Front Cover
 The Sarasota county mound, Englewood,...
 A study of aboriginal trade - A...
 An extremely long celt - Dale A....
 Back issues and information for...

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00080
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00080
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    The Sarasota county mound, Englewood, Florida - Ripley P. Bullen
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    A study of aboriginal trade - A petrographic analysis of certain ceramic types from Florida to Georgia - Donald L. Crusoe
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    An extremely long celt - Dale A. Black
        Page 44
    Back issues and information for authors
        Unnumbered ( 48 )
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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March,
June, September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society at
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Volume XXIV, No. 2


March 1971


The Sarasota County Mound, Englewood, Florida
Ripley P. Bullen . .*.. ... ...

A Study of Aboriginal Trade: a petrographic analysis of
certain ceramic types from Florida and Georgia
Donald L. Crusoe . ..

An Extremely Long Celt
Dale A. Black . . ...


President Carl A. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave. Orlando, Fla. 32806

1st Vice President William M. Goza
P. 0. Box 246, Clearwater, Fla. 33515

2nd Vice President George Magruder
440 Tenth Ave. Indialantic, Fla. 32901

Secretary-Treasurer Sara B. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave. Orlando, Fla. 32806

Editor-Resident Agent Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Executive Committeemen

Three years: Wilma B. Williams
Hollywood, Florida

Two years: Thomas Gouchnour
Jacksonville, Florida

One year: Cliff E. Mattox
Cocoa Beach, Florida

At large, for one year
James Varner, Winter Park

J. Anthony Paredes, Tallahassee






Ripley P. Bullen


In 1964 Sarasota County purchased Paulson Point in Englewood, Florida,
for use as a county park or recreational area. The area included a prehistoric
Indian shell midden (Site So-23) surrounded by mangroves. Plans called for
bulkheading the point and using Inland Waterway fill to form a sufficiently large
dry area. As a result part of the Indian midden would be covered by fill.

The Sarasota County Historical Commission called to the attention of the
County Commissioners that data relative to the early prehistory of the County
would be destroyed and requested that County sponsored excavations to conserve
this data be made before filling. As a result, extensive tests were made at the
site during the spring seasons of 1965 and 1966. This report presents the re-
sults of this work.


Figure 1 reproduces a contour map of Paulson Point made by students of
the Manatee Junior College of Bradenton as a classroom project under the super-
vision of Prof. Arlie V. Sincks. The 1-foot contour and the higher land within
it forms the above-surface portion of the Indian midden. Plotted against a cen-
tral base line, installed by the Sarasota County Engineering Department, are
shown the locations of test pits. Only shown approximately on the map is the
presence of low continuations of the shell midden to the east of Sta. O.

About 15 years ago when a drainage ditch (now a boat basin) was dug by
Mosquito Control, some 300 feet east of Sta. O, a few burials were discovered
*. at tide level. Burials have also been located at points marked "X" in Figure 1.
Data about these burials, other than that they were below present high tide and
that the last two were tightly flexed and lying on their right side, is not available.
These burials will not be referred to later in this report but it should be noted
that their location would seem to demonstrate a rise in sea level relative to the
land since they were interred.

Test Pits 1-8, all 10 by 10 feet in area, were dug in the spring of 1965,
under the field supervision of Ralph F. Burnworth of Bradenton, a retired civil

Florida Anthropologist, vol. 24, no. 1, March 1971



Man groves




Low shell deposits


Fig.I. Contour map of Sarasoto County Mound locating test pits.


/ Boat




Fig. 2. Surveying and excavating at the Sarasota County mound.

Debris on board is from lower "black dirt, some shell" zone.


engineer and collector of Indian artifacts, and Mrs. Betty Chadwick of the His-
torical Commission. Excavation proceeded by one-foot arbitrary levels mea-
sured downward from the side of the pit nearest the base line. The debris was
carefully shoveled out of the tests, with due regard to straight sides and hori-
zontal floors, onto a sorting board and then transferred to a screen (Fig. 2).
Sarasota County work crews did the actual digging while members of the Sara-
sota Historical Commission, the Sarasota Historical Society, and the Friends of
the Arts and Sciences carefully collected all possible artifacts and food bone re-
mains from the screens. Specimens were bagged by pit and level, taken to the
Sarasota County Courthouse for cleaning, and placed in properly labeled bags
and boxes to await analysis.

In all cases excavation was carried down into the black sand and shell
zone which underlay the shell midden proper, and in six of these eight tests the
base of excavations was recorded as below the water level. Sherds were found
in this lower sand and shell deposit, but the bottom of the site was not reached
in these tests due to the difficulty of digging below water. A pump was tried in
Pits 7 and 8 but proved ineffectual. Typical profiles will be found in Figure 3.
A preliminary report, referring to the 1965 excavations, was published in the
1965-1966 Yearbook of the Friends of the Arts and Sciences (Anonymous 1966).

Test Pits 11-17, dug in the spring of 1966, were 8 by 8 feet in size and
formed a continuous trench (Fig. 1). This phase of the work was under the su-
pervision of Robert D. McKennon, Sarasota County Deputy Sheriff, and Mrs.
Doris Davis, Historian, Sarasota County Historical Commission. Work pro-
ceeded by 1-foot levels as before from the surface downward to the tide level.

In Pits 11-14 a back hoe was used to dig below tide level. This machine
could only dig to a depth of 7 feet below the surface of the ground and, hence,
the amount of penetration below tide level depended, inversely, on the elevation
of the surface above tide level. The resultant trench face is shown in Figure 4.
Of course the edges of the lower levels of Pits 11-14 were not as sharp as shown
on the cross section.

When digging under water with the back hoe, it was impossible to remove
debris by arbitrary levels. Hence, all the material from the lower levels of
each pit formed a single collection unit. This unit in the case of Pit 14 was ap-
proximately 3 feet in thickness, that from Pit 11 was 5 feet thick.

In only Pit 11, which had the lowest surface elevation, did the back hoe en-
counter a different stratum. In that case the zone of black sand and shells was
underlain by a deposit of reddish yellow, medium coarse, quartz sand (Fig. 4,
Pit 11). This sand was probably the original ground surface upon which the
black mucky sand with its entrained shells and sherds accumulated. Whether
occupation started on this sand or whether it started on a low nearby rise and


the midden then grew onto and into this mucky sand is not certain. Certainly
the base of the midden,which is well below the present surface, covers a sub-
stantially greater area than that enclosed by the 1-foot contour. All the evi-
dence from this site suggests there has been a rise in sea level relative to the
land since and probably during occupation. If the evidence from Pit 11 is cor-
rect for the site as a whole, the water in Lemon Bay has risen 4 to 5 feet since
man first occupied this site.

Specimens collected during the second season were taken to the Sarasota
County Courthouse, washed, and bagged to await analysis as was the case with
the products of the 1965 excavations. This processing, done by the Sarasota
County Historical Commission, occurred during the latter part of 1966 and 1967.
In January 1968 the author examined, studied, classified, and quantified the ar-
tifacts from both seasons' work preparatory to writing this report. At that time
he also photographed representative specimens. Facilities in the Sarasota
County Commissioners offices were tendered for the analysis.

Discussion of Profiles

Figures 3 and 4 present profiles from both seasons' work. In all cases,
including those not illustrated, the same general situation was found. Typical
shell midden deposits, sometimes stratified by the relative amounts of dirt
mixed with the shell remains, rested upon a deposit of black mucky sand con-
taining some shells. This black mucky sand extended below water level and
consequently was not excavated to any great extent except in Pits 11-14 where
the back hoe was employed. This lower zone was in no sense sterile as shown
by the large number of sherds found in Pit 4 (Table 3) below a depth of 5 feet
and the over 1600 sherds brought up by the back hoe from below tide level in
Pits 11-14. Unfortunately this operation, use of the back hoe, occurred only
near the edge of the midden mound and we have no good sample from this zone
near the center of the midden where the earliest deposits might be expected to
be located. In only one case, Pit 11 (Fig. 4), was an underlying sterile deposit
(yellowish coarse quartz sand) encountered. Otherwise excavation did not reach
the base of cultural deposits.


As will be evident later, occupation at the Sarasota County Mound occurred
during the Transitional (1000-300 B. C.), Perico Island (300 B. C. -A. D. 500),
Weeden Island II (A. D. 500-1350), and very earliest part of the Safety Harbor
(circa A. D. 1350) archaeological periods (Bullen 1965: 306). For ease of pre-
sentation, these periods will be so referred to in this section with Perico Island
as the temporal equivalent of the more northern Deptford and Swift Creek periods.

) 1 2 8 9 10Level

Black dirt and shells

2 -- -


Black dirtand shells


Black dirt, some shells


0 I 2 8 9
0 I : i -- T t




Water, black sand

0 I 2 8 9 10Level
S, ,line
Soil, crushed shells
Time I"

Midden shell

S Black sand, some shells
(not excavated)


I -- lOFeet--

Test Pit 3,westwall

Test Pit 4, north wall

Test Pit 5, west wall

Fig.3. Profiles, 1965 excavations at Paulson Point.

Levels '
Shell _- -- Surface of midden
midden --_-,- -

Black sand and shells

I-- 8 Ft.---


- t--a


Fia.4. East profile, Test Pits 11-17.



Similarly, the 1-foot excavation and analysis units will be called Level 1, etc.,
from the surface downward.

Pottery and Ceramic Stratigraphy

Almost 27,000 sherds were excavated. Of these 96. 3 per cent were frag-
ments of Englewood Plain vessels. Of the balance only 137 or 0. 5 per cent of the
total sherd collection were decorated. While the quantity of decorated sherds was
extremely small, their typological variation, assumed place of manufacture, and
chronological implications are of great importance in the interpretation of life at
the Sarasota County Mound.

Sherds conformed readily to generally accepted typological definitions most
of which will be found in Willey' s (1949) Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast.
However, a few comments will be included to supplement published descriptions
and the illustrations of pottery presented in Figures 5 and 6.

It is impossible, because of space limitations, to present the vertical dis-
tribution of pottery for all tests. Tables 1, 2, and 3 present such data for Pits 3,
4, and 5 respectively. References will be made to other test pits in the discus-
sion below.

Englewood Plain 25, 967 sherds. The great bulk of the pottery, found in every
level of every test, conformed to Willey' s (1949: 474) definition of Englewood
Plain. Temper was very fine sand, surfaces were well smoothed but frequently
exhibited a slabbedd off" appearance, rims were plain or incurving with, some-
times, slight marginal thickening, and color was usually a dark gray. The fine
sand tempering material was finer than that of Belle Glade Plain but coarser
than that of Goodland Plain (Goggin 1949: 76).

The only significant variation in Englewood Plain noted during analysis was
that very thick examples concentrated at lower depths. This was particularly
noticeable in Pit 6 where all 9 sherds from the lowest excavated level, 5 to 6
feet in depth, were thick. Similarly in Pits 11-17 nearly every one of the 1617
sherds of this type dug by the back hoe from below water were thick, some as
thick as 5/8 inches (Fig. 6, m-o). This situation was duplicated in the deep
midden at Terra Ceia, 50 miles to the north, and at the Cash Mound, 15 miles
to the south. At both sites plain sherds from the lower levels were obviously
thicker than those from higher levels (Bullen 1951; Bullen and Bullen 1956: 18).

Belle Glade Plain 589 sherds. The easily identifiable Belle Glade Plain
sherds (Fig. 6, k-l) were found in most levels of most pits. A total of 10 were
among the sherds removed by the back hoe from below the water level in Pits
11-14. The exceptions to this general distribution were Pits 3 and 4 (Tables
1-2) where they were limited to the higher zones.


St. Johns Plain 176 sherds. St. Johns Plain sherds, while representing less
than 0. 6 per cent of the total sherd collection, also had general distribution in
the midden with the same exceptions noted for Belle Glade Plain. Only 1 came
from below the water level in Pits 11-14 and only 1 was lower than a depth of 3
feet in Pit 3 (Table 1).

Other plain sherds 38 sherds. Here are included micaceous plain, Norwood
Plain (Phelps 1965), Orange Plain, Pasco Plain, Pinellas Plain, shell-temper-
ed plain, sherd-tempered plain, and coarse quartz-tempered plain pottery.
Most are presumed to be trade sherds or, possibly, to represent local experi-
mentation in alternative methods of tempering.

Micaceous material is commonly found in clay deposits of the Apalachi-
cola region of northwest Florida, and vessels found in peninsular Florida which
contain micaceous incisions are assumed to have been imported from that re-
gion. Three micaceous plain sherds were found in Level 4 of Pit 6 and Level 3
of Pit 12. These levels also contained St. Johns Check Stamped sherds and may
be assigned to the Weeden Island II period.

Norwood Plain refers to fiber-tempered pottery which also includes an
appreciable amount of sand as temper. Referable to the Transitional period,
6 of the 8 Norwood Plain sherds were scattered in Levels 1-3 and obviously out
of place stratigraphically. The other 2 were found in the lowest level of Pit 4
(Table 2).

Orange Plain vessels were represented by 11 sherds (Fig. 6, d-f). Four
of these were out of place in the top 3 levels but the other 7 were in the lower
levels of Pit 4 (Table 2). These fiber-tempered sherds must date to 1000 B. C.
or earlier. Here they represent the earliest part of the Transitional period.

Only 3 Pasco Plain (limestone-tempered) sherds were found (Fig. 6, g).
Such sherds are very common in the Crystal River-Withlacoochee River region
north of Tampa Bay and rare elsewhere. Hence their presence at the Sarasota
County Mound suggests communication with that region. They were found in
Levels 2 and 3 of Pits 3, 5, and 6. These levels are probably late Weeden
Island II in date.

Six Pinellas Plain sherds were uncovered. The only one with a notched
lip was in the highest level of Pit 2. It represents an import from north of
Tampa Bay during the Safety Harbor period.

There were two varieties of shell-tempered plain sherds. One, containing
an admixture of sand and fine shell temper, was represented by a sherd in Level
5 of Pit 5 and another in Level 2 of Pit 6. The other, abundantly tempered with
coarse shell fragments, was in Level 5 of Pit 15. The first two occurred in


zones containing St. Johns Check Stamped sherds but the last was in deposits
of an earlier time period.

Twelve sherd-tempered and 13 coarse quartz-tempered plain sherds
were collected. All were associated with St. Johns Check Stamped sherds or
in the next lower level. Both sherd- and coarse quartz-tempered pottery is
known for northeast Florida at and slightly before the introduction of St Johns
Check Stamped containers. These 25 sherds may represent vessels origina-
ting in that region.

Local decorated pottery 11 sherds. Englewood Incised (Fig. 5, b-d), Sara-
sota Incised (Fig. 5, f), and Little Manatee Zoned Stamped (Fig. 5, g) sherds
appear to concentrate in the Bradenton-Englewood area and are presumed to
be from locally made vessels. The first, like Englewood Plain, was tempered
with fine sand. Two sherds, included here as Englewood Incised but possibly
representing a variant of Carrabelle Incised, had incised lines which were
surprisingly wide (Fig. 5, k). Sarasota Incised and Little Manatee Zoned
Stamped were made of a temperless or chalky paste but were well fired and
hence fairly hard.

The only Little Manatee Zoned Stamped sherd uncovered was in the high-
est level of Pit 11. Englewood and Sarasota Incised sherds concentrated in the
highest two levels but were found as deep as the fourth levels of Pits 6 and 17.
In all cases they were associated with St. Johns Check Stamped pottery.

Imported decorated pottery 104 sherds. By far the most common decorated
type was St. Johns Check Stamped (Fig. 5, r-t). Their number (68) was
greater than all other decorated sherds combined. Surprisingly Wakulla Check
Stamped (sand-tempered) was represented by only 3 examples (Fig. 5, q).
These were limited to the highest 2 levels of Pits 4, 5, and 6. St. Johns Check
Stamped, on the contrary, was found in 10 test pits, 24 sherds in the first, 24
in the second, 16 in the third, 14 in the fourth, and 10 in the fifth levels. Only
two were found below the water table and those were from Pit 11 where the de-.
posit above water was only 2 feet thick.

In Pits 2, 3, and 4 St. Johns Check Stamped sherds were not found below
Level 3 (Table 1-2). Similarly they were entirely lacking in the collection of
908 sherds retrieved from below the water table in Pits 12-14 by the back hoe.
These data indicate the Sarasota County Mound at Paulson Point may be divided
into an upper and a lower part based upon the presence or absence of St. Johns
Check Stamped sherds. This is similar to the division between Weeden Island
I and II proposed by Willey in 1949 (p. 397) except that he used Wakulla Check
Stamped instead of St. Johns Check Stamped. Recent work at Burtine Island
(Bullen 1966) would seem to substantiate Willey' s proposition. As radiocarbon
dates indicate that St. Johns Check Stamped pottery was introduced in the St.


Table 1


Typology Depths in feet Totals
0-1 1-2 Z-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7

Ft. Walton Incised 1 1
St. Petersburg Incised 2 1 3
Alachua Cob Marked 2 2
Quartz-tempered plain 1 1
Sherd-tempered plain 1 1
Lochloosa Punctated 1 1

St.. Johns Check Stamped 4 4 8
St. Johns Plain 4 1 1 6
Pasco Plain 1 1
Belle Glade Plain 20 14 1 35
Englewood Plain 129 158 60 77 365 412 56 1257

Totals 161 183 60 78 365 413 56 1316

Johns River valley about A. D. 800 (Bullen and Sleight 1960) we would assume
a similar date for its introduction at the Sarasota County Mound.

Other Weeden Island period decorated pottery types found in the excava-
tions at the Sarasota County Mound included Weeden Island Incised, Weeden
Island Punctated, Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, Tucker Ridge
Pinched, West Florida Cord Marked (Fig. 5, e, h, j, 1, i and m-n, respec-
tively), and miscellaneous punctated, incised, indistinct stamped, and net-
impressed sherds. The Tucker Ridge Pinched specimen (Fig. 5, i) was a di-
vergent example as it also exhibited lines of trailed, triangular punctations.
Each of these types was represented by only 1 or 2 sherds except for West
Florida Cord Marked of which there were 3 examples. All are considered to
be imports from north of Tampa Bay if not from northwest Florida. All, with
the exception of a West Florida Cord Marked sherd, came from levels which
also produced St. Johns Check Stamped sherds and may be considered Weeden
Island II in date.

Other decorated sherds of the same time period included 4 Dunns Creek
Red (Fig. 6, i-j), 1 Lochloosa Punctated, and 2 Alachua Cob Marked (Fig. 5,
o-p). They, presumedly, represent importations from north central Florida.


Table 2




Depths in feet
0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5


Wakulla Check Stamped 1 1
Quartz-tempered plain 1 1
Sherd-tempered plain 2 2 4
St. Johns Check Stamped 2 9 2 13
St. Johns Plain 7 5 7 1 9

Belle Glade Plain
Sarasota Incised
Englewood Incised
Englewood Plain

6 12 16


692 310 128

6 2073

Deptford-like pointed base
St. Johns Incised
Norwood Plain
Orange Plain

1 1 5

Totals 955 720 338 130 15 2158

A Ft. Walton Incised and 3 St. Petersburg Incised (Fig. 5, a) sherds,
from Levels 1 and 2 of Pit 3 (Table 1), are probably the latest found at the
Sarasota County Mound. The first was probably imported from northwest
Florida during the Safety Harbor period. St. Petersburg Incised, a Tampa
Bay pottery type, is considered to be intermediate between the Weeden Island
II and Safety Harbor periods.

Last to be mentioned are 2 St. Johns Linear Check Stamped, a St. Johns
Bold Check Stamped, and 3 St. Johns Incised (Fig. 6, a-c, respectively)
sherds. The first two are believed to be copies in chalky paste of Deptford
period pottery types. They were relatively deep (Levels 4 and 5) in Pit 16.
Of the 3 St. Johns Incised sherds, 1 seemed out of place in Level 3 of Pit 2
but the other 2 had rather deep proveniences in Levels 5 of Pits 4 and 17.
The one in Pit 4, Level 5, was associated with a Deptford-like pointed base,
and Norwood Plain and Orange Plain sherds (Table 2). This level is probably
the earliest excavated at the site.

Ceramic Recapitulation

Based on the vertical distribution of pottery types, the Sarasota County


Table 3



Typology Depths in feet Totals
0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5

Wakulla Check Stamped 1 1
Quartz-tempered plain 1 2 3
Sherd-tempered plain 1 1 2
St. Johns Check Stamped 4 2 5 1 4 16
St. Johns Plain 6 6 10 2 5 29

Net-impressed 1 1
Carrabelle Incised 1 1
Dunns Creek Red 1 1
Pasco Plain 1 1
Belle Glade Plain 26 19 32 14 29 120

Englewood Plain 1424 1087 1171 465 766 4913
Shell- and sand-tempered plain 1 1
Sand-tempered incised' 1 1

Totals 1463 1118 1221 482 806 5090

*Decoration resembles that of St. Johns Incised.

Mound was occupied during parts of 4 cultural periods. The earliest was the
closing phase of the Orange period or what has been called the Florida Transi-
tional period (Bullen 1959). At this time, around 1000 B. C., Orange Series
ceramics were being superceded by Norwood Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Incised, Pasco Plain, and Pasco Incised containers. Incised motifs represen-
ted a holdover of Orange Incised designs. A few sherds of this period were
found scattered in the midden indicating the nearby presence of deposits of the
Florida Transitional period. In only one place, the fifth level of Pit 4 (Table
2) were the deposits referable to that period. The results should have been
interesting if the back hoe had been available at the time of the excavation of
Pit 4.

The next period in the Tampa Bay-Englewood area is called Perico Island.
During this period pottery decoration was well-nigh non-existant but as part of
this period was contemporaneous with the Deptford period to the north a few
Deptford or Deptford-like sherds may be present. Practically all of the lowest
levels of Pits 11-14, where material was brought up from below the water table
by the back hoe, are readily assignable to the Perico Island period. Of the 1641
sherds from below the water level, 1615 were Englewood Plain, 23 Belle Glade


Plain, 1 St. Johns Plain, and 2 St. Johns Check Stamped. The St. Johns Check
Stamped and 13 of the Belle Glade Plain sherds were from Pit 11 where the sur-
face elevation was only 2 feet so that relatively late deposits might be expected
to be found under water.

Further evidence of the Perico Island period was found in Pits 3 and 4
where decorated sherds were limited to the highest levels (Tables 1 and 2).
Also, no decorated sherds were found in Pits 1, 13, and below a depth of 2
feet in Pit 15.

Two charcoal samples were collected from Pit 3, one from Level 5
(4 to 5 feet below the surface, Fig. 3) and the other from the lower black dirt
zone around a depth of 6 feet. The latter sample was insufficient and did not
produce a meaningful date. The first sample was radiocarbon dated at Flor-
ida State University (Sample FSU No. 332). The date was 1648 50 years
B. P. or approximately A. D. 400. This date clearly applies to the Perico
Island period as indicated by the pottery distribution shown in Table 1. To
judge further from this distribution (fewer Englewood Plain above, more be-
low Level 5), this date should apply to a closing phase of the Perico Island
period. (The one St. Johns Plain sherd in Level 6 undoubtedly pertains to
the earlier Transitional period as does the St. Johns Incised sherd shown
for the lowest level of Pit 4 in Table 2.)

Most test pits, however, had a vertical distribution of sherds similar to
that of Pit 5 (Table 3). In them the presence of St. Johns Check Stamped and
a scattering of Weeden Island pottery types clearly indicated the Weeden Island
time period and, probably, the later part of that period or Weeden Island II
(post A.D. 850).

There is much less evidence for a Safety Harbor time period occupation
than for any of the others. However, it must be remembered that St. Johns
Check Stamped was the most common decorated pottery type at the proto-
historic Safety Harbor site in Pinellas County (Griffin and Bullen 1950). Ex-
amination of the vertical distribution of pottery types in the test pits indicates
not only that Ft. Walton Incised, Pinellas Plain with a notched lip, Wakulla
Check Stamped, and St. Petersburg Incised sherds were limited to the first
and second levels but also that Weeden Island pottery tended to have a deeper
provenience. It seems probable the Sarasota County Mound was abandoned
circa A. D. 1350 at the very beginning of the Safety Harbor period.

Stone Tools

One of the most novel aspects of the Sarasota County Mound at Paulson



j k m

q 3
0 p 2 I

0 2 3 4 5 CM. t

Fig. 5. Decorated sherds.

a, St. Petersburg Incised; b-d, Englewood Incised; e, Weeden
Island Incised; f, Sarasota Incised; g, Little Manatee Zoned
Stamped; h, Weeden Island Punctated; i, Tucker Ridge Pinched;
j, Carrabelle Incised; k, wide line, Englewood-like Incised; 1,
Carrabelle Punctated; m-n, West Florida Cord Marked; o-p,
Alachua Cob Marked; q, Wakulla Check Stamped; r-t, St. Johns
Check Stamped.

d e


a b

f 9

0 I 2 IN.
0 1 2 3 4 5 CM

Fig. 6. Plain and decorated sherds.

a, St. Johns Linear Check Stamped; b, bold St. Johns Check Stamp-
ed; c, St. Johns Incised; d-f, Orange Plain; 1, Pasco Plain; h,unique
Belle Glade Incised; i-j, Dunns Creek Red; k-l, Belle Glade Plain;
m-o, thick Englewood Plain.


Point was the use of quartz for the manufacture of chipped stone tools. Of 14
small to medium sized projectile points, 6, all Westo in type (Bullen 1968),
were made of quartz. This situation is very unique for Florida where speci-
mens of quartz are extremely rare at any substantial distance south of the
Georgia state line. Projectile point typology used here follows that recently
proposed by the Florida State Museum (Bullen 1968).

Projectile Points

Westo 9 points. Eight of the 9 Westo points from the site are illustrated of
which 6 (Fig. 7, a-f) were made of quartz and 2 (Fig. 7, g-h) of Florida chert.
The unillustrated Westo point was also made of chert. These specimens all
meet the definition of Westo points very well and little description can be pre-
sented to supplement that evident in the pictures. One (Fig. 7, h), made
from a flake, has a strong unifacial tendency. The bottom of its stem is part
of the striking platform and does not represent a "snapped off base. This
point is probably unfinished. The other points are bifacial and two (Fig. 7,
f-g) have broken tangs. As is typical of Westo points, none are well made.

The 9 Westo points had fairly general distribution vertically as 5 came
from Pit 2, 4 in the second and 1 in the third level; 1 from Pit 3 in the fifth
level; and 3 from Pit 4, 1 in the second, 1 in the third, and the last in the fifth
level. It is difficult to correlate these points with any specific pottery type
other than the sand-tempered Englewood Plain. If the deepest provenience in
Pit 4 is to be considered indicative of the first Westo points at this site, an
original association with Norwood Plain pottery might be suggested.

Putnam 1 point. Another point Fig. 7, i) I am calling a small Putnam be-
cause of its classic shape. However, it is relatively thick, 1.3 cm. and at
this site might well be considered an extreme example of a Westo. It came
from the second level of Pit 2.

Bradford point. One point (Fig. 7, k) with a rather crudely chipped base I
have called a Bradford. It is made of chert and seems to exhibit some patina-
tion. It came from the first level of Pit 5.

Taylor 1 point. A chert point with a broken blade (Fig. 7, 1) is a good re-
presentation of a Taylor point. It came from the first level of Pit 4.

Wacissa 1 point. One point (Fig. 7, j), made of chert, has been called Wa-
cissa because of its double bevel. However, its tang is relatively longer and
narrower than that of most Wacissa points and it might, possibly, be more
proper to call it a Culbreath. It came from the second level of Pit 4, below
the Taylor point just mentioned.

Greenbriar 1 point. A poor example of a Greenbriar (Fig. 7, m), from the


third level of Pit 11, was the only projectile point found during the second sea-
son' s work at Paulson Point. It differs from classic Greenbriars in that its
unbroken corner is sharp.

Knives and Other Chipped Tools

Three hafted knives or spear points were found. Two closely resemble
Sarasota points typologically. The first (Fig. 7, o), crudely chipped of chert,
has a convex base while, the second (Fig. 7, q), neatly chipped of chert, has a
concave base. The third (Fig. 7, p), also of chert, is thin (. 8 cm.) and well
made. Its side notches slope upwards, but its relatively wide base separates
it from the other points just mentioned. The first came from Pit 5, Level 3;
the second from Pit 2, Level 2; and the third from Pit 11 between depths of 2
and 7 feet.

A small ovate knife of quartz (Fig. 7, r) was found in the third level of
Pit 3. An expanded base drill (Fig. 7, n) of chert came from the third level
of Pit 5. It has a blunted, well worn, end and exhibits a substantial amount of
patination. This drill probably represents an Archaic specimen found and
brought to the site by one of the inhabitants and not an item of local manufacture.

Chips, Hammerstones, and Miscellaneous Stone

Analysis of the Sarasota County collections from Paulson Point disclosed
18 chert chips but none of quartz. This would suggest that the quartz points
described above were not made at the site. However, 2 quartz cobblestones
were found, 1 from Pit 5, Level 2, and the other, which was broken, from
Pit 6, Level 4. Perhaps quartz chips were too small to have been retrieved.

That some chipped tools of chert were made at the site is indicated by a
chert core, 3 fragments of worked chert, a limestone hammerstone (Fig. 10, p),
and 2 chert hammerstones as well as the chert chips mentioned above.

A fossil shark' s tooth, 34 unworked pieces of fossil bone including a
horse tooth, and 68 pieces of ochreous rock were also collected. Most of these
undoubtedly were transported to the site as natural inclusions in the sand and
muck periodically added to the surface of the site by the inhabitants for reasons
of comfort or sanitation. Some of the ochreous rock may have been used as a
source of red paint but no evidence of such use was found.

One piece of fossil bone (Fig. 10, q) exhibits chipping scars on its side
edges. It came from the first level of Pit 11. Its use is problematical.

Stone was also used to make spindle whorls. One such (Fig. 10, m) was
found in the third level of Pit 16.



0 I 2IN
0 I 2 3 4 5 CM


o I 2 IN.
0 1 2 3 4 5 CM.

Fig. 7. Chipped stone tools.

a-h, Westo; i, Putnam; j, Wacissa-like; k, Bradford; 1, Taylor
(blade broken); and m, Greenbriar (corner broken) projectile points;
n, expanded base drill; o, q, Sarasota points or knives; p, unclassi-
fied point; r, ovate knife. a-f, r, quartz; g-q, chert.

Fig. 8. Pendants, plummet type.
Materials: a, clayey limestone; b-e, sherd; f, bone;
g-m, shell; n-q, limestone; r, chert or chrty lime-
stone. m is decorated.




I .J ,'

b*d e a d*^c '

rr h

0 I
0 1 2 3

2 IN. U

4 5 CM.

Fig. 9. Artifacts of bone and shell.

a-b, sharks' teeth; c-d, shell; e, copper; f-h, bone
beads; i-j, drilled bone; k-l, simple bone points; m,
cut shell; n, shell gorge; o, worked sting ray spine;
p-q, bone pin shafts; r-u, -one awl ends; v-w, awls.

Fig. 10. Vertebrae beads and other artifacts.

a-k, shark vertebrae beads; 1-m, clay and stone
beads or spindle whorls; n, clay disc; o, sherd
pottery scraper; p, limestone hammerstone; q,
chipped fossil bone.


A sandstone grinding stone, found in the top of Pit 3, complete this part
of the inventory.

Items of Personal Adornment

Under this heading I am including all types of pendants, beads, and pins
although I am aware that some of the plummet type pendants--particularly the
cruder ones--may have been used as fishing weights. The quantity of such
specimens found in the Sarasota County excavations at Paulson Point is re-
markable considering the small size of the site and the still smaller area that
was excavated.

Pendants, Plummet Type

Eighteen plummet type pendants are illustrated in Figure 8 which includes
all reasonably complete specimens. Two (Fig. 8, o-p) are broken but the first
of these clearly shows part of a groove at the top. All are similar in that they
were supported by cordage, sinew, or leather thong fastened to a groove or
notch near their tops.

As illustrated in Figure 8, the collection consists of 4 sherd, 1 bone, 7
shell, and 6 stone pendants. Interestingly, of these 1 sherd, all 7 shell, and 5
of the 6 stone pendants came from Pits 11-17 or the trench dug during the second
season. In this trench pendants were concentrated between depths of 1 and 4
feet, i. e. in deposits of the Weeden Island time period. The surprising apparent
horizontal concentration of plummet-like pendants is difficult to interpret. It
probably suggests that homes of those of the highest status were located on the
highest available part of the site.

The range in material, size, shape, and workmanship of these plummets
is also worthy of comment. It might be expected that at this small site, where
plummets are concentrated in middle zones, that there would be more unifor-
mity of manufacture. It is difficult to believe that the obvious differences do not
have some meaning either functional in a material sense or psychologically in a
representational sense.

The only decorated plummet (Fig. 8, m), exhibiting neatly incised curving
lines on its sides, came from the fourth level of Pit 14. The 1 bone specimen
(Fig. 8, f), which may be the top of a bone pin, was found in the third level of
Pit 5. Of the 3 sherd pendants found during the first season, 2 came from Pit 3,
Level 5, and the-other from Pit 4, Level 4. The stone pendant from the first
season was made of limestone and found in the highest level of Pit 6.



At least 5 kinds of beads, some in large numbers, are included in the
collections from the Sarasota County Mound at Paulson Point. Included here
are perforated shark' s teeth as it is believed they were used in a manner si-
milar to that of beads. Of course, they may have been used as hafted tools.
Special attention is called to the presence of a copper bead.

Copper bead 1 specimen. One copper bead (Fig. 9, e) was found in the sixth
level of Pit 7. This location, well below water level, must represent an early
period at the site. Associated with it in the same level were a bone awl, 1 St.
Johns Plain, and 2 thick Englewood Plain sherds suggesting a Perico Island
provenience. The substantial depth might imply a fairly early phase of that
period. The bead was very fragile, made of rolled copper, and about an inch
in length.

Perforated shark's teeth 5 teeth. These are teeth of modern sharks perfora-
ted for suspension (Fig. 9, a-b). One came from Pit 15, Level 3 and the others
from Pit 6, 2 each in Levels 3 and 4.

Shark vertebrae beads 26 examples. These beads vary in size from small to
large (Fig. 10, a-k). Only included in the count are those specimens which ex-
hibit well made artificial holes in their centers. They had general distribution
throughout the cultural deposits.

Oliva shell beads 103 specimens. Oliva beads (Fig. 10, a-c), formed the
most common type at the Paulson Point midden. In making this bead the central
column was removed to permit the passing of cordage longitudinally through the
shell. These beads had general distribution throughout the midden.

Shell beads 3 specimens. These are small spheroid-shaped beads (Fig. 9, c-d)
made of shell. They are not of the flat disc type but are fairly thick with rounded
sides. One each came from Pit 2, Level 2; Pit 6, Level 3; and Pit 17, Level 1.
These and the tubular bone beads to be mentioned next have a relatively shallow
provenience and, hence, would seem to be of the latest ornaments made at the
site. They must pertain to a very late Weeden Island or possibly early Safety
Harbor time period.

Bone beads 4 examples. These are tubular in shape (Fig. 9, f-h). Usually
made from bird bones, they are identified by their cut ends. One each came
from Pit 2, Level 1; Pit 6, Levels 2 and 3; and Pit 16, Level 2. As mentioned
above, tubular bone beads were found at shallow depths and should have been
used rather late in the history of the site.


Other Ornaments

Perforated Arca shells 572 specimens. These are recognized by perfora-
tions broken from the inside outward (Fig. 11, f-h). Sometimes their edges
appear worn. Perforated Arca shells were found in nearly every level of every
pit. They have been considered either net weights or ornaments of personal
adornment. The large quantity may suggest the first interpretation to be cor-
rect. However, as all ornaments are found at this site in surprisingly large
numbers, the second explanation may be the correct one.

Perforated Pecten shells 232 examples. These are identified by the usually
neat perforation punched outwards near the center of the shell and by the grind-
ing away (sometimes only partial) of the wings on each side of the hinge (Fig.
11, d-e). These are unquestionably shells modified by man for some purpose,
presumedly for suspension as ornaments. Perforated Pecten shells were
found in most levels of most pits and, hence, had general distribution in the

Perforated Cardium shells 9 examples. These large shells have holes punched
outward (Fig. 11, i) in a manner similar to that of Perforated Pecten shells.
They were concentrated in the third and fourth levels of Pits 12-15 and so had a
much more restricted provenience than did Perforated Arca or Pecten shells.

Bone Pins 9 fragments. Cylindrical fragments of bone (Fig. 9, p-q) are be-
lieved to represent bone pins. They are separated from bone awls by their
highly polished sides and circular cross sections. At Paulson Point such pin
fragments had general distribution but were not found in the very earliest de-

Shell Ornament 1 specimen. A unique piece of cut shell (Fig. 9, m) was
found in the fifth level of Pit 3. It may be unfinished or be part of a compli-
cated artifact.

Other Artifacts

Artifacts of Clay

Clay was, of course, used in the manufacture of pottery vessels at Paul-
son Point and, as mentioned earlier, sherds were sometimes grooved or not-
ched to form plummet-like pendants. Old sherds were also used as scrapers
or smoothers in the manufacture of clay vessels. Two such (Fig. 10, o) were
found in Pit 12, 1 in the first and the other in the third level.


Another clay artifact was a disc (Fig. 10, n) found in the fifth level of
Pit 3. This specimen was especially made as it did not represent a reworked

A clay spindle whorl (Fig. 10, 1) was also specially fabricated. It came
from below Level 2 in Pit 11. This spindle whorl is a little smaller but typo-
logically the same as the stone one (Fig. 10, m) mentioned earlier. Possibly
the clay disc, referred to in the previous paragraph, was to have been drilled
to form a spindle whorl.

Artifacts of Bone

A pendant, beads, and pins of bone have been described earlier. Twenty-
one fragments of worked bone were recorded as well as 16 whole or fragmentary
awls. Both had general distribution, both vertically and horizontally. The
pointed ends of 4 bone awls, a fifth made from a splinter of bone, and another
made of a deer ulna bone are illustrated (Fig. 9, r-w).

A worked sting ray spine (Fig. 9, o) came from the first level of Pit 5.
Two simple bone pins (Fig. 9, k-l) were identified. These came from Levels 1
and 2 respectively of Pits 3 and 15. This well known artifact has been made for
a very long time and its provenience at a shallow depth at Paulson Point does
not indicate it to be a recent invention.

Two unique pieces of worked bone (Fig. 9, i-j) were uncovered. The
first had been drilled longitudinally, the other at a right angle to its major axis.
No function can be assigned these objects but, if they are not examples of un-
finished specimens, they must be parts of composite artifacts. Both were
found near the surface of the midden.

Artifacts of Shell

Artifacts of shell were extremely numerous at Paulson Point. Shell beads,
shell pendants, perforated shells, and a unique shell object have been described
previously. Miscellaneous worked shell totaled only 6 specimens. What appears
to be a shell gorge (Fig. 9. n) came from Pit 2, Level 2.

Shell tools form the bulk of the collection. These may be divided into
hammers, pounders, picks, celts, and anvils. Columella chisels, while known
for the region, were conspicuously absent. The typology used here follows that
originally developed by Goggin (Goggin and Summer 1949, Goggin 1949, Bullen
and Bullen 1956).

Hammering tools included 18 Strombus, 145 Busycon, 43 Fasciolaria
(now Pleuroploca), and 11 columella hammers. Except for the last, these




C ( 2 7 4 CM!

Fig. 12. Busycon dippers or vessels.

Fig. 11. Shell ornaments and tools.
a-c, Oliva beads; d-e, perforated Pecten shells; f-h, perforated
Arca shells; i, perforated Cardium shell; j-k, Strombus (pugilis)
hammers; 1, n, Busycon hammers; m, Busycon pick.


were hafted to wooden handles by means of 2 side holes or a hole and a notch
(Fig. 11, j-n). Except that a different and larger shell was used, Fasciolaria
hammers did not differ from Strombus (Fig. 11, j-k) and Busycon (Fig. 11,
l-m) hammers. In all cases the hammer blow was delivered by the lower end
of the columella. Columella hammers (not illustrated) were not hafted but
held in the hand. They consisted simply of the columella of a Busycon, rarely
a Fasciolaria, shell from which the whorl walls and apex had been removed
and the sides smoothed for handling. As in the case of the other hammers, the
blow was struck by the heavier end of the columella which soon became blunted.

Pounders (not illustrated) were formed of Busycon shells by the removal
of parts of the lower sides of the whorls so that the tool could be used by hold-
ing the lower part of the columella in the hand (Bullen and Bullen 1956: Pl. VI,
e). The blow was then struck with the side of the wider end of the shell.
Pounding, as opposed to hammering, was much less popular at Paulson Point
as only 6 Busycon pounders were found.

Busycon picks (Fig. 11, m) were represented by 31 examples. These
tools are similar to Busycon hammers except that the lower end of the colu-
mella has been sharpened by grinding to form a pick or chisel-like end. They
may be woodworking or digging tools.

Eleven Venus shell anvils were counted. These consisted of shells of the
large clam (Venus campechiensis) which showed on their tops evidence of ham-
hering or pounding (Bullen and Bullen 1956: P.. V, i). Presumedly they were
used as supports for the object being hit.

Sixteen notched or chipped Venus clam shells were found. These shells
have had "chips" removed from their lips. Their presence has been recorded
before for the Englewood area (Bullen and Bullen 1956). The notched variety
are certainly fishing weights but why some were chipped is not known.

Shell celts (not illustrated) form an interesting class of which only 2 frag-
ments were found, 1 in Pit 2, Level 4 and the other in Pit 16, Level 6. These
tools are made from the massive lips of Strombus gigas shells (Goggin 1949:
Fig. 12, B; Bullen and Bullen 1956: Pl. V, B). Their provenience at Paulson
Point would place Strombus celts in the Perico Island period. While common
in the West Indies, Strombus gigas shells are unknown here in any quantity ex-
cept in southeastern Florida, from Lake Worth southward. Presence of celts
made from the lips of these shells should indicate trade connections with the
Cape Sable-Miami region of south Florida.

Four Busycon dippers or vessels (Fig. 12) were found, 1 in the first
level of Pit 12, 2 in the third level of Pit 6, and the last in the fifth level of
Pit 16. These dippers are made by the removal of the columella and inner


whorl walls of large Busycon shells. They form excellent containers for li-
quids and probably saw use as dippers to ladle out stew or soup from pottery

All shell tools had general distribution vertically except for the Strom-
bus celts which, as mentioned before, were limited to deposits of the Perico
Island period.

Food Remains

The midden at Paulson Point consists chiefly of an admixture of sea
shells and blackish sand. These shells, which represent the remains from
many meals, include all marine shellfish known for the region which have ap-
preciable food value except that shells of oysters are very rare. As might be
expected freshwater shells are absent and land shells represented only by a
few Euglandia rosea individuals who, probably, crawled in as scavengers.

Food bones were found in great quantities and have been preserved by
the Sarasota County Historical Commission for future zooarchaeological study.
Casual examination by me, at the time I classified the material culture collec-
tions, indicated fish bones were extremely common followed next by bones of
deer. Turtle bones, surprisingly, were a poor third. Crab claws and bird
bones were present but not common. Identified fish bones included those of
shark, snook, and sting ray. Among land animals rabbit, opossum, raccoon,
and possibly puna bones were present as well as those of deer. Alligators
were represented by a few teeth.


As revealed by the Sarasota County Historical Commission' s excava-
tions, Paulson Point was first occupied during the Transitional Period of
Florida's prehistory, approximately 1000 B. C. (Bullen 1959, 1965). This
was a time of great changes in the way of life of aboriginal Florida. Along the
Gulf coast of peninsula Florida new influences from the St. Johns River region,
from Georgia and from the Gulf Coastal Plain revolutionized pottery making.
Sand and crushed limestone replaced fiber as tempering material. New shapes
and later new types of decoration were introduced. People drifted southward to
settle the previously unexploited low ridge separating the Everglades from the
Atlantic, the land around Lake Okeechobee, and the Gulf Coast south of Char-
lotte Harbor. This was a period of population expansion which may correlate
with an early introduction of agriculture. Population pressures may have


forced people to find new sites and to settle new areas.

One such group, probably consisting of only a single family, found the
rich fish and shellfish producing waters of Lemon Bay attractive and settled
down at what we now refer to as Paulson Point. They may have been an off-
shoot from the Archaic (pre-1000 B. C.) village located a little to the north at
the Palmer site between Osprey and Sarasota, where fiber-tempered and Nor-
wood series ceramics are present. Possibly they may have come from Georgia
or West Florida where Westo points are also found. Certainly they were people
of the Archaic way of life being acculturated by new ideas.

We know they knew how to make fiber-tempered or sand- and fiber-
tempered pottery although they shortly (circa 300 B. C.) limited their ceramic
products to medium fine sand-tempered Englewood-paste containers. Their
tool kit included chipped knives and projectile points, hafted shell hammers
and picks, hafted shell celts, bone awls and pins, and an unimagined number
of wooden tools. Judging from other sites of the period, they wove mats and
made cordage.

After a period of consolidation (the Perico Island period), they participa-
ted in the far-flung Weeden Island culture (Willey 1949). This seems to be the
period represented by the great bulk of the excavated deposits at Paulson
Point. The site appears to have been abandoned about the time, circa A. D.
1350, when new influences from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the northwest modi-
fied the local variants of Weeden Island culture to form what archaeologists
refer to as the Safety Harbor culture.

There seems to have been little change in food procurement or process-
ing during the Perico Island and Weeden Island periods at Paulson Point. The
rise in sea level probably increased the size of their fishing and shell collecting
grounds even if it eliminated oysters as a source of food. The inhabitants were
basically littoral fisherfolk who supplemented their fish and shellfish diet with
deer and occasional small game. The large number of shell hammers were
used to open shellfish and get the edible animal. Celts and probably the shell
picks, if not used to grub out roots, were utilized in the manufacture of dugout
canoes. Spindle whorls assisted in the production of thread and twine. Awls
were used in weaving and in the processing of hides for coverings. There was
a continual need for new cooking vessels, whose decoration changed over the
years to give us chronological clues.

Small animals were probably secured by traps and snares tended by the
older children. Women and the younger children would collect shellfish while
the men fished or chased deer. The older people probably wove. It seems
reasonable to believe that fish were to a large extent secured by nets. If so,
the men were probably assisted by the older children and, at times, by the


women in harvesting their basic food resource.

Except for a grinding stone in the top level, the excavations disclosed
no suggestion of agriculture but nuts, roots, palm hearts, and other vege-
table products undoubtedly were consumed at Paulson Point. Zamia, beans,
squash, and maize could easily have been grown in nearby fields and con-
sumed at the site without leaving visible evidence.

Lemon Bay must have been teeming with fish in Indian times. With this
assured food supply and a relatively small population, Indians at Paulson
Point did not have to spend all their time and energy in securing sustenance.

As time progressed, Weeden Island, Belle Glade, Pasco, and St. Johns
series pottery types appeared at Paulson Point. These demonstrate connec-
tions with, and probably some knowledge of, the Lake Okeechobee, St. Johns
River, and northern gulf coast regions of Florida. The micaceous paste sherds
indicate trade from northwest Florida. Such innovations were undoubtedly ac-
companied by new ideas such as changes in ceremonialism and other embellish-
ments to every day life. I would interpret the quantity and variety of items of
personal adornment (beads, perforated shells, pendants) as indicating a high
degree of participation in Weeden Island ceremonialism. Such participation
implies occasional visits to other sites and to ceremonial centers with their
stimulating contacts and exchange of ideas.

The size of the Paulson Point site--and its lack of a burial mound--pre-
vents its consideration as a ceremonial center, but that people from there
danced or otherwise performed at ceremonial centers is quite likely. The
settlement at Paulson Point was undoubtedly one of a number of satellite villages
associated with the large Englewood burial mound excavated over 30 years ago
(Willey 1949: 126-35). This mound produced pottery duplicating the Englewood-
Weeden Island time period sherds found at Paulson Point.

While both sites were still being used after the first introduction of Safety
Harbor ceramics, they do not seem to have lasted much longer. Only 2 defini-
tively Safety Harbor sherds were found at Paulson Point. The arrival of a Safety
Harbor culture would imply improved (i.e. different) agriculture, the construc-
tion of temple mounds, and a different religion or ceremonialism. This new way
of life did not become prominent in the Englewood region although typical Safety
Harbor pottery has been found further south. It is possible the new agriculture
was not suited to the Englewood environment and hence, this area decreased in
importance and population. People continued to live in the region but they were
situated a long way from the large ceremonial centers to the north. The change
from scattered small centers to larger centers based on more intensive agri-
culture did not prove to have advantages for all of Florida.



1966 Friends of the Arts and Sciences, year book. Sarasota.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1951 The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication No. 3. Gainesville.

1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. 15th Newsletter,
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Vol. VI,
pp. 43-52. Chapel Hill.

1965 Florida's Prehistory. In Florida from Indian Trail to
Space Age, Chap. 23 (Tebeau, Chauvin, Bullen and Bullen).
Southern Publishing Co. Delray Beach.

1966 Burtine Island, Citrus County, Florida. Contributions of the
Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 14, Gainesville.

1968 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Florida State Museum. Gainesville.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Adelaide K.
1956 Excavations on Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida. Contributions
of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 1.
Gaine sville.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Frederick W. Sleight
1960 Archaeological Investigations of Green Mound, Florida.
William L. Bryant Foundation, American Studies, No. 2.

Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida. Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. 2, Nos. 3-4, pp. 65-90. Gainesville.

Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41. New Haven.


Griffin, John W. and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication No. 2. Gainesville.

Phelps, David.
1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber-tempered Ceramics.
Proceedings of the 20th Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Bulletin No. 2. Cambridge.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Washington.

Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
March 28, 1969


Donald L. Crusoe


The original research inspiring this paper began in 1965 when my atten-
tion was drawn to the St. Johns ceramic series by John Eaton, then an instruc-
tor at Florida State University. An initial pilot study, under the direction of
Hale G. Smith (Florida State University) was performed to determine the pe-
trographic nature of St. Johns pottery.

The nature of the study required the aid of a large number of professional
and amateur archaeologists. I wish to acknowledge my debt of gratitude to:
Drs. Hale G. Smith, Joseph R. Caldwell, Ripley P. Bullen, James A. Ford,
John W. Eaton, John W. Griffin, and Thomas H. Koehler for their aid in se-
curing materials and equipment, granting authorization for my personal ex-
amination of archaeological collection materials, and guidance. Further ac-
knowledgement of Messrs. Allen Edgar, Carl A. Benson, Hilton Leech,
Lyman O. Warren, William H. Sears, Dan Laxson, Harold R. Clark, James
S. Davis, Clifford E. Mattox S. J. Italia and Mrs. Doris L. Whitmore is
expressed for the submission of clay samples for petrographic analysis.
Arduous hours of exacting laboratory time were donated by Mr. James H.
Felton and Sarah J. Crusoe to whom I owe a special debt of gratitude. Dr.
Michael Kasha donated necessary analytical equipment.

This study revealed that St. Johns paste tended to be whitish to charcoal
in color, depending on the quantity of organic materials present. Tempering
materials included sand grains that were infrequently encountered and may
have been native to the clay from which the paste was made. Some evidence
of fiber-tempering was also noted. In addition to these attributes, which
have been known for some time, a high quantity of diatoms existed in the
paste. That is, the presence of diatoms was a basic identifying characteristic
of this paste class.

A diatom is an aquatic plant belonging to a class of unicellular algae.
The shells or frustules of these microscopic plants are predominantly com-
posed of silica and are fairly sturdy. When the plant dies the frustule settles
to the bottom of the calm water body in which it lived and, along with clays,
becomes a fuller's earth deposit.

Florida Anthropologist, vol, 24, no. 1, March 1971


The success of the pilot study instigated a letter to Ripley P. Bullen,
Florida State Museum, University of Florida, requesting sherds. Bullen,
as well as James A. Ford, supported the project by donating 118 sherds
from the Florida State Museum, identified by Bullen as chalky wares. The
sherds selected by Bullen were chosen for their temporal and spacial dis-
tribution, and ceramic type range. That is, examples of ceramic types that
have been defined as being chalky as well as individual specimens that had a
chalky feel were selected for the sample. Types and quantities represented
in the Florida sample were: 68 St. Johns Plain, 27 St. Johns Check Stamped,
8 Dunns Creek Red, 7 St. Johns Incised, 2 St. Johns Basketry Impressed,
1 Little Manatee Zone Stamped, 3 Pappys Bayou Punctated, 1 Oklawaha In-
cised, and 1 St. Johns Simple Stamped. It should be noted that several types
were combined. Biscayne Plain and Check Stamped as well as Goodland Plain
ceramic types were included with the St. Johns Series samples. In addition
to the potsherd analysis from Florida, a number of the clay samples sub-
mitted, as well as those collected from the Florida Gulf Coast by myself,
were analysed petrographically for possible diatom content.

Later, at the University of Georgia, under the supervision of Joseph R.
Caldwell, I began collecting information on chalky ceramic types in Georgia.
An additional 32 sherds from the Georgia coast were obtained from the Lab-
oratory of Archaeology, University of Georgia, and analysed in the same
manner as the Florida sample. Types and quantities represented in the
Georgia sample were: 2 St. Simons Plain, 16 St. Johns Plain, 4 Dunns Creek
Red, 1 Wilmington Heavy Cord-marked, 1 Wilmington Net Marked, Z Savannah
Check Stamped, 1 Irene Plain (ticked rim), 1 Irene Incised (red slipped), and
4 Irene Filfot Stamped. In addition to this analysis, the Holder collection, at
the Southeastern Archaeological Center, Macon, Georgia, was examined under
the auspices of John W. Griffin, Director.


One hundred fifty sherds were analysed (118 from Florida and 32 from
Georgia) by the following micro-analytical method: (1) a 2. 5 gm. random
sample of ceramic paste was removed from each sherd by a power drill, di-
vided into 4 equal parts (. 62 gm.), and placed in 4 small test tubes; (2) an
equal portion of dilute sulfuric acid (2. 5 ml. /test tube) was added to each of
the 4 test tubes; (3) the contents were stirred and centrifuged for 5 minutes;
(4) the supernatant liquid was decanted and acetone (2. 5 ml. /test tube) was
added; (5) the contents were stirred and centrifuged for 5 minutes; (6) the
supernatant liquid was decanted, distilled water (2. 5 ml. /test tube) was added,
and the test tube was agitated for 1 minute; (7) the supernatant liquid was
again decanted and hydrochloric acid (2. 5 ml. /test tube) was added, stirred,
and centrifuged for 5 minutes; (8) the supernatant liquid was then decanted
and sufficient distilled water was added to facilitate filtration; (9) the resi-


dues were allowed to dry at room temperature for 3 days before they were
placed in polyethylene bags and weighed; (10) microscopic analysis of the
residues was then conducted on a Baush and Lomb microscope (at 450 X).


The study of the Florida sample was designed to evaluate the following
hypotheses: (1) St. Johns ceramic wares have a distribution in Florida east
and south of the Apalachicola River; (2) the further one progresses west or
south from the Northern St. Johns region, St. Johns ceramic wares become
harder, thinner, and better polished; (3) progression backward in time, in
the Northern St. Johns region, yields a thicker, flakier, and softer St. Johns
ceramic ware; (4) St. Johns ceramic wares developed out of the fiber-tem-
pered period, in that some potsherds were constructed of fiber-tempered St.
Johns paste; (5) cultural relationships between the Northern St. Johns region
and southeastern coastal Georgia, excluding those in fiber-tempered and Dept-
ford times, are restricted to the St. Johns II Period (ca. A. D. 800-1650);
(6) cultural relationships between the Northern St. Johns region and the Glades
region were minimal; (7) relationships between the Florida West Coast and
the Northern St. Johns region were the strongest in the Georgia-Florida sub-
area; (8) relationships between the Glades region and the Antilles were mini-
mal at best, but strongest in the Glades III Period.

Due to the manner by which I removed the initial 2. 5 gm. sample from
each sherd, fragmentation occurred in about half of the diatoms extracted.
Nonetheless, I was able to distinguish 21 species of diatoms in the sample,
but no great variation was noted in the distribution regionally. That is, the
diatoms appeared to be randomly distributed in the various sherds from the
three areas evaluated: Northern St. Johns, Florida West Coast, and Glades.

Each sample was weighed before and after the procedure to determine
sample weight that was lost or gained. I originally believed that the weight of
each sample would decrease as a result of the acid and acetone baths. That
is, I supposed that these baths would dissolve organic and inorganic materials
from the paste. While this obviously occurred, each sample surprisingly
gained weight. The greatest change in weight (+3. 8 gm.) was experienced
in a sherd from 8 Di 1--the Florida West Coast region--and the lowest re-
corded change in weight was recorded on several sherds from different sites
as well as from different localities. Since the diatom frustule is hollow, the
positive change in weight was thought to be related to moisture being absorbed
by the diatoms. Indeed, if this were the case, one would be able to determine
the number of diatoms in the sample merely by noting the change in weight
values. The determination of the quantity of diatoms per unit is important
in understanding the method of preparation of the paste.


The following method was utilized to determine the quantity of diatoms
per cm. 3 of the Florida sample: (1) one gram of the ceramic residue ob-
tained by the initial procedure was suspended in 100 ml. of distilled water;
(2) this solution was agitated 5 minute to insure thorough mixing; (3) a
pipette was used to remove 1 ml. of solution and 1 drop was applied to a slide
counting chamber (This slide is similar to those used in microbiology in
making individual cell counts.); (4) the slide was examined under an ordinary
microscope with the iris diaphragm slightly closed; (5) the number of diatoms
per 100 squares (each square is equal to 0. 0025 sq. mm.) was counted.

This procedure was repeated a total of 3 times with 3 separate drops
from the pipette. An average of the 3 counts was taken and this factor was
multiplied by 2, 000, 000 (includes dilution factor) to obtain the number of diatoms
per cm. 3. Due to the fragmentary nature of diatoms in the sample, only
whole diatoms or those that were about 75 per cent complete were tabulated.
The lowest quantity of diatoms was 1 x 106 cm. 3. This figure was recorded
numerous times at various sites. The highest number was 5 x 106 cm. 3 from
8 Br 6. This sample had a change in weight of 3. 0 gm. but another sample
that changed 3. 8 gm. had a concentration of 2 x 106 cm. 3. Thus it would
seem that the presumed relationship between diatom number and change in
weight has not been demonstrated by this process. If this relationship exists,
more work is needed to support it.

Table I is a summary of various Florida potsherd attributes as revealed
by this study. It can readily be seen that, although there were nine types in
this sample, only the first two were large enough to handle statistically. Con-
sidering the Florida sample, the mean change in weight was 1. 5 gm., with a
range from 2. 3 to 0. 9 gm. (mode and median of 1. 4 gm.). Thus, a curve
that could be plotted from this data would be slightly skewed toward the lower
end (0. 0 gm. change in weight) of the scale. The internal cohesiveness of
the change in weight values is readily observable since the three measures of
central tendency fall at more or less the same point.

The data from the number of diatoms per cm. 3 is more variable than
the change in weight values. The mean of this distribution is 2. 6 x 106 cm. 3.
The median is 2.4 x 106 cm. 3 and the mode is 1 x 106 cm. 3. Table 2 is an
attempt to categorize the Florida data into regional variation; no attention was
paid to temporal differences. This data may best be characterized as homo-

Table 3 is a temporal distribution of the change in weight as well as the
number of diatoms per cm. 3 for northeast Florida. The obtained means are
not sufficiently distinct to demonstrate temporal differences in St. Johns paste.

The essence of this analysis is that, petrographically, it is not possible


Table 1


Pottery Sample Total wt. Mean wt. Total Sample
type size change change diatoms mean
(gm) (gm) NxlOncm3 Nxl0ncm3

St. Johns Plain 68 100.4 1.4 1.8x108 2.6x106

St. Johns Ck. St'd 27 35.5 1.3 7.2xl07 2.6x105

Dunns Creek Red 8 10.9 1.3 1.0x106 1.2xl05

St. Johns Incised 7 10.7 1.5 1.8x10 Z.6x105
5 5
St. Johns basketry 2 4.5 2.3 8.0x10 4.0x10
5 5
Little Manatee 1 1.8 1.8 1.0x10 1.0x10
Zoned Stamped 5 5
St. Johns Simple 1 .9 .9 1.8x10 1.8x10
Pappys Bayou 3 5.2 1.7 7.0x10 2.4x10
Ockawaha Incised 1 1.5 1.5 3.0x105 3.0x105

Totals 118 171.1 13.7 3.3x109 2.7x106

to demonstrate major differences in diatom content, relative to geographical
or temporal referents. In short, the St. Johns paste appears to be the same
regardless of time or space coordinates.


The analysis of Georgia coastal ceramics consisted of a petrographic
study of 32 ceramic fragments from coastal sites, and an examination of pot-
tery collections at the University of Georgia and at the Southeastern Archaeo-
logical Center, Macon, Georgia. The focus of the Georgia analysis centered
about Larson' s (1958) contention that cultural relationships between the
northeast Florida coast and the Georgia coast were sporadic, localized mainly
to the southern extremities, and limited to a period slightly before European

The sherds in the Georgia sample were selected for one of two reasons.
An attempt was made to isolate sherds that were representative of specific
Georgia coastal periods. When this was not possible, selected sherds were


Table 2


Sample Total Mean no. Total Mean
Region size diatoms diatoms change in change in
NxlOncm3 Nxl0ncm3 weight (gm) weight (gm)
Florida West Coast 28 7.6x106 2.7x10 40.4 1.4
Glades Region 29 7.0x106 2.4x106 38.4 1.3
Northern St. Johns 37 9.2x106 2.4x106 58.3 1.5

Table 3


Total Mean no. Total Mean
Period Sample diatoms diatoms change in change in
size NxlOncm3 NxlOncm3 weight (gm) weight (gm)

St. Johns I 22 5.8x106 2.6x106 35.9 1.6
St. Johns II 10 2.5x10 Z.5x106 16.3 1.6

chosen for their associations with types diagnostic of specific cultural periods.
Sample sherds came from the Irene, Wilmington, Savannah, and St. Simons
periods. Specimen no. 4 from 9 McI 6 was classified as Dunns Creek Red.
However, it exhibits what appeared to be a faint line-block stamp. Other
sherds in the sample were associated with Deptford, Swift Creek, and Weeden
Island types. Several examples of St. Johns Plain ceramics came from the
Deptford site. One specimen from the Deptford site (Sq. N50 E790, Level 9,
2. 0 2. 3 ft. deep) was definitely a St. Johns Plain sherd. Caldwell (per-
sonal communication) indicated that Holder referred to sherds similar to the
one from Level 9 at the Deptford midden as Muck Ware. At the Evelyn Plan-
tation a St. Johns Plain sherd was associated with Swift Creek designs. The
presence of notched rims on several Swift Creek sherds indicated a Late Swift
Creek provenience. Also at the Evelyn Plantation, one sherd bearing a Swift
Creek design appeared to have been constructed from diatomaceous earth.

In the Okefenokee area of southeastern Georgia, several collections con-
tained Weeden Island types associated with St. Johns series sherds. Chalky
sherds from these sites were all St. Johns Plain although one Dunns Creek Red
sherd may have been present in the collection.

The Airport site at St. Simons contained numerous St. Johns Plain and
Dunns Creek Red sherds. One Dunns Creek Red sherd had a classic Weeden
Island rim. One Swift Creek sherd, as well as one Savannah Check Stamped
design was observed on chalky paste.


It would be impossible to quantitatively describe the nature of popularity
of chalky ceramic types in Georgia. This difficulty is directly related to the
small number of potsherds available in the sample collection. An impression
from examination of the collections was that chalky paste sherds did not ap-
pear to be associated more often with any particular Georgia decorative style.
What can be said is that chalky wares extend through all time levels along the
Georgia coast and perhaps even into South Carolina. It would appear that
sherds of chalky paste do not extend much further inland than the Echols-
Clinch county line in southeast Georgia. In the Savannah area diatomaceous
sherds are frequent but are in rather small percentages when compared to total
ceramic assemblages.


The St. Johns ceramic tradition lasted close to 2, 000 years (Bullen 1958:
110). Basically, the only differences between early and late St. Johns cera-
mic wares are decoration and perhaps thickness.

With the development of this paste, the St. Johns people continually
constructed their pottery from chalky paste throughout their prehistory. There
was a transitional period when some "experimentation" with ceramic paste
was apparently conducted. During this transitional period fiber-tempered
pottery, chalky paste pottery, and sandy paste pottery appear to have occurred
together. There are examples of fiber-tempered chalky paste as well as fiber-
tempered sandy paste. No one will even know the reason why chalky paste was
adopted over sandy paste but potters in the Northern St. Johns region made
this choice.

Potters on the Georgia Coast and Florida West Coast apparently adopted
both chalky and sand-tempered pastes. Obviously there is a tremendous tech-
nological difference between pastes that are clay tempered with fiber, dia-
tomaceous earth tempered with fiber, and a pure diatomaceous earth paste.
Smith and Watson' s (1951) data has certain ramifications here. The com-
bination of data from Smith and Watson' s (1951) Table I and Figure 7 re-
sult in a scattergram depicting a non-linear relationship. The figure obtained
can be divided into two portions: an upper and a lower segment. The upper
segment contains only samples that were mixed (50-50 percent) with some
grandular substance. The lower segment of the figure is composed of natur-
ally occurring 'samples, samples mixed with organic substances, and a sample
of Fuller' s Earth mixed with 10% crushed sherds. This sample falls between
the pure or naturally occurring samples and samples that have been mixed
with organic material. In short, Smith and Watson' s (1951) data may be
characterized into two separate groups: the grandular-tempered group and
the organic-tempered group. They indicate that the former type paste is
similar to that of Deptford, Swift Creek, Santa Rosa-Swift Creek, Glades,
and Weeden Island ceramic types.


It should be pointed out that organic materials appear to have been added
continually to raw clays or there was a failure to remove these organic ma-
terials from the clays from the fiber-tempered period to historic time. The
technological evolution implied in Smith and Watson' s study as well as that
reflected in the archaeological data is that ceramic technology began with a
fiber-tempered paste. Experimentation with various materials resulted in
the dropping of fibers but not other organic materials from the paste, the ad-
dition of grandular materials to the paste, and the "discovery" of a material
that needed no tempering (diatomaceous earth). Thus, these three paste types
appear to persist from this transitional period to historic time. The organic-
tempered as well as sandy-tempered pastes were found mainly in the Gulf and
Georgia Coastal areas. The sandy and diatomaceous-tempered wares were
found mainly in the Glades region while the diatomaceous-tempered wares
were found mainly in the St. Johns region.

One other study should be discussed in this section. Laxson' s (n. d.)
spectrographic analysis of Glades Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds,
and local Miami clay has pertinence here. His study showed that local clays
were in no major way chemically similar to aboriginal potsherds. The lab-
oratory report indicated that both types of sherds had quantities greater than
10 per cent of silicon aluminum. The local clay, on the other hand, was com-
posed mainly of calcium carbonate (greater than 10 per cent). In short, the
clay from the local deposit could not have been used as a source of paste for
this aboriginal pottery. J.W. Griffin (personal communication) has indi-
cated that perhaps clay from ceramic vessels was obtained from near Lake
Okeechobee. Geological maps display no major clay deposits in the Glades
area and the Lake Okeechobee area is only a possibility. However, these
geological maps would not display small localized deposits such as Laxson
had analyzed.

Thus far I have noted that certain types of ceramics from all over
Florida and eastern Georgia have been petrographically analyzed and have
been found to contain diatoms. The diatom content per sherd does not appear
to vary to any large degree temporally or specially. Sample weight changed
but no explanation could be offered to fully cover the nature of this change.
Other studies have been introduced in an attempt to further clarify the nature
of the paste with which I am dealing.

Geologically, diatomaceous earth deposits are not native to regions
just south and east of Tampa Bay. Thus, chalky ceramics--made of this
material--recovered from sites in the Glades represent importations. That
is, Glades Indians either made periodic excursions into the northern area
where diatomaceous earth could be obtained or raw materials, or completed
pots, were imported by the Glades region people.


Some implications of the Georgia petrographic study should be pointed
out. Several sherds that appear to have been made of fiber-tempered or
diatomaceous paste have been examined in the Georgia sample. It would ap-
pear that a transitional phase existed between fiber-tempered wares and wares
containing diatoms. That is, the St. Johns ceramic complex apparently de-
veloped in Florida directly out of that of the Orange period. Orange decora-
tive styles, in addition to intrusive Deptford styles, were copied on chalky
paste. Evidence of Deptford-St. Johns I interaction is witnessed by the St.
Johns Plain sherds at the Deptford site and St. Johns Check Stamped and
Simple Stamped types that are obviously Deptford copies. This interaction
between these two areas was apparently isolated to a narrow coastal band ex-
tending up the Atlantic coast, perhaps into South Carolina.

If Deptford actually represents an intrusion or migration of people
(Sears 1964; Phelps 1968) a dislodging of other people most likely would have
occurred. The Deptford distribution follows the Atlantic coast southward to
St. Augustine, Florida, extends across north Florida to Tampa Bay, and
spreads down the Suwannee River and westward to the Pensacola area
(Caldwell, personal communication). According to Goggin (1949: 28), "It
appears that the foundations of the Glades tradition were established by cul-
tures which moved down the Gulf Coast into what is now the Glades Area. "
This movement apparently began in late Archaic time as Willey (1949),
Goggin (1949), and Bullen and Bullen (1956: 52) have pointed out. Recently,
some new supportative evidence regarding Early Glades-St. Johns inter-
action has come to light by the discovery of an Orange ceramic-bearing site
(near Key Marco) by L. Ross Morrell of the Florida Board of Archives and
History. Until the discovery of this site with northeastern Florida affilia-
tions, the earliest evidence of the Glades tradition came from the Central Gulf
Coast and Manatee-Sarasota County areas of Florida, and the orientation was
seemingly more Gulf Coastal.

Glades I appears to date around 400 B. C. (Morrell, personal communi-
cation) and early Deptford dates about 500 B. C. Thus, it would seem that the
dating, the early northern location of the Glades tradition, the occurrence of
Orange ceramics in the Glades area, and the distribution of Deptford, all lend
support to the hypothesis that the Glades people were filtering southward, per-
haps being pushed by the intrusive Deptford people about one-half millennium
before Christ. The more "advanced" Deptford people were apparently well
adapted culturally to exploit a coastal as well as a riverine environment, as
witnessed by the distribution of Deptford sites.

The Atlantic coast of Florida, at least as far south as West Palm Beach,
was under the influence of the Orange tradition. Spotty localities, represen-
tative of this tradition, are found along the St. Johns and Indian Rivers.
Sherds in the sample indicate a transitional state between fiber-tempered and


diatom-containing wares. In the Lower St. Johns region (east of Jackson-
ville), apparently as a result of the Deptford invasion, people bearing the
Southern Appalachian ceramic tradition, lived practically side by side with
those making St. Johns pottery. Sand-tempered wares comprised about 95
per cent of the ceramic sample in Sear' s (1957) study of this locality; most
of these sherds, however, come from post-Deptford and pre-St. Johns II

Williams (1965) has characterized the Wilmington phase of eastern
Georgia being an extremely long and stagnant or a culturally regressive
period. Evidence from the analysis indicates that the Wilmington people had
the same interaction opportunities as their predecessors. Diatom-containing
sherds indicate contact with the St. Johns people but the sherds themselves,
technically, are more representative of Wilmington than of St. Johns. By
this I mean that the raw material was diatomaceous earth but the pottery ap-
pears to have been made by Wilmington potters. Before A. D. 800 there was
an occupation by Georgia-oriented people in the Lower St. Johns region as
Sears (1957) refers to the his Colorinda ceramics as being related to Wil-
mington. It may be that the usage of diatomaceous earth by the Wilmington
people stems from contacts in the Lower St. Johns region, and with the con-
solidation of boundaries in the St. Johns II period, the Colorinda people may
have been pushed out, taking with them the idea of using diatomaceous earth
for their pottery. Thus, investigations of materials from the Georgia coast
have revealed that there was constant interaction, beginning at least at the
Orange-St. Johns I time level and continuing into historic time, between the
people of northeast Florida and the entire coastal region of Georgia. Initially,
whole pots appear to have been traded but later (ca. A. D. 800) relationships
between the Georgia coast and the St. Johns area appear to have taken the
form of exchange of raw materials. Alternatively, it could be that small de-
posits of diatomaceous earth were available on the Georgia coast and that the
Wilmington people gathered their diatomaceous earth from these deposits.

Nineteen clay samples from various localities on the Florida peninsula
were analysed for the presence of diatoms. The clay materials were selected
from areas that were thought to have been utilized by the Florida Indians in the
construction of ceramics. The results of this analysis indicated an absence of
diatoms in all analyzed samples.

Certain ceramic types from the Mississippi Valley, including Tchefuncte,
have been reported as having a soft and chalky feel. Thomas H. Koehler, Univ-
ersity of Mississippi, submitted several examples of chalky feeling ceramics
from the Jaketown site (22 Hu 505), as well as chalky feeling sherds from
several sites near Starkville, Mississippi. Koehler separated several sherds
from those sent, indicating that these had a particularly chalky feel to him.
While these sherds do look and feel like some St. Johns specimens, the petro-


graphic analysis indicated that the sample sherds did not contain diatoms.
All sherds in the Mississippi sample were apparently of the same type--
Baytown Plain (?).


Willey (1949) first suggested the consolidation of all Floridan chalky
ceramic wares into one series: the St. Johns. In this paper I have delineated
a pottery paste class whose defining element is the presence of diatoms. Evi-
dence presented would tend to support a trading mechanism as the means of
dispersal of this pottery paste class into areas adjacent to the St. Johns River
valley, the homeland of this tradition. The Glades, Florida Southeast coast,
Florida Gulf Coast, and Georgia coast areas obtained representatives of
chalky ceramic types via a trading interaction system with the people of
northeastern Florida. In the last locality, potters appear to have developed
this paste class and fostered its evolution from an early fiber-tempered to a
technically refined form.

Alien influences from either the Georgia coast or the Florida Gulf Coast
are seen in this paste class by the periodic addition of sand as a tempering
agent to a diatomaceous paste. Ceramics with a chalky feel in the Lower
Mississippi Valey, appear at present, to be quite distinct from the Florida-
Georgia chalky wares. Further work is necessary to determine if these wares,
with a chalky feel, are the result of some diffussion mechanism or if the feel
and general appearance of types from these areas are purely coincidental.

What can be abstracted from this study is the existence of an interaction
network extending from near Darien, Georgia, down the Atlantic coast to Miami
and possibly, Key West, Florida, and in a westerly direction from West Palm
Beach, Florida, across the peninsula to the Estero Bay area; this is the primary
sphere of influence. A secondary sphere exists between the Florida Gulf Coast,
as far south as Charlotte Harbor, the upper reaches of the Georgia coast and
the St. Johns River region of Florida. Ideas that originated along the Florida
Gulf Coast as well as Georgia coast areas were transmitted to the Glades
region via both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts.

I feel that the data presented in this paper has lent further support to
hypotheses numbered 1, 4, and 8, while demonstrating that hypotheses 5, 6,
and 7 are invalid. The findings of my research were not conclusive enough
to support or invalidate hypotheses 2 and 3.



Bullen, Ripley P.

1958 More Florida radiocarbon dates and their significance.
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 97-109.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Adelaide K.

1956 Excavations on Cape Haze peninsular, Florida. Contributions
of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, no. 1.
Gaine sville.

Goggin, John M.

1949 Cultural traditions in Florida prehistory. In The Florida
Indian and His Neighbor, (John W. Griffin, ed.,) pp. 13-44.
Winter Park.

1952 Space and time perspective in northern St. Johns archeology..
Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 47.
New Haven.

Larson, Lewis H.

1958 Cultural relationships between the northern St. Johns area
and the Georgia coast. Florida Anthropologist, vol. 11, No. 1,
pp. 11-22. Tallahassee.

Laxson, Dan

n. d. Report of a spectrographic analysis. A laboratory report
sheet in the possession of the author.

Phelps, David S.

1968 Thorn' s Creek ceramics in the central Savannah River locality.
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 17-30.



Sears, William H.

1957 Excavations on the Lower St. Johns River, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences,
no. 2. Gainesville.

1964 The Southeastern United States. In Prehistoric Man in the
New World, pp. 259-87 (Jesse D. Jennings and Edward
Norbeck, eds.). Chicago.

Smith, Hale G., and William Watson

1951 Experiments with raw materials utilized by the Florida
Indian in ceramic construction. Florida Anthropologist,
vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 18-25. Gainesville.

Willey, Gordon R.

1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 113. Washington.

Williams, Stephan, ed.

1965 The Waring Papers. Papers of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 58. Cambridge.


Dale A. Black

In August of 1969, a large green stone celt was found by the author in a
test dig on Grave Yard Island. This island, 7 miles north of Cedar Keys, and
directly west of a big shell midden, is also known as Palmetto Island and Hog
Island. There are many islands in this vicinity which, undoubtedly, were in-
habited by Indians over several archaeological periods.

Grave Yard Island is a small island covered by many oak trees. The
mound, located in the center of the island, is low lying and chiefly made of
gold sand, except for the east side, which is white or beach sand. Numerous
artifacts have been found at this site such as animal effigies, celts, bowls,
bone tools, and rolled copper beads.

The celt, illustrated above, is of green stone and undoubtedly a trade
item. It is presumed to be a ceremonial object. This celt was found on the
east side of the mound at a depth of approximately eighteen inches below the
surface. With it was a notched point, believed to belong to the Weeden Island
period, and part of an undecorated clay bowl. The celt is 14 1/16 inches long
with a circumference of 7 inches at the top and 4 inches at the bottom, and a
weight of approximately 5 pounds. Celts of this size are extremely rare in


Florida Anthropologist, vol. 24, no. 1, March 1971


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