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FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS
THE PALMER SITE
Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen
The Florida Anthropologist,
Volume 29, Number 2, Part 2
U. OF F. LIBRARIES
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March, Jun
September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society,Inc., c/o
Room 102, Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL3261:
Subscription is by membership in the Society for individuals or institutions in-
terested in the aims of the Society. Annual dues are $6. 00; student members
$4. 00. Requests for memberships and general inquiries should be addressed to
the secretary; subscriptions, dues, changes of address and orders for back issue
to the treasurer; manuscripts for publication to the editor; and newsletter
items to the president. Second class postage paid at Gainesville, Florida.
Dedicated to the late
whose interest and sustained enthusiasm, even more than his financial help,
made excavations at the Palmer Site possible.
Publication of this monograph is made possible by a grant from the
Wentworth Foundation created by A. Fillmore Wentworth, deceased. The
Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., greatly appreciates this assistance.
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President Wilma B. Williams
2511 McKinley St., Hollywood, FL 33020
slt Vice President Raymond Williams
Dept. of Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620
2nd Vice President Jerald T. Milanich
111 SW 23rd Terrace, Gainesville,
Secretary George W. Percy
Div. of Archives, History, and
Records Management, 401 East Gaines
Street, Tallahassee, FL 32304
Treasurer-Res. Agent Norcott Henriquez
1510 Dewey St., Hollywood, FL 33020
Directors at Large
Three years: Robert E. Johnson
4250 Melrose Avenue
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Two years: Ray C. Robinson
1020 4th Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
One year: Wesley Coleman
10 NW 124 Avenue
Miami, FL 33126
Editor Ripley P. Bullen
102 Florida State Museum,
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
THE PALMER SITE
Introduction . . . . . 1
Excavations . ............. .. 3
Hill Cottage Midden . . .. . 3
Test A . . . . . 3
Test B . . . . . 14
Test C . . . . . 16
Test D . . . . . 17
Test K . . . . . 19
Small Tests . . . . 19
Test N . . . . .. 19
Summary of Hill Cottage Midden . . .. 20
Shell Ridge . . . ...... .... 20
Test E . . .. . . 21
Test H . . . . . 22
Test I . . . . . 25
Test J . . . . 26
Summary of Shell Ridge ................ 27
Shell Midden . . . . 29
Test F . . . . . 29
Test G . . . . . 3
Summary of Shell Midden .............. 33
North CreekArea . . . . .. 33
Scattered Shell Deposits ........ ..... 33
North Creek Midden ............... 33
Varmo Midden ............ ... 34
Summary of North Creek Area . .. . .. 35
Burial Mound . . . . 35
Animal Interments .............. 44
Human Interments . . . .... 46
Casey Key Burial Mound and Village . . ... .47
Conclusions . . . . .. 49
References Cited. ................... 53
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
1. Vertical Distribution of Artifacts, Test A, Hill Cottage
Midden . . . . . 11
2. Radiocarbon Dates from Test A, Hill Cottage Midden 13
Map of Little Sarasota Bay . . . ... .iv
Map of Palmer Site ................... 4
Contour Map, Hill Cottage Midden .. . 5
Profiles from Test A, Hill Cottage Midden . . 7
Profiles from Test B, Hill Cottage Midden . .. .15
Profiles from Test C, Hill Cottage Midden . . 16
Profiles from Test D, Hill Cottage Midden . ... 18
Profiles from Test E, Shell Ridge. . . 21
Profiles from Test H, Shell Ridge. . . ... 23
Profile from Test I, Shell Ridge . . .. 25
Profile from Test J, Shell Ridge . . .. 27
Profiles from Test F, Shell Midden . . 30
Profiles from Test G, Shell Midden . . 32
Excavation Plan, Palmer Burial Mound . . 36
Profiles from Burial Mound . .. . 37
Vertical Distribution of Pottery, Burial Mound . 40
Burial Locations, Palmer Burial Mound . . 45
3. Radiocarbon Dates from Test H, Shell Ridge . . 25
4. Radiocarbon Dates from Test F, Shell Midden . ... .31
5. Vertical Distribution of Pottery, Burial Mound . . 42
6. Vertical Distribution of Some Artifacts, Burial Mound . 43
LIST OF PLATES
I. Two Views, East Face, Test A, Hill Cottage Midden
II. Burial 1, Examining Debris, Highest Zone, Test A, Hill Cottage Midden
III. Miscellaneous Specimens, Test A, Hill Cottage Midden
IV. Shell and Stone Tools, Test A, Hill Cottage Midden
V. Casey Key Burial Mound, 1959
VI. South Face, Test I, Shell Ridge
VII. Miscellaneous Specimens, Shell Midden and Palmer Burial Mound
VIII. Views of Palmer Burial Mound at Start of Excavation
IX. Sherd Clusters, Palmer Burial Mound
X. Restorable Vessels, Palmer Burial Mound
XI. Scattered Sherds, Shells, and Sharks Teeth, Palmer Burial Mound
XII. Rocks in Sq. ZE, Palmer Burial Mound
XIII. Miscellaneous Specimens, Palmer Burial Mound
XIV. Rock over Burial, Palmer Burial Mound
XV. Decorated and Plain Sherds, Palmer Burial Mound
XVI. Dog Burials, Palmer Burial Mound
XVII. Alligator Burial, Palmer Burial Mound
XVIII. Excavations in Western and Southern Parts, Palmer Burial Mound
XIX. Two Views of Burials 138 and 139, Sq. 3E, Palmer Burial Mound
XX. Two Flexed Burials, Palmer Burial Mound
XXI. Flexed Burials, Palmer Burial Mound
XXII. Disturbed Burials, Palmer Burial Mound
XXIII. Flute Made from a Human Femur, Palmer Burial Mound
Bird 6 North
I-Cosey Key site <\ Midnight Keys C
2-Hill Midden Pass 2e
3-Shell ridge O .5
4-Shell midden \90 PREY
5-Palmer burial mound
6-Scattered shell deposits
7-North Creek midden BAY
Fig. 1. Map of Little Sarasota Bay locating Indian sites.
THE PALMER SITE
Gordon Palmer, late in the summer of 1956, approached George W.
Dekle of the (Florida) State Plant Board about a possible Palmer Nurseries-
Florida State Museum cooperative archaeological investigation of the exten-
sive Indian remains present at the Palmer Estate near Osprey, Florida.
Dekle transmitted this enquiry to Arnold B. Grobman, then Director, and
Ripley P. Bullen, then Curator of Social Sciences, of the Florida State Muse-
um. As a result cooperative excavations were conducted in 1959, 1960, and
The Palmer site, located just north of Osprey, consists of four major
components: the large Hill Cottage Midden, dating to the Archaic period
(2500-1000 B. C. ); the long and narrow Shell Ridge extending into Little Sara-
sota Bay, where Indians lived around the time of Christ; and the later Shell
Midden village bordering the bay a little to the south with its accompanying
Burial Mound (Fig. 1, 4-5). Excavations at the Hill Cottage Midden com-
menced in April 1959. With their completion the middle of May, work was
started at the Burial Mound. The 1959 season ended in June when the Burial
Mound was about one fourth excavated. During the 1960 and 1962 seasons exca-
vation of the Palmer Burial Mound was completed. Concurrent with the 1959
work at the Burial Mound, Edward M. Dolan, then a graduate student at Flor-
ida State University, carried out stratigraphic tests in the Shell Ridge, the
more recent Shell Midden, and the North Creek area. R. P. Bullen super-
vised all other excavations.
During these investigations the Palmer Nurseries supplied labor and the
Palmer Estate especially pleasant living accommodations, while the Florida
State Museum supplied archaeological field supervision. All the work of clean-
ing, cataloging, analysis, and the preparation of the report was done at the
Florida State Museum in Gainesville where the specimens form part of the
Museum's research collections.
The Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Exploration Department of the Humble
Oil and Refining Company, Houston, Texas, in 1960 dated eleven shell samples
from the Palmer site under an arrangement then existing between that company
and the Oceanographic Institute at Florida State University. These dates (H. N.
Fisk, letter of 26 July 1960 to Donn S. Gorseline) have been very helpful in the
study of the archaeology of the Palmer site and of Florida. This assistance is
Appreciation is also due members of the staff of Palmer Nurseries for
many courtesies extended by them and for their cooperation in the loan of a
water pump, transit, and other equipment. Without the enthusiastic help and
cooperation of Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Palmer this report could not have been
Archaeology and the State of Florida also owe a debt to Mrs. Potter Palm-
er of Chicago and Sarasota, grandmother of Gordon Palmer, for the pres-
ervation of the site. She purchased the land in 1910, built several houses on
the grounds, and did extensive landscaping but maintained the integrity of the
aboriginal structures. This work was limited to minor surface disturbances
and a fair amount of filling done to level the land. Contrary to general prac-
tice, this fill did not come from the adjacent Indian burial mound or middens.
Except for two narrow and relatively shallow trenches dug across the Burial
Mound for the installation of water pipes and for the construction there of a
chicken coop, this feature was entirely undisturbed when excavation started.
This situation is different from that at most Florida Indian sites where
shell middens have been removed for fill and burial mounds vandalized by un-
thinking, usually trespassing, pothunters. The Palmer site at The Oaks, as
the estate is named, is the only sizable prehistoric Indian village complex on
the Gulf coast south of Crystal River and north of Fort Myers which is sub-
stantially as left by its prehistoric inhabitants. The credit should go to Mrs.
This report covers the archaeology of the Palmer site. Food remains
from the middens in the form of animal bones have been deposited in the zoo-
archaeological collections of the Florida State Museum and will become the
subject of a separate report. They will receive only cursory mention here.
The human skeletal remains are also in the research collections of the Flor-
ida State Museum. Kinds of interment and burial locations are included here.
Reports on various aspects of interest to Physical Anthropologists will be
published elsewhere. The first of these, an article on pathology by Adelaide
K. Bullen, "Paleoepidemiology and Distribution of Prehistoric Treponemiasis
(Syphilis) in Florida, has already appeared in The Florida Anthropologist
(A. K. Bullen 1972).
Hill Cottage Midden
The location and peculiar shape of the Hill Cottage Midden (Fig. 1, 2) is
shown on the site map (Fig. 2) and on a contour map of this extensive midden
presented as Figure 3. Locations of major tests are indicated on both the
site and contour maps while the latter also locates various small test holes
(Fig. 3, 1-10) dug to investigate the area surrounded by this horseshoe-shaped
feature. Also shown on the contour map is the Hill Cottage where we lived
during the first season.
While this midden is essentially the same as it was when abandoned by
Indians, some modifications have occurred. These include the construction
of the cottage, paths, and a roadway to the cottage. The last, with a turn-
around located to the southeast of the cottage (Fig. 3, east of C), is respon-
sible for the southeastern bulges of the contour lines east of the cottage. Im-
mediately to the north of the cottage is a cesspool and to the west a lawn.
A tile drain was installed to remove water which collected between the
two lobes of the midden. It ran northwesterly and was crossed by our Test N.
The cleaning out and drainage of this central area effectively prevented any
investigation of what must have been the location of a spring. The level land
between the midden and the bay is fill placed behind a bulkhead. In aboriginal
times, the midden sloped downward, under the present fill, to meet the bay;
and the flat area, 100-200 feet southwest of the cottage, was not present.
Our stratigraphic excavations (Fig. 3, A-D) were all located in places
where there had been no disturbance, except for a little leveling of the sur-
face at Tests A, B, and C. The path previously mentioned, which is not in-
cluded in Figure 3, passed between Tests A and B. At Test D the surface
was rather irregular while the path on the eastern lobe was located further
towards the east. In all cases excavation was done by 6-inch arbitrary levels.
When these levels are referred to in the text, they are numbered from the top
downward so that Level 1 refers to the 0- to 6-inch level, Level 2 to the 6-
to 12-inch level, and so forth.
The major excavation at the Hill Cottage Midden consisted of a 12- by 12-
foot test carried downward to a little below the water table. At that depth the
area of the excavation had become reduced to 4 by 4 feet because of the nec-
essary in-sloping of the sides of the hole. For access and ease of removing
debris, a narrow extension was dug towards the west (Fig. 3, A). Profiles
from this excavation are presented in Figure 4; field work and typical speci-
mens are illustrated in Plates I-IV.
Fig. 2. Map of the Palmer site.
0. 200F 4
HILL COTTAGE MIDDEN
CONTOUR INTERVAL- 2 feet
Fig. 3. Contour map, Hill Cottage Midden.
As indicated in the profile, the midden consisted of different layers of
shells which varied because of the dominant kind of shells present, the condi-
tion of the shells, or the color of intermingled material. Prominant character-
istics of this nature have been singled out to indicate layering in the profiles
Shell remains were chiefly those of scallops, oysters, clams (Venus sp.),
left-handed or lightning whelks, fighting conchs (Strombus pugilis alatus
Gmelin), tulip shells (Fasciolaria tulipa Linne), and Murex sp. shells. Under
the surface zone of roots, dirt, humic material, and crushed shells, blackish
brown sandy dirt containing some sandstone lumps comprised as much as 60
percent of the deposits above a depth of 24 inches. Similarly, between depths
of 36 and 48 inches blackish dirt accounted for nearly 50 percent of the mate-
rial moved. In this second dirt zone the relative quantity of scallop shells in-
creased. Between these zones were shells mixed with a large amount of ashes.
One ash lens, about 15 by 20 inches across, extended downward from 20 to
30 inches below the surface. Here and at the base of the lower dirt zone, the
presence of hearths was indicated by large amounts of ashes and some heat-
cemented shells. In one instance, between depths of 42 and 48 inches, a lens
of charcoal impregnated dirt, containing fragments of bone and shell covering
an area 32 by 42 inches, was surrounded by heat-cemented shells. This was
the only formation we found in the shape of a hearth or fireplace.
Below a depth of 48 inches, loose shells were encountered while an in-
crease in the quantities of scallop shells and of sandstone pebbles and cobble-
stones, 2 to 6 inches across, was noted. There was a heavy concentration of
ashes and cemented shells in the upper part of the loose shell zone down to a
depth of 60 inches. Below that depth, shells approximated 80 percent of the
deposit and dirt of various kinds, 20 percent. Scallops, then fighting conchs,
were the most common shells although there were more large left-handed
whelks than higher up. While other shells were present, the continued empha-
sis on scallop shells was noted down to a depth of 77 inches. Below that point,
while scallop shells were still dominant, other shells and large amounts of
crushed shells were found in substantial amounts.
By a depth of 7 feet, the main excavation which had started as a 12- by 12-
foot hole, had become reduced to one 7 by 7 feet in area. Relatively more
left-handed whelks and crushed fish bones were noted. Around and slightly
below a depth of 8 feet, many rather large left-handed whelks and some large
horse conchs (formerly Fasciolaria, now Pleuroploca gigantea Kiener) were
encountered. This concentration is noted as the next to the lowest zone on the
profiles (Fig. 4). In the lowest excavated zone, between depths of 9 and 11
feet, there was a marked increase in the quantities of oyster shells. The last
foot of this zone, down to a depth of 12 feet where water was encountered,
contained crushed as well as whole shells.
HILL COTTAGE MIDDEN
4N 3N 2N
Loo se shells,
a-sand-tempered plain d-Orange Incised
b-semi-fiber-tempered plain e-Orange Plain
c- St. Johns Plain
Fig. 4. Profiles from Test A, Hill Cottage Midden.
This midden was built up gradually by the accumulation of shells and dirt
brought to the site by Indians. Intermingled with these remains were fish
bones and occasionally those of turtle and deer as well as discarded shell
tools (Pls. 3-4) and, in the upper levels, sherds of fiber-tempered pottery
(P1. 3, e-f). The shells as well as the bones indicate the diet of the Indians
who lived on this growing midden. No suggestion of vegetable food was noted.
The large amounts of dirt and sand may have been brought to the midden for
sanitary reasons or to produce living areas where they could work without
having their feet or moccasins cut by broken shells. No compact black
"greasy" zones or lenses were found such as are considered representative
of hut or house floors. Cooking fires are suggested by deposits of heat-ce-
mented shells, only one of which, in the excavated area, suggested a hearth.
Other features included burials in the upper black zone, scattered Busy-
con shells placed with their apexes upwards, and some possible post holes.
The last consisted of ten circular deposits of brown dirt, 6 to 12 inches in
diameter, spaced about 24 inches apart which formed three irregular rows.
Discovered 66 inches below the surface, they were surrounded by loose shells
which made definite delineation as post molds very difficult. Their arrange-
ment in rows was more suggestive of a drying rack than of a house. In the
northeast face of the trench, at approximately the same elevation, were verti-
cal zones of brown dirt, 6 to 9 inches across, which lead downward through 12
to 15 inches of shells from the concentrated black-brown dirt and shell zone
above. One had a square end at a depth of 72 inches and another a rounded end
at a depth of 78 inches. These are believed to be part of the "drying rack"
At a depth of 17 inches and in grey sand, we uncovered the tops of five
large Busycon shells all placed vertically in the ground with their apexes
uppermost. These shells were 3 to 4 feet apart and their spacial arrangement
approximately formed a right angle. Six cobblestones were scattered over the
excavated area at the same elevation. Two more vertically placed Busycon
shells were found with their tops 4 inches deeper. Plotting them on the same
plan as the five described above would extend the right angle diagram into a
"T. The arrangement of these large Busycon shells may have been for-
tuitous but it was suggestive of supports for foundation logs or sills.
Two burials had been placed in the highest black dirt zone. Human bones
were found scattered over much of the western half of Test A between depths
of 3 and 12 inches. Most were found around a depth of 6 inches at a definite
level which did not parallel the present slope. Some disturbance had occurred,
probably the result of surface leveling and grading connected with landscaping
the midden, but enough bones remained in situ to show that both burials were
HILL COTTAGE MIDDEN
Burial 1 was tightly flexed, lying on its right side with head to the south-
east. It appeared to have been interred in a rather shallow, basin-shaped pit.
Behind the base of the skull, at the nape of the neck, were some dog bones
including ribs, vertebrae, and part of a lower jaw. Burial 2 was more frag-
mentary than Burial 1 and no skull fragments were present. From the arrange-
ment of the arm, leg, and foot bones, this interment had originally been flexed.
The 12-foot contour line at "A" in Figure 3 exhibits an unnatural west-
ward bulge. This is undoubtedly the result of leveling and grading for the
walk located between locations "A" and "B." Burial 2 was located nearer
to this walk and consequently was the more fragmentary and disturbed of the
two. Both interments were those of adults.
The vertical distribution of pottery in Test A at the Hill Cottage Midden
for the eastern half of the main excavation, east of the 1S-1N line (Figs. 3-4)
where the surface of the midden was reasonably level, has been indicated in
Figure 4. While the frequency of sherds is low, the stratigraphic relation-
ships are clear. Pottery, other than Orange Plain, is limited to the highest 2
feet while sherds of Orange Plain were found at substantially lower depths.
Lower levels produced no pottery. As fiber-tempered Orange Series pottery
is the earliest pottery known for Florida, these lower levels must be pre-
sumed to be preceramic.
This situation is duplicated at the Bluffton midden on the St. Johns River
in east Florida where a zone containing Orange Plain sherds overlay substan-
tial preceramic deposits and was in turn overlaid by levels producing Orange
and Tick Island Incised (decorated fiber-tempered) pottery (Bullen 1955:4).
At both sites there was some St. Johns Plain pottery in higher levels. These
sites, the Hill Cottage Midden at the Palmer site and the Bluffton midden be-
side the St. Johns River in Volusia County, are the only two sites in Florida
which have produced evidence of an early predecorated phase of the Orange
period. A similar early undecorated fiber-tempered period is known for
Georgia (Bullen 1961:105).
In the highest levels of Test A at the Hill Cottage Midden, a few sherds
of Orange Incised, Norwood Plain (semi-fiber-tempered, Phelps 1965), sand-
tempered plain, and St. Johns Plain pottery were found. Stratigraphic sorting
of these ceramic types in this test is not clear because of the surface distur-
bance mentioned earlier, but there is a suggestion that sand-tempered plain
is the most recent style as it had the shallowest average depth. By definition
these highest levels with Norwood Plain, Orange Incised and Plain, and sand-
tempered plain pottery would belong to the Florida Transitional period (Bullen
1959), circa 1000 B. C.
Orange Incised sherds from this excavation are fragmentary and do not
exhibit definable decorative motifs. All that can be said is that decoration
consists of incised straight lines which are close together or are paired and
separated by about an inch (Pl. 3, e-f). One sherd, not illustrated, suggests
a concentric diamond design. In comparison with Orange Incised sherds from
the St. Johns River, those from the Palmer site are sandier and exhibit fine
quartz grains. Orange Plain sherds from deeper levels do not contain this
fine sand as additional tempering material.
Other specimens from Test A, east of the ZS-ZN line, are listed in
Table 1 and illustrated in Plates III-IV. Most specimens are of well known
types and their definitions will be found in standard references (Willey 1949,
Goggin 1949, Bullen and Bullen 1956). While excavation proceeded by 6-inch
levels, some arbitrary levels have been combined in Table 1 for ease of
Examination of Table 1 indicates that specimens occur in greatest quan-
tities between depths of 6 and 18 inches and 4 and 5 feet. These depths are
approximately the same as those of the upper and lower black dirt zones
shown on the profiles (Fig. 4). Obviously, these are zones of intense occupa-
tion and the dirt and sand present at thesedepthswere brought to the midden
concomitant with such occupation.
While most specimens conform to well-known forms, a few comments
may be helpful. The simple bone points (P1. III, c-d) are extremely close
to those described by Tyzzer (1936) for the shell middens of Maine. Apparent-
ly, this point is found in early middens throughout the Atlantic coastal area.
The sting ray spine (Pl. III, a) has sides smoothed from use and a base
which has been intentionally thinned. It probably was hafted as an arrow point.
The bead made from the base of a Conus shell (Pl. III, h) is the first
specimen of this type to come to our attention. Both the sides and the hole
are rounded. The presence of several celts made from thick lips of Strombus
gigas shells are noteworthy (Pl. IV, b-c). Today these shells grow in Flor-
ida only in the Miami area. Their presence at the Palmer site shows communi-
cation or trade with southeastern Florida some 150 air miles away. As these
tools are also found in Orange and preceramic deposits in the St. Johns River
valley (Bullen 1955), it seems likely the trade route was north and east of
Lake Okeechobee. The shell sinker (Pl. III, q) is a unique tool. It has a large
hole, apparently for suspension, but its function as a fishing weight is specu-
Other shell tools require no commerit typologically but the very large
number of columella hammers (Pl. III, 1-m) is remarkable. This simple
device, which utilized the compact central column of univalves, was undoubt-
edly used as a hand-held hammer to gain access to the animals inside of the
HILL COTTAGE MIDDEN
Table 1. Vertical Distribution
Hill Cottage Midden
of Bone, Shell, and Stone Artifacts from Test A,
Depths below surface in feet
Specimens 0-1/2 1/2-2 2-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 9-11
Shark vertebra bead 1 2
Bone pin fragments 6
Bone awl fragments 3 1
Simple bone point 3
Large bone point 1
Worked sting ray spine 1
Conus shell bead
Oliva shell bead
Perforated scallop shell
Perforated cockle shell
Chipped Venus shell
Busycon pick or hammer
Small Strombus hammer
Strombus gigas celts
Worked Busycon shell
Small shell disc
Red and yellow clayey nodules 1
Notched net sinker
Sandstone rubbing stone
3 8 1
aSeven are picks Two are Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca), others Busycon.
cOne is Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca)
shells. Busycon, Strombus (P1. IV, i) and Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca) ham-
mers are functionally similar except that they were supplied with wooden
The red and yellow clayey nodules (Pl. IV, e) were probably used as a
source of red color or paint. They have rounded edges and slightly concave
surfaces but do not exhibit any grinding striations. The color rubs off easily
onto the hands. The notched net sinker made of sandy limestone (Pl. IV, d)
is of a simple form. It probably was a fishing device. The stone balls (P1. IV,
f, h) have been artificially formed, apparently by pecking. Perhaps they
should be classified as hammerstones. If so, they, like many of the shell
tools, were used to break shells as very few pecked and no flaked artifacts
were found. The sandstone rubbing stones (Pl. IV, j) are not very impressive
tools. However, they have fairly smooth surfaces, sometimes concave,
where rubbing may have occurred. The worked sandstone specimen (P1. IV,
g) exhibits a deeply pecked groove on one side. Adjacent to this groove, on
both the top and bottom sides, pecking scars show the start of similar grooves.
It could have functioned as a grooved net sinker but the maker may have had
another object in mind.
While there are some correlations with depth in the midden, there seem
to be no typological changes in these tools over time. The concentration of
Busycon picks at shallower zones (Table 1) may not be correct as such tools
would be included under Busycon hammers if their ends were broken. Sim-
ilarly, the concentration of bone pin fragments in pottery producing levels
is to be discounted as such objects were found at Bluffton in preceramic
levels (Bullen 1955:11). Busycon pounders (Pl. III, s) and perforated scallop
(Pl. III, j) and cockle shells seem typical of preceramic levels but the first
two are also known for nearby post-Orange period middens (Bullen and Bullen
1956:44, P1. IV).
While there may be some question about the cultural placing of specimens
from the very top of the Hill Cottage Midden, those below a depth of 2 and
above a depth of 5 feet must have been made during the Orange period of be-
tween approximately 2000 and 1000 B. C. (Bullen 1961). Below a depth of 5
feet, one sherd to the contrary, all specimens must belong to the preceramic
part of the Archaic period (Table 1). It is extremely interesting to note the
continuity into later ceramic periods of many if not all of the shell tools found
in Test A. The Hill Cottage Midden is the first Archaic marine shell midden
excavated on the Florida Gulf coast and we probably should not be surprised
at the presence in such early deposits of functionally useful tools known to be
also present in similar but substantially later middens. The development of
such tools occurred, apparently, when the Archaic people first learned to eat
marine shellfish. Because of their usefulness and ready availability, they were
made and used as long as Florida Indians depended on shell fish as their major
pL L- CLIL~
*. yL .
I; -~ CpqZ-z
Plate XVII. Alligator burial.
Upper, enlargement of fish vertebrae beads; middle, overall view,
note extension of lower string of beads from right fore limb to hind
limb; lower, enlargement of alligator skeleton.
~'~7z~L~ r 1
I, ~ ~i~Z~
'. ~"'' ~''~'
Plate XVIII. Excavations in western (1960) and southern(1962) parts of mound,
Upper, series of group burials at various elevations, looking south, F line to left;
lower, looking west, alligator was in unexcavated area where Mrs. Gordon Palmer is
,13 i, ,-'- .. ... -* > -. '
Plate XIX. Burials in southwest corner of Sq. 3E.
Upper, close-up of Burials 138 and 139; lower, mass interment, Burials 134-
140, lines of grid one foot apart.
Plate XX. Two flexed burials from the Palmer Burial Mound.
Upper, from Sq. 3F, dent in rear of skull not an excavation artifact; lower,
from upper part of Sq. 2E, note erosion of bone.
Plate XXI. Flexed burials.
Upper, Burial 375; lower, Sq. 1Z (Fig. 14) after heavy rain,
Burials 22 and 23, 21 and 21A, 9, and 8, clockwise.
B` '-"S~A-~~: -
Plate XXII. Disturbed burials, Palmer
Upper, Burial 148 (two people); lower, Burial 245.
Both probably bundle burials.
Plate XXIII. Flute (broken) made from a human femur.
PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
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1. Two Archeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida, by Hale G. Smith,
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lombia: Its Origins, Context, and Significance edited by Ripley P. Bullen
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7. Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 year old Early Man Site by Carl
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8. The Palmer Site by Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen, 1976. $3. 00, in print.
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