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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Some Occurrences of Paleo-Indian Projectile Points
in Florida Waters by Ben I. Waller ............ 129
The Coral Springs Site, Southeast Florida . . .
Wilma B. Williams .. .. .. .. .. .
Seven Sawgrass Middens in Dade and Broward Counties, Florida
D. D. Laxson . . . . . .
Dating Clay Pipes from the Galphin Trading Post at Silver Bluff,
South Carolina by Iain C. Walker . . ...
The Kellogg Fill from Boca Ciega Bay, Pinellas County,Florida
Lyman C. Warren .. .. .. .. . .
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President James W. Covington
Tampa University, Tampa, Fla. 33606
1st Vice President Carl A. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave., Orlando, Fla. 32806
2nd Vice President William M. Goza
P. O. Box 246, Clearwater, Fla. 33515
Secretary-Treasurer Sara B. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave. Orlando, Fla. 32806
Editor-Resident Agent Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Fla.,
Three years: Thomas H. GouchnQur
Two years: Cliff E. Mattox
Cocoa Beach, Florida
One year: Don D. Laxson
At large, for one year:
Charles A. Hoffman, Jr.
Donald W. Sharon
Fort Walton Beach
SOME OCCURRENCES OF PALEO-INDIAN PROJECTILE POINTS
IN FLORIDA WATERS
(Paper presented at the 1969 meeting)
Ben I. Waller
Mr. Chairman, members of the Florida Anthropological Society, and
I would like to thank you for giving me this opportunity to speak to you
regarding the subject of early man in Florida. I am well aware that when I
mention "early man" many of you will shudder a little bit because during the
past few years many archaeologists (amateur and professional) have chosen
to expound upon this subject. Even so, during the past few years, a series
of observations made in Florida rivers, have produced some rather interest-
ing results which should be brought to your attention.
First, I' d like to approach the subject from a little different angle
than most archaeologists. I am a skindiver who began collecting fossils and
artifacts over 10 years ago in the caves, rivers, and springs which abound
throughout central Florida. During this time I have had the privilege of
finding over 130 complete Paleo-Indian projectile points. In analysing the
date concerning each artifact it becomes apparent that most of the sites which
have produced 2 or more paleo-points share a series of common but distinctive
I would like to attempt to describe a typical underwater site. It is ne-
cessary for us to try to make a mental image of the river's bottom. Since the
Sante Fe River has produced by far the largest number of these sites, I will
attempt to give you an impression of the bottom of the most productive site
we have yet seen.
The river is fairly swift at the site as the result of a very wide but
shallow set of rapids immediately upstream from the site itself (Fig. 1, a).
On the downriver side of the rapids, the river narrows and its limestone bot-
tom drops off to an overall depth of 13 feet and is marked by a series of 4 to 5
inch grooves or trenches filled with rubble and sand (Fig. 1, b). The lime-
stone then gently rises towards another shallow shoals nearly 300 feet down-
stream from the site.
A mass of rubble litters the bottom of the site and sand has mingled
with this rubble causing a complex deposit which is about 12 to 15 inches
thick. The rubble proper is composed of flint, chert, glass, old bricks, metal,
- r -~- -
a Sv. __
S- w.r^ wjf~
A- ^ ,. -T
,r ** ** .y ^ ^ -
rU *~ ""^^ ^ "
Fig. 1. A typical "kill" site.
limerock and Indian artifacts. After the artifacts on the top of the sand and
rubble layer are picked up, the collector can disturb the bottom of the river
and pick up other Indian artifacts within and beneath the rubble.
This river bottom deposit tends to be disturbed by the action of the
water during changes in the season. For example, high waters (caused by
excessive rainfall) appear to bring vast amounts of tannic acid, etc. down-
stream due to decaying vegetation which is washed by the rain into the river.
During these times, the bottom deposit becomes silty. When the.rains stop,
however, and high water begins to recede, the deposit is affected again and
is slightly shifted. In some places, the action of the river uncovers areas of
the deposit which were previously covered, in some cases for several years.
When this happens, nature actually helps the collector, in that new areas of
the river site are visible.
At the upriver set of rapids, the river is shallow and flairs out to
form a wide, shallow crossing for animals. This game trail begins on the
land side and enters the water from a gully which is now the foundation for a
large bridge which is no longer in use. The trail crosses the shallow water,
which is 1 to 2 feet deep, comes out on the opposing side on a shallow lime-
stone shelf, and continues up a 6-foot limestone abutment. This presents the
hunter with an excellent opportunity to ambush his prey while its movements
are restricted by the water. It also presents the Indian with the opportunity
to float his victim down stream to a ledge where he can begin his butchering.
It is entirely possible that this river crossing with its set of physical
conditions remained in use for long periods of time. This would account for
the large number of projectiles recovered from this site, over 560 complete
specimens covering several archaeological periods. From this one site, I
have collected 22 complete and 19 broken paleo-projectiles (Fig. 2), in addi-
tion to a large number of cutting, scraping, and hammering tools, some of
which were undoubtedly used in butchering large animals. Most of the stone
tools were uniface scrapers of many varieties, bi-faced scrapers, bolo
stones and knives. A bone fish hook (Fig. 2) and bone tools such as points,
pins, and needles were also found.
Figure 1 shows the natural formations of a game trail crossing. This
series of conditions described above are found in many other sites throughout
the state. In most instances, when they do occur, artifacts are present as
Kill Site s
Paleo-projectile points have been located in many rivers throughout
the state. I have found them in the Sante Fe, Suwannee, Oklawaha, Chipola,
132 PALEO-INDIAN POINTS
C d o0
Fig. 2. Paleo-Indian
points and other tools.
Se, hafted endscraper
made from a broken
Suwannee point; f,
0 2| h bone fish hook.
o ri 2
Withlacoochee, Wekiva, and Aucilla Rivers. Twenty-two locations on the
Sante Fe River alone have yielded two or more paleo-points. Of these loca-
tions, eighteen have had a set of physical conditions similar to those of the
site described above. An arbitrary search for a set of similar conditions in
other rivers has proven successful in the case of the above mentioned rivers.
That Florida has a remarkable amount of evidence pertaining to early
cultures cannot be denied. It is also apparent that a tremendous number of
these artifacts are to be found beneath Florida waters. It has long been as-
sumed that a high proportion of these artifacts have eroded from the banks
into the river beds.
I do not believe that this is true in most instances, although I have
seen this erosion process in action in partially submerged mounds and village
sites. Nor do I believe that these streambeds had to have been dry or even
nearly dry for these artifacts to have been deposited on the rivers bottom.
That might be a valid supposition were the sites to yield only paleo-projectiles
used at the close of the Ice Age as some writers indicate. However, this is
not the case in most instances.
While we find many varieties of points in the same river bottom site,
there is a differential relationship between paleo and Bolen type points. While
other points may be found at either, it is seldom that both paleo and Bolens
occur in significant quantities at the same site. This implies a geological
difference between the times when these areas were used by Paleo-Indians as
opposed to the makers of Bolen or Big Sandy I points. Recent points (Pinellas,
O' Leno, etc.) are almost never found at these sites unless they are found along
the nearby banks of the river crossing, although it is not uncommon to find
evidence to show that the downriver side of the crossing is usually ideally
located and desirable for homesites or village sites.
If these data are accurate, it would be entirely probable that very little
evidence of man would be found on the banks of these kill sites. I do not mean
to suggest that these are more than "kill sites, since there is usually little
evidence to indicate habitation. In most instances, the rivers bank is bare
limestone, in others, the amount of dirt on the limestone is very thin. The
Indians probably lived elsewhere so as not to disturb animals using the river
Contrary to popular opinion, I do not believe fossil bones or projectile
points are carried substantial distances in Florida rivers. The competency
of a river to carry stone artifacts or fossil bones appears to be greatly exag-
gerated. A diver working a river in front of an historic settlement can almost
exactly determine the extent of the community by the location of bottles and
other artifacts he finds in the river. This even holds true in swift water.
An ideal example occurred by accident in the Sante Fe River. One
day we found the body of a cow which had apparently fallen into the river dur-
ing the previous week. The remains were on a shallow shelf and subjected to
very swift water. We watched the decomposition of this animal over a period
of many months. Two years later, the animal was still largely intact, even,
articulated, except for the skull and jaws which had been removed by other
divers. In this connection, I should also mention that largely intact elephants
(Mastodon and Mammoth) are currently being recovered from a river in the
northwestern part of Florida.
We have yet to mention the faunal remains present at these sites. Al-
most invariably, the most prevalent bones present are those of the manatee.
Usually, the ribs,'skull fragments, jaws, teeth, etc., are found in abundance.
However, although this research is incomplete, it would appear that the bones
representing the fleshy parts of the animal are usually missing. Other faunal
remains frequently found include deer, bear, muskrat, bison, horse, and of
course the ever-present elephants. In many instances, an incredible amount
of fossil remains litter the rivers bottom causing the collectors attention to be
diverted between broken bones and collectable specimens.
At the kill sites, stone projectiles are by far the most common arti-
facts present. The next would be stone scrapers, knives, etc., then bone awls,
and pins. Usually pottery is present but rare, although projectile points con-
temporary with ceramics may be found in large quantities. This lack of pot-
tery would further suggest that these are not habitation sites.
It should also be mentioned that these observations have been made
only when 2 or more paleo-projectiles have been collected at a kill site.
There are many places where single paleo-points have been found, both in the
rivers and otherwise. Some of these other sites meet the kill site conditions
but have not been included because only a single paleo-point was present.
It is interesting to note that in practically all cases, specimens from
a kill site are not limited to those of Paleo-Indian period. This suggests that
the custom of killing animals at river crossings may have continued for many
From the tremendous amount of Paleo-Indians artifacts found in and
around the central and north central portions of Florida, early man must have
prospered along the rivers, and must have been present in greater numbers
than was at first believed.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1968 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Florida State Museum.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1964 The association of Suwannee points and extinct animals in
Florida. Florida Anthropologist, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 17-32.
Simpson, Clarence J.
1948 Folsom-like points From Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, vol. 1, nos. 12, pp. 11-15.
Goggin, John M.
1950 An early lithic complex from central Florida.
American Antiquity, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 46-49.
THE CORAL SPRINGS SITE, SOUTHEAST FLORIDA
Wilma B. Williams
The Coral Springs site in northeast Broward County, Florida, is on
the edge of the Everglades, but within the limits of the City of Coral Springs.
Permission to excavate this small hammock was granted by Mr. Gordon Ickes
for Coral Ridge Properties, a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corpora-
tion. Members of the Broward County Archaeological Society, Tequesta Chap-
ter of the Florida Anthropological Society, conducted the excavations from Jan-
uary 15, 1966 through June 25, 1967. The excellent cooperation from the owners
extended to having the land cleared and an access road built into the site from
Sample Road, greatly facilitating the excavations.
Appreciation is also due Dr. Wm. H. Sears of Florida Atlantic Univer-
sity for photographs and consultation, Dr. Carl Compton of Instituto Inter-
americano for consultation on the religious medal, Dr. Felipe Mateu y Llopis,
University of Barcelona for identification of the medal, and Alfred and Frances
Steiner of Hollywood for excellent translations from the Spanish. Also to Ar-
thur Marler, student member of the Broward County Archaeological Society,
for invaluable work, Bert Mowers for special analysis of potsherds, and Joan
Vicinus for her work on the maps, Mr. Howard Thrasher of the Fort Lauder-
dale Camera Club for photographs of the silver medal used in the text, and
Mary Rose for her enlargements. For the work on stratigraphy we wish to
thank Stanley Lantz and Homer Haines of the Kinzua Chapter of the Society for
Pennsylvania Archaeology, and George Slater of our own Society. To all of
the members of the Broward County Archaeological Society, our sincere ap-
preciation for the many months of diligent work towards the completion of the
excavation of the Coral Springs site.
Coral Springs hammock is located in the northeast quadrant of Section
19, Township 48S, Range 41E, in the City of Coral Springs, 5 miles west of
U. S. 441 and 3/4 mile east of Levee 36. It is situated approximately 2 miles
west of an administration building and 50 feet south of Sample Road (Fig. 1).
The top of the midden is 3. 2 feet above the surrounding land. A canal
drainage system put in by the owners made it possible to get to the site by dry
land. A black dirt midden, like most of the sites in the Glades area, it is
about 80 by 112 feet, with a crescent shaped borrow pit extending from the
east around the north to the west of the mound proper. This was probably the
source of the midden dirt added to the site by the Indians for sanitary reasons
or to keep them above the surrounding waters (Fig. 1).
For many years a game warden' s frame house stood atop the mound,
and a well had been blasted out on the.northern periphery close to the borrow
pit. In 1965 this house was removed and the well filled. Six large ficus trees
grow on the mound. Other vegetation includes wild lemon and orange trees,
Brazilian pepper trees and one cabbage palm. Willows grow in the borrow pit.
The area chosen for excavation was that part least likely to have been
disturbed by pot-hunters, the place where the small building had been. It was
also the highest part of the midden. A datum point was established and con-
tour readings taken (Fig. 2). A north-south trench was plotted, 45 feet long
and 5 feet wide, divided into 5-foot squares. A secondary pit was opened as
Square 16, adjacent to Square 7 on the east (Fig. 2). The number of volun-
teer workers allowed excavation to begin in each square simultaneously. Ar-
bitrary 6-inch levels were used and a 6-inch wall was left between each pit.
Eventually these walls were taken down by levels in order to form a complete
trench for profiling purposes (Fig. 3).
Subsequently, an east-west trench was established adjoining Square 5
of the north-south trench. It extended 18 feet to the west (Fig. 2). The 6-inch
levels were used as before but no walls were left between the squares. A se-
condary north-south trench, 10 feet long and 10 feet wide was excavated ad-
joining the east-west trench on the north. This was divided into four sections
and designated 6-7A and 6-7B. It was excavated at the same time as the east-
On December 11, 1966, a small burial site was discovered 104 feet
southwest of the mound proper. This area had been flooded recently by heavy
rains which exposed bits of skeletal material. Readings were taken from the
original datum to establish a secondary datum (Fig. 1, Y) near the burial
site. Excavation proceeded immediately, including a small test trench dug to
check the strata in the burial area.
Profiles of the west wall of the north-south trench and of the south wall
of the east-west trench are shown in Figures 3-4, where the vertical scale has
been exaggerated to emphasize the different layers. The highest, or humic
layer, contained a great many fragmentary food bones. The second or dark
gray soil zone, contained more pottery than any other layer. Food bones,
while present, were not as abundant as in the humic layer.
DETAIL OF BURIAL COMPLEX
-:~~:iiii~ii~'C'::Iiii::iiiiiiii i''aiiiiiii~~~iii~i:~ l
:::;'::::::;:;:i:::::::::Yt I ii:.:.:.:Ir
0 .0 "
1. .' -.
*' "" .*: 1,2 : " "' "
7A B 2. 7 16 '
: .. *..... .-. ................. .' .*'
.. ..... ... .. ....
p a I I I I I I I
60 70 80 o 100
0 t0 20 30 40 50
Fig. 1. Map of site and burial complex.
Fig. Z. Excavation plan with contours.
0 5 0 1I 2P 25 vertical
0 5 lNhorizontal
1 Humic soil, food bones 6 Stones
2 Dark gray soil 7 Brown dirt, bones
3 Brown soil, food bones 8 Light gray soil
4 Light gray soil 9 Fire pit
5 Gray soil, rocks 10 Black soil
Fig. 3. West profile of north-south trench.
1 Humic soil 5 Gray soil, rocks
2 Gray soil, charcoal 6 Fire pit
3 Brown soil, food bones 7 Balck soil
4 Dark gray soil 8 Post holes
0 5 10 15 20 25
1 .1 1 I vertical
0 5 10
feI 19 horizontal
Fig. 4. South profile of east-west trench.
Examination of the pottery tables (Tables 1-4) suggest that arbitrary
Levels 1 and 2 belong in the Glades III time period while below a depth of 12
inches, Glades II times are represented. This being the case, Layers 1-3
on the profiles (Figs. 3-4) refer to a Glades III occupation, and one might
hazard a guess that the scarcity of bones in Layer 2 reflects the fact that
Layer 2 represents dirt brought to the site by the inhabitants for sanitary
reasons. If this were done habitually, even on a small scale, it would explain
how dirt middens accumulate.
Lower layers, as shown in the profiles (Figs. 3-4, Layers 4-5), are
lighter in color, and with depth, produced a smaller number of sherds. The
lighter color probably indicates less intense, possibly more sporadic occu-
pation. Layer 4 is the equivalent of Levels 3 and 4 in the pottery tables
(Tables 1-4) and must belong to the Glades II period. Layer 5, consisting
St. Johns Check Stamped
Key Largo Incised
Opa Locka Incised
Belle Glade Plain
Glade s Plain
St. Johns Plain
L-1 L-2 L-3 L-4 L-5 L-6
1 6 1
298 60 39 7
363 307 82 16
612 739 675 373 121 24 2544
NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, NORTH-SOUTH TRENCH
In general, the following were well distributed throughout the different levels:
8 shell celts, 1 shell gorget; 4 columella tools, 4 shell picks, 1 shell awl,
2 pieces of worked shell, 1 shell dipper, 1 shell bead, 13 bone points (natural
channel), 3 socketed bone points, 15 shark teeth, 1 stone celt-like object, 3
pieces of worked bone, 4 perforated shark teeth, 1 human tooth, 2 shark ver-
tebrae beads, 1 drumfish grinder, 1 limestone mortar.
POTTERY DISTRIBUTION, EAST-WEST TRENCH
St. Johns. Check Stamped
Unique notched rim
Key Largo Incised
L-l L-2 L-3 L-4
POTTERY DISTRIBUTION, NORTH-SOUTH TRENCH
NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, EAST-WEST TRENCH
2 shell celts, 9 bone points (natural channel), 4 socketed bone points, 4 shark
teeth, 3 human teeth, 1 drilled shark tooth, 1 piece worked metal (Level 1), 1
worked stone, 1 Macrocalista knife (Level 3), 2 columella tools, 4 shell beads,
1 shark vertebra bead, 2 shell picks, 1 shell disc
POTTERY DISTRIBUTION, TRENCH 6B-7B
L-l L-2 L-3 L-4 L-5
St. Johns Check Stamped
307 277 246 75
321 277 246
75 8 927
NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, TRENCH 6B-7B
9 bone points, 1 worked bone, I shark tooth, 3 shark vertebrae, 1 columella
tool, 1 bone hairpin.
POTTERY DISTRIBUTION, TRENCH 6A-7A
St. Johns Check Stamped
NON-CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, TRENCH 6A-7A
1 shark tooth; 1 shark vertebra, 1 broken stone knife or scraper,
1 broken projectile point, (Level 4).
of gray dirt and an occasional rock, produced Glades Plain sherds in reason-
able quantities (Tables 1 and 4). The lack of any decorated pottery in this
layer for substantial vertical distances, strongly supports the assertion made
by Goggin (1964: 86) years ago (1947) that there was a Glades I period in south
Florida during which pottery was undecorated. While suggestions of such a
period have been found before, this is the first instance in the Glades area
where substantial depths with only undecorated pottery has been encountered
as far as I am aware.
Sherds have been classified and their vertical distribution plotted for
the various excavations in Tables 1-4. The ceramics are well known types
for the Glades area and no special descriptions seem necessary. As men-
tioned above, three Glades archaeological periods, Glades I, II, and III,
seem represented at the site. It should be noted also that the lowest levels
producing only undecorated pottery are limited horizontally to the central
part of the site, i.e. the north-south trench and Trench 6-7B, not 6-7A.
This suggests a small really restricted midden in Glades I times which grew
both upwards and outwards in Glades II and Glades III periods.
The sherds from Levels 5-6, of the north-south trench and from Level
5 of Trench 6-7B were unusual enough to warrant a separate analysis. Each
sherd was carefully examined by Bert Mowers for paste, temper, color,
thickness, and texture. It is evident that when this ancient material was made
experimental kinds of tempering were being tried. The following is a conden-
sation of Mowers' analyses.
The 125 especially analyzed sherds can be divided into 7 groups as
follows: Group 1, represented by 8 sherds, was very dense, hard pottery with
a dark gray paste containing tiny whitish inclusions. Surfaces were black or
dark gray. Six sherds in this group came from a 14 inch diameter vessel
with high sides and an inturned rim. Group 2, consisting of 7 sherds, was
also hard and well made. Sherds were sand-tempered and had a rough sandy
surface which was gray mottled in color. The 27 sherds of the third group
were medium to very dark brown or brownish gray in color, made, of a dirty
gray paste, 6 to 9 mm. thick, and had brown-black interiors. These sherds
were made of a soft paste which, while it differed from the usual St. Johns
chalky paste, was closer to it than was that of the other groups mentioned.
The fourth group, comprised of 7 sherds, contained bits of crushed shell as
well as sand as tempering material. Paste was laminated and colors of sur-
faces a dark or dirty gray. The fifth group, of which only 6 examples were
found, was sand-tempered with red-orange or gray outside and red or black
inside surfaces. These sherds might be referred to as overfired Glades
Plain pottery. The final two groups consisted of 67 sherds classifiable as
Glades Plain and 3, light taupe in color, classifiable as St. Johns Plain.
Non- Ceramic Artifacts
Non-ceramic artifacts are numerous and varied in type. Quantitative
analyses of them by the various trenches will be found below the pottery dis-
tribution tables (Tables 1-4) for the same areas. Their greatest density is
found within the limits of the second, third and fourth levels. This is com-
patible with the periods of heaviest habitation as determined by the pottery
(Tables 1-4). Comments on exceptional specimens follow.
In the absence of hard stone, bone is the material most commonly used
for non-ceramic artifacts. Its characteristics of hardness and workability
make it extremely adaptable.
The most abundant of all bone artifacts is the bone point. At this site
they are found to be characteristic of all habitation periods. In fact, both
major types, the socketed bone point and the fluted (natural channel) bone
point, frequently bi-pointed, (Fig. 5, d), are found in all levels of excavation.
This is, perhaps, unusual since in normal situations one type might be ex-
pected to be dominant until the time when a new type replaced it. The possi-
bility for diverse uses for each type point might explain their simultaneous
Other bone artifacts include a small, carved rectangular piece of
bone with concave edges and an incised diamond design (Fig. 5, b). It has
two pointed projections on one side and it duplicates similar specimens found
at the Picnic Mound in Hillsborough County (Bullen 1952: Fig. 22, e-f). These
are believed to be handles of bone combs. This piece was recovered from
the third level of Square 2 in the north-south trench. Its associational date
of Glades II is represented by Miami Incised pottery. At Picnic Mound du-
plicate objects were in Burial 36 associated with glass beads and remnants o0
iron and copper (Bullen 1952: 65).
In the fifth level of Square 5, an elongated piece of bone carved to re-
semble a rattlesnake' s rattle was found (Fig. 5, a). An approximate date of
its origin would be somewhere within the limits of the Glades II a period.
Shell was the next most abundant material used for the manufacture of
artifacts. Both the Strombus gigas celt and the Busycon pick are represented
in all periods of occupation. Columnella tools, used presumably as awls and
chisels are also numerous. A Macrocalista knife was found in the third level
of the north-south trench and has an associated date of Glades II b. Four
shell beads and a piece of shell gorget were found during the excavation. One
oyster shell (Fig. 5, e), found in the burial area, was notched to form a pen-
o b c
0 1 2*
Fig. 5. Unusual artifacts.
a, carved bone, n-s tr. Level 5; b, carved bone comb handle, n-s tr. Lev-
el 2; c, worked shell, n-s tr. Level 5; d, bone bi-point, natural fluting, n-s
tr. Level 3; e, shell pendant, e-s tr. burial area, Level 3; f, Archaic bro-
ken stone tool, Tr. 6-7A, Level 4; g, Archaic broken stone projectile point,
Tr. 6-7A, Level 4.
Four artifacts of stone were found. Two were laying directly upon the
limestone base of the midden. One, somewhat resembling an ax, came from
the fifth level of Square 4 in the north-south trench. It is approximately 15. 1
cm. in length, 9. 4 in width and 2. 8 in thickness. It is notched on both the top
and bottom as well as being grooved on one side for hafting. Its cutting edge
is beveled only on the grooved side. However, it is sufficient enough, with its
weight, to serve as an efficient cutting tool.
weight, to serve as an efficient cutting tool.
What appears to be a limestone mortar was found in Squares 1 and 2 in
the north-south trench (Fig. 6). It measures 45. 8 by 41. 2 cm. with a thick-
ness of approximately 10.0 cm.. It has been proposed that the lime stone
mortar was utilized in the grinding of some sort of grain, indicating a slightly
agriculturally based economy for the inhabitants of the site during the Glades
IIa-b period. However, it is more probable that the mortar was used in the
grinding of dried clay used in the manufacture of pottery.
On each side of the mortar were fragmentary pieces of two wooden
posts, each roughly 8 cm. in diameter. They were 70 cm. apart while a line
between them passed over the southernmost part of the mortar. The eastern-
most post was approximately 12 cm. from the mortar, while the westernmost
post was 50 cnr
In Trench 6-7A, two stone artifacts were found in Level 4. The first,
a broken stone tool was probably an Archaic knife or scraper (Fig. 5, f). The
second was a broken stemmed projectile point (Fig. 5, g). Both were found 9
inches below the lowest pottery in this trench. They hint at a possible pre-
ceramic or Archaic period Indian visitation to the Coral Springs site.
Another artifact type was represented by 5 drilled shark' s teeth.
They may have been beads or they may have been hafted to a handle for use as
a knife. This conjecture seems quite reasonable since two perforated- shark' s
teeth with artificial striations were also recovered.
In Square 7, a slender piece of worked shell, possibly a part of an awl
or weaver' s tool, was found in the fifth level (Fig. 5, c).
Other non-ceramic artifacts of importance were human teeth. One
was from Level 2 of the north-south trench, and three additional ones from the
Level 3 of the east-west trench. They have an associational date of Glades lib
In conclusion, the non-ceramic artifact types generally followed the
pattern of the "Tequesta cultural tradition. Only a few artifact forms deviate
from those characteristic of, and generally found within, the area. Those
artifacts which are uncommon within the area, such as the bone comb, the
limestone mortar, and the possible stone ax, may indicate some diffusion of
ideas or trade from cultural traditions to the west and perhaps the north.
In Square 16, east of, but adjacent to Square 7 of the north-south trench
(Fig. 1), was found a most interesting small religious silver pendant, probably
made in the seventeenth century or earlier. As such, it is evidence that Indians
were still living at the Coral Springs site in post-Columbian times. Though it
came from a possible disturbed area, the disturbance was not of modern times.
Fig. 6. Limestone
mortar in situ,
n-s tr. Pits 1-3.
Fig. 7. Silver
and reverse side.
When Square 16 was excavated, the 0-6 inch level produced 74 sherds,
including 1 St. Johns Check Stamped rim sherd. The next 6 inches supplied
another St. Johns Check Stamped, plus 1 Miami Incised, 1 Dade Incised, and
7 plain sherds, a shark tooth, a shark vertebrae bead, a socketed bone point,
a piece of worked bone, and the small silver medal under discussion (Fig. 7).
Each artifact was covered with a fused whitish encrustation we believe to have
been formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by percolating rain
water. If left over a long period of years this becomes a heavy, dense con-
cretion. This encrustation completely covered the small pendant.
The surface zone had some evidence of disturbance from large ficus
tree roots which penetrated to a depth of 24 inches. The presence of St. Johns
Check Stamped sherds, a Glades III marker in this area, associated with
Glades II types Dade and Miami Incised is abnormal, especially without
any Glades Tooled sherds present. It is known that, when the game warden' s
house was built on this part of the site some years ago, the surrounding bor-
row pit was cleaned out and a fresh water well blasted out at the northwest
edge of the site. The ceramic admixture leads one to believe that at that time,
dirt from either the well or the borrow pit may have been used to raise the
surface of the top of the midden, causing a mixture of sherds from two time
periods. These data prevent us from being specific regarding the temporal
associations of the religious medal.
The medal or pendant itself is of considerable interest. It has been
identified by Dr. Felipe Mateu y Llopis of the University of Barcelona (letter
of February 19, 1966) as a medal of the Order of Our Lady of Mercy, of the
Brotherhood of Mercy, For the Ransom and Redemption of Captives. This
Order was founded in Barcelona during the reign of James I of Aragon (1213-
1276); but on account of the characteristics of this particular medal, it seems
to be of the 17th century and probably made in this hemisphere.
Both sides of the pendant are illustrated in Figure 7, where the details
are readily observable. This medal, made to honor the Virgin Mary, has on
the obverse side, the figure of the Virgin standing with arms outstretched.
On the reverse side is a shield crudely engraved by hand. This is the Royal
Shield of Aragon and the Merced Shield. To the left and right of the Maltese
cross on the upper part of the shield, are what appear to be letters. That to
the left appears to be an "S", but Dr. Mateu feels that it could be the figure
"5". The one to the right he believes could be the figure "1" or "4".
Dr. Carl Compton of the Instituto Interamericano, Denton, Texas, who
examined the medal, suggested that the figure on the right could be an arrow.
This symbol is found on many of the medals in the Southwest, that are given
by religious orders to converted Indians. Dr. Mateu suggested that if they
were numbers, they might refer to a number for the nurses in a hospital or
the member of a Brotherhood or an Order of Charity.
How this medal of the Orden de Nuestra Senora de la Merced arrived
at the Coral Springs site remains a mystery. There seem to be three possi-
bilities. The first is that it is a relic of the Jesuit mission to the Ais Indians
which had a brief history around 1566. Dr. Mateu' s 17th century date would
eliminate this possibility.
The second, is that it might be a relic salvaged from a Spanish wreck
such as the Plate Fleet wreck of 1715. While this possibility cannot be ruled
out, it would seem likely that other evidence of European contact, such as
glass beads would have been found, if such were the case.
The third and most likely possibility is that it was brought to this area
and lost by one of the Spanish Mission Indians,- fleeing southward after the 1702
and 1704 raids made by Governor Moore of Carolina on the Spanish Missions,
which at that time extended from St. Augustine to the Apalachicola River.
There is documentary evidence of such refugees far up the St. Johns River in
the early 1700' s, and a number of San Marcos Check Stamped sherds have
been found at the Margate-Blount site 4 1/2 miles north of the Coral Springs
While we were excavating the Coral Springs site, the short access road
built into the site from Sample Road (Fig. 1) was used during the week by
workers with heavy road building equipment. With the bulldozer they leveled
off an area to be used for parking their machinery overnight. At one point on
the west boundary, a 6 foot high spoil bank was pushed up. After a severe
siege of rain, which left water standing in the low area for several days, bone
fragments were noted in the mud. Bone fragments were found in the spoil bank
also. On December 11, 1966, these spots were checked carefully, resulting
in the discovery of a bundle burial.
A second datum point (Datum Y) was set up near the burial (Fig. 1)
104 feet from the original datum in the village site. Four adjoining 5 foot
squares were staked out and excavation proceeded. It may be noted here that
all burials were just under the present surface, at a depth of 6 to 8 inches.
The following is taken from our filed notes.
Square 1: Burial 1: Skull was in a natural arrangement but fragmented by
crushing. The mandible and maxilla were crushed together inextricably. The
skull was oriented east-west, long bones were to the north.
Burial 2: Scattered and fragmentary.
Burial 5: Badly fragmented, all bones crushed to small pieces.
Burial 6: Fragmented burial, probably that of a child as the skull was
small. Two long bones with this burial extended into Square 4, but upon re-
moval of the dirt, nothing more was found.
Square 2: Burials 3 and 4 were uncovered along the west line of this square.
These proved to be two bundle burials with the skulls back to back. After
much tedious work, one was separated from the other and pedestaled. A so-
lution of white glue was poured over the entire skeleton and allowed to saturate
it and the sand around it also. When this dried we were able to remove the
burial. Four sides of a box, with locking bottom boards, w-re constructed
separately. This made it possible to slide each bottom board under a portion
of the burial and then to raise it in its entirety. Sakrete cement was used to
help build up the pedestal of sand under the burial. Of all the burials, this
is the only one in an exhibitable condition. Cleaning the burial after removal
was accomplished by blowing through a small rubber hose to remove excess
Burial 4: This was a fragmented skull. Other bones were present but
it was impossible to tell to which burial they belonged.
Square 3: Burials 7 and 8, along the line between Squares 2 and 3, were two
partial crania found together with broken and scattered long bones. One bro-
ken shell celt with calcite formation on it,was found with these burials.
Square 4: Nothing was found except for the ends of the bones extending from
Square 1 as previously mentioned.
All of the burials were found within a five foot radius. In no case were
human vertebrae found with the other skeletal material, although this is not
too unusual with bundle burials in this area. One large shark vertebrae was
found on top of the skull of Burial 3. A possible crude stone, celt-shaped,
artifact 4 1/2 inches long, with a hole drilled in it, and a broken bone bi-
point were found with Burial 2.
Two test trenches were dug, one east-west and one north-south (Fig. 1)
to determine if there were any more burials. None were found. In the east-
west trench, one small well shaped pendant made of shell (Fig. 5, e) was
found at 18 inches. Several bone fragments were found in the same trench
but none were identifiable.
Because the machinery had scraped the topsoil from the burial area,
it was impossible to get an accurate reading of the depths of these burials.
However, on examination of the surrounding area, an educated guess would
place them approximately 18 inches below the surface. All burials were
placed on the limestone bedrdck, and to add to the crushed condition, two of
the burials had large rocks placed upon them.
Excavations at the Coral Springs site show that it was occupied during
the Glades I, II, and III periods, possibly also during the earlier Transitional
period (Table 1). The religious medal may be from a Spanish wreck and so
show occupation into the post-Columbian period. However, it is equally poss-
ible it may have been lost by an Indian from one of the Spanish Missions to the
north, near St. Augustine, which were destroyed by Col. Moore of Carolina in
1702 and 1704. Even a minimum length of occupation at the site certainly sug-
gests it was the home of a small family group over an extremely long time
period. During this time, those who died were interred in the now lower land
to the southwest.
Probably the most interesting aboriginal specimen found was the incised
bone handle of what appears to have been a comb (Fig. 5, b). This specimen
is identical to some uncovered at the Picnic Mound near the north part of
Tampa Bay. Does this discovery indicate aboriginal trade with that area or
was it brought to this site as a result of a raid? Or were such combs fairly
common and our belief in their uniqueness the result of insufficient excava-
tion in the right places? Certainly, this artifact and the carved bone resemb-
ling the rattle of a rattlesnake indicate that there were sensitive artistic
people among the aborigines.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Sites in Hillsborough County, Florida.
Report of Investigations, No. 8. Florida Geological Survey.
Bullen, Ripley P. and John W. Griffin
1952 An Archaeological Survey of Amelia Island, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. V, Nos. 3-4, pp. 37-64.
1966 Personal communication. Institute Interamericano,
Mateu, Felipe y Llopis
1966 Personal communication. University of Barcelona,
Goggin, John M.
1964 A Preliminary Definition of Archeological Areas and Periods
in Florida. In Indian and Spanish Selected Writings, pp. 78-95.
Coral Gables, Florida.
Hijos de J. Espasa, Editors
1966 Enciclopedia Universal Europa-Americano, Vol. XL.
SEVEN SAWGRASS MIDDENS IN DADE AND BROWARD COUNTIES, FLORIDA
The following are results of a continuing salvage campaign in the black-
dirt middens of Dade and Broward counties, Florida. Most of these excava-
tions are near large-scale building or flood control projects and could face
future destruction. The area covered is approximately 280 square miles and
extends southward on both sides of Levees 30, 31, and 33 of the Central Florida
Floo6d Control from Pumping Station No. 9, (Fig. 1, PS9), one half mile west of
US 27 on the South New River Canal, to the canalized western portion of Black
Creek, one mile west of US 27 and 6. 8 miles south of the Tamiami Trail.
All of the sites are in a sawgrass environment, have dark organic soils,
and are surrounded by water most of the year. At one site, Black Creek, solu-
tion etched limestone is at or near the surface. Vegetation in the hammocks
and aquatic plants in the ponds include ficus, willow, hackberry, bracken, cat-
tails, swamp fern, paw paw, arrowhead, pickerel, and Brazilia pepper.
Due to lack of time, the increasing difficulty of transportation, and in
accordance with earlier professional advice; only small, controlled tests were
made to find out if the sites warranted future work. Two fairly large sites
(Fig. 1, d, f) will be the subject of future work. Table 1 gives the stratigraphic
location of the typical area pottery for the seven sites. Unique sherds and other
specimens are listed in the text for each site. Figure 1, d and f, locate sites
not included in the work reported here.
Site Locations And Descriptions
Broward No. 5 (Fig. 1, a) is located approximately two miles SSW of
Pumping Station No. 9 in Conservation Area 3B, Broward County. It is a long
narrow hammock bordered on the north and west by canals, and much of its
area is covered with a dense growth of Brazilian peppers.
Other than the usual ceramics (Table 1), several odd or unique sherds
were found. In the 0-6" level a combination Matecumbe Incised and Surfside
Incised sherd (Fig. 2, a) was found, and in the 6-12" level a sherd with a
Glades Tooled rim and a Key Largo Incised body (Fig. 2, g) was excavated
along with a Weeden Island-like punctated rim. (Fig. 2, i). Macrocallista and
Lucina scrapers, a Busycon pick and several bone points were also found. A
metal plummet (Fig. 2, j) was at a depth of 6 inches.
S. New River
Fig. 1. Site location map.
TABLE 1: POTTERY DISTRIBUTION
Levee 30, No. 1
Levee 30, No. 2
Broward No. 5
B & J Site
Belle Glade body sherds
Belle Glade rims
St. Johns Check Stamped
Key Largo Incised
Opa Locka Incised
Ft. Drum Incised
462 276 27
64 22 4
1 2 -
Broward No. 6
Broward No. 7
Belle Glade body sherds
Belle Glade rims
St. Johns Check Stamped
Key Largo Incised
Opa Locka Incised
Ft. Drum Incised
478 61 14 8
52 3 1 -
3 1 -
1 1 -
760 30 7
54 5 1
27 4 -
1 1 -
Broward No. 6 (Fig. 1, b) is a small circular hammock with the re-
mains of a wooden building and a pitcher pump on the property. It is 1. 2 miles
south of the pumping station and 200 yards west of US 27. It is privately owned.
Besides several bone points, a Bus, on pick, and pieces of pumice, a
"strippled" sherd (Fig. 2, c) was found in the 0-6" level.
Broward No. 7 (Fig. 1, c) is the largest of the sites and covers several
acres. It is 1.2 miles east and .6 of a mile north of the intersection of US 27
and State Road 820. There are signs of old pits on the northern edge.
Artifacts found at Broward No. 7 included a stone projectile point base,
perforated sharks' teeth, a greenstone fragment, and several bone points of
the socketed type (Fig. 2, m). There were three perforated rims, evidently
for bails or other means of suspension in the 0-6" level and a single burial was
found in the northwest quadrant. A single Deptford Simple Stamped sherd at the
12-18" level represented the earliest ceramics found.
Levee 30, No. 1, Dd-86 (Fig. 1, e) is a small midden on the NW end of a
narrow willow strand extending from the levee, 5.7 miles north of the inter-
section of US 27 and the Trail. The site is several hundred yards west of the
levee in Conservation Area No. 3.
At the time of excavation, unusually large concentrations of heron and ibis
congregated on the northeast side of the midden, and, upon investigation, great
numbers of the freshwater snail Ampularia were found floating in the shallow
water. Another curious feature of this small midden was the uncommon number
of dead turtles; identified as Pseudemys floridiana, found several feet up the
slope from the sawgrass swamp on the southwest side. A total of 23 shells were
Other than the usual bone points, Strombus tools and clam scrapers, a
single Surfside Incised rim lug (Fig. 2, b), found at the 0-6" level, is note-
Levee 30, No. 2 (Fig. 1, g) is a small hammock surrounded' by a dense
growth of willows. It is 4 of a mile north of the Trail on US 27 and about 250
yards west of it.
Several interesting sherds were found in this small midden. They included
a Safety Harbor-like Incised (Fig. 2, e) at the 0-6" level and a St. Johns In-
cised (Fig. 2, 1) at the 6-12" level. Socketed type bone points (Fig. 2, p) and
typical shell tools were also found.
B & J, the smallest of the sites (Fig. 1, h), is 3.7 miles west of SW '
m n P
Fig. 2. Artifacts from seven middens near Levee 30.
117th Ave. and the Trail and .75 of a mile south. During high water stages
only a few square feet of this midden are dry enough to excavate.
The illustrated St. Johns Check Stamped sherd (Fig. 2, h) was found at
the site, as well as a Simple Bone Point (Fig. 2, o).
The Black Creek site, Dd-85 (Fig. 1, i) is 7 miles south and 1 mile west
of the Trail on US 27. The soil is extremely shallow and large limestone boul-
ders are on the surface in the hammock. There are several key-lime trees in
the midden area.
A unique, noded sherd (Fig. 2, f) was found in the 0-6" level, and a
"ladder" incised (Fig. 2, d) at the 6-12" level. Artifacts included a carved
shell fragment (Fig. 2, k) and a bone hairpin (Fig. 2, n). Strombus adzes,
Macrocallista knives and scrapers, and a single Busycon pick were also exca-
The excavator in the sawgrass soon realizes the enormity of the task of re-
moving cultural bric-a-brac from the hundreds of kitchen middens located in
every hammock of sufficient height to be above the perennial water table. For
the most part, various restrictions prevent changing the contour or any large
scale projects. Information must be gleaned from small tests, and combined
with that from the few large professional Tests available. With this informa-
tion, much can be learned of the movement, habits, and diet of the first Flori-
Surface pottery in the middens excavated was Glades Plain and Glades
Tooled. There were many variations of Glades Tooled, the most being found in
Broward No. 7. The sherds and their tooling was identical with those found in
Madden' s Hammock (Laxson 1957), several miles to the southeast.
Matecumbe Incised and Key Largo Incised, both prevalent in the Florida
Keys, were well represented. This, coupled with the lack of St. Johns Check
Stamped at four of the seven sites, possibly indicates the movement of people
along an inland north-south waterway from the Keys towards Lake Okeechobee,
a theory substantiated to some degree by the presence of Belle Glade sherds in
five of the seven sites.
Though scarce, St. Johns Check Stamped was found in Broward No. 5 along
with plain chalky ware. Since all sherds were in the same test pit, the plain ware
may have been part of the check stamped vessel which was not stamped. The St.
Johns Incised sherd found in Levee 30, No. 2 resembles others previously
found in the area (Laxson 1954). The punctated rim sherd from Broward No. 5
is felt to be Weeden Island influenced and similar to that found at Burtine Island
(Bullen 1966) in Citrus County, Florida. The "ladder" incised from Black
Creek is a Matecumbe variant (Goggin 1949). It, along with unique noded and
strppled sherd, is found in small quantities in the Everglades. Various com-
bination sherds, incised with two distinct common patterns, have been found in
small hammocks (Laxson 1967) in the vicinity of the Tamiami Trail. They sug-
gest cultural continuity over time or space.
Stratigraphy was normal in that Glades Tooled and St. Johns Check Stamped
pottery types overlay Surfside and Matecumbe Incised. Similarly, Key Largo,
Miami and Dade Incised were higher in the ground than Ft. Drum Incised. Opa
Locka Incised, usually local in character, was found only in the largest sites,
probably indicating stable occupancy of, and a flow of visitors into, the area. I
A single Deptford Simple Stamped sherd in the 12-18" level of Broward No. 7
was the oldest pottery found in the sites.
On the basis of scattered glass beads, it is reasonable to assume that all
sites excavated were at one time or the other occupied by Seminoles.
The scarcity of any fire pits large enough to fire pottery leads one to be-
lieve manufacture of ceramics was done some distance from the location of the
highly flammable shelters or in special areas of large village sites.
The hard, gray marl conglomerate found at the bottom level of some of the
sites consisted of minute pieces of bone and shell with some sherds. While the
formation is geological, the deposits may represent nebulous-Glades I horizon,
and in the case of the 18-30" level of Broward No. 5, where no sherds were
found, but only bone and shell, a presumptive preceramic level is not far-fetched.
There appears to be no experimental pottery-making stage between the pre-
ceramic levels and the sand-tempered plain found beneath Ft. Drum and Deptford
Simple Stamped. This could mean the arrival of people from the west or north-
west who had already learned the technique of pottery making.
The bone and shell material was typical of the area and Macrocallista and
Strombus scrapers and Busycon picks were common. Several smoothed and
worn Lucina shells are thought to be used in pottery-making. Bone samples
saved from the middens included deer, racoon, alligator, rodent, shark verte-
brae and the ever present turtle shell fragments, some samples of which were
from the large sea turtles. The middens are all prolific in cultural material,
indicating frequent trading among, and use by, constantly moving groups. There
seemed to be a "bunching" around hammocks with well filled natural moats
during dry spells.
Examination of the bone points found in the middens would leave one to
believe that the socketed type (Fig. 2, m, p) is the true projectile point and
that the thin, bi-pointed splinters (Fig. 2, o) are a type of fishhook (Craig 1967)
since many found in the averglades have a groove mid-way their length for tying
a line. The slim, cylindrical bone fragments (Fig. 2, n) are thought to be re-
mains of hairpins or awls. Granted, penetration would be poor with the hollow,
socketed point but the game usually killed did not require any better point and
hunting was frequently done with fire-hardened, pointed arrows made of cane or
arrowwood. Some points with a natural fluting along their length, sharp on one
end and spatulate on the other, and covered with tar, were used, set either in
arrows or handles of some sort. This type is not usually sharp enough to be
used as awls.
Gratitude is expressed to the following for help with identifications and
suggestions: Mr. Ripley P. Bullen, Chairman, Department of Social Sciences,
Florida State Museum; Doris Cochran, Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians,
Smithsonian Institute; Joseph Britton, Assistant Curator, Department of Inverte-
brate Zoology, Smithsonian Institute; Gilbert L. Voss, Chairman, Division of
Biological Sciences, Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami. Thanks
are due Mr. Hamilton C. Forman, Mr. Louis F. Gainey, Mr. W. T. McBroom,
Mr. Z. C. Grant, and Mr. Bill Bailey who represent owners, Arvida, the Game
and Wildlife Commission, and the Central Flood Control for permission to tres-
pass and excavate.
Appreciation is expressed to the following groups and their members, who
all, at one time or another, screened and excavated the test pits materials:
Mrs. F. Skill and the Homestead Girl Scouts; Carla Isbel, Bill Fisher, Mar-
garite Schell, Marion Kamin, Larry McKinley and Judson Owen of the Dade
Junior College Campus Archeological Excavation Team; Wilma Williams,
Martha Pilkington, Bert Mowers, Milton Wolfe, Arthur Marlar and a visitor,
C. Fields of the Broward County Archeological Society; Paul and Barbara
Kerstetter, Spears and Opal McCaskill, Bill and Mel Ammons, Paul and Dorothy
Richardson, Jim Lee, Noel Herrman, Don Berger, Erik Erikson, Jack Thomson.
Gloria Kallesser, Dick Kotil, Earl Riggs, and Jimmy Eggert of the Miami area.
Special thanks is due Henry Mangels for his work at Black Creek.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1966 Bertine Island, Citrus County, Florida. Contributions of the
Florida State Museum, No. 14. Gainesville.
Craig, Alan K.
1967 Some Observations on the Manufacture and Utilization of Fish-
hooks Among the Indians of North America. The Florida Anthro-
pologist, Vol. 20, Nos. 1-2. Tallahassee.
Goggin, John M., and Frank Sommer, III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale University
Publications on Anthropology, No. 41. New Haven.
Laxson, Dan D.
1954 A Small Hialeah Midden. The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 7,
No. 3. Gainesville.
1957 The Madden Site. The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 10, No. 3.
April 28, 1968
DATING CLAY PIPES
FROM THE GALPHIN TRADING POST AT SILVER BLUFF,
Iain C. Walker
In a fairly recent article in The Florida Anthropologist--the relevant
issue has only now reached me--Neill (1968) discusses the Indian artifacts
from the Galphin trading post at Silver Bluff and comments on the Binford-
derived date for the clay pipe stem fragments found there and discussed some
years ago by Eaton (1962). Eaton used the Binford formula to date the site and
obtained a median date of 1743. 99 from a total of 268 stem fragments. As this
did not agree with the median date of the historical occupation of the site, which
he gave as ca. 1744-80, Eaton postulated a prior Indian occupation starting ca.
1716. The united occupation of the site, ca. 1716-80 gave a median date of ca.
1748, close enough to the Binford date.
Neill, however, has pointed out that Eaton' s Indians did not live on the
site of the Galphin trading post, and that their camp two miles away appears
to have been occupied for only a few years. Galphin settled at Silver Bluff ca.
1739 and continued to trade there until his death in 1780. The post continued-
until at least 1789, but the date of abandonment is not known; Fort Galphin, a
stockaded brick building, was erected at the post during the Revolution. That
structure was still standing in the early 1870' s. The post's historical median
date would thus be ca. 1770 at least, and certainly not before 1764.
In order to explain the early Binford median date of 1744 Neill makes a
number of suggestions. Because settlers came in a series of waves rather
than in a steady stream, trade goods would probably arrive in the same manner,
especially when trade was disrupted by war. The bore-diameter dating-method
dates the period of manufacture and not that of deposition, hence a large shipment
might have been ordered at an early point on the post' s history and then used over
a long period of years. The post might even have been initially overstocked,
particularly at the beginning of the period in question when there were no slaves
in Georgia and their later presence (after the legalization in 1749 of slavery in
the colony) might be expected to increase the number of pipes sold. Finally,
Neill suggests the possibility that the South Carolina kaolin deposits may have
been used by local pipemakers--an area known by 1739 as Pipe-maker' s Bluff
is on the Savannah River, as is Silver Bluff--and that local pipemakers' pro-
ducts would not necessarily have followed British products in details such as
DATING CLAY PIPES
While any or all of these factors may have affected the Binford date of
the pipes from the site, there is a much simpler and more likely explanation
of the dichotomy of dates. Harrington (1954) when describing his bar-graph
method of dating deposits of stem fragments, noted that his system broke down
towards 1800; and the Binford formula, which is only a straight-line graph
adaptation of Harrington' s bar-graphs with in-built inaccuracies of its own
(Omwake 1968, Hanson 1970), revealed the same tendency. A. Noel Hume
noted (1963) that after ca. 1770 Binford dates became progressively inaccu-
rate. As the inaccuracy is reflected in dates becoming earlier vis-a-vis the
historical median dates, it would seem likely that a site whose occupation
dates were ca. 1739 to after 1789, as with Galphin trading post, would be very
likely to produce a Binford date earlier than its true historical midpoint.
So far as the apparent accuracy of Eaton' s date to the overall Indian-
European occupation goes, even had there been the Indian occupation at the site
which he indicates, the chances are the Binford-derived date would not have
given an accurate median date because of Binford' s so-called "logistics effici-
ency". By that Binford meant that if one half of the occupation period saw
markedly more people at the site, or markedly more smokers, the calculated
date would be biased towards whichever half had the greater number of smokers.
In the case of Silver Bluff it is probably unlikely that Indians would have been
able to obtain as many European pipes--with no trade post immediately near--
as Galphin would have had in his store once he set up business, so one might
have expected a bias towards later pipes in the sample. (For more detailed
discussion of the Harrington and Binford dating systems see Walker 1965 and
1968, the latter being an updated and expanded version of the former.)
It should also be pointed out at this point that the term "kaolin pipe" to
describe the European white clay pipes normally found in North America is a
misnomer. The use of the term appears to be restricted to the New World,
and its origin is unknown, but the use of the term "kaolin" to describe ball-
clay in North America was noted as early as 1914 (Howe 1914: 3). In fact
kaolin appears never to have been used in the production of clay pipes in Eng-
land and The Netherlands, the two sources of pipes in Colonial times; ball clay
was the material used. The South Carolina deposits referred to are of genuine
kaolin, but the name Pipe-maker's Bluff is perhaps more likely to refer to a
deposit of clay suitable for Indian pipes. Subsequently it may have been a
source of material for the earthenware pipes, produced for example at Betha-
bara (Walker 1970), which appear to have established a tradition in the South-
East for such pipes, which were, and are, smoked with reed stems.
The uncritical use, or acceptance, of such dating evidence as the Binford
formula for dating pipe deposits seems to be an inevitable but dangerous by-
product of the current popularity for relying on statistics rather than know-
ledge in some fields of archaeology. There is nothing wrong in using statis-
tical processes, such as the chi-square method, to determine the probabilities
of various theories; but the fact that a certain explanation is shown to be ma-
thematically more likely than another is no excuse for ignoring the other pos-
sibility. Still less is it a reason for not accepting the less-likely explanation
as correct if one' s knowledge of the particular field leads one to feel that the
latter is correct, statistical probability to the contrary not withstanding.
In the case of the Binford formula, as with other statistical processes,
a person with no knowledge whatsoever about the artifacts being studied can
make a deduction which can mislead readers who do not have an illustrated ac-
count of the material before them. Still more seriously, attempts to alter the
historical data to agree with the statistical calculations is nothing less than the
falsification of facts to fit the theory. In the case of the Galphin trading post,
no pipes from there, so far as I am aware, have ever been described, far less
From a number of deposits studied by the National Historic Sites Service
staff in Ottawa, it seems that a deposit of pipe fragments will usually have one
bowl for every 15 or so stem fragments, so that in a deposit of any moderate
size at least two or three bowls should be found. Pipe bowls, even if unmarked,
can be a much safer indication of date than a statistical formula. Marked or
decorated pipe fragments are generally less common than bowls in a deposit,
though from the end of the 18th century such material becomes appreciably
more common than previously. A few bowls and a couple of marked or decora-
ted fragments can generally give an indication of dating to within half a century
or so. According to Eaton (1962), the calculation he made was based on 268
plain stem fragments, a collection presented to Florida State University.
Neill notes that a very large number of pipe fragments have been found over
the years at the Galphin trading post site, some as late as 1946. It seems the
height of improbability that bowls have never been found there.
Perhaps permission could be obtained from those responsible for the
hydrogen-bomb plant now in the area to conduct an excavation of the site,
which sounds as though it might well repay such an investigation; or, failing
that, perhaps a surface collection of pipes could be made and published with
the same detail and quality of photography as Neill has given for his contact-
period Indian pottery.
1962 Pipe Stem Dating and the Date for Silver Bluff, S. C.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 57-62.
DATING PIPE STEMS
Hanson, L.H. Jr.
1970 Kaolin Pipe Stems Boring in on a Fallacy. Conference on
Historic Site Archaeology, Papers 1968-9, Vol. 3, pt. 1.
Neill, W. T.
Dating Stem Fragments of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century
Clay Pipes. Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society of
Virginia, Vol. 9, No. 1.
A Handbook of the Collection of Kaolin, China-Clay, and China-
Stone, in the Museum of Practical Geology.
HMSO, Jermyn St. London S.W.
The Galphin Trading Post Site at Silver Bluff, South Carolina.
Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 21, No. Z-3, pp. 42-54.
Clay Tobacco Pipe Dating in the Light of Recent Excavation.
Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society of Virginia, Vol. 18,
No. 2, pp. 22-5.
1968 An Examination of an Assortment of White Kaolin Pipe Bowl
and Stem Fragments surface-collected from an Apparent
Colonial Period Refuse Disposal Area near Chestertown,
Maryland. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware,
No. 6, pp. 3-19.
Walker, I. C.
1965 Some Thoughts on the Harrington and Binford Systems for
Statistically Dating Clay Pipes. Quarterly Bulletin, Archeo-
logical Society of Virginia, Vol. 20, No. 2., pp. 60-4.
1968 Statistical Methods for Dating Clay Pipe Fragments. Post-
Medieval Archaeology, Vol. 1, pp. 90-101.
"Note on the Clay Tobacco Pipes from Bethabara, North
Carolina. Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers
1968-9, Vol. 3, pt. 1. In press.
July 27, 1970
THE KELLOGG FILL FROM BOCA CIEGA BAY,
PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
Lyman O. Warren
The several fingers of the "Kellogg Fill", so called from the name of
the original owner and developer of the property, were dredged up from the
eastern bottom of Boca Ciega Bay, about one quarter mile north of the cause-
way to Maderia Beach, Florida. This location is only about two miles west
of the famous Seminole Field fossil bed.
The bulk of the fill material was sand, crushed beach shell, and clay
(usually bluish green in color, less often dark gray or yellow). Cobbles of
poorly silicified greenish limestone were present in one section; in another,
a bed of well silicified oyster shell lay in a yellow clay matrix which also
contained a great many lumps of selenite. Disarticulated pleistocene mam-
malian fossils were generally scattered over much of the fill. Teeth of
mammoth, bison and horse, Boreastracon scutes, and fragments of turtle
shell were usually black or blue-black, their color derived from the green or
black clay matrix. One section of yellow clay near the selenite and silicified
oyster shell contained a great many fragments of mammoth bones and teeth,
all of yellow color.
The Indian artifacts were scattered over several acres on almost all
parts of the fill. They occurred on the surface, and along the several artifi-
cial beaches, especially after a strong northwe.ster had pounded the beach
during one or more tide cycles. Sherds, found predominately on a level part
of the fill near the adjacent Duhme Road, included a number of sand-tempered,
plain specimens, one rather thick, heavily fiber tempered Orange Incised,
and one chalky St. Johns Incised.
Chipped stone artifacts were most frequent. Of these the most com-
mon were: 1) projectile points with contracting stems and convex or rounded
stem bases; and 2) plano-convex scrapers. The predominate artifactual ma-
terial was a cherty limestone, but occasionally silicified coral, and in one in-
stance, silidified oyster shell was used. The usual colors were blue-black,
gray, and brown; whitish inclusions were common. There were no examples
of the "salt and pepper" chert of Hernando and Pasco counties.
Of the projectile points (some may have been knives), 32 whole or
Broken specimens were found. There was one Suwannee (Fig. 1, a), a side
notched "Greenbrier" (Fig. 1, b), and one beveled "Bolen" (Fig. 1,
WTMC I I l| 4
7- 1 9At1 F 3lll.IFII 11111111 11
R Figt 3.
"" l"" ""I"" ""I'" ''""I''"'""I '""I "" '"I
I.. l ,
..a .., "'",': ""I 1" 1
"':n",,,_ ", 1,'"I ,"'1'
S Fig.4. e
L Figs. 4, 5, 6....
Figs. 4, 5, 6.
c), all of these showing basal grinding.
There were 29 classifiable points, 21 of which were unbroken.
Fourteen of these (Fig. 1, d-e; Fig. 2; Fig. 3), with considerable varia-
tion in blade shape, had stems with contracting sides and rounded, usually
convex bases. The bases might form a continuous and unbroken convex-
ity, or be squarish with rounded corners. Junction of stem and blade in
13 instances formed a clean cut right angle, or square shouldered appear-
ance. In outline, these points suggested a Christman tree, and have been
so designated popularly.
Other points, although their stems had rounded bases and contract-
ing sides, differed from the majority type in having blade bases which
joined the long axis of the stem at either obtuse or acute angles, thus
forming in the first instance "sloping shoulders", and in the latter, "droop-
ing barbs". Nevertheless, they impress one as variants of the same pat-
tern, the common feature being the rounded stem base suggestive of "Put-
nam Points" (Bullen and Dolan 1959). Putnam points, called Gary points
in Texas, are thought to be earlier than Marion, Alachua, and Levy points.
The "point" depicted in Fig. 4, c, is undoubtedly a stemmed scraper.
Next to projectile points in frequency at the Kellogg Fill are plano.
convex scrapers (21 specimens), of which the most outstanding are the
six graceful, elongated tools, each 4 inches or more in length, depicted
in Figure 5. The first three (Fig. 5, a-c)have a distinctive sinuous, or S-
shape. The remaining 15 are plano-convex scrapers of various shapes,
for the most part undistinguished, except that some are very well made,
have a higher luster, and are made of rather attractive coral (Fig. 6).
Other chipped stone objects from the Kellogg Fill, not depicted,
included rough chopper-hammerstones, thin bifacial knives, and assorted
worked chips and chunks seemingly of little diagnostic importance. Spalls,
although present, were rather uncommon, especially as compared with
their almost overwhelming frequency at other sites on the west coast,
particularly Bailey's -Bluff and Flora Mar in Pasco County, Bear Creek
One and Caladesi Fill in Pinellas County, and Rocky Point and Temple
Terrace in Hillsborough County.
It is probably best to mention at this point that there is no chrono-
logical association implied between the Indian artifacts and fossils; a purely
mechanical association is assumed.
If we may be allowed to call these contracting stem, rounded base
points Putnamsor Garys, it would seem as if the Kellogg Fill is predomi-
nately a Putnam site. A slight overlap into the early Archaic and Paleo-
Indian periods at one end of the seriation spectrum is documented by the
Suwannee, Greenbrier, and Bolen points. An equally slight overlap into
the late Archaic and Transitional periods is implied by the sherd finds.
The strong representation of piano-convex scrapers with the large
assemblage of Putnam points suggests that these two artifact classes belong
to the same phase. The graceful and elongate piano-convex gouges, or end
scrapers, depicted in Fig. 5 seem to be a characteristic of the Kellogg
Fill, and may turn out to be diagnostics of a phase of the preceramic Archaic.
An outstanding characteristic of the projectile points from the Kellogg
Fill is a high degree of symmetry in blade edge and shoulder. Lack of sym-
metry seems a feature of similar points from Thonotosassa, Johnson Lake,
(Bullen and Dolan 1959), the St. Johns River basin, and Stalling' s Island,
Georgia. This asymmetry is too consistent and too great to be accidental.
The asymmetric points of Hillsborough County impress one as being "con-
sciously asymmetric," at times grotesquely so. At Stalling's Island, Claflin
(1931) referred to them as "lop-sided."
Provisionally, one may theorize that two traits in projectile point
manufacture during the Archaic period entered or developed in Florida: (1)
an eastern lop-sided pattern; and (2) a symmetric pattern along the Florida
Gulf Coast. We do not want to make too much of this concept, however, for
asymmetric points are not uncommon in Pinellas, nor symmetric ones in
Hillsborough. But there does seem to be significant quantitative differences.
Bullen, R. P., and E. M. Dolan
1959 The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County. The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. 12, No. 4. Gainesville.
Claflin, W.H. Jr.
1931 The Stalling' s Island Mound, Columbia County, Georgia.
Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology
and Ethnology, Vol. 14, No. 1. Cambridge.
St. Petersburg, Florida
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