, on the north, a
group of conch shells [n] and a large part of a vessel [o].
To the west from the center part of the figure were
other vessels [p,q,r, and s], one of which [s] was evidently
deposited on a pyre like structure.... This vessel was ten
inches higher than the level upon which the remainder of the
articles were found. Beneath it was a mass of charcoal and
ash and also pot shards. The vessel was considerably dis-
colored by fire and had probably been deposited whole on the
fire, the fracture showing that the parts had been crushed by
the weight of the sand ibidd.: 58-60].
Again in reference to Figure 7, vessel a (field number 322) is a small
Oklawaha Plain pot, 3 1/4 inches tall by 4 inches in diameter, which has a
basal "kill" hole. It is illustrated separately (Fig. 3, k) Vessel m (field
number 335), also shown separately (Fig. 3, a), is of the type Dunns Creek
Red. It is 4 1/2 inches high by 8 inches in diameter, grooved on one side,
and has also been "killed. Its form is suggestive of a large gourd. Ves-
sel o (field number 336) is another Dunns Creek Red specimen, which was
restored and is shown with the others (Fig. 3, b). It is 3 1/2 inches high by
7 inches in diameter, has an indentation which seems to represent the stem-
depression of a large gourd, and is "killed. "
The University of Pennsylvania has still another large, open Dunns
Creek Red bowl which was restored from some of the sherds shown in the area
of f in Figure 7. Unfortunately no photograph of this specimen is available.
Aside from these vessels, most of the other artifacts were found to be
present in the collection. Of the sherds located at b almost all appear to be
from the same sand-tempered plain vessel. There are also 2 other small
sherds of Pasco Plain. The broken specimen shown at q is represented in
the collection by 17 body sherds and 5 rim sherds of a Dunns Creek Red,
gourd-shaped vessel. The group of sherds indicated by an s consists of 39
body and 17 rim sherds of Dunns Creek Red, plus 10 body sherds and 1 rim
sherd of Pasco Plain. There is an additional group of 44 St. Johns Plain
sherds, apparently all from the same vessel, whose exact location has not
been found in the picture. These are all body sherds except for part of a
neck-ring. This is evidently another gourd-shaped water-jar. Remaining
sherds in the collection, many of which came from the areas of f and h, are
Body Rim Total
St. Johns Plain 14 14
Dunns Creek Red 19 2 21
Pasco Plain 7 6 13
Sand-tempered plain 3 3
Smooth Plain 1 1
The rubbing stone (g) and the grinding slab (j) appear to have been
made from the same block of pinkish granite. They are also illustrated
separately (Fig. 9, bb and cc).
None of the skulls or conch shells were found in the collection. To
judge from the photograph at least 2 of the shells had been made into cups
THE MIDDLE HORIZON
Sawyer (Ms.: 63) specifically states that this horizon was the most
productive. Presumably items indicated to have been found here came from
in and on the surface of the primary mound. Again it must be explained that
some of the sherds included here probably came from the upper horizon and
perhaps even a few from the lowermost level. This seems to have been a
result of an attempt to sort some of the sherds into groups on the basis of
appearance regardless of provenance.
Five complete or restored middle horizon vessels are located at the
University of Pennsylvania. These are as follows:
Cushing field number 304 (Fig. 3, j) A small Oklawaha Plain, spheri-
cal bowl restored from 8 pieces, 4 inches in diameter and 3 1/4 inches high,
found east of the center of the mound.
Number 307 (Fig. 3, i). A Dunns Creek Red gourd-dipper-effigy ves-
sel, 3 inches high by 7 5/S inches long with a basal "kill" hole, found com-
plete in the southeastern portion of the mound.
Number 308 (no picture available) A large complete Dunns Creek Red
vessel also found in the southeastern portion of the mound.
Number 309 (Fig. 3, c) A Dunns Creek Red open bowl, is 3 inches high
by 6 1/2 inches in diameter, horizontal location unknown.
Number 311 (Fig. 3, e) The upper half of a spherical St. Johns Plain
vessel, found southeast of the center of the mound.
Sherds which are indicated to have come from this horizon are presen-
ted in Table 1. Sand-tempered plain, Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, and
Dunns Creek Red are clearly in the majority, and these four types seem to
have a very uniform distribution. Size of these sherds, however, is not so
uniform. Approximately 57 percent of the sand-tempered plain and 58 percent
of the Pasco Plain sherds are small, 1 1/4 inch or less across. In contrast,
only about 36 percent of the St. Johns Plain and 26 percent of the Dunns Creek
Red sherds are 1 1/4 inch across or smaller. It seems probable that a
majority of the sherds of these last two types represent intentional inclusions
in the mound, while the inclusion of many of the Pasco and sand-tempered
plain sherds may have resulted from using midden soil as mound fill. Such
would correspond to Sawyer' s statement about the mound' s construction which
was quoted earlier.
A majority of the sand-tempered plain sherds seem to be from large
thick-walled utility vessels. Portions of 3 or 4 small spherical and open
bowls are also present. One of the basal sherds is flat; the other is slightly
rounded. Lip treatment of the rim sherds tends to be rounded, 53. 6 percent.
In addition, 31.4 percent are flat-rounded, 8.7 percent are flat, and 6.3
percent are rather pointed.
Pasco Plain sherds agree with Goggin's (1948: 8-9) description and have
rounded to flat lip forms. In the present sample 6. 4 percent are flat, 42. 3
percent are flat-rounded, 43. 9 percent are rounded, and 7. 4 percent are
somewhat pointed. All the basal sherds are flat.
Table 1. Middle Horizon Sherds
St. Johns Plain
Dunns Creek Red
St. Johns Red on Buff
St. Johns Check Stamped
Belle Glade Plain
Weeden Island Incised
Carrabelle Punctated (?)
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
Deptford Check Stamped
Miscellaneous incising on:
Dunna Creek Red
St. Johns paste
Tota I s
Tota l s
The wide range of vessel forms for the St. Johns Series has been dis-
cussed by Goggin (1952: 99). Such variation is obvious in the present col-
lection. Portions of St. Johns Plain vessels, many of which have been
"killed," range in size from small minatures to the rim section of a large,
straight sided specimen whose mouth diameter was 14 1/2 inches. Many of
the sherds seem to have come from gourd-effigy vessels. Three rim sherds
have thum-size indentations which probably represent stem depressions
(Fig. 4, c). Four other sherds are from flat-bottomed square-cornered
vessels (Fig. 4, d). There is a half section of a small, open round-bottomed
bowl which was 2 1/2 inches tall by 5 inches in diameter. Lip form of the
rim sherds tends towards rounded, 51.4 percent. In addition, 7. 5 percent
are flat, 36. 5 percent are flat-rounded, and 4. 6 percent are pointed. Five
of the basal sherds are flat, 9 are only slightly rounded, and 2 are rounded.
Lip form for the Dunns Creek Red specimens is similar to St. Johns
Plain with 15. 2 percent flat, 23. 4 percent flat-rounded, 56. 3 percent rounded,
and 5. 1 percent pointed. There are 9 flat basal sherds, 2 that are only
slightly rounded, and 4 that are rounded. Vessel form for this type was also
quite variable, including large straight-sided and basin-shaped pots, hemi-
spherical bowls, small cups, and gourd effigies. Some of these last were
constricted-mouth forms similar to Figure 3, g. There is a half section
of a small, open bowl which was 2 1/8 inches high by 4 inches in diameter
and shows part of a basal "kill" hole. A one-third section of a gourd-
shaped vessel appears to have been similar to vessel i in Figure 3. One
interesting "horn-like" appendage may have been made to represent the stem
of a gourd or squash (Fig. 4, e).
Three of the St. Johns Red on Buff (Goggin 1948: 7) sherds have one
or more broad red lines painted on their external surfaces (Fig. 4. f). One
large flat basal sherd appears to have been from a gourd-effigy vessel which
had either a broad center line painted inside and out or was colored so as to
be half red, half buff (Fig. 4, g).
Two St. Johns Check Stamped sherds (Table 1) were in a box whose
number indicated that the contents were from the Hope mound. At the same
time, there is a packing note which states that the original package had broken
open and mixture with some of the Safford material could have occurred.
Whether they actually came from the mound is, therefore, a moot question.
The Oklawaha Plain sherds have one or more triangles or circular areas
excised from the rim (Table 1). All of the Oklawaha Incised specimens are
The 2 rim sherds oi Bell Glade Plain exhibit streaked surfaces and flat
lips, beveled to the inside, traits which are listed in Willey' s (1949b: 25-26)
Fig. 4. Hope mound ceramics.
a-b, vessels removed previous to Sawyer's excavation, not to scale. c-d, St.
Johns Plain; e, Dunns Creek Red appendage; f-q, St. Johns Red on Buff; h-i,
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped; j, Weeden Island Incised; k, Smooth Plain;
I-m, miscellaneous incised on Pasco Paste; n-o, Oklawaha Incised. c-m, Middle
Horizon, scale as shown; n-o, Upper Horizon, scale as shown.
description of this type.
A few decorated and Smooth Plain sherds appear to be Weeden Island
types. One of the incised sherds is shown in Figure 4, j. Five of the
Smooth Plain sherds came from a vessel which appears to have been made
with an angular shoulder where body and neck were joined (Fig. 4, k).
At least 2 separated vessels are represented by the Swift Creek Com-
plicated Stamped sherds (Fig. 4, h and i). The paste of one of these (h) is
very micaceous. Designs are comparable to those illustrated by Willey
(1949a: 382, 432). The 4 rim sherds are suggestive of the late (Weeden
Island 1) variety of rim style.
All of the Deptford Check Stamped sherds (Wauchope 1966: 48) are
tempered with medium quartz grit and might as easily qualify as Wakulla
Check Stamped (Willey 1949a: 437-38). The small number of these sherds
suggests that they predate the mound and were included with the fill.
Miscellaneous incising occurred on some sherds of each of the four
major types (Table 1). One of the sand-tempered plain sherds has a post-
fired-incised design which could be a rather crude representation of a gourd
dipper. It is slightly more than an inch long. One of the Pasco paste sherds
is smoothly finished and exhibits part of an incised, curvilinear design (Fig. 4,
1). The rim sherd listed is not so well finished but is rather Weeden Island-
like, with two lines incised below a thickened lip (Fig. 4, m). Two of the
Dunns Creek Red sherds have small surface areas covered by lines which
cross diagonally to form a pattern of adjacent diamonds. This incising was
done after the vessel was fired. The other Dunns Creek Red sherd retains
part of a post-fired-incised design that could have originally been made to
represent a human arm and hand. The St. Johns paste sherd has five mis-
cellaneous lines of no apparent pattern. It should be noted that most of
these sherds were grouped together in the collection and are referred to in
Cushing's catalogue. The incising does not, therefore, appear to have been
done after excavation.
The catalogue (Cushing Ms.: Nos. 287 and 288) refers to 2 sandstone
slabs which were used as "paint mills. Each was said to have depressions
on both sides. These are the only lithic artifacts which are listed in the cata-
logue but are not presently in the collection.
A greenstone celt was found at a depth of 4 1/2 feet some 6 to 7 feet
south of the "Effigy Sacrifice. It is 6 3/4 inches long, a maximum of 1 1/2
inches thick, and has a maximum width of 2 7/8. inches (Fig. 6, b).
Fig. 5. Sherd outlined burial, Upper Horizon.
d e f 9
Fig. 6. Polished stone artifacts.
a, spherical stone from Upper Horizon; b-c, celts from Middle Horizon; d-f,
plummets from Middle Horizon; g, plummet from uncertain location in mound.
A smaller celt was found with the burials on the southwest side of the
mound. It is made of gray and white volcanic stone and is 6 5/8 inches long,
3/8 inch thick, and a maximum of 2 inches wide (Fig. 6, c).
Three stone plummets were found in this horizon on the southeast side
of the mound (Fig. 6, d-f). Specimen d is 3 3/8 inches long with a maxi-
mum diameter of 1 1/8 inches; e is Z inches long by 1 1/8 inches in dia-
meter; f is 2 inches long and somewhat flat, a maximum of 7/8 inch wide
by 1/2 inch thick. Only e is grooved at both ends. Specimen d is deeply
grooved at one end; f is only slightly grooved at one end and is less well
finished than the other 2. All appear to be made of some form of volcanic
A total of 59 flint chips are indicated to have come from the middle
horizon. Five of these exhibit some degree of secondary chipping. There
are 3 complete and 1 broken small-size biface scrapers. Two other small
scrapers are of the uniface variety. Four crudely worked knife-like blades
were found. All of them are broken.
Miscellaneous items include a small piece of smooth sandstone and 7
chunks of limestone.
Only 1 broken projectile point could be placed in this horizon, and even
in this case provenience is somewhat questionable. All of the projectile points
will, therefore, be discussed under the heading of uhlocated artifacts.
Beads and Copper Ornaments
Near the center of the mound, 3 to 4 feet west of the large greenstone
celt (and, therefore, apparently 4 1/2 feet deep and 6 to 7 feet south of the
"Effigy Sacrifice"), 3 pieces of copper and a mass of pearl and shell beads
were found with parts of a skeleton. Sawyer (Ms.: 62) states that consider-
able red paint, both in lumps and powder, was mixed with these items and
that nearby was one of the above mentioned "paint mills. The cord on which
the beads were strung was still in place, preserved by the oxidation of the
copper. By the same process some fragments of cloth had also been pre-
served ibidd.: 61).
Fortunately, these items were well packed in individual tobacco tins
and are in good condition. Two of the copper pieces (field numbers 318 and
319) were found slightly above the third. They are obviously two halves of
what was originally a single ornament. One piece (Fig. 8, b and d), which
is approximately 1 1/4 inches square, has been beaten flat and has a small
semi-circular projection on its outer edge. Its inner edge, which overlaped
and was joined to the second piece, has four holes which were used for
Fig. 7. The "Effigy Sacrifice." See text for explanation of individual items.
attaching the two. These were set in pairs along the inner edge but spaced
towards the lateral edges. Fastening was by means of a small copper strip
through the outer holes and a piece of twine around the center holes. These
fasteners, while damaged, are still preserved.
The second piece of this same ornament is 2 1/16 inches long by
1 5/16 inches wide (Fig. 8, a andc). Along its inner edge are four holes
which match those in the first piece. Back from the area of attachment it
is slightly spoon-like with a 1/4 inch deep concave depression.
On what was originally the same surfaces of this ornament, there are
preserved remnants of cloth. Several parallel strands can be seen on the
convex side of the second piece (Fig. 8, c). Assuming that these are the
weft threads, only two strands of warp are visible. These are quite small,
about one-third the size of the others, and are spaced approximately 3/16
inch apart. Individual strands are composed of twisted plant (?) fibers
which are moderately coarse.
The second ornament (Fig. 8, e) was made in the same manner as the
first. A flat piece of copper 1 1/4 inches square is joined to another piece
which is approximately 1 1/2 inches square. Attachment is again by means
of four holes on the inner edge of each piece. As in the first there remains
part of a piece of twine which was used to join the two halves. The copper
strips which may have been used in this specimen are no longer extant. The
flat half (lower half of Fig. -8, e) is similar to the previous example in that
it too has a rounded projection (though much smaller) on its outer edge. The
other half varies from its counterpart in the previous example in that it has
three beaten depressions. Two of these are near the inner edge and are
more or less circular. The other is a small, linear depression extending
from the two round depressions to almost the outer edge of this half. In Figure
8, e the concave sides of these depressions are facing up.
Also visible in Figure 8, e, are 9 pearl beads (the ones which at the
time of excavation were fused to the pendant) and pieces of the cord on which
they were strung. As part of the original group, there are 18 other pearl
beads ranging in size from about 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter, 6 small shell
beads (Fig. 8, f), 2 larger shell beads (Fig. 8, g), and 5 copper-stained
Another group of barrel-shaped beads was found associated with skeletal
fragments at a depth of 5 feet just below the "Effigy Sacrifice. There are 32
of these, in various stages of preservation, and they ranged in size from about
1/2 inch long by 3/8 inch in diameter to 3/4 inch long by 1/2 inch in diameter
(Fig. 8, h and i).
Bone, Teeth, and Shell
Fourty-one human teeth and some 62 skeletal fragments (in a poor
state of preservation) were mixed among the artifacts from this horizon.
No bone artifacts were present.
ce ntimet e rs
Fig. 8. Non-ceramic artifacts.
a-d, opposite sides of a single copper ornament; e, another copper ornament
with pearl beads and preserved twine; f-i, shell beads; j, fossil shark-tooth
pendant; all Middle Horizon.
Two conch shell (Busycon perversum, Morris 1951) dippers are pre-
sent and are reported to have been found over some skeletal remains on the
south side of the mound. One of them has a 1 inch "kill" hole. The other
has a small drilled hole 1 1/2 inches below its rim (Fig. 10, a). There are
13 other fragments of conch shell. Four whole and 3 fragments of clam
shells were also found together with a burial on the south side of the mound.
One fossil shark-tooth pendant was found near the center of the mound.
It has a drilled suspension hole, 1/8 inch in diameter, which has a wear
groove on the side nearest the base of the tooth (Fig. 4, j).
According to Sawyer (Ms.: 63), "the lowest level produced no pottery
of good quality and only a few unimportant shards of rough ware were found."
As previously noted, the digging into this level was probably limited to the
L-shaped trench shown in Figure 2. No sherds were found in the collection
which could unquestionably be identified as those mentioned by Sawyer.
Contrary to Sawyer' s statement, however, there is one small vessel
which is specifically noted in the catalogue as having been found with a deep
burial under the middle horizon (Cushing Ms.: Field No. 306). This specimen
is carefully described by Sawyer (Ms.: 65), but no location is given. It is
shown here in Fig. 3, vessel 1. Unlike the others shown in Figure 3, it is
present in the collection at the Florida State Museum.
The paste of this vessel is typical of the type St. Johns Plain. It is
3 3/4 inches tall by 3 inches in diameter and has a basal "kill" hole, as
well as a drilled hole 1/4 inch below the rim. It has been restored from 5
pieces and is missing a rim section and part of the central wall. Its most
interesting feature is a rather crude scenic-representation which has been
scratched on the surface and extends all around the outside wall. Depicted
in this manner are what appear to be clouds, falling rain, and a stream
running into the ocean (?).
Two vessels had been taken from the mound by a local resident previous
to Sawyer' s arrival. They were photographed by Sawyer and are shown here
(Fig. 4, a and b). Though one of them appears remarkably similar to vessel
g in Figure 3, Sawyer (Ms. : 64) clearly states that they were retained by the
owner. The larger of the 2 was also said to have been larger than any speci-
men found by his crew.
Other items excavated from the mound, but otherwise of unknown pro-
venience, include 10 pieces of shell (mostly Busycon), a Busycon perversum
pick, some 100 fragments of human bone, 3 small chert scrapers, 13 chert
Fig. 9. Lithic artifacts.
a-r, Hope mound specimens, location within mound unknown; s-aa and dd, from
the village midden; bb-cc, from the "Effigy Sacrifice."
a c *
Fig. 10. Shell artifacts.
a, Busycon dipper from Middle Horizon; b-e, shell tools and shell disc from
the village midden.
chips, 2 small rubbing stones similar to the one shown in Fig. 9, cc, and a
small soapstone (?) plummet (Fig. 6, g). The last is 1 5/8 inches long
and somewhat flat, 5/8 inch wide by 1/4 inch thick.
A total of 18 whole and broken projectile points or hafted knives were
found in the mound. Eight of these are indicated to have been found with
burials, but there is no data concerning which horizon.
Five points, which were found with a burial, were said to have been
arranged side by side according to length. These are shown in Fig. 9, a-e.
They could very well have all been made from the same block of dark-tan
flint, and they all closely correspond to the Duval type described by Bullen
(1968a: 17). Another possible Duval (Fig. 9, f) was also found with the re-
mains of a skeleton. It is, however, somewhat wider in relation to length
than those described by Bullen.
Two large points or hafted knives were found with their points touching
and had been placed with a burial on the south side of the mound. One of
these (Fig. 9, g) is somewhat intermediate to the types Sarasota and Colum-
bia ibidd.: 19 and 21). The other (Fig. 9, h) is rather asymmetrical and
does not appear to conform to any known type.
Three other anomalous points were found with one or more burials.
One of these is at least reminiscent of a Duval (Fi.g. 9, i). The other 2 are
crudely worked (Fig. 9, j and k).
Seven other points are indicated to have come from somewhere in the
mound. Two of these (Fig. 9, p and q) have some similarities to the Sara-
sota and Columbia types. The others are perhaps all Archaic specimens
(Fig. 9, l-o and r).
One group of 240 sherds should be mentioned in this section. Their
location is so indefinite, however, that it is impossible to tell whether they
came from the Hope or Safford mounds. Two sherds of St. Johns Check
Stamped pottery are perhaps suggestive of the latter.
THE VILLAGE MIDDEN
Sawyer' s brief mention (quoted above) of excavation in the midden ad-
jacent to the mound is virtually all that is known about whatever work was
carried out there. Only in the case of the large piece of sheet mica (now
several pieces), mentioned by Sawyer, does the catalogue (Cushing Ms.:
Field No. 291) specifically refer to the fact that it was excavated (from a
depth of 18 inches). Various other items are indicated to have come from
the village site, but it is rather clear that many of them were surface finds.
A total of 76 sherds are present in the following proportions: sand-
tempered plain, 26 body sherds, 4 rim sherds; Pasco Plain, 36 body sherds,
7 rim sherds; St. Johns Plain, 6 body sherds, 3 rim sherds; Dunns Creek
Red (with miscellaneous incising), 1 body sherd. Though hardly a valid
sample, this distribution at least tends to support the former suggestion
that most sand-tempered and Pasco Plain sherds found in the mound prob-
ably came from using midden soil as fill.
Miscellaneous stone items include 23 flint chips, 7 knives or scrapers
(4 of which are broken), a coralchert.hammerstone (approximately 3 inches
in diameter), a rounded piece of soft limestone (approximately 1 1/2 inches
in diameter), a large flint scraper (5 inches long, 3 wide, and 2 thick), and
a large crude broad-bitted chopper-like tool. This last (Fig. 9, dd) tapers
from a maximum thickness of 1 3/4 inches to a thin cutting edge about 1/16
inch thick. One side is smoothly polished.
Six broken and 9 complete projectile points were found. At least 3 of
the broken specimens may have been Archaic stemmed points. Five of the
unbroken ones (Fig. 9, s-w) are either Duval or closely related types. The
remaining 4 unbroken points are probably all Archaic specimens (Fig. 9,
x-aa). One of these (x) seems to be a Hillsboro (Bullen 1968a: 31). An-
other (y) is at least similar to the Newnan type ibidd. : 30).
Six pieces of worked shell were found. One is a chisel-like columella
tool which is ground smooth on one side (Fig. 10, b). Parts of 4 Busycon
celts or gouges are present (Fig. 10, c-d) along with a concave-convex
Busycon disc (Fig. 10, e). The edges of the latter are somewhat scalloped,
and it is 3 inches in diameter.
There are 25 pieces of animal bone which are indicated to have come
from the midden. These were examined by Steven Cumbaa and Curtiss
Peterson, zooarchaeology assistants at the Florida State Museum, and they
suggested the following distribution:
Deer 4 Fish:
Miscellaneous mammal 7 Sheepshead 1
Land turtle 6 Jewfish 1
Water turtle 2 Snook 1
Stone crab, claw 1 Red fish 1
Hopefully the foregoing descriptive data will be of some contribution
to an understanding of the archaeology of the lower Central Gulf Coast region
of Florida. Attempting to accurately place this mound in time, however, is
not an easy task.
The preponderance of sand-tempered plain, Pasco Plain, and St. Johns
series ceramics would seem to fit Willey' s (1949a: 361) Perico Island period
which is contemporary with the Santa Rosa-Swift Creek period farther north.
The large percentage of St. Johns series sherds must indicate considerable
trade with the northern St. Johns area. The Weeden Island and Swift Creek
complicated Stamped sherds suggest a slightly later date. Temporal position
of the types Oklawaha Plain and Oklawaha Incised is somewhat uncertain, but
Goggin (1952: 103) suggests that they are related to Weeden Island types.
Some types of Willey' s (1949a: 442-443) Papys Bayou series are vaguely
similar. All factors considered, an early Weeden Island 1 period date would
seem a reasonable suggestion for the Hope mound.
The presence of several Duval projectile points does not conflict with
an estimate. Points of this type are equated with a Weeden Island time
period by Bullen (1968a: 17), who also sees some indication that they first
date from the Santa Rosa-Swift Creek period. In one instance, examples
were found in an east Florida mound from which a charcoal sample yielded
a date of A.D. 85 (Wilson 1965: 31). The date of transition from the Santa
Rosa-Swift Creek to Weeden Island I must have been sometime around A. D.
300 (Bullen et al. 1967: 13).
Somewhat confusing is the occurrence at the Hope mound of the two
copper ornaments shown in Fig. 8. Several rather similar ornaments (in-
cluding the gold specimen illustrated on the cover of The Florida Anthro-
pologist) have been discussed by Griffin (1964) and by Bullen (1968b). All of
them are obviously very late in time. Assuming that the Hope mound exam-
ples were not part of an intrusive burial, they would seem to suggest the con-
tinuation of a basic style over a period of something like a thousand years, a
conclusion which would have to be approached with considerable skepticism.
As the Hope mound examples do not have incised designs and other traits
characteristic of the later specimens, it may be that their similarity to these
is more apparent than real.
While the available data tell us something of the process of construc-
tion of the mound, it is impossible to feel confident in attempting a recon--
struction of this process. Probably the mound was built during one instance
in time in a sequence which included the primary mound with inclusive burials,
an arrangement of artifacts and burials on the surface, and a secondary cap-
ping with more inclusive burials. Only one example of a primary extended
burial, in the Upper Horizon, is discussed by Sawyer. Presumably all of
the other burials were secondary.
Except for the "patterned" arrangement of artifacts (the "Effigy Sacrifice"),
such a sequence is not inconsistent with Sears' (1958) "Mass Burial Type
Mounds" some of which were found in the general Tampa Bay area and dated
to the Weeden Island phase. The "Effigy Sacrifice" is probably no more un-
usual than the mass burial in a central tomb found at the Browne mound
ADDENDUM TO THE AFFORD REPORT
One box containing 99 sherds from the Safford mound was found stored
with the Hope collection. The distribution of these, following Willey (1949a)
and Bullen et al. (1970), is as follows:
Santa Rosa Stamped 3 Pasco Plain 1
Weeden Island Punctated 4 Oklawaha Plain 1
Weeden Island Zoned Red 4 Smooth Plain Z
Weeded Island unique red-p'd 2 Lake Jackson Plain 1
Carrebelle Punctated 1 Safety Harbor Plain 2
Sun City Complicated St'd 6 Pinellas Incised 2
miscellaneous compl'd st'd 1 unidentified plain 2
Papys Bayou Punctated 67 Total 99
The Weeden Island Zoned Red sherds are apparently all from the same
vessel, a portion of which was illustrated in the original report (Bullen et al.
1970: Plate VI, c). Also as noted in that report ibidd. : 92), some Papys
Bayou Punctated sherds exhibit limestone inclusions. Twenty such sherds
are among the 67 listed above. Nine others have tiny specs of mica scattered
throughout their paste. The Weeden Island red-painted rim sherd is very un-
usual. It represents about one-third of a small thick-walled vessel which
has two deep grooves extending around the outside (Fig. 11, d). Only traces
of red paint remain.
The most unusual specimen is the portion of a bowl represented by 2
132 HOPE MOUND
Fig. 11. Safford mound artifacts.
a-b, Pinellas Incised rim sherds; c, plain rim with effigy lug; d, Weeden
island Red rim sherd; e-f, fired clay coils; g, Lake Jackson Plain rim sherd;
, coral pestle.
plain sherds. This has an effigy figure which sets on the rim and extends
3/4 inch down the outside wall (Fig. 11, c). Both Cushing and Sawyer re-
ferred to it as a bat. A few other distinctive rim sherds are shown in Fig. 11.
All, except the unique grooved sherd, belong in the Safety Harbor period.
Not counted with the sherds are five pieces of fired clay coils (Fig. 11,
e and f). It is not certain whether or not these actually came from vessels.
Only one non-ceramic artifact which probably came from the Safford
mound was found in the Hope collection. This is an extremely large, coral
pestle (?) which is 10 inches tall. Its cross section is oval, 1 3/4 by 2 1/2
inches at the upper end, 3 by 4 inches at the base.
One correction should be noted for the original Safford report. Four
sherds which were illustrated on page 111 ibidd.: Plate VII, i,j,k, and u)
later proved to be from the Hope mound. These were counted in the pre-
ceeding Hope mound report.
1896 Amid Pots and Skulls.
Unsigned article in the Washington, D. C. Post, February 3.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1968a A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Florida State Museum. Gainesville.
1968b A silver ornament from S'. Cloud, Florida. Florida Anthro-
pologist, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 36-38. Gainesville.
Bullen, Ripley P. Adelaide K. Bullen, and William J. Bryant.
1967 Archaeological investigations at the Ross Hammock site, Florida.
William L. Bryant Foundation, Report -no. 7. Orlando.
Bullen, Ripley P. William L. Partridge, and Donald A. Harris
1970 The Safford burial mound, Tarpon Springs, Florida. Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 81-118. Gainesville.
Cushing, Frank H.
1897 Explorations of ancient key dweller' s remains on the Gulf Coast
of Florida. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,
vol. 35, no. 153, pp. 329-432. Philadelphia.
Ms. Cushing' s "field catalogue" of the Tarpon Springs and vicinity
artifacts. May have been written from earlier "field notes. "
Copy on file at the Florida State Museum.
Goggin, John M.
1948 Some pottery types from central Florida. Gainesville Anthro-
pological Association, Bulletin no. 1. Gainesville.
1952 Space and time perspective in northern St. Johns archeology,
Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 47.
Griffin, John W.
1946 Historical artifacts and the "Bazzard Cult" in Florida. Florida
Historical Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 295-301. Gainesville.
Morris, Percy A.
1951 A Field Guide to the Shells of Our Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.
Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston.
Sawyer, Wells M.
Ms. A Concise Statement of the Excavations on the West Coast of
Florida made in 1895-96 by the Pepper-Hearst Expedition under
the late Frank H. Cushing of the Bureau of Ethnology. Undated
but probably written about 1904. Manuscript Box 53, P. K. Yonge
Library of Florida History. University of Florida.
Sears, William H.
1958 Burial mounds of the Gulf Coastal Plain. American Antiquity,
vol. 23, no. 3., pp. 274-284. Salt Lake City.
1959 Two Weeden Island period burial mounds, Florida. Contributions
of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, no. 5. Gainesville.
1966 Archaeological survey of northern Georgia. Memoirs of the
Society for American Archaeology, no. 21. Salt Lake City.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949a Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscella-
neous Collections, vol. 113. Washington.
1949b Excavations in southeast Florida. Yale University Publications
in Anthropology, no. 42. New Haven.
Wilson, Rex L.
1965 Excavations at the Mayport mound, Florida. Contributions of
the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, no. 13.
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