Table of Contents
 Editor's page
 Excavations in water-saturated...
 Stratigraphic excavations at Groves'...
 Technology of Mount Taylor period...
 Wooden artifacts from Groves' Orange...
 The chipped stone tool industry...
 Report of preliminary zooarchaeological...
 Archaeobotanical data from Groves'...
 Chapter spotlight: The Pensacola...
 Join the Florida Anthropological...
 About the authors
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00054
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00054
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
notis - AAA9403

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 324
    Editor's page
        Page 325
    Excavations in water-saturated deposits at Lake Monroe, Volusia County, Florida: An overview
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
    Stratigraphic excavations at Groves' Orange Midden, Lake Monroe, Volusia County, Florida: Methodology and results
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    Technology of Mount Taylor period occupation, Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County, Florida
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
    Wooden artifacts from Groves' Orange Midden
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
    The chipped stone tool industry at Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County, Florida
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
    Report of preliminary zooarchaeological analysis: Groves' Orange Midden
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
    Archaeobotanical data from Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County, Florida
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
    Chapter spotlight: The Pensacola archaeological society or life in the far west
        Page 419
    Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
    About the authors
        Page 423
    Back Cover
        Page 424
Full Text


S2000 Florida Anthropological Society Inc.

The Florida Anthropological Society Inc. holds
source text of the Florida Anthropologist
considered the copyright holder for the text
these publications.

all rights to the
and shall be
and images of

The Florida Anthropological Society has made this publication
available to the University of Florida, for purposes of
digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Anthropological Society reserves all rights to this
publication. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use"
provisions of U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted.

Contact the Florida Anthropological Society for additional
information and permissions.



Volume 47 Number 4
December 1994
Page Number


Editor's Page. Brent R. Weisman 325

Excavations in Water-Saturated Deposits At Lake Monroe,
Volusia County, Florida: An Overview. Barbara A. Purdy 326
Stratigraphic Excavations at Groves' Orange Midden, Lake Monroe,
Volusia County, Florida: Methodology and Results. Ray M. McGee and Ryan J. Wheeler 333
Technology of Mount Taylor Period Occupation, Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601),
Volusia County, Florida. Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee 350
Wooden Artifacts From Groves' Orange Midden. Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee 380
The Chipped Stone Tool Industry at Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601),
Volusia County, Florida. Barbara A. Purdy 390
Report of Preliminary Zooarchaeological Analysis: Groves' Orange Midden. Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee 393
Archaeobotanical Data From Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County, Florida. Lee Newsom 404
Marken, Pottery from Spanish Shipwrecks. Reviewed by Bonnie G. McEwan 418
Chapter Spotlight: The Pensacola Archaeological Society, Or Life in the Far West. Submitted by Harv Dickey 419
Join the Florida Anthropological Society 420

Cover: An 1874 View of the Old Enterprise Midden (from Wyman 1875, Plate 1, pp. 19-20; see Purdy this issue)

Funding for this issue of The Florida Anthropologist was provided in part by Barbara A. Purdy

Copyright 1994 by the
ISSN 0015-3893


Brent R. Weisman

Of the many contributions made by Florida archaeology
to North American archaeology in general over the past
decade, perhaps none has a greater potential to advance our
knowledge of archaeologically unknown realms than wet-site
archaeology. That Florida is the national leader in this field
cannot be disputed; see, for instance, the excellent treatment
Florida receives at the hands of Glen Doran and Barbara Purdy
in the 1992 volume The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory,
edited by Bryony Coles. Florida's place in the forefront of the
Wetland Revolution should, perhaps, come as no surprise.
After all, 100 years ago Cushing's spectacular finds at Key
Marco riveted archaeological attention on Florida. But the fact
that others, including C.B. Moore and, later, John Goggin,
tried hard to follow in Cushing's footsteps to find their own
Key Marco, without success, illustrates why Florida's wet sites
have given up their treasures only reluctantly. Simply put, wet
sites have been, and remain, very difficult to find by
prediction. It is likely that there are far fewer true wet sites
than there are likely locations for such sites, making site
discovery during routine reconnaissance or first phase surveys
difficult or less than probable. More than ten years ago, Lee
Newsom and I sat in a mandatory graduate class together at the
University of Florida called "The Profession of
Anthropology." When her turn came to introduce herself, Lee
said that she was attending graduate school to study Florida's
wet sites. Hearing this, the professor smirked "well, that
shouldn't be hard to do," a response that brought laughter from
the rest of the students. Other than being plain wrong, I would
venture further to say that the professor and his students would
no longer laugh at the prospect of studying archaeological wet

In this issue of The Florida Anthropologist I am pleased
to present the most recent contributions of Barbara Purdy and
her associates to Florida wet site archaeology. Those of you
well versed in the early history of Florida archaeology will
know Lake Monroe as the location of the once-vast Enterprise
site, reported on by Wyman after his excavations there in the
1860s. Despite the early entry of Lake Monroe into the
archaeological literature (human remains from another Lake
Monroe midden had also been reported and much discussed
during this period), it was not recognized until 1987 that
significant submerged archaeological deposits might exist
along the lakeshore. In the subsequent seasons of excavation,
directed by Dr. Purdy, preserved organic cultural remains were
indeed discovered, some belonging to a level dating to about
6,200 B.P. These artifacts of wood, shell, and bone, dating to
the late Middle Archaic period, clearly show the foundations
of a cultural tradition that would be in evidence some 5,000
years later at Hontoon Island, located on the St. Johns River
about 10 miles north of Lake Monroe. Taken together, Lake
Monroe and Hontoon Island give us a remarkably complete
picture of technological continuity in the Mt. Taylor, Orange,
and St. Johns archaeological cultures during a span of more
than 5,000 years.
Special credit for production assistance with this issue
goes to Christine Newman and Ryan Wheeler. Their help was
invaluable in getting the journal to the printer on time. I
would also like to acknowledge the generous financial donation
by Dr. Barbara A. Purdy to the Florida Anthropological
Society to help defray the publication costs of this issue.


Vol. 47 No. 4



Barbara A. Purdy


Jeffries Wyman excavated at the Old Enterprise site
(8V055) on the north shore of Lake Monroe in 1860. He
revisited the site in 1867 (Wyman 1868) and again in 1874
(Wyman 1875). The 1875 account does not differ significantly
from that of 1868 except to mention changes that had occurred
since his previous visits.
Wyman described the shell mound at Old Enterprise as
the most important of the dwelling places on the lake,
measuring 18 to 20 feet high, 130 feet east-west at its base
along the shore, and 140 feet north-south. These dimensions
are those of the principal mound and were increased greatly by
the occurrence of additional midden to the east and west and a
300-foot extension to the north. In 1860, the front of the
midden above the water was 15 feet, and rose even higher to a
plateau upon which had been built a hotel and several out
buildings that no longer existed by 1867. The "hotel for
invalids" was built in the early 1840s by Major Cornelius
Taylor, one of the earliest settlers in the area. The top of the
shell mound was, in fact, the original location of the town of
Enterprise. Enterprise was the southernmost steamboat stop on
the St. Johns River, and the hotel was built to accommodate
steamboat passengers as well as people who came seeking cures
for various diseases in the area's sulphuric springs (Stirling
1857; Friend 1993). Count L.F. de Pourtales provided
Wyman with a drawing of the bluff as it appeared when seen
from the lake in 1848. Pourtales, a Swiss anthropologist and,
later, curator at Harvard, visited the sites at both Enterprise
and nearby Stone Island. Wyman mentioned that the bluff had
been eroded by waves during great storms and that massive
amounts of materials had been washed into the lake and then
distributed 1,600 feet along the shore to the east forming a sea
wall 40 to 50 feet wide and as much as 3 to 4 feet thick. His
observation was substantiated by our investigations. Wyman
noted in 1874 that 12 palm trees, which had been on firm land
earlier, were standing in water 8 to 10 feet from shore with
their roots completely denuded of earth. One of them had
fallen. A sketch had been made of the scene in 1860 and
Wyman compared it to what he saw in 1874 (Figure 1;
Wyman 1875:Plate I, 19-20). It is possible that the tree had
died a natural death and that Wyman was observing the rather
dramatic seasonal changes in water level that occur in Lake
Monroe. I have visited the area at different times of the year.

Locations that were dry land in early June were 5 feet under
water in October. Long-time residents in the area relate even
greater extremes in water levels of the lake. There is little
question, however, that erosion of the mound distributed
materials eastward for a considerable distance along the north
Wyman excavated at Old Enterprise for several days in
1860 (Wyman 1868, 1875). He moved many cartloads of
material and collected objects of interest from all depths below
the surface that were mingled with the shells. These included
the bones of deer, opossum, rabbit, alligator, two species of
turtle, catfish, and gar. Considerable quantities of pottery
were found "mostly ornamented with tracings in straight lines .
..with palmetto fibre mixed with the clay in the making of the
vessels; but few of the pieces were stamped" (Wyman
1875:20). The collections made by Wyman were preserved in
the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology
at Harvard. Fiber-tempered pottery of the Orange period was
the most common type recovered during our excavations also,
whereas sherds of St. Johns ware were present but scarce.
Wyman mentions that "in certain directions there were
appearances of somewhat extensive removals of material, but
whether by the Indian or white man, we could not learn"
(Wyman 1875:20). LeBaron (1884) was at the site on August
15, 1877 and observed that one-half of the mound was gone.
Dall (1885) has this to say about the site:
The present state of the mound at Old Enterprise is
one of dilapidation. It is situated on land belonging
to the DeBary estate and is fenced in but the material
is used in fertilizing orange groves and making shell
walks, and, by the owners, or with their permission
probably two-thirds of the mound [dug nearly to the
level of the beach] have been carted away.
Now, as a result, there is no bluff as described by
Wyman and the terrestrial portion of the site rises only slightly
above the lakeshore (Figure 2).
For at least a century truckloads of shell have been carted
off from middens in Florida, sometimes without leaving a
record and without any restrictions on the activity. Shell has
been mined and used for roadbeds, septic tanks, and so on
(see, for example, the description of the Tick Island site by
Jahn and Bullen 1978). These activities have distorted the
chronological picture at many sites, including Old Enterprise,
which was left with only an apron of midden containing


Vol. 47 No. 4




WYIMA'S Memoir on the Fresh Water Shell Mounds of Florida.

Figure 1. An 1874 view of the Old Enterprise Midden from Wyman (1875, Plate I, pp. 19-20).

4th Memoir. Plate I.

___ -.-4 ~ -~ L-,T

- --- -


Figure 2. A view of the north shore of Lake Monroe during excavations at Groves' Orange Midden in 1993.

information primarily from the Orange and Mount Taylor
periods. The site also was inhabited during the St. Johns
period (Goggin 1952:92; Russo et al. 1992), but there is no
way of learning how extensive or dense this habitation may
have been.
Following Wyman, the Old Enterprise site was visited by
LeBaron (1884) and Dall (1885), whereas Thomas (1894)
simply quotes from Dali's account. Brinton (1872) was in the
area but may not have visited the Old Enterprise midden. Dall
did not agree with everything reported by Wyman. He did not
believe the mound was as big as Wyman reported, but it
should be remembered that he was at the site 25 years after
Wyman's first records were made. Neither Dall nor LeBaron
thought that the shell was an incidental accumulation of kitchen
refuse derived solely from relics of dinners. They concluded
that the mound had been raised for a purpose, such as an
observatory or fortification that offered protection from attack,
especially because it was partially surrounded by swamp.
Their comments may be valid, but Wyman saw the site before
it had been badly disturbed and his conclusions are those that
have been accepted.


Over many years, artifact hunters and residents of the
area have amassed large collections of pottery, stone
spearheads, and bone weapons and ornaments from the Old
Enterprise site. No further archaeological investigations were
conducted following Wyman's excavations until the late 1980s,
however, when we became interested in the offshore water-
saturated deposits. In 1987, Grant Groves, an avocational
archaeologist, showed us a wooden artifact (Figure 3) that he
had recovered from submerged deposits a few meters from the
north shore of Lake Monroe. We visited the site and examined
the deposits using a bucket auger and piston corer (Figure 4)
which established that well-preserved organic materials were
present in the strata. This portion of the site is called Groves'
Orange Midden (8VO2601) (Figure 5).
Excavations were conducted on the edge of the north
shore of the lake in 1989 (Purdy 1991; Russo et al. 1992) and
1992, and offshore in 1993. In 1989 a single 1 m by 2 m
square was dug in 10-cm levels. We used pumps to evacuate
water from the unit but problems with the pumps forced us to


0 1 2 3


Figure 3. Wooden artifact recovered at Lake Monroe by Grant Groves and preserved in polyethylene glycol by the author.

reduce the area to a 1 m by 1 m square halfway through the
excavation. Hoses were used for excavation and materials
were water-screened using fine mesh to collect small bones and
seeds; column samples were taken from the wall of the
excavation unit in 10-cm segments.
The primary goals of the brief test conducted in 1989
were to identify and date the contents of the strata containing
the organic materials. Six radiocarbon determinations
established the chronology between 3,100 B.P. for Level 2 and
5,700 B.P. for Level 8. We observed that: 1) sherds of the St.
Johns period came only from disturbed Levels 1 and 2; 2) the
majority of the pottery was Orange period ceramics, which was ...
recovered from Levels 1 through 6; and 3) Levels 7 and 8
contained fired clay lumps but no pottery sherds. The
radiocarbon dates, along with these observations, convinced us
that the Groves' Orange Midden site furnished an excellent
opportunity to document the initial phases of aquatic
adaptations along the river and delineate the transition from the
preceramic (but containing fired clay balls) to the early ceramic
periods. We recovered a full assemblage of environmental and
cultural information transcending the Late Preceramic Archaic
(known as Mount Taylor in this area of Florida) through the
Orange period. Eighty-two species of plants and animals were
identified from the 1989 excavations at Lake Monroe. They
consisted of 20 species of shellfish; 13 species of fish; 3
species of snake; salamander; alligator; 5 species of turtle; 3
species of birds; 5 species of mammals, including human;
hickory, oak, cane, dogwood, persimmon, ash, sweetgum, Figure 4. Coring in Lake Monroe in 1987.







Figure 5. The Lake Monroe project area and Groves' Orange midden.


--i-~ -;--.- i.c.~-'i-.r~~-P4
:-f:~,- ~ '
.~c. Lr
-1.~ -
-:,.: c



magnolia, mulberry, palm, pine, cherry/maple, willow,
elderberry, cypress, elm, grape, toothache tree, fringe tree,
bottle gourd, and squash/gourd. In addition to the ceramics
mentioned above, we also recovered stone, shell, bone and
wood artifacts (see Russo et al. 1992 for greater detail about
the significance of the 1989 excavations).
Much has been written hypothesizing how the Mount
Taylor people gradually adapted to the increasing abundance of
aquatic resources along the St. Johns River during the Late
Archaic period, beginning around 6,000 years ago. These
hypotheses were based upon an incomplete assemblage of
materials and inadequate sampling techniques (Goggin 1952;
Cumbaa 1976; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980). They were,
therefore, untestable models because they did not represent a
complete picture of the environmental and cultural situation
(Russo et al. 1992). We realized the unique opportunity
furnished by the Groves' Orange Midden site to further the
understanding of this interesting period in Florida's prehistory.
The materials from the single I m by 1 m test square
excavated in 1989 obviously did not constitute a large sample
despite the great variety of species recovered. In May of
1992, additional excavations were carried out at Lake Monroe
in a slightly different area of the site. We had hoped to
intersect the Mount Taylor to Orange periods again but the
deposits were entirely Preceramic Archaic. A series of
radiocarbon dates from various undisturbed strata (top to
bottom) provided a chronology of 5,100-5,900 years B.P. As
in 1989, the 1992 project was hampered by uncooperative
pumps and wall collapse.
Water-saturated cultural deposits at Lake Monroe extend
more than 100 feet into the lake but, because of logistical
problems involved with dewatering, we did not expect to be
able to conduct systematic excavations very far from shore.
Through the efforts and expertise of John Allen and the
generosity of his firm, Bumby and Stimpson, Inc., of
Orlando, specialists in dewatering operations, two locations in
the lake were cofferdammed and excavations proceeded as
though the area were on dry land. The use of a cofferdam
system with well points eliminated the usual problems with
wall collapse. Extensive coring had established ideal locations
to place the excavation units offshore in 1993 (see McGee and
Wheeler this issue). Seven radiocarbon dates were received
from materials recovered during the 1993 field project; they
ranged from 4,080 60 B.P. to 6,210 60 B.P.
The 1992 and 1993 investigations at the Groves Orange
Midden site were designed with the expectation that we would
be able to: 1) record the shift from nomadic hunters to
sedentary villagers who utilized aquatic species, 2) document
environmental changes that made the shift possible, 3) furnish
insights about the technology needed to exploit the resources,
4) examine deposits containing the oldest ceramics to
determine whether or not they contain other "innovations," 5)
study cultural evolution by comparing the Lake Monroe
deposits to those from the 1500-year-old site at Hontoon Island

located about 10 miles north on the St. Johns River (reported
previously in 1987 in Vol. 40 (1) of The Florida
Anthropologist), and 6) recover artifacts typical of the Orange
and Mount Taylor periods. With regard to this last objective,
we were especially interested in finding wood and bone
carvings because, if it were not for the intricate designs and
figures carved or engraved on bone and the totems, figurines,
and masks manufactured of wood, that survive only in
waterlogged deposits, it would be easy to conclude that Florida
Indians did not express themselves artistically or have artistic
traditions. Suitable stone material is not available in Florida to
produce stone statuary and, except occasionally, ceramic
technology was applied primarily to making quite standarized
and artistically uninteresting utilitarian dishes.
The materials recovered during excavations at Lake
Monroe, except for those recovered in 1989, are still
undergoing analysis; therefore, it is not possible at this time to
state whether or not most of the objectives have been met. The
problem with excavating water-saturated sites is the quantities
of materials that must be analyzed. Thousands of components
are recovered as compared to terrestrial sites where a handful
of stone and/or ceramic artifacts may make up the total
assemblage. All materials are presently located in the
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,


I wish to express my appreciation to the following
individuals and organizations for their part in making our
investigations at Lake Monroe a success: Grant Groves for
leading us to the site in 1987; J.J. Stipp of Beta Analytic, Inc.,
for the donation of radiocarbon analyses in 1989; the St. Johns
River Water Management District for financial support in
1992; the National Geographic Society (Grant 4946-93) for
funding to conduct excavations in 1993; John Allen and his
firm, Bumby and Stimpson, Inc., of Orlando who made the
dewatering operation possible; John Russell, his family, and
friends for constructing the floating platform and for other
assistance; local residents who allowed us access to their land;
graduate students, without whose help nothing would have
been accomplished, Michael Russo and Lee A. Newsom (who
conducted the 1989 faunal and floral analyses, respectively),
Ray M. McGee (who worked with me at the site from the
beginning), Ryan J. Wheeler (1992 and 1993), Erica Hill
(1993); last but not least, I am deeply grateful to the many
volunteers for their donations of money, food, time, labor,
services, and expertise, especially Peter and Gerri Bauer,
Loretta Beilstein, Barbara Bole, William Bulmer, Lani K.
Friend, George Long, Mike MacKay, Jane W. Miller,
Dorothy Moore, Jewel Pozefsky, Dorothy Rowan, Sandi
Russell, Edie Smith, Randy Torbett, Peggy Wilburn, the
Central Florida Anthropological Society, and the Volusia
County Anthropological Society. The excellent quality of all

of these contributions can be seen in the articles about Lake
Monroe appearing in this issue of The Florida Anthropologist.

References Cited

Brinton, Daniel G.
1872 Artificial Shell Deposits of the United States.
Smithsonian Institution Annual Report for 1866, pp.
356-58. Washington, D.C.

Cumbaa, Stephen L.
1976 A Reconsideration of Freshwater Shellfish Exploitation
in the Florida Archaic. The Florida Anthropologist

Dall, William H.
1885 Memorandum on the Mounds at Satsuma and
Enterprise, Florida. American Journal of Archaeology

Friend, Lani K.
1993 Historic Enterprise. A brochure researched, written,
and designed by Lani K. Friend with the support of the
Deltona Area Chamber of Commerce and the West
Volusia Tourism Advertising Authority.

Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology, Florida. Yale University Publications in
Anthropology, No. 47. Yale University Press.

Jahn, Otto L., and Ripley P. Bullen
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 31(4):Part 2.

LeBaron, J. Francis
1884 Prehistoric Remains in Florida. Smithsonian Institution
Annual Report for 1882, pp. 771-790.

Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands. CRC
Press, Boca Raton.

Russo, Michael, Barbara A. Purdy, Lee A. Newsom, and Ray
M. McGee
1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden (8-VO-
2601). Southeastern Archaeology 11(2):95-108.


Stirling, James
1857 Letters from the Slave States. John W. Parker and Son,

Thomas, Cyrus
1894 Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of
Ethnology. Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual
Report No. 12, Washington, D.C.

Wyman, Jeffries
1868 An Account of the Fresh-Water Shell-Heaps of the St.
Johns River, East Florida. American Naturalist 2:393-
403, 449-63.

1875 Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida. Peabody Academy of Science, Salem.

Barbara Purdy
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Ray M. McGee and Ryan J. Wheeler

The stratigraphic excavations at the Groves' Orange
Midden during May-June 1993 were the culmination of
preliminary testing and planning that began in 1987. Test
units in 1989 (see Russo et al. 1992) and 1992, as well as
bucket auger exploration and piston core survey, served to
determine the most suitable onshore and offshore areas for
study. Methods that utilized diaphragm and impeller pumps to
evacuate water from test units were abandoned in our most
recent work in favor of a well-point system that maintained
constantly dry conditions in test pit areas. This strategy of
cofferdam and well-point drainage allowed for excavation in
three areas of the site, including one onshore and two offshore
locations. Stratification in all three test areas was similar, with
five ethnoenvironmental zones identified. Radiocarbon dates
from hickory nuts and wood place the oldest levels at 6,200
B.P. Dates from the 1989 test are younger, with upper levels
at 3,800 B.P. The majority of the deposit excavated (all 1992
and 1993 material) has been assigned to the pre-pottery Mount
Taylor culture, the late Middle Archaic through early Late
Archaic occupation of the St. Johns River basin, with some
1989 material dating to the early fiber-tempered pottery
Orange period. The presence of fired clay cooking objects has
lead us to introduced the term "pre-pottery" to reflect the lack
of ceramic vessels; preceramic, a term often applied to the
Mount Taylor culture, is inaccurate (see Wheeler and McGee
on the technology of the Mount Taylor culture, this issue).


Previous work and discussions with local avocational
archaeologists had established that there was a midden with
organic preservation at the Groves' Midden. This portion of
the site is completely submerged and/or inundated, with no
surface indications of the extent or depth of the deposits. The
subaqueous nature of the deposit made it necessary to develop
a series of procedures, from initial surveying to excavation,
that allowed proper study of the site.

Core Survey

A piston core device was deemed the most suitable
method of sampling the underwater deposits for our initial
survey (see Hanna 1954 for discussion of subaqueous coring).
The advantage of the piston coring system is that it produces a

continuous core from the surface to a depth of 2 meters, with
contents in stratigraphic sequence (Purdy [1988] describes the
core rig used at Lake Monroe). A piston corer also causes a
minimum of compression in the core, allowing for an accurate
characterization of the deposit sampled (Ginsburg and Lloyd
1956). Comparison of core logs with stratigraphic profiles
from neighboring test units indicated that core compression
was less than 1 percent in midden ranging from 120 to 140 cm
Preceding the piston core survey, it was necessary to
determine the general extent of the midden in and along the
lake. Beginning well outside the target area thought to contain
the bulk of the site, a series of bucket auger samples were
taken until the lateral extent of the midden was determined.
Once the general midden area was defined, cores were
concentrated within an area 30 meters along the shore and 50
meters into the lake. Core locations were situated at
intersections of our site grid system, with a total of 26 cores
taken at 10-m intervals, covering an area from 4 to 50 meters
offshore. Figure 1 illustrates present site contours and the
locations of cores and test units.
Logs and photographs were produced for each core.
Figure 2 illustrates samples of core logs. The thickness and
depth of the deposit in each core was determined and utilized
to create paleotopographic reconstructions similar to those
described by Whittaker and Stein (1992:32-33). The isopach
and paleotopographic maps derived from the core log survey
indicated that midden material had been deposited in and
around a shallow stream bed or spring channel. Figures 3 and
4 are paleotopographic maps of midden thickness and extent of
midden, respectively. The deepest midden encountered
occurred within the extinct channel and eventually buried it.
Analysis of the core logs also demonstrate the fairly localized
midden deposits that extend for a short distance out from
around the old channel. The advantage of a paleotopographic
survey using the piston corer instead of bucket augers is the
production of a vertical profile of the midden, in addition to
the horizontal distribution. Units to be excavated
stratigraphically were placed within the old channel bed, the
thickest portion of the site.

Drainage System

Two of the areas excavated are located under 30 to 40 cm




Vol. 47 No. 4





C I, ,.

+ +






Figure 1. Contour map, Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601).





I.* **
* *.*
* .



*. .*.
./ :
* hb/
**. *::::








"| '


.. .
* *
*.. .."













VIVIPARUS *".' .:*.
. .
*.* *.*

** **.


V A .'.



Ol e

/ .3/,

Figure 2. Piston core logs, Groves' Midden.

of water, and all deposits on the lake shore are saturated just
below ground surface. The problem of water evacuation and
control had to be approached from two directions. First, the
surface water had to be held out of the excavation areas, and
second, the water had to be removed from the subsurface
A sandbag cofferdam was constructed around both
offshore excavation areas to hold the lake water out. The dams
consisted of an inner wall of sandbags built from the lake bed
to above the lake surface. A trench around the outside of the
inner wall was dug through the unconsolidated sand and shell
into the denser midden matrix. Sheets of heavy plastic were
placed around the outside of the inner wall from the top down
into the trench, the outer wall was then constructed by placing
sandbags in the trench to secure the plastic. This secondary
wall of sandbags was built up to half the height of the inner
wall. This produced a nearly watertight enclosure that would

hold out the lake water. Small leaks would be controlled by the
well-point system.
A series of 2-inch well points were jetted in around the
interior of the cofferdams; these would be responsible for
removal and continuous control of subsurface water (Figure 5).
The well points were placed at 3-foot intervals and set to a
depth of 10 feet below the surface, following the procedures
outlined by Briggs and Fiedler (1972:286-294). The well
points were connected to a 10-inch header pipe that ran to a
diesel-powered vacuum pump (see Powers 1981:185-206).
Figure 6 is an aerial photograph showing each cofferdam area,
as well as the well-point system and header pipe. Figure 7
illustrates the manner in which well points act together to
reduce the water level; it is the overlapping "cones of draw"
created by each well point that make it possible to drain
localized areas in and around the cofferdam. A similar well-
point operation was used to drain the Windover cemetery


* I L



L 1 _

Figure 3. Paleotopographic map, thickness of midden deposit, based on piston core survey, Groves' Orange Midden.





Figure 4. Paleotopographic map, depth of the bottom of midden deposit, based on piston core survey, Groves' Orange Midden.


Figure 5. Partially dry cofferdam area. Note well points surrounding the sandbagged area and the 10-inch header
pipe that connects them.

pond, but was turned off following initial drainage of the area
(Doran and Dickel 1988). Removal and control of in-flowing
water at Lake Monroe required that the pump run 24 hours a
day for the duration of the project. Any problems with the
pumping system could prevent the excavation from proceeding.
The first excavation unit was drained and kept dry
without any problems. Several days of pumping did not seem
to affect the surface water in the second unit. Some probing in
this area made it clear that a layer of peat was preventing the
surface water from being drawn down along with the water
below the peat; several well points were shortened to drain the
water lying superior to the peat, making excavation possible.
The third unit was excavated onshore, where the midden was
saturated below 60 cm. Partial cofferdams were used to keep
rainwater runoff out of the excavation.

Excavation Strategy

Within each of the three excavation areas, units were
excavated in 1 m by 1 m squares. Excavation tests were
aligned with the site grid, with unit designations derived from
the southeastern corner coordinates of each 1 meter square.

The first unit in each area was excavated in 10-cm arbitrary
levels, until sterile sand was reached or excavation was no
longer possible. The stratigraphic zones defined for the first
unit were then used as a guide to excavating the remaining
squares. The five strata identified for the site have been used
as correlational zones for purposes of stratigraphic and
artifactual analyses. Ten-centimeter levels were excavated
within each zone, except levels at the bottom of a zone, which
varied in thickness depending upon the amount of material left
before encountering the next strata. All vertical measurements
were made in relation to Mean Sea Level, as coordinated with
the elevation on a nearby bench mark (data provided by
Volusia County Surveying Department); all horizontal
measurements were made in relation to the site datum line and
baseline, established on a north-south/east-west grid and
coordinated with a property boundary marker. Record-keeping
forms were completed for each level and unit, as well as for
column samples, auger samples, wall profiles, and features.
Material excavated in 1992 from three 1 m by 1 m
squares further onshore was recovered in arbitrary 10-cm
levels. Problems controlling water prevented stratigraphic
excavation or the recording of strata. Based on the dates


Figure 6. Aerial photograph of cofferdam and well point system in place at Groves' Orange Midden. Note header pipe running
along the shoreline towards the diesel pump.




Figure 7. Schematic diagram demonstrating the action of well points in lowering water levels (redrawn from Briggs
and Feidler [1972:287]).


obtained from this excavation, as well as cores placed adjacent
to the tests, this material has been assigned to Zone IV, as
defined in the 1993 study.
Excavated material was water screened through stacked
mesh trays of 1/2-inch, 1/4-inch and 1/8-inch gauge. The
screened material was hand sorted into categories of bone,
stone, fired clay, marine shell, wood, and seeds; artifacts were
bagged and labeled separately.

Column Samples

A 50 cm by 50 cm column sample was collected from
each of the three 1993 excavation locales. One 30 cm by 30
cm column sample was excavated during the 1992 season.
These samples were collected in 10-cm levels following the
strata defined for the adjoining units. This material is being
processed and prepared for analysis of faunal and floral
remains (see preliminary analysis of faunal remains in this

Stratigraphic Study

Reconstruction of overall site stratification from core logs
and unit profiles makes it clear that the saturated deposit has
five distinct zones that are fairly homogenous throughout the
site. All strata seem to represent shoreline, near-shore, or
marsh environments in which refuse material was directly or
indirectly deposited. All midden material examined appears to
have been deposited underwater. Radiocarbon dates have
made it possible to correlate changes in stratification and strata
events with fluctuations in sea level and developmental
conditions in the river basin. The following discussion
presents an overview of major site strata, as well as a
description of the specific stratification in each of the 1992 and
1993 excavation areas.

Radiocarbon Dates

The series of radiocarbon determinations made on
materials from the three field seasons is summarized in Table
1. Figure 8 graphically depicts the dates, as well as one and
two sigma ranges. Determinations from 1992 and 1993 were
made by Beta Analytic, Inc., of Miami, Florida on wood or
hickory nuts; those of 1989 were made by Elizabeth Dunn, a
student at the University of Miami. The significance of the
dates, in terms of stratigraphy and environmental changes, is
discussed below.

Ethnoenvironmental Zones

The information regarding ethnoenvironmental zones
originates from the continuous core survey logs and test unit
profiles, as reconstructed in Figure 9.

Zone I: Disturbed. The uppermost 20 to 30 cm of all
1993 excavation units were comprised of tan sandy soil bearing
mixed cultural materials from assorted time periods, including
Mount Taylor, Orange, St. Johns, and recent eras. These were
the only levels in which pottery sherds, primarily Orange
Plain, Orange Incised, and Tick Island Incised, were
recovered. The highly water-worn material recovered from
Zone I offshore was usually lying in a horizontal plane,
suggesting fairly recent deposition on a beach, perhaps during
a low-water stand. The present-day beach to the east of the
midden has a similar configuration of water-worn artifacts.
Zone II: Upper Shell Midden. Zone II is a tightly packed
Viviparus snail shell midden that was deposited in the old
stream channel (discussed above). This layer ranges in
thickness from 40 cm offshore to 80 cm onshore. Based on
dates from 1989 and 1993, this deposit ranges from circa
4,000 to 4,300 B.P. The matrix surrounding the shell varies
from a dark organic soil to a loose gray sandy soil. No
features indicative of occupation (i.e., post molds, floors, etc.)
were encountered in Zone II. Most major artifact complexes
identified for the lower levels of the site continue in Zone II,
with the notable addition of four Strombus celts. Bullen
(1955:4) notes a similar introduction of Strombus tools in the
superior layers at Bluffton, another Mount Taylor site located
along the St. Johns River.
Zone III: Peat. Zone III is a highly organic
autochthonous peat that separates the upper (Zone II) and
lower (Zone IV) shell middens. This peat layer ranges in
thickness from 25 to 35 cm. As the peat zone thins out further
offshore, its composition becomes sandier. As noted above,
the peat provided a challenge to draining some excavation
areas. Zone III was not encountered in the 1992 excavation
units. Dates from directly below and above the peat are 4,930
+/- 80 B.P. and 4,190 +/- 60 B.P., respectively. The
deposition of the peat layer over a 700-year span, coupled with
the average thickness of the stratum around 30 cm, gives a
depositional rate of 3 to 4 cm per century. Presumably
representing the seasonal debris from a freshwater marsh, this
depositional rate is half those estimates reported for Everglades
peats, which are deposited year-round (Cohen et al. 1984:353).
Artifacts were encountered infrequently in Zone III, though
there are several interbedding shell lenses present in the
onshore units that demonstrate occupation during this period.
The deposition of the peat coincides temporally with a low sea
level stand postulated by Fairbridge (1984:436,Figure 1).
Miller (1992:102) notes that the water levels in the St. Johns
River basin change in direct proportion to sea level
fluctuations. Perhaps the changes in site environment caused a
slight shift in refuse disposal.
Zone IV: Lower Shell Midden. Zone IV is Viviparus
shell midden underlying the peat, ranging in thickness from 15
to 50 cm. Analysis of artifacts and tool complexes indicates
that this represents a slightly older component of the Zone II
shell midden. In all 1993 units this shell material is loosely

3.700 3,900 4,100 4,300 4,500

Oe 1- 1Or~- Pam Pottwy

Im te

4,700 4,800 5.10 00 5.0 5500 570 50 .100 ,00 6.300


Figure 8. Radiocarbon dates from Groves' Orange Midden with 1 and 2 sigma ranges.


Figure 9. Major stratigraphic units defined in piston core survey and excavation units, Groves' Orange Midden.


Table 1. Uncalibrated Radiocarbon Determinations from Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601), Lake Monroe, Florida. (Hickory
nut fragments were used in dating by Beta Analytic, Inc.)

Date B.P.

Lab Number

Rc +/- 1 sigma

Rc +/- 2 sigma

Season Zone/





*Note: Beta-65859 date is from wood fragments.

packed and mixed with a gray or white sandy soil. Based on
radiocarbon dates, this stratum represents the period from
6,000 to 5,000 B.P. All undisturbed levels excavated in 1992
have been assigned to Zone IV, representing a more landward
facies of the midden. Zone IV would appear to be the oldest
primary deposit of midden material encountered.
Zone V: Sand. Zone V is composed of a sandy matrix
with wood, shell, and assorted artifacts that probably washed
off the more landward midden deposits. Dates for this stratum
are the earliest from Groves' Midden, ranging from 6,210 +/-
60 B.P. to 6,200 +/- 70 B.P. Several interesting features
encountered in Zone V include a sterile, white sandy lens with
varves, as well as a mass of impenetrable water-worn wood at
the bottom of the deposit. Hakansan and Jansson (1983)
suggest that these sandy lenses with darker varves reflect
quieter deep water deposition, and the mass of wood is most
likely a non-cultural feature deposited on the lake bottom.
This stratum probably represents an additional depositional
facies of Zone IV encountered in the 1992 excavations.

1989, 1992, and 1993 Excavation Areas

The following discussion presents a detailed description
of the deposits encountered in all excavation units, because the
strata described above vary slightly from onshore to offshore

1989 Test Unit. The results of the 1989 tests have
already been reported (Russo et al. 1992). It should be noted,
however, that radiocarbon dates (see Table 1) place all 80 cm
excavated within Zone II, the upper shell midden. The most
notable change observed in the 1989 test is the transition from
pre-pottery levels (7 and 8) to a fiber-tempered Orange Plain
pottery horizon.
1992 Test Unit: 22S to 24S. The 1992 excavations were
not the subject of stratigraphic study, but some comments on
general strata encountered are possible. Coring was recently
conducted near the old 1992 test units to confirm our thoughts
regarding stratification and chronology in this area. The Zone
I, or disturbed area, was considerably thicker than that
encountered in 1993, extending 60 cm or more. One feature
near the top of the undisturbed midden, composed of black
greasy soil and numerous bone fragments, may have been a
floor or living area. Most material excavated in 1992 has been
assigned to Zone IV, the lower Viviparus shell and black earth
midden defined in 1993. As noted above, the peat layer,
representing the offshore marsh deposits, was not encountered
in the 1992 onshore tests. Zone V, the gray sand, was only
found in bucket auger tests below the shell midden.
1993 Test Unit: 64S to 65S (Figures 10-11). Zone I in
this area is composed of approximately 20 cm of mud and
sand, with assorted artifactual debris. Zone II is 35 cm of
midden deposit, varying between Viviparus shell and black


+/- 65
+/- 70
+/- 75
+/- 70
+/- 80
+/- 80
+/- 80
+/- 60
+/- 60
+/- 70*
+/- 80
+/- 60
+/- 70
+/- 60



II/ 2
II/ 3
II/ 5
II/ 8
II/ 7



5S1 TE

i oI ..,



LOWEWR *...-.-;.;. .;.:.:.: SOEN
MIOOEN .. ** '


:.'. ..\\\ \ '\\ C*\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\- SHELL

,, ':**'^ .....: :.:.:.. -... .
*.. .**;l GR EY





S'"- - *" ** ." ; llANO

0 50 100



Figure 10. Schematic profile of65S17E and 65S18E, Groves' Midden. This unit represents underwater deposits excavated using
the cofferdam and well point system.

Figure 11. Stratigraphic profile, 65SI7E and 65S18E, north wall. Black arrows indicate lake bottom.

RJW 1993



. ....*


0W 100
; ; ..lt

CRUSHED *- - -
*. .. *. *.* *. ... *.......

CRUSHD :: .. * . .*. ... I



* *. ....... *.*
*. ***. .**. .-** ** *.**.


Figure 12. Schematic profile of54S25.75E and 54S26.75E, Groves' Midden. This unit represents underwater deposits excavated
using the cofferdam and well point system.

earth midden and crushed shell. Several units in the test area
exhibit a layer of sterile white sand with varves at the contact
between the upper shell midden and the peat. This sand
probably represents higher water levels that made the area
inhospitable for marsh plants and peat formation. The quiet
water conditions were interrupted by a storm event that was
responsible for the deposition of the crushed shell lens. Zone
III peat is somewhat sandier in these units, representing the
further offshore facies of the marsh. Zone IV is Viviparus
shell midden. Zone V is gray sandy soil.
1993 Test Unit: 54S to 55S (Figures 12-13). Zone I is 20
cm of lake mud and sand. Zone II is 25 to 35 cm of Viviparus
shell and black earth midden. A thin lens of peaty sand runs
through a portion of the upper midden. A lens of crushed shell
is found at the contact between Zones II and III, again
evidence of a storm or similar event (compare the discussion of
the previous test unit). Zone III is a 30-cm thick peat deposit.
Zone IV is Viviparus shell and black earth midden, 45 cm at its
thickest point. A lens of white sand occupies a portion of
Zone IV. Zone V is gray sandy soil.
1993 Test Unit: 35S to 36S (Figures 14-15). Zone I is
somewhat thicker onshore, approximately 30 cm in this area.
Zone II is Viviparus shell and black earth midden with a thin
lens primarily containing wood and other floral material. This
may be a continuation of the peaty sand lens noted for the 53S
to 54S tests. Zone III represents the more landward facies of
the peat layer, and is slightly more variable in these units.
One interesting aspect of this peat layer is the dark organic
layer containing numerous apple snail shells (Pomacea sp.),
again perhaps reflecting the near-shore marsh environment.

The peat layer is partially bisected by a Viviparus midden lens;
most artifacts reported from Zone I (see Wheeler and McGee,
this issue) actually come from this shell midden lens. Zone IV
is Viviparus shell and black earth midden. Zone V is primarily
composed of mottled gray to brown sand. As already noted,
Zone V is the offshore facies of the older shell midden
deposits. Many wooden artifacts were recovered from this
sand layer. The lens of white sand with varves that bisects
Zone V is also observed in the core survey, and probably
represents a high water stand, with quiet conditions and no
cultural deposition. Perhaps the most interesting feature of
Zone V is the remains of a large, dense, water-worn tree trunk
that actually prevented further excavation. Attempts to chop
through the wood with an axe and pick were unsuccessful.
Similar large tree trunks were encountered in the 1992 tests,
providing further correlation between 1992 and 1993

Discussion and Conclusion

The five stratigraphic zones and their various facies
represent the natural changes to the landscape over a period of
2,000 years, as well as the human interactions with the
environment and depositional history of the lake. The original
occupation of the site, circa 6,200 B.P., documented in the
lowest levels excavated in 1992 and 1993, coincides with a
rising sea level, the development of the river basin system, and
the origin of the Mount Taylor culture (Fairbridge 1984:429;
Miller 1992:101). The various facies of the lower shell
midden, represented by deposits in 1992 Zone IV, 1993 Zone






(* .* .*. .. ..* *.. .*.*I

RJW 1993


Figure 13. Stratigraphic profile, 54S26.75E, east wall. Note cofferdams and well point system in background.


1 U Tm
I;~;- i 'EM



PEAT- - - -






RJW 1913

Figure 14. Schematic profile of 36S27E and 35S26E, Groves' Midden. Dashed line indicates top of saturated deposit.











F gr 05 S i i l

p.... .^di^,^. ,. ..

F 5r pol, 7 ,et l l.

Figure 15. Stratigraphic profile, 36S27E, east wall.


IV and Zone V, exhibit the shell midden "growth" or
development from land into water. This process was originally
described by Goggin (1949:86-87) at a coastal shell mound.
The deposition of Zone IV over much of the submerged site
occurred in an extinct, possibly drowned, stream or spring
channel. Tool and ornament complexes characteristic of the
Mount Taylor culture appear to be in place during this 5,000
to 6,200 B.P. period, including those objects made from
marine products. Just as the original deposition at Groves'
Midden coincides with sea level rise, the formation of the
Zone III peat is incident with a sea level low stand occurring
between 4,000 and 5,000 B.P. Zone III represents a seasonal
marsh, in which some refuse dumping continued. Zone II is
essentially the continued deposition of midden material
following an increase in sea level rise and perhaps a return to
conditions resembling those of the 5,000 to 6,000 B.P. era.
The 1989 excavations documented the transition within this
upper shell midden from pre-pottery to fiber-tempered pottery
periods at approximately 4,100 B.P.


Many individuals were invaluable to the planning and
execution of our project at Lake Monroe, and without their
help this report would not have been possible. Numbering
among our benefactors are the following individuals: John
Allen and his associates at Bumby and Stimpson, Les Owen of
Rinker Materials, Dave Rinker, and John Russell. Paul Jones
of Lake Wauberg Recreation Area contributed to the
preservation of our back muscles by loaning a boat for use at
the site. The following individuals volunteered their time and
hard work as our field crew: Loretta Beilstein, Bill Bulmer,
George Long, Mike MacKay, Doug Mehaffey, Jane Miller,
Dot Moore, Jim Radz, Dorothy Rowan, Sandi Russell, Randy
Torbett, and many others. Lani Friend and Don Mitchell
graciously shared their home with us during the 1992 field
season. Erica Hill was in charge of all data produced at the
site, and her efforts made analysis much easier. We also
would like to thank Barbara A. Purdy for inviting us to
participate in the explorations at Lake Monroe. The comments
of Brent Weisman and his staff greatly improved this paper.

References Cited

Briggs, G. F., and A. G. Fiedler (editors)
1972 Ground Water and Wells. Johnson Division, Universal
Oil Products, St. Paul.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 8:1-16.

Cohen, Arthur D., H. Kelly Brooks, Peter Stone, Robert
Goodrick, William G. Smith, and William Spackman, Jr.

1984 The Environmental Significance of Holocene Sediments
from the Everglades and Saline Tidal Plain. In
Environments of South Florida: Present and Past II,
edited by Patrick J. Gleason, pp. 297-351. Miami
Geological Society, Coral Gables, Florida.

Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site.
In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara A. Purdy, pp.
263-289. Telford Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.

Fairbridge, Rhodes W.
1984 The Holocene Sea-Level Record in South Florida. In
Environments of South Florida: Present and Past II,
edited by Patrick J. Gleason, pp. 427-436. Miami
Geological Society, Coral Gables, Florida.

Ginsberg, Robert N., and R. Mitchell Lloyd
1956 A Manual Piston Coring Device for Use in Shallow
Water. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 26(1):64-66.

Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 2:65-91.

Hakanson, Lars, and Mats Jansson
1983 Principles of Lake Sedimentology.


Hanna, Marcus A.
1954 A Simple Coring Tube for Soft Sediments. Journal of
Sedimentary Petrology 24(4):263-269.

McGee, Ray M., and Bruce K. Nodine
1987 Sampling and Excavation Strategies at Hontoon Island
(8Vo202). The Florida Anthropologist 40:13-18.

Miller, James J.
1992 Effects of Environmental Changes on Late Archaic
People of Northeast Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Powers, J. Patrick
1981 Construction Dewatering. John Wiley and Sons, New

Purdy, Barbara A.
1988 Piston Corers: Equipment, Technique and Applications
to Archaeology. The Florida Anthropologist 41(3):381-

Russo, Michael, Barbara A. Purdy, Lee A. Newsom, and Ray
M. McGee


1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden
(8VO2601). Southeastern Archaeology 11(2):95-108.

Whittaker, Fran H., and Julie K. Stein
1992 Shell Midden Boundaries in Relation to Past and
Present Shorelines. In Deciphering a Shell Midden, edited
by Julie K. Stein, pp. 25-42. Academic Press, New

Ray M. McGee
Ryan J. Wheeler
Department of Anthropology
1350 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611



Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee

Sic ego componi versus in ossa velim

The technologies of ancient Florida are now silent, but
they have left echoes of their production and use. These
echoes are found in the many implements recovered from
archaeological sites throughout the state. Studies of bone and
shell implements have generally followed the pioneering work
of Goggin (n.d.), Goggin and Sommer (1949), and Willey
(1949a). These early investigations relied on artifact form to
determine types, and more recent studies by Richardson and
Pohl (1982) of the Granada site, Steinen (1971) of Ft. Center,
Walker (1989, 1992) and Marquardt (1992) of the
Caloosahatchee area have followed and extended the classes
and types defined earlier. Walker (1989, 1992) and Marquardt
(1992) have taken the first step beyond simple classification by
incorporating aspects of material culture, ethnohistoric texts,
and human behavior in their studies of southern Florida. The
present study of native implements recovered from the
waterlogged deposits of the Groves' Orange Midden
(8VO2601), a component of the Old Enterprise Mound
(8VO55), is an attempt to integrate artifact shape and wear
patterns in analyzing and classifying artifacts. Based on wear
patterns we have tried to develop divisions that reflect
behavioral categories instead of the "natural kinds" suggested
by media and shape alone. This type of analysis has allowed
us to study the static material remains as a technological
complex or system, with interrelated parts each relying on the
others for their production and use. In the discussion below
we attempt to show how one type of tool was used in
producing others, the importance of debitage, and the use of
multicomponent or compound implements.


Artifacts considered in this study have been recovered
from the waterlogged deposits dating to Mount Taylor and
Orange periods (c. 6,200 B.P. to 4,100 B.P.) at the Groves'
site on and in Lake Monroe. Excavations occurred in 1989,
1992 and 1993. All bone and shell artifacts have been treated
with PVA or B-72 resin to preserve surface integrity. Analysis
of bone artifacts involved examination of artifact wear
patterns, particularly those found on the tip and basal ends,
and comparison with replicative studies conducted by Semenov

(1964), Campana (1989) and Newcomer (1974). Shell tools
were examined in a similar fashion. A 10x magnifier was
sufficient for detecting patterns of manufacture and use.
Classification and implement complexes were developed from
studies of form and wear pattern characteristics. Discussion of
ceramic objects and miscellaneous items is included in this
article to give the complete view of material culture from the
Groves' site. Wooden artifacts and chipped stone artifacts are
discussed by Wheeler and McGee (this issue), and Purdy (this

Bone Artifact Types

Bone artifact types and complexes are summarized by
stratigraphic zone in Table 1.

Textile and Leather Working Complex

Artifacts in this complex show evidence of use possibly
relating to perforating some pliable material (i.e., leather) or
the manipulation of fibers in weaving.
Splinter Awls (n=9. Figure 1). Splinter awls are formed
from a fractured or split-out section of mammal long bone,
with little other modification than that found at the working
end. Two specimens from Lake Monroe are formed from the
proximal end of a deer metapodial, a portion of bone generally
discarded in the process of manufacturing finished long bone
artifacts (see discussion of this form under debitage). Another
splinter awl is derived from a mammal rib. The diversity of
skeletal elements utilized in the production of these splinter
awls hints at their nature as expediency tools. Despite the
diversity of forms encountered, all splinter awls have evidence
of rotational wear, high polish and shouldering at the tip,
indicating use as perforating tools (see Campana 1989:55).
Goggin (1952:117) comments that splinter awls are common to
the northern St. Johns area, with specimens occurring
throughout the sequence. One specimen illustrated by Rouse
(1951:227, Plate 5e) is similar to LM93-230-4 in its form and
possible evidence of hafting. Analysis of awls from the
Granada site (Richardson and Pohl 1982:112, 115) does not
provide a distinction between splinter awls and those more
finely finished examples. Richardson and Pohl (1982:115)
suggest that awl wear patterns consist of "marks running


Vol. 47 No. 4


roughly parallel to the shaft, and polish on the point".
Examination of similar tools from Lake Monroe indicates that
parallel striations are probably the result of manufacture, not
Awls (n=26. Figures 1-2). Finely finished awls or
perforators from Lake Monroe are generally round in cross-
section, with a sharply pointed and highly polished tip. Deer
metapodials seem to be used exclusively in the production of
this tool type, with quite a range in length from very short
specimens of 4.4 cm to longer examples of 16.5 cm. All
twelve complete specimens from Lake Monroe show evidence
of basal hafting, generally consisting of deep rotational
scratches, faceting and blunting, and the presence of pitch at
the base. Gifford (1940:177-178) and Campana (1989:79)
describe the appearance of hafted bone tools, including the
blunted base and parallel transverse scoring. Hafting involving
the use of wrapped cordage and an adhesive may also produce
a similar scored pattern, without the basal blunting. Many of
the hafted awls seem to have been constructed with a slight
curve in the basal section, perhaps to allow for better seating in
the handle. This curved base is evident on examples from
Archaic sites in the Ocala National Forest (Bullen and Bryant
1965:16). As with the splinter awls, wear patterns at the tip
consist of fine rotational striations, shouldering and high
polish, typical patterns for tools used to perforate soft
materials. This type of wear results from rotary movement as
pressure is applied to the pliable material, often produced by
the presence of abrasives, such as sand (Semenov 1964:18;
Campana 1989:55).
One extreme example of the kind of polish and
shouldering resulting from continued use is found in LM93-
737/755; in this case the implement tip was reworked into a
hafted base when the well-worn point finally snapped off.
Richardson and Pohl (1982:115) describe implements of this
general type as "bi-points," noting that one end exhibits
evidence of hafting; speculation as to function has included
projectile points, awls, fish gorges, as well as elements of
composite fishing gear like leisters or spears (for a similar
discussion see Walker 1992:230-232). Rouse distinguishes
bone awls of this type from bone pins based on "stoutness and
irregularity of finish (1951:227,229)," a morphological trait
that does have some merits. Most of the awls exhibit some
finishing with a shark tooth implement, producing a
characteristic pattern found on many of the bone tools from
Groves' Midden. It is akin to the abrading observed by
Semenov (1964:160-161), but distinct from it. Wear patterns
noted for the Lake Monroe specimens suggest use as hafted
perforating tools.
Ulna Awls (n=4). Deer ulna awls are a fairly common
form encountered in Florida (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figure 29),
with early examples known from the Windover burials (Purdy
1991:224). Allied forms include ulna awls manufactured from
the bones of small to medium sized mammals, like those found
at Republic Groves (Wharton et al. 1981:72, Figure 14). The


.,'. I..:





O 1 2 3
Figure 1. Splinter bone awls: a.) LM92-143, Zone IV;
b.) LM92-316, Zone I. Bone awls: c.) LM93-1021-2,
Zone IV; d.) LM93-465-A, Zone V. Wear patterns suggest
use in perforating skins and other pliable materials.

specimens from Lake Monroe are all fragmentary, composed
of the head and shaft portions only. Snap patterns along the
shafts are similar to those observed on other awl forms.
Needles (n=7. Figure 3). Needles from Lake Monroe
share all morphological and wear pattern traits with
awl/perforator implements, except they are smaller. They are
not perforated. The needles from Lake Monroe have diameters
ranging from 0.2 cm to 0.4 cm. Like the awls, they seem to
have been hafted, and show evidence of being used as
perforating tools. These are unlike the larger, longer examples
of perforated "needles" described by Goggin (1952:117) and
Rouse (1951:228) that are actually components of composite


bone fishhooks (see Bullen [1968:124] for a description of a
composite fishhook from the Oklawaha River).
Fids (n= 8, Figures 4-5). Netting or weaving implements
share some aspects of general morphology with the finished
awls, but differ in cross-section shape, especially at the tip
where they are broader and flatter than awls, and in wear
patterns, which usually include a high polish on all aspects of
the tip and considerable wear behind the tip. A side view of
these objects shows that they generally are slightly curved near
the tip. Complete specimens of this type show evidence of
hafting. The morphology and wear patterns are consistent with
the bodkin-like weaving implements described by Campana

Table 1. Bone Artifacts by Type and Stratigraphic Zone, Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601),
Lake Monroe, Florida.

Bone Artifact Zones I II III IV V Total

Splinter Awls 4 3 1 1 9
Awls 1 6 3 9 3 22
Ulna Awls 1 2 1 4
Needles 1 2 1 2 6
Fids 1 1 3 1 6

Splinter Gouge 4 1 2 1 8
Splinter Graver 2 1 2 5
Gouges 3 3
Celts 1 2 1 4
Splinter Burnisher 1 1 2
Shark Tooth Tools 6 4 6 3 19

Antler Flakers 1 1 1 3

Pins 4 2 6
Expanding Head Pins 1 1
Decorated Bone 1 1 2 4
Tubular Beads 3 3 3 22 3 34
Shark Vertebra Bead 1 1

Socketed Antler 1 1 2

Debitage 19 8 8 24 15 74
Cut Mandibles 1 1 2
Pointed Bone 4 1 4 9
Shaft Sections 26 15 11 31 14 97
Uncl. Splinter Tools 3 3 3 9
Uncl. Hafted Tools 6 4 4 13 8 35
Uncl. Bone 6 2 1 2 4 15

Total 84 58 33 135 70 380


(1989:95-96). Complete specimens range in size from 9.4 cm
to 15.9 cm. Similar tools are reported from the Granada site
(Richardson and Pohl 1982:117) and Ft. Center (Steinen 1971;
Steinen 1982:87-88, 95-96). Implements of this type are
discussed neither by Goggin (1952) nor Rouse (1951), but
numerous examples are illustrated in Jahn and Bullen (1978)
from Tick Island.

Wood and Bone Working Complex

We propose that artifacts in this complex were used in the
finer carving and finishing of bone and wood (and shell?)
objects. Wear patterns on woodworking implements show
blunting and chipping, the probable result of wood reduction
techniques. The fact that several similar, yet distinct, tool
types are included here indicates a rather sophisticated wood
and bone industry. Shark tooth tools also are included here,
since many objects of wood and bone have evidence of
finishing marks from these knife-like implements.
Splinter Gouges (n=8. Figure 6). Like other categories
of splinter tools these gouges are manufactured from a diverse
variety of broken bone and debitage. Several examples have
deep cut or saw marks (LM92-124, LM92-170, LM93-802-2)
that appear to have been made during an initial reduction
process. LM92-170 shows some evidence of hafting. Tip
morphology and wear patterns are characterized by parallel
axial striations and chipping at the trailing edge. Campana
(1989:61-62) notes that this type of wear is most closely
associated with woodworking, specifically finer work.

Splinter Gravers (n=6). Splinter gravers share many of
the attributes of other splinter tools, distinguished primarily by
a unifacially beveled tip with polishing, axial striations and
chipping along the opposite edge. It is possible that these are
closely allied to the splinter gouges, serving a slightly different
function in woodworking.
Gouges (n=3, Figure 6). Implements classified as
gouges were more finely finished than the splinter forms
described above, with general morphologies allied to awls.
Gouge tips are well polished, with heavy blunting, chipping
and parallel striations. All specimens of this type are
fragmentary. Campana's (1989:60-61) experimental
woodworking gouges have a similar spatulate shape, with
chipping and heavy parallel striations on the tip. Semenov
(1964:179-180) discusses Eskimo picks and mattocks that have
somewhat similar wear patterns. Tools of this nature were
probably used for finer reduction after wood blanks had been
sufficiently reduced with shell carving tools.
Celts (n=4. Figure 6). Bone celts were manufactured
from fragments of large mammal long bone, including deer
tibia and humeri. These are large, heavy tools with
considerable battering, chipping and blunting at both bit and
poll. LM93-422-1 shows some evidence of hafting. Walker
(1992:235, Figure 7) illustrates several tools with similar bits,
classifying them as bone daggers. Again, these implements
were probably used in the reduction and production of wooden
Splinter Burnisher (n=2). One example of a splinter tool
exhibited a rather unique wear pattern on its tip, primarily

Figure 2. Bone awls: a.) LM93-737/LM93-755, Zone V; b. LM93-838-2, Zone III. Note extensive shouldering and rotational wear
at specimen tips.


`" --

0 1 2 3
I cm

Figure 3. Bone needles: a.) LM93-234-3, Zone II;
b.) LM93-878-1, Zone V.

consisting of rounding and polishing. A highly lustrous polish
extends along the edge of this tool for approximately 2 cm.
This type of implement may have been used for polishing
wood and bone artifacts, since some of the more highly
finished pins do not exhibit evidence of reduction or carving
marks (i.e., shark tooth finishing marks).
Shark Tooth Implements (n=19. Figure 7). The teeth
from four species of shark were utilized as cutting and drilling
tools at Lake Monroe. We have followed the method of
classification used by Richardson and Pohl (1982:94) and
Kozuch (1993:25-30). This analysis produced six categories
(including seven fragmentary teeth), which are summarized in
Table 2; all teeth with intact tips show signs of wear. Analysis
demonstrates definite patterns of manufacture and use for the
teeth of specific shark species. All Carcharodon carcharias
(Great White) teeth have cut and abraded roots, while only the
teeth of Galeocerdo cuvieri (Tiger) were perforated (we have
substituted the term "perforated" for "drilled" used by other
researchers since this method of manufacture has not been
clearly demonstrated). Unlike the uni-perforate shark teeth of
southern Florida, most perforated examples from the Archaic
of the northern St. Johns area have two holes (see discussion of
Windover artifacts in Purdy 1991:225; Moore 1894:Figure
17). LM92- 370 appears to have been broken and discarded
during perforation, yet there is evidence of root cutting and
abrading, as well as use wear on the tip. This indicates that
there are several stages of modification and use throughout the
life of a shark tooth tool, with perforation occurring only after
other methods of use. Richardson and Pohl (1982:94, 98) and
Furey (1977:90-92) suggest that modification to the shark
tooth root facilitated hafting, and Furey (1977:94, 96)
identifies several complexes of shark tooth knives from Boca
Weir, Palm Beach County based on distinct tip wear patterns.
Comparison of the wear and serration found on shark teeth
with the finishing marks found on bone and wood artifacts
(from Lake Monroe and Hontoon Island collections) indicate
that these were hafted knives similar to those found by Cushing
(1896; Gilliland 1975) at Key Marco. The one Odontaspis sp.
(Sand Shark) tooth that exhibits filing or grinding along its
lateral margins was probably used as a drilling implement;

chipping and spelling at the tip exhibit the same wear found on
lithic tools of this type.

Lithic-Working Complex

Antler Flakers (n=3. Figure 8). Two antler tines exhibit
evidence of use as flakers, possibly for resharpening stone
knives (two examples of Kirk knives were recovered). Both
antler tines have considerable wear and chipping on one
surface, and LM93-560-1 may have been hafted. Bullen
(1969:32) describes an antler artifact with similar wear from
Sunday Bluff.

Personal Adornment Complex

Comparison of the decorative objects from Lake Monroe
with other Archaic period collections reveals certain
similarities and divisions regarding styles of personal dress and
Pins/Fasteners (n=6. Figure 9). Objects classified as
pins/fasteners are highly polished with some slight rotational
wear at the tip. The high polish along the length of the shaft
could be the result of use as clothing fasteners. One specimen
(LM93-262-6) has a slightly expanded and rounded bulb at its
proximal end. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence also
suggests the use of bone pins as hair ornaments. Jordan et al.
(1963:39,49) found bone hair pins associated with skeletal
remains at the Goodman site, Duval County. Sears (1953:59)
reports a human figurine wearing a hair pin from Kolomoki,
Early County, Georgia. Jonathan Dickinson (Andrews and
Andrews 1985:6) encountered Jeaga Indians wearing bone hair
ornaments in southeastern Florida.
A more diverse array of pin/fastener forms are known
from Tick Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978) and Hontoon Island
(Purdy 1987, 1991). Forms allied to the Lake Monroe types
also are known from Bluffton (Bullen 1955:10, Figure 3c). It
should be noted that many authors have used the category of
bone pin to mean all finely finished bone implements, many of
which are clearly not pin/fasteners, but rather awls, fids,
gouges or the like. Also see Goggin (1952:122-123), Rouse
(1951:229-230) and Richardson and Pohl (1982:122-126) for
examples of bone pins.
Expanding Head Pins (n=2). Expanding head pins are
fashioned in such a manner as to retain the slight broadening of
the proximal end of a mammal metapodial. Rouse (1951:229)
and Goggin (1952:122- 123) both describe expanding head
pins as an element of northern St. Johns and Indian River area
material culture.
Decorated Bone (n=6. Figure 10). Four fragments of
decorated bone were recovered from excavations at Lake
Monroe. Two of these were recovered from the same stratum,
but in different portions of the site, and bear a similar design.
Nested triangles and rectangles, comparable to those motifs
from Republic Groves (Wharton et al. 1981; Wheeler 1992:88-


Figure 4. Bonefids: a.) LM93-305-1, Slump; b.) LM93-690-4, Zone IV; c.) LM92-217, Slump; d.) LM93-305-2, Slump; e.) LM93-
320-B, Zone I;f.) LM92-222, Zone IV. Wear patterns suggest use in basketry weaving and general textile production.

- ---m-- ss----- .,,_~ .- .''=

0 1 2 3

Figure 5. Bone fid, side view (LM93-305-1). Note slight curve at the tip of specimen, typical of bone fids.


Table 2. Shark Tooth Tools by Type and Stratigraphic Zone, Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601),
Lake Monroe, Florida.

Shark Tooth Zones I II III IV V Total
Tool Types

Cut Roots-Tip Worn 2 2

Cut Roots-Abraded-
Perforated-Tip Worn 1 2 3

Cut Roots-Abraded-
Tip Worn 1 1 2

Abraded-Tip Worn 1 3 4

Filed-Tip Worn 1 1

Fragmentary 1 4 2 7

Total 6 4 6 3 19

0 1 2 3


.- .-.
.. I;,,.,. :-

"2.' :, "
..p:: ::

Figure 6. Splinter bone gouges: a.) LM93-802-2, Zone II; b.) LM92- 170, Zone IV. Bone gouges: c.) LM93-276-1, Zone IV. Bone
celts: d.) LM93-160, Zone II; e.) LM93-532, Zone II. Spalling at tip of all specimens suggests use in wood working.

;~:t ~





0 1__W acm

Figure 7. Shark tooth implements: a.) LM92-168, Zone IV, abraded- tip worn, Odontaspis sp.; b.) LM93-760, Zone I, abraded-tip
worn, Odontaspis sp.; c.) LM93-850, Zone IV, abraded-tip worn, Odontaspis sp.; d.) LM93-10-H, Zone I, filed-tip worn "drill",
Odontaspis sp.; e.) LM93-371, Slump, cut roots-abraded-tip worn, Carcharodon carcharias; f.) LM93-1034, Zone IV, cut roots-
abraded-perforated- tip worn, Carcharodon carcharias; g.) LM93-86-B, Zone IV, cut roots-abraded-perforated-tip worn,
Galeocerdo cuvieri; h.) LM92- 370, Zone I, cut roots-abraded-perforated-tip worn, Galeocerdo cuvieri; i.) LM93-891, Zone V, cut
roots-abraded-tip worn, Carcharodon carcharias; j.) LM92-344, Zone IV, abraded-tip worn, Carcharhinus leucas; k.) LM92-60,
Zone 1, cut roots-tip worn, Galeocerdo cuvieri; 1.) LM93-10-J, Zone 1, cut roots-tip worn, Carcharhinus leucas; m.) LM93-1005,
Zone IV, abraded-tip worn, Carcharodon carcharias. Perforated shark teeth from Groves' Midden are similar to specimens from


Figure 8. Antler flakers: a.) LM92-396-1, Zone 1; b.)

0 1 2 3

LM93-560-1, Zone III. Spalling at specimen tips is consistent with flint

0 1 2 3

Figure 9. Bone pin/fastener: LM93-486-A, Zone V. High polish and some rotational wear indicates possible use as a clothing


89), are found on both specimens. Despite being rather
fragmentary, the overall design appears to be formal and well-
organized. A fragment of a decorated bone pin, reworked into
a perforated pendant, was recovered from the deepest stratum
at the Groves' Midden. This piece is encircled with a series of
closely spaced incisions, overlaid with a lightly engraved
diamond pattern. A fourth example of decorated bone was
recovered from the surface. The design of this specimen is
also well-organized, but exhibits motifs not known for the pre-
pottery Archaic, and is most likely representative of Orange
period carving (Wheeler 1994:49, Figure 17). LM93-10-L
was recovered from disturbed deposits in Zone I; the artifact is
a small fragmentary section of rectangular bone with a series of
parallel lines engraved along the width of the piece. Artifacts
with similar parallel line engraving are known from Tick
Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figure 34g).
Beads (n=35, Figures 11-12). The majority (28) of the




Figure 10. Decorated Bone: a.) LM93-10-L, Zone I;
b.) LM93-445, Zone V; c.) LM93-1008, Zone IV,
d.) LM93-751, Zone V; e.) LM89-45-1, Surface.
Compare design similarities of b and c. This
design is known from other Middle Archaic
engraved bone artifacts.

bone beads recovered from Lake Monroe are variously sized
tubular beads manufactured from bird bones. Beads range in
size from 0.4 to 4.3 cm in length. In most cases the bones
were incised and snapped to produce a tube, with some
examples showing considerable wear on the cut ends. There is
a continuum from crudely made to well-finished examples.
Presumably the naturally hollow and highly lustrous bird bones
provided an aesthetically pleasing raw material for bead
making. A more massive bone bead was manufactured from
mammal bone (LM93-507), presumably by the same scoring,
snapping and polishing technique described above. Perhaps
one of the most interesting discoveries from Lake Monroe was
the group of 14 tubular bone beads (LM93-859). These beads
range in size 1.3 to 2.6 cm and are of the more crudely
manufactured type (tubes were only partially scored before
being snapped, resulting in some jagged edges). There appear
to be several size classes of beads from this hank, composed of
small (1.3 to 1.6 cm), medium (1.7 cm), medium-large (1.9 to
2.0 cm) and large (2.3 to 2.6 cm) bead sizes. Upon cleaning
this collection of beads several strands of very thin, twisted
and knotted cordage were recovered. Apparently knots were
placed on the string as spacers between beads.
One perforated Carcharhinus sp. shark vertebra (LM93-
566-1) also was recovered from Lake Monroe. Kozuch and
Fitzgerald (1989) provide a guide to identifying shark centra,
which was used in conjunction with comparative specimens to
classify our bead. Shark centra beads are mentioned from Tick
Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figure 35), Goodman Mound
(Jordan et al. 1963:15, Plate 2e) and the Granada site
(Richardson and Pohl 1982:93). Richardson and Pohl
(1982:93) note that perforated shark vertebrae could have been
used as "beads, earspools or gaming pieces," or spindle whorls
for spinning fiber. The Lake Monroe specimen differs slightly
from other examples in that the perforation is cruciform,
suggesting that a thin, sharp object was inserted twice at
perpendicular angles to enlarge the opening. Little wear is
evident within the perforation, since it has not been worn
round and smooth as other known examples have been.

Hunting/Fishing Implements

Socketed Antler (n=2, Figure 13). Socketed antler
specimens are cut, finished and pointed sections of antler
beam. Both examples from Lake Monroe are fragmentary, but
appear well finished, especially around the basal socket. This
form is mentioned by Goggin (1952:118) and Rouse
(1951:227). Socketed and pointed antler objects also are
known from Tick Island (1978:Figure 33). Since the tips are
missing from both specimens it is not possible to analyze wear
patterns, though previous workers have considered these and
allied socketed, pointed bone as projectile points. Purdy
(1973:147) notes that this socketed and pointed antler form is
often found in the rivers of Florida (associated with
Paleoindian remains?) and often appears battered as if used in

% o-.;

Figure 11. Bone beads: a.) LM93-286-1, Zone IV; b.) LM92-204, Zone IV; c.) LM93-1019, Zone IV; d.) LM93-286-2, Zone IV; e.)
LM93-566- 2, Zone III; f.) LM93-234-5, Zone II; g.) LM93-566-1, Zone III; h.) LM93-606-2, Zone I; i.) LM93-375, Zone V; j.)
LM93-690-2, Zone IV. Note cruciform perforation in the shark vertebrae bead, specimen g.

0 1 2 3



Figure 12. Bone bead necklace: LM93-859, Zone IV. Specimens were recovered with knotted string intact.






the percussion flaking of chert. Socketed, pointed antler
specimens are rarely found in post-Archaic deposits,
suggesting that this may be an early type.

Miscellaneous Items

Debitaee (n=82. Figure 14). There are three primary
types of bone debitage known from Lake Monroe (all bone
debitage forms are summarized in Table 3). These types
represent various stages of reduction during the course of
producing finished bone artifacts. There are five examples of
deer metapodials that have been scored longitudinally and then
snapped to produce either two or four long sections of bone.
Presumably, before the first snap was made, the distal end of
the metapodial was partially encircled and then snapped-off,
producing a distinctive bit of debitage (16 fragments of this C
type were analyzed). This reduction sequence is described by
Semenov (1964:160-161) for eastern European bone working.
Following the removal of the distal epiphysis and the first
snap, the proximal end of the bone was removed (29 fragments
of this type were analyzed). This was done only in those cases
when expanding head type objects were not intended as final
products. Other categories of debitage include split-out
midshaft sections of bone (n= 17), cut antler (n=3) and more
miscellaneous forms that have evidence of cutting or splitting.
One interesting object appears to be a bird bone tube blank 2
from which beads were cut. Several scored areas appear to be
prepared for bead production.
Cut Mandibles (n=2). LM93-180-1 and 588-2 are deer 1
mandibles that have had both anterior symphysis and ascending d
ramus cut and removed. Cut mandibles of wolf and deer have
been reported from Tick Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figure

Slump. Snapped deer metapodials, proximal end:

Figure 13. Socketed antler: a.) LM92-73, Zone I; b.) LM92-346, Zone IV; c.) LM93-287-8, Zone IV.

; 1Figure 14. Split deer metapodial: a.) LM92-294,
Slump. Snapped deer metapodials, proximal end:
Figure 13. Socketed antler: a.) LM92-73, Zone I; b.) LM92-346, Zone IV; c.) LM93-287-8, Zone IV
b.) LM93-1020, Zone IV. Specimen (a) appears worn Snapped deer metapodials, distal end: d.)
and well used, while b still retains shark tooth LM93-218-4, Slump; e.) LM93-262-1, Zone IV.
finishing marks. These debitage specimens are typical of bone working
technology in many cultures.

Pointed Bone (n=9). The pointed bone fragments
recovered from Lake Monroe are probably the tips of other
implement types discussed above, but are either too eroded or
exhibit no wear patterns, making classification difficult. Some
of the pointed bone artifacts included in this category are
blunted, suggesting that these may represent another class of
tools, as of yet undescribed.
Implement Shaft Sections (n=98). Shaft sections from
pins, awls, gouges and other artifact types are included in this
category. There is a wide array of forms based on surface
finish, general morphology and cross-section morphology, but
without either end it is not possible to classify these specimens
Unclassified Splinter Implements (n=10. Figure 15).
The implements in this section were produced from splintered
and debitage bone. In the case of these items not enough of
the base or tip remains to make an assignment to a specific
splinter tool category. Some morphological patterns were
noted in this category (cf. LM92-160-3, LM93-19, LM93-422-
4), suggesting that certain splinter shapes were preferred.
Many of these tools seem to have been utilized in a similar
manner since breakage patterns also are shared.
Unclassified Hafted Tools (n=36, Figure 16). The basal
fragments of hafted tools are common in the Lake Monroe
collection. These objects represent the base and shaft sections
of awls, fids or gouges, but complete classification is not
possible without analysis of the tip.
Unclassified Specimens (n=15). Artifacts included under
this heading are those objects of bone that obviously have been
worked, but do not seem to fit other categories and do not have
wear patterns or morphological clues as to their use. LM92-91
is a rounded piece of tenoned bone. Its fragmentary nature
makes it difficult to decide if it is a tenoned-head pin. LM92-
378 and LM93-486e are fragments of cut and finished turtle
carapace. It is not clear if they were part of bone rectangles or
net mesh gauges, though similar items of shell were recovered
from Lake Monroe. LM93-360 and LM93-436 are worked
scapulae that show evidence of cutting, grinding, shaving and
finishing. The former specimen has pitch near its superior
angle and border.

Shell Artifact Types

Building on the work of earlier researchers Luer et al.
(1986), Masson (1988) and Marquardt (1992) have provided
morphological studies of southern Florida shell tools. Wheeler
(1993) has reviewed the temporal and spatial distribution of
shell adze and celt implements, as well as the biogeographical
ranges of the animals from which the tools were made. Many
northern St. Johns and Indian River area shell tools are similar
in form to their southern Florida counterparts. Despite
difficulties in assessing wear patterns on shell implements, and
our rather small sample, we have attempted to place artifacts

into functional categories. Table 4 summarizes shell artifact
types by stratigraphic zone.
The taxonomic literature regarding the specific forms of
the genus Busycon is rather confusing, with B. perversum, B.
contrarium, B. sinistrum, and several others as synonyms for
the sinistral or left-handed whelk shell, and B. aruanum, B.
eliceans, and B. carica as synonyms for the dextral or right-
handed form. Both left- and right-handed shells were important
in producing several of the implement types discussed below.
Consideration of Hollister's (1958) monograph on Busycon and
the terminology most widely used in archaeological literature
has led us to assign those right-handed whelks from the
Groves' Midden to B. carica and the left-handed examples to
B. contrarium.

Textile and Leather Working Complex

Awls (n=2, Figure 17). The two specimens in this
category are quite different. LM93-670-4 is a large section of
Busycon contrarium columella that has a sharpened point with
some polishing and shouldering at the tip. This type is called a
perforator by Marquardt (1992:204), and similar objects are
described by Goggin (n.d.:514), Gilliland (1975:197) and
Willey (1949b:49). LM93-140 is a particularly striking
example of this type; it is unclear what portion of the shell it
was made from, but it appears to have some faceting at its
base, suggesting it may have been hafted like bone
Net Mesh Gauges (n=2. Figure 17). Two shell
rectangles from Lake Monroe appear to have been cut from the
outer whorl of the Busycon contrarium. These artifacts are
similar in size and configuration to those described by Walker
(1989; 1992:238-239) and Marquardt (1992:212-214) as "net
mesh gauges," presumably used to assure uniformity in net
tying. Marquardt (1992:212-213) notes that examples of
similar rectangles are made of turtle bone and wood. In
general specimens in this category range from finely finished
examples to well-worn and damaged forms like those from
Lake Monroe.

Woodworking Complex

The adze, celt and cutting-edge tool forms described
below we suggest were involved in wood reduction and
carving. This is evidenced by the numerous examples of
chipped wood, as well as the less common pieces that have
evidence of gouging and cutting; in most cases it is visibly
apparent as to what shell tool types were used in making the
Adze/Gouge (n=5. Figure 18). Adge/Gouge tools are
triangular sections of shell cut from the outer whorl of Busycon
spp. The inner margin of the shell at the shoulder end is
beveled to produce a unifacial cutting surface. Examples of


Table 3. Bone Debitage by Type and Stratigraphic Zone, Groves'
Orange Midden (8V02601), Lake Monroe, Florida.

Bone Debitage Zones I II III IV V Total

Metapodial Proximal End 8 1 3 11 4 27
Metapodial Distal End 3 1 1 4 3 12
Split Long Bone 1 1 1 1 4
Cut Splinters 4 4 2 4 3 17
Cut Deer Phalanges 2 1 3
Cut Bird Bone 1 1
Cut Antler 1 1 1 3
Cut Turtle Bone 1 2 3
Shattered Bone 2 2 4

Total 19 8 8 24 15 74

a b

0 1 2 3

Figure 15. Unclassified splinter bone implements: a.) LM93-19,
Zone II; b.) LM93-422-4, Zone IV. Dashed line indicates
possible tip configuration.



~i q


.5,, .5


.; S


0 1 2 3

Figure 16. Awl: a.) LM89-44, Zone II. Unclassified hafted
bone tool: b.) LM92-160-2, Zone IV. Note curved base in
both specimens.


Table 4. Shell Artifacts by Type and Stratigraphic Zone, Groves'
Orange Midden (8V02601), Lake Monroe, Florida.

Shell Artifact Zones I II III IV V Total

Awl/Perforator 2 2
Net Gauges 1 1 2

Busycon Adze/Gouge 2 1 1 4
Strombus Celts 2 2 4
Busycon Cutting-Edge Tools 2 1 2 3 8

Busycon Receptacles 3 3

Pin 1 1
Disk Beads 1 1 2 2 3 9

Debitage 1

Busycon spp. 1 5 2 3 3 14
Ostrea permolis 1 1
Crassostrea virginica 2 1 6 3 12
Venericardia spp. 2 2
Dinocardium robustum 1 1 1 6 1 10
Mercenaria campechiensis 3 2 1 22 16 44
Unidentified Shell 1 2 1 2 7 13

Total 15 20 11 49 35 130

the cut marks and wood chips produced by this implement have
been examined in the Lake Monroe and Hontoon Island
collections. There are various forms of this tool ranging from
the more curved, gouge-like examples from the northern St.
Johns and Indian River areas (Goggin 1952:116; Rouse
1951:231) to a flatter, more adze-like tool known from the
East Okeechobee and Okeechobee areas, as well as the
shouldered adze from the Gulf Coast and Ten Thousand Islands
(Willey 1949a:366, Plate 15c-d; Willey 1949b:48; Gilliland
1975:187; Marquardt 1992:207-208). The Gulf Coast
specimens differ from those of eastern Florida in having
cutting edges located along the siphonal end of the body whorl
rather than the shoulder end. Some of the smaller specimens
were hafted using a bone or antler socket that fit onto a
tenoned wooden handle; these socketed hafts are known from
Key Marco, the Granada site, as well as Tick Island (Gilliland
1975:221-223; Richardson and Pohl 1982:129-130; Jahn and
Bullen 1978:Figures 36a-g). Marquardt (1992:208-211) has
identified an early form of this tool type from the
Caloosahatchee area that seems to retain a portion of the shell's

shoulder as its poll. Bullen and Bullen (1976:49) report finding
examples of this shouldered adze in the pre-pottery Archaic
levels of the Hill Cottage Midden, Sarasota County. Wheeler
(1993) has discussed the spatial and temporal distribution of
the Busycon adze/gouge tools elsewhere, suggesting that the
most probable developmental origin is in the Early Archaic of
the northern St. Johns area.
Celts (n=4, Figure 19). Four fragments of Strombus
gigas celts, like those most commonly found in the Everglades
area, were recovered from Lake Monroe. Apparently this tool
type was present in the northern St. Johns area from Mount
Taylor through Transitional period times, but is not found in
later contexts (Bullen 1955:4). A similar pattern is noted for
the Gulf Coast, where Bullen and Bullen (1976:11) recovered
examples of Strombus gigas celts in the upper levels of the Hill
Cottage Midden. The temporal and spatial distribution of this
tool type has been described elsewhere (Wheeler 1993). It
seems that for a time, at least, there was a rather wide
distribution of Stronmbus gigas celts throughout the state, with
a general abandonment of this tool in later times.


'" "

0 1 2 3

a 0 1 2 3
o 1 2 3




Figure 18. Busycon adze/gouges: a.) LM89-37, Zone I; b.) LM93-622, Zone II. Arrows indicate bit ends. Bit intact in specimen
a, missing in specimen b.
:":d~ ~ -.-;;;-; .....
.:. p. . . .""
~ ""':'-:. .... --: ': ,.', -.. ''' 7 '
Figure~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ "7 "hl ""~ ..d .ouel pnrget M3604 o I b L9-0 Ze ;. .V.:1, oe I pn
...... "; es au : ..... ;M33 7 ......: I; i. LM3-46 :on I- : .. "-;";,"
.... ..

-: ." . ..." . .: '-,. . .

a, missing in specimen b.

Cutting-Edge Tools (n=10, Figures 20-23). Of the
examples of Busycon carica cutting-edge tools recovered from
Lake Monroe, four are Type AX, one is Type X, two are
fragmentary bits or blades, and three are unclassified fragments
from some sort of whole shell tools. Type X cutting-edge
tools, as defined by Goggin (1952:115), appear to be the
typical form of these implements for the northern St. Johns
area. They have one perforation in the top of the shoulder and
a reduced and ground siphonal canal, producing a beveled bit.
The method of hafting Type X tools is discussed by Rouse
(1951:231) and Goggin (1952:115). Both suggest that the top
of the handle was passed through the hafting hole, parallel to
the columella, perhaps with the rest of the handle curved to
bring the bit perpendicular to it. We believe this is similar to
what Marquardt (1992:200-201) classifies as a Type E cutting-
edge tool, except that the southwestern Gulf Coast form is
manufactured from the Busycon contrarium. Marquardt
(1992:200) suggests that Type E (Type X) tools were hafted
from the aperture to the hole above the shoulder. Aperture-
through-hole is probably the correct hafting method since wear
patterns from the handle are found opposite one another inside
and outside the shoulder perforation. Bullen et al. (1978:12)
describe Type X cutting-edge tools from the Canton Street site
in Tampa Bay, noting that this is an Archaic form in that
Three specimens from Lake Monroe are classified as
Type AX cutting-edge tools. One AX pounder/hammer was
also found (see Figure 23). The occurrence of this tool type
from the pre-pottery Mount Taylor period is rather interesting,
since on the Gulf Coast it has been identified as first appearing
around 2100 B.P. (Bullen et al. 1978:12; Luer 1992:247,
249). Type AX tools have a perforation in or above the
shoulder (positioned as in Type X tools) and an additional
perforation in the body whorl of the shell (presumably like the
Type A tools described from southern Florida). This second
perforation in the body whorl has been expanded, possibly as
cordage or fibrous material used in the hafting migrated around
the shell during use.
The AX pounder/hammer has a large portion of body
whorl broken away, exposing a lengthy section of columella.
This damage, along with several holes around the shoulder of
the specimen, are the result of battering. Examination of the
columella reveals that this tool was originally an AX cutting-
edge tool.

Food Preparation Complex

Shell Receptacles (n=3, Figure 24). Of the three
Busycon contrarium receptacles or vessels recovered from Lake
Monroe, one is almost complete and two are fragmentary. All
are burned and bear heavy carbon deposits on their exterior
surfaces. The oldest, most complete specimen (LM92-256)
comes from levels dating to 6,000 B.P.; LM92-256 is a
"dipper" form (see Goggin 1952:114; Rouse 1951:230), much

like examples from Tick Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978:Figure
44), Bluffton and Astor (Webster 1970:3-4). The Lake
Monroe specimen is broken out from fire damage as described
by Webster (1970:2)' for his specimens. Webster (1970:3-4)
notes that only Busycon vessels from pre-pottery sites are
burned, suggesting they were used in direct cooking. An early
example of a Busycon dipper or cup is reported from the
Windover cemetery (Nabergall-Luis 1990:35). We know from
ethnohistoric data that Busycon shell vessels were used in the
black drink ceremonial of the postcontact era (Milanich
1979:83). Milanich (1979) discusses the ceremonial
significance of the Busycon contrarium shell and its
relationship to the black drink ceremony. Interpretation of
whelk shell symbolism suggests coevolution of ideologies and
technologies regarding shell cups, the sun-fire complex,
purification and black drink. We would further this argument
by suggesting that the initial association between fire, shell
vessel and black drink originated in the roasting of Ilex leaves
in a shell receptacle directly over the fire when no other means
of direct cooking was available (during the pre-pottery era).
Fairbanks (1979:130) notes that the Creek Indians roasted or
parched the Ilex leaves in a ceramic vessel directly over the
fire. This would indicate some evolution or changes in the
symbolic and technological significance of the shell cup.

Personal Adornment Complex

Shell, like bone, represents one of the earliest known
materials used in making jewelry and items of personal
adornment. Claassen (1993) has recently investigated the
significance of the varied styles of personal adornment,
focusing primarily on shell bead types. The decorative shell
objects known from Lake Monroe conform to common Florida
Pins (n= 1, Figure 17c). LM93-811 appears to be a shaft
section from a round head shell pin. These pins were cut from
the columella of the Busycon shell. Goggin (1952:122) notes
that this form is widespread throughout the Southeast, with
most examples from later time periods. Moore (1894:Figures
47 and 48) illustrates examples of this pin type from the
northern St. Johns area. Since the Lake Monroe specimen is
fragmentary, it may be more like an allied form known from
Tick Island that has a smaller head (Jahn and Bullen
1978:Figure 42a).
Beads (n=9. Figure 25). Several forms of marine shell
beads are known from the northern St. Johns and Indian River
areas. These include perforated Marginella apicina beads (Jahn
and Bullen 1978:Figure 26a; Nabergall-Luis 1990:35), Oliva
spp. beads (Rouse 1951:232), tubular columella beads (Jones
1981:85-86, Figure 3; Rouse 1951:231) and disk beads (Rouse
231; Goggin 1952:119). All specimens recovered from Lake
Monroe are classified as disk variety beads. Marquardt
(1992:214-215) suggests that some objects classified as shell
beads are actually items of fishing technology, analogous to the


Figure 19. Strombus gigas celts: a.) LM93-756, Zone I; b.) LM93- 488, Zone II; c.) LM93-799, Zone II; d.) LM93-406-B, Zone I.
The presence of Strombus provides evidence of contact with southeastern Florida.

0 1 2 3 b

Figure 20. Busycon carica cutting-edge tools: a.) LM92-380, Surface, Type X; b.) LM89-45-6, Surface, Type AX. Arrows indicate
position ofhafting and binding holes.


Figure 21. Busycon carica cutting-edge tools: a.) LM92-356, Zone IV, Type AX; b.) LM92-134, Zone IV, Type AX. Note broken
out lashing holes in both specimens.

Figure 22. Busycon carica cutting-edge tool: LM92-356, Zone IV, Type AX.
Compare with dorsal view in Figure 21a.

Arrows indicate position ofhafting and binding holes.


Figure 23. Busycon carica cutting-edge tool/pounder: LM92-242, Zone IV. Specimen appears to have been a type AX cutting-edge
tool, which was converted to a pounder. Battering has resulted in several irregular holes around the shoulder and the loss of much
of the body whorl.

Figure 24. Busycon contrarium receptacle: LM92-256, Zone IV Note burned exterior and stained interior.


plastic "beads" used in sport fishing today. This interpretation
seems unlikely when considering the mortuary contexts in
which shell beads are so often found (Jordan et al. 1963:40,
Plate V; Willey 1949b:51).

Miscellaneous Marine Shell

All marine shell fragments were saved and bagged as
artifacts in the field due to the absence of these animals in the
immediate vicinity of Lake Monroe. Many of the fragments of
marine shell recovered show no visible signs of manufacture or
Debitage (n= ). LM93-922A is the only Busycon shell
debitage readily identified. In this case the entire spire above
the shoulder was removed by sawing. Similar examples are
known from Hontoon Island (Purdy 1991:Figure 49a).
Although they are identified as hammers, the Hontoon
specimens appear to be the remains of carefully removed body
whorls from which gouge/adzes could be produced. Perhaps
the scarcity of marine shell in the basin led to this cautious
reduction sequence.
Fragmentary Marine Shell (n=97). The fragments of
several species of marine mollusk were recovered from Lake
Monroe. In some cases these fragments may be debitage
produced from shell tool production, or they may be the
remains of yet unidentified tools. Shells appear to have been
used in producing (forming and tempering) some of the clay
boiling balls found at the site, and some of the specimens



0 1



2 3

Figure 25. Shell beads: a.) LM92-244, Zone IV;
b.) LM93-162, Zone II, c.) LM93-883, Zone V;
d.) LM93-869, Zone IV.

included here are covered with baked-clay (see discussion of
this under clay artifacts). We have included all marine shell as
artifacts, since they must have been transported to the site from
the coast. None of the marine shells from Lake Monroe have
been identified as fossils. Table 4 summarizes all types and
species represented in this category.

Ceramic Artifacts

The 1992 and 1993 excavations at the Groves' Midden
were in a pre-pottery context that contains five different types
of fired clay objects. Types encountered include biconical,
biscuit-shaped, grooved-cylinder, biconical-grooved and
amorphous. All of the objects were fragmentary, with only 39
out of 400 fragments identifiable to a particular type. Of those
identified there were 16 biconical, 3 biconical-grooved, 5
grooved-cylinders, 11 biscuit-shaped and 4 amorphous
(Figures 26 and 27 illustrate fragmentary specimens from
Groves' Midden, as well as reconstructed forms).
Temper was not considered to be a feature of the clay
objects reported from Tick Island by Small (1966:69),
however, temper was noted for the objects recovered at the
Groves' Midden. The types of temper used were sand and
crushed shell. Despite finding chunks of limestone in about 10
percent of the fired clay fragments it was not considered to be
a tempering agent. The limestone was not crushed and evenly
distributed throughout the paste, indicating that the clay was
not thoroughly cleaned before the objects were formed. Table
5 illustrates the distribution of clay object types by zone.
Table 6 demonstrates a general increase in sand tempering as
compared to shell, despite the anomalous figures for Zone V.
Fired clay objects have been reported from a number of
sites in Florida, covering a wide temporal and spatial extent.
Clay object form and function can be discussed in terms of two
major temporal divisions. Earlier examples of baked-clay
objects come from the Middle to Late Archaic horizons known
as the Elliott's Point complex and the Mount Taylor culture,
with possible precursors dating to the Early Archaic. The
post-Archaic examples of fired clay objects come from several
distinct contexts and have equally varied functions.
Some of the post-Archaic fired clay objects are known
from the northern St. Johns and Indian River areas. Goggin
(1952:128) notes a wedge-shaped object of clay recovered by
C. B. Moore at Mount Royal, and Rouse (1951:126, 129, 136)
mentions lumps of fired clay from several sites. The East
Okeechobee area Boynton Mound (Jaffee 1976:146-150) and
Jupiter Inlet 1 sites (Wernecke 1993:1) both contained clay
lumps. The Boynton Mound specimens were associated with
hearths, and may have functioned as hearth stones, much like
those reported for the Loyola Beach site in Texas (Hester
1971:100- 102).
We have postulated that baked-clay objects from the
Middle and Late Archaic periods in Florida were used in
heating water for cooking. As noted above, clay objects are


Figure 26. Ceramic objects: a.) experimental replica of biconical object; b.) fragment produced by thermal shock testing; c.)
LM92- 328, Zone IV, fragment of biconical object; d.) experimental replica of biconical-grooved object; e.) fragment produced by
thermal shock testing; f) LM92-333, Zone IV, fragment of biconical-grooved object. Ceramic objects like these may have been
used in pre-pottery cooking.

Figure 27. Ceramic objects: a.) ex-
perimental replica of grooved-cylinder;
b.) fragment produced by thermal
shock testing; c.) LM93-279, Zone IV,
grooved-cylinder; d.) experimental
replica of biscuit-shaped object; e.)
fragment produced by thermal shock
testing; f.) LM93-671, Zone II,
biscuit-shaped object.


Table 5. Ceramic Objects by Type and Stratigraphic Zone, Groves'
Orange Midden (8V02601), Lake Monroe, Florida.

Ceramic Object Zones I II III IV V Total

Biconical 2 3 1 9 1 16
Biconical-Grooved 1 2 3
Cylindrical-Grooved 3 2 5
Biscuit 3 3 2 3 11
Amorphous 2 1 1 4

Total 7 11 3 17 1 39

Table 6. Distribution and Frequency of Ceramic Object Tempering Agents
by Stratigraphic Zone, Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Lake Monroe, Florida.

Ceramic Object I II III IV V Total
Temper Classes
# % # % # % # % # %

Sand 26 83.9 78 70.3 32 66.7 75 57.3 62 78.5 273

Shell 5 16.1 33 29.7 16 33.3 56 42.7 17 21.5 127

Total 31 111 48 131 79 400

Figure 28. Exotic materials: a.) LM93-668,
Zone II, steatite bead; b.) LM93-900, Zone
V, steatite bannerstone fragment. These
non-local objects provide evidence of early
exchange with areas outside of Florida.


known from the Elliott's Point complex of northwestern
Florida, as well as the Mount Taylor culture of northeastern
Florida. These two cultures not only have similar clay object
types, but share similar chipped stone "point" types as well
(compare Fairbanks 1959:100; Purdy this issue). Elliott's
Point complex clay objects are spheroid and biscuit-shaped
varieties (Fairbanks 1959:95-100; Small 1966:67, 74). Tick
Island types are biconical, biscuit-shaped, grooved-cylinder,
amorphous, spheroid and biconical-grooved (Jahn and Bullen
1978; Small 1966:69, 76). The fired clay object types from
the Groves' Midden are identical to the Tick Island types,
except for the spheroid shape that Tick Island shares with
Elliott's Point. Tick Island shares fired clay object types with
Groves' Midden and Elliott's Point that the latter do not have
in common.
While not formally recognized as part of the Archaic fired
clay ball complex discussed above, the Bluffton site (Bullen
1955) should be included. Excavated before the major
discussions of fired clay objects from Poverty Point sites (Ford
and Webb 1956; Ford et al. 1955), Bullen failed to recognize
the significance of the clay lumps he found. Bullen (1955:11)
does mention finding the clay lumps scattered throughout the
site. We found several of these in the Bluffton collections of
the Florida Museum of Natural History.
Fired clay objects from the Groves' Midden were
recovered in the oldest deposits, dated to 6,200 B.P. and
continue into the earliest fiber-tempered pottery levels. An
inverse relationship between the pottery and the fired clay
fragments was noted for the early fiber-tempered pottery
levels, with pottery increasing as fired clay fragments
decreased, leading to the conclusion that these objects
represented similar cooking methods, with pottery replacing
fired clay objects over time. A similar relationship is noted by
Sassaman (1993:70) for fired clay objects and pottery in South
Carolina, although he concludes that they were not used for the
same function (1993:135). The context of the fired clay
objects at Groves' Midden is suggestive of use as boiling balls.
The fragments that spalled off during use would be disposed of
with the shell and other food remains. The fragmentary
condition of the clay objects from the Groves' site that are
mixed in the shell midden, and the hearths with fired clay
fragments scattered around them at the Four Mile Village site
(Fairbanks 1959:96) further support this thesis.
A search of the literature disclosed that only Heizer's
(1937) work in California supported the idea of fired clay
objects as boiling balls. All others that had reported on the
topic had suggested their use as baking balls in earth ovens as
first mentioned by Ford et al. (1955), and experimentally
tested by Gibson (1973). Most authors also felt that fired clay
objects were not suitable for boiling balls and would rapidly
disintegrate if such a use were attempted (Sassaman 1993;
Wernecke 1993). No reports of experiments have been found,
however. Since the context at Groves' Midden suggested the

fired clay objects were used as boiling balls, we undertook an
experiment to determine if this was possible.
The experiment began with a trip back to the site where
clay was collected from the lake bottom within a few feet of
the edge of the midden. The clay was brought to the lab where
a portion of it was dried, pounded, rewet and kneaded.
Twenty-four clay objects were formed from the clay, 6 each of
biconical, biconical-grooved, grooved-cylinder and biscuit-
shaped. These objects were allowed to dry before firing in an
open fire that reached a temperature of 700 degrees centigrade,
as measured with a thermocouple. After firing, some of the
objects were used in a cooking experiment. Two wooden
bowls were used, one with shrimp and water and another with
cornmeal and water. The clay objects were heated in an open
fire for fifteen minutes with a thermocouple reading of 500
degrees centigrade. They were then removed from the fire and
immediately dropped into the wooden bowls. The water began
to boil within seconds and the food was cooked within three
minutes. Longer cooking times could easily be accommodated
by using a larger number of objects, or by cycling them back
through the fire to reheat.
After the field experiment, four of the objects were
subjected to repeated hearings at 500 degrees centigrade for
fifteen minutes and quenchings in room-temperature water
until they failed. Trials ranged from 14 to 112 before failure.
The average number of quenchings before failure was 62. The
one object that failed after only 14 trials had developed drying
cracks that contributed to its early destruction. The results of
the experiment clearly demonstrate that the fired clay objects
from Groves' Midden could have been used for any heating
purpose that stone is used for (Stewart 1977:129-132).

Miscellaneous Objects

Objects of local and exotic ground stone are considered
miscellaneous artifacts primarily due to the small number of
such items recovered fiom Lake Monroe.
Exotic Materials (n=2, Figure 28). Two objects of gray
steatite were recovered from Lake Monroe. LM93-668 is a
finely finished tubular, ornamented bead, with a biconical hole
for suspension. The ornamentation consists of two pairs of
grooves that completely encircle opposite ends of the bead.
The Archaic period Bay West site in Collier County (Beriault
et al. 1981:49, Figure 11) produced a large greenstone bead,
and Ferguson (1951:41,Plate 4b) mentions a tubular stone bead
from South Indian Field. Goggin (1952:120) notes several
types of stone beads, including tubular, discoidal and barrel
shapes, from the northern St. Johns area.
LM93-900 is a fragmentary central section from a steatite
bannerstone. Based on the shape and profile of the object, this
was probably a "winged" type bannerstone, or what Goggin
(1952:126-127, Figure 8) calls Type 1. Goggin (1952:126-
127) describes a series of bannerstone finds in the northern St.

Johns area, including a cache of five from Thornhill Lake
Mound 1, a site fairly near Lake Monroe. Similar forms also
are reported by Douglass (1882:105, 107) for the coastal
region (Figure 29 illustrates one of the bannerstones found by
Douglass). The origin of these exotic material artifacts is
presently unknown, though Jefferies (1993) reports early trade
in similar artifacts and materials from the late Middle Archaic
of Tennessee, Kentucky and other parts of the Southeast.
Finishing/Abrading Tool (n=3). Sandstone and
limestone fragments were used to polish, finish and sharpen
other implements. Two specimens (LM93-1018, LM93-650)
recovered from Lake Monroe have deep grooves worn into
their surfaces from use. Similar objects have been found at
Hontoon Island (Purdy 1987:28). One small pebble (LM93-
818) was recovered that exhibits a faceted surface, the possible
result of use in fine polishing or finishing.
Cave Pearl (n= 1. Figure 30). LM92-668 is a cave pearl
formed in a saturated solution pool (Hill 1976:21-22). Cave
pearls result when carbonates precipitate around some small

Figure 29. Type 1 bannerstone (from Douglass 1882:107).

0 1 2 3

Figure 30. Cave pearl: LM92-668, Zone IV.

particle (i.e., sand grains, rock fragments, shell bits). It may
have originated at one of the springs near the site (Green
Springs is at the head of a spring run that enters Lake Monroe
next to the Groves' Midden). Jahn and Bullen (1978:Figure
49q) illustrate a cave pearl recovered from Tick Island.
Coral (n= 1). LM93-772 is identified as a fragment of
brain coral (cf. Colpophyllia natans). This brain or head coral
species is considered a major component of seaward reefs in
southern Florida waters (Kaplan 1982:83; Colin 1988:254).
Agassiz (1880:Plate VIII) provides a section drawing of C.
gyrosa, which allowed us to make our identification. The
small fragment of coral from Lake Monroe was probably
collected on the sea beach and brought to the site.

Discussion and Remarks

The Groves' Orange Midden has provided the first real
opportunity to study the material culture assemblage of the
Mount Taylor period. Hopefully, this article has provided
enough detailed information on tool types and possible
functions to allow other investigators to classify their artifacts.
Specifically relating to the Lake Monroe site, the above
analysis and discussion should make several things clear,
among which is the well developed woodworking tool complex
dating to 6,200 years ago. Perhaps the early use of marine
products, including shell tools and shark teeth, is equally
important. While shell tools are not numerous, it is possible to
infer their presence based on the large assemblage of cut,
chopped, adzed and gouged wood debitage (much of which
came from the lowest layers). This generally follows the logic
of inferring missing or poorly represented artifacts outlined by
Kehoe (1990:26-30) in her discussion of cordage and textiles
in the European Upper Paleolithic. The shell and shark tooth
tools found at Lake Monroe are not early experiments with
artifact forms, but are the products of an already established
tool industry, one that probably developed on the coast. Many
of the artifact types from Lake Monroe include forms known
from the Early Archaic Windover site (Doran and Dickel
1988; Purdy 1991). The artifacts from Lake Monroe are, in
fact, typical of most time periods in the northern St. Johns and
Indian River areas. Apparently the basic elements of this
regional tool kit developed early, forming the nucleus for a
long tradition of tool and ornament production. It is also
interesting that many of the artifacts from Lake Monroe are
items of fishing technology, representing another well-
established tool tradition. The discovery of a ceramic
industry, which includes tempered baked-clay balls, points to
early development of clay technologies during the Mount
Taylor period, as well as the inappropriateness of the term
"preceramic," as often applied to this era.
Tables 1 and 4 summarize the bone and shell artifacts by
ethnoenvironmental zones (see McGee and Wheeler, this issue
for information on site stratification). Several patterns can be
recognized within the site. First, most major tool types are


known from the lowest strata, Zones IV and V, demonstrating
that the initial settlers who began using freshwater shellfish at
the site already possessed a sophisticated toolkit. This toolkit
included artifacts manufactured from marine products, as well
as items of fishing technology, and cordage and textile work.
The late introduction of Strombus gigas celts (only found in
Zones I and II) parallels the position of these tools at the
Bluffton site (Bullen 1955:4) and the Hill Cottage Midden
(Bullen and Bullen 1976). Russo (1988:162-163) also notes the
presence of marine shell tools in Early and Middle Archaic
contexts, suggesting that the people of the pre-pottery Archaic
had some familiarity with coastal resources.
At least two examples of artifact/ecofact correlations with
environmental conditions are noted for Lake Monroe. The
first is the low number of artifacts recovered from Zone III,
reflecting the general lack of refuse discarded into the near-
shore marsh environment. Artifacts recovered from the marsh
peat layer were found in the deposits closer to shore. Another
interesting correlation is the presence of oyster and hard clam
valves in the lowest strata, Zones IV and V. This would mean
that coastal environments capable of supporting these
mollusks, including subtidal and brackish lagoons, must have
existed between 5,000 and 6,200 B.P. Many authors
discussing the Early and Middle Archaic (Goggin 1952:21, 43;
Goggin 1948:229; Griffin and Smith 1954:31; Thanz 1977:15)
have suggested that coastal lagoons supporting oysters did not
exist until circa 4,000 B.P., correlating with the beginning of
the Orange period and "initial" occupation of the coast.
Contrary to the observations of the above authors, there is
evidence from coastal and inland pre-pottery deposits that
oysters were, in fact, present at this time; Goggin (1952:43)
notes the presence of oyster in the lowest layers at Oak Hill,
and Rouse (1951:83) mentions oyster in similar deposits at
South Indian Field.
One aspect of technology, especially that associated with
the Shell Mound Archaic, is the ascription of certain tool
complexes and tasks to their respective gender roles. Claassen
(1991) notes the almost universal role of women and children
in the daily activities relating to shellfish harvesting; this may
very well have been the case at Lake Monroe. It is also
interesting that many of the tool types identified are elements
of cooking (i.e., ceramic cooking objects, stirring paddles) and
textile and leather working (i.e., awls and fids), and not
martial or hunting activities. Both Claassen (1991) and
Sassaman (1992) suggest that cooking (associated with pottery
production, but analogous to the ceramic cooking stones from
Lake Monroe) and shellfishing are the general domain of
women. As Kehoe (1990:33) notes, it is difficult to assign
aspects of material culture to gender roles without some
contextual associations, and this is certainly the situation we
are confronted with, considering the nature of the deposits and
the lack of features that represent activity areas, floors, etc. If,
however, ethnographic analogies with contemporary shellfish
gatherers are valid, then the bulk of material from the Groves'

Midden reflects the activities of women and children (see
Meehan 1982). This is an important observation, especially
since the majority of information on the Middle Archaic comes
from lithic sites, where projectile points, stone tools and
knapping debitage dominate the samples (Clausen 1964; Bullen
1958; Neill 1958; Bullen and Dolan 1959; Goggin 1950).
The typical model of Mount Taylor origins revolves
around the presumed movement of hunters from the central
highlands into the river basin following rising sea level,
riverine ecosystem development and increasing populations of
freshwater mollusks around 6,200 B.P. (Milanich and
Fairbanks 1980:60,149-150; Miller 1992:101). Russo et al.
(1992:96-99) review this model of early occupation in the St.
Johns River basin, noting that a considerable weight is placed
on Cumbaa's (1976) analysis of terrestrial and freshwater
resource utilization from the Colby site (see Wheeler and
McGee on zooarchaeology, this issue). The basic contention
of the original model is that the inhabitants of the basin region
were hunters of the central uplands who were forced to modify
their economic base as population increased and environment
changed. However, the Groves' site, dating to the early
occupation of the St. Johns River basin, points toward another
possible model of Mount Taylor development. As Russo et al.
(1992) have demonstrated, freshwater shellfish provided a
major component of the diet at Lake Monroe, at least near the
end of the pre-pottery period. Our further work has
demonstrated, in terms of artifacts and subsistence studies, an
initial familiarity with fishing and shellfishing technology, and
the possible presence of coastal estuaries around 6,200 B.P.,
suggesting that the original occupants of the St. Johns basin,
the originators of the Mount Taylor culture, may have come
from the coast (see Wheeler and McGee on zooarchaeological
studies of Lake Monroe, this issue). At the very least, they
were in contact with people who inhabited the coast at this
early time.


In this article, and our additional report on wooden
artifacts (see Wheeler and McGee, this issue) we have
documented several aspects of Mount Taylor period
technology. It is important to note that this technology was in
place in the lowest levels of the Groves' Midden, representing
the early occupation of the St. Johns River basin around 6,200
years ago. Specific aspects of the technological complex
include marine shell tools, shark tooth tools, bone and shell
tools for textile and leather working, baked-clay artifacts,
fishing technology, and implements involved in wood
Marine shell tools from Groves' Midden are primarily
Busycon adze/gouge and whole shell cutting-edge forms. The
AX type Busycon cutting-edge tools represent an early
occurrence of this implement. Other Middle Archaic shell
mounds (i.e., Bluffton and Hill Cottage Midden) have similar


adze/gouge tools. Shell tool marks on wooden debitage attests
to the use of these implements at Lake Monroe. Wooden
handles used in hating shell tools also were recovered.
An array of shark tooth tools was recovered from Groves'
Midden, including types identical to those found at the Early
Archaic Windover cemetery. At least five tool types,
produced from the teeth of five different shark species have
been identified. Shark tooth finishing marks were found on
many of the bone and wood artifacts, suggesting the use of
these tools in making and finishing other items. Wooden tool
handles for hafting these teeth also were recovered. Kozuch
(1993), Borhegyi (1961), and others have discussed aboriginal
shark fishing techniques and the importance of shark tooth
tools in Florida and elsewhere.
Many of the bone and shell tools from Groves' Midden
have been classified as awls, fids and other tools used in the
manipulation and production of textile and leather goods.
Textile products may have included basketry containers used in
collecting shellfish. Wear pattern analysis aided in the
identification of these textile working tools, which are often
misclassified as weapons or ornaments.
Ceramic technology, in the form of baked-clay objects,
also was documented from Lake Monroe. These baked-clay
objects predate those of Poverty Point, but share many
characteristics with artifacts found at other Middle Archaic
sites, including Tick Island, Bluffton, and Elliott's Point.
Experimental archaeology confirmed our suspicion that baked-
clay objects could have functioned as cooking stones,
providing an effective means for cooking shellfish and other
food in wooden containers.
The evidence for fishing and shellfishing technology is
most apparent in the zooarchaeological studies conducted on
samples from Lake Monroe (see Wheeler and McGee, this
issue). Indirect evidence for fishing technology is found in
artifacts, such as net floats, net mesh gauges, and the like.
The presence of shark teeth also suggest that capture of large
marine animals was not beyond the ability of the Middle
Archaic people.
The recovery of wooden implements and debitage from
woodworking at Groves' Midden adds to the special
knowledge of perishable organic remains that can only come
from wet sites. Many of the wooden artifacts recovered are
related to the other implements recovered at the site. For
example, tool handles for shell and shark teeth have already
been mentioned. Fragments of worked wood retain tool marks
from the shell and bone implements that were used in
woodcraft. Woodworking in the Middle Archaic bears a
strong resemblance to that of later periods, as comparison with
wooden tools and debitage of Hontoon Island and Key Marco
The implements and the evidence of their production
from Lake Monroe have to be considered as elements of a
technological complex, with each component as an integral
part of the overall system. In many ways the focal point of

this technology should seem obvious, attested to by the most
distinctive feature of the site--shellfish. As noted above,
implements for constructing collecting containers, baked-clay
objects for cooking are all related to the collection, processing,
preparation and consumption of shellfish.


The following individuals have aided in artifact
cataloging, analysis, figure preparation and general
encouragement: Bill Bulmer, Anne Marie Durling, Erica Hill,
and Barbara A. Purdy. Their help has been invaluable in
preparing this article. We would also like to thank William H.
Marquardt of the Florida Museum of Natural History for
allowing author Wheeler to analyze and photograph the
Republic Groves artifact collection, which aided in studying
the allied technologies of Lake Monroe.

References Cited

Agassiz, Louis
1880 Report on the Florida Reefs. Memoirs of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, Cambridge.

Andrews, Evangeline Walker, and Charles McLean Andrews
1985 Jonathan Dickinson's Journal or, God's Protecting
Providence. Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno,

Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson, and
Jack Meeder
1981 The Archaeological Salvage of the Bay West Site,
Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Borhegyi, Stephan F. de
1961 Shark Teeth, Stingray Spines, and Shark Fishing in
Ancient Mexico and Central America. Southwestern
Journal of Anthropology 17(3):273-296.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 8:1-16.

1958 The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences 4.

1968 A Composite Bone Fishhook. The Florida
Anthropologist 21:124.

1969 Excavations at Sunday Bluff, Florida. Contributions of
the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences 16.


Bullen, Ripley P., Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and Richard
L. McDonnell
1978 The Canton Street Site, St. Petersburg, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publications 9.

Bullen, Ripley P., and William J. Bryant
1965 Three Archaic Sites in the Ocala National Forest,
Florida. The William L. Bryant Foundation, American
Studies Report 6.

Bullen, Ripley P., and Adelaide K. Bullen
1976 The Palmer Site. Florida Anthropological Society
Publications 8.

Bullen, Ripley P., and Edward M. Dolan
1959 The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 12:77-94.

Campana, Douglas V.
1989 Natufian and Protoneolithic Bone Tools: The
Manufacture and Use of Bone Implements in the Zagros
and the Levant. BAR International Series 494.

Claassen, Cheryl
1991 Gender, Shellfishing, and the Shell Mound Archaic. In
Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, edited
by Joan M. Gero and Margaret W. Conkey, pp. 276-300.
Blackwell, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1993 Reviewing the Shell Mound Archaic. Paper presented at
the 50th annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Clausen, Carl J.
1964 The A-356 Site and the Florida Archaic. Unpublished
M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Colin, Patrick I.
1988 Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef.
T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.

Cumbaa, Stephen L.
1976 A Reconsideration of Freshwater Shellfish Exploitation
in the Florida Archaic. The Florida Anthropologist

Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on the
Gulf Coast of Florida. Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society 135(153):329-448.

Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisiplinary Investigations at the Windover Site. In
Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara A. Purdy, pp.
263-289. Telford Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.

Douglass, Andrew E.
1882 A Find of Ceremonial Axes in a Florida Mound.
American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal 4:100-109.

Fairbanks, Charles M.
1959 Additional Elliots Point Complex Sites. The Florida
Anthropologist 12:95-100.

1979 The Function of Black Drink among the Creeks. In
Black Drink: A Native American Tea, edited by Charles
M. Hudson, pp. 120-149. University of Georgia Press,

Ferguson, Vera Masius
1951 Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida.
University Publications in Anthropology 45.


Ford, James A., and Clarence Webb
1956 Poverty Point, a Late Archaic Site in Louisiana.
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History 46(1).

Ford, James A., Philip Phillips, and William Haag
1955 The Jaketown Site in West-Central Mississippi.
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural Histoiy 45(1).

Furey, John F.
1977 An Analysis of Shark Tooth Tools from the Boca Weir
Site in South Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 30:89-

Gibson, Jon L.
1973 Social Systems at Poverty Point: An Analysis of Intersite
and Intrasite Variability. Ph.D. dissertation. University
Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Gifford, E. W.
1940 California Bone Artifacts. Anthropological Records

Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco. University of
Florida Press, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1948 Florida Archaeology and Recent Ecological Changes.
Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences
38(7):225- 233.


1950 An Early Lithic Complex from Central Florida.
American Antiquity 16(1):46-49.

1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology. Yale University Publications in
Anthropology 47.

n.d. The Archaeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida.
Ms. on file, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer, III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida.
University Publications in Anthropology 41.


Griffin, John W., and Hale G. Smith
1954 The Cotten Site: An Archaeological Site of Early
Ceramic Times in Volusia County, Florida. Florida
State University Studies 16:27-60.

Heizer, Robert
1937 Baked-Clay Objects of the Lower Sacramento Valley,
California. American Antiquity 3(1):34-50.

Hester, Thomas Roy
1971 Loyola Beach: An Example of Aboriginal Adaptation.
The Florida Anthropologist 24:100-106.

Hill, Carol A.
1976 Cave Minerals. National Speleological Society,
Huntsville, Alabama.

Hollister, S. C.
1958 A Review of the Genus Busycon and Its Allies--Part I.
Palaeontographica Americana IV.

Jaffee, Howard
1976 Preliminary Report on a Midden Mound and Burial
Mound of the Boynton Mound Complex (8PB56). The
Florida Anthropologist 29:145-152.

Jahn, Otto L., and Bullen, Ripley P.
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publications 10.

Jefferies, Richard
1993 The Emergence of Long-Distance Trade Networks in
the Southeastern United States. Paper presented at 50th
annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Jones, B. Calvin
1981 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones
Part II: Excavations of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa
Beach, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34:81-89.

Jordan, Douglas F., Elizabeth Wing, and Adelaide K. Bullen
1963 Papers on the Jungerman and Goodman Sites, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences 10.

Kaplan, Eugene H.
1982 A Field Guide to Coral Reefs of the Caribbean and
Florida. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Kehoe, Alice B.
1990 Points and Lines. In Powers of Observation: Alternative
Views in Archaeology, edited by Sarah M. Nelson and
Alice B. Kehoe, pp. 23-38. Archaeological Papers of the
American Anthropological Association 2.

Kozuch, Laura
1993 Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South
Florida. Institute of Archaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida,

Kozuch, Laura, and Cherry Fitzgerald
1989 A Guide to Identifying Shark Centra from Southeastern
Archaeological Sites. Southeastern Archeology 8(2):146-

Luer, George M.
1992 The Palmetto Lane Midden (8SO96): Some
Stratigraphic, Radiocarbon, and Shell Tool Analyses for a
Manasota Period Site in Sarasota, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 45:246-252.

Luer, George M., David Allerton, Dan Hazeltine, Ron
Hatfield, and Darden Hood
1986 Whelk Shell Tool Blanks from Big Mound Key
(8Chl0), Charlotte County Florida: with Notes on
Certain Whelk Shell Tools. Florida Anthropological
Society Publications 12:92-124.

Marquardt, William H.
1992 Shell Artifacts from the Caloosahatchee Area. In
Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa,
edited by William H. Marquardt, pp. 191-228. Institute
of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies,
University of Florida, Gainesville.


Masson, Marilyn A.
1988 Shell Celt Morphology and Reduction: An Analogy to
Lithic Research. The Florida Anthropologist 41:313-335.

Meehan, Berry
1982 Shell Bed to Shell Midden. Australian Institute of
Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

Milanich, Jerald T.
1979 Origins and Prehistoric Distributions of Black Drink
and the Ceremonial Shell Drinking Cup. In Black Drink:
A Native American Tea, edited by Charles M. Hudson,
pp. 83- 119. University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Miller, James J.
1992 Effects of Environmental Changes on Late Archaic
People of Northeast Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Moore, Clarence B.
1894 Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida,
Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia 10:129-246.

Nabergall-Luis, Lee A,
1990 Faunal Studies from an Early Archaic Wetsite: The
Windover Archaeological Site, Brevard County, Florida.
Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida State University, Tallahassee.

Neill, Wilfred T.
1958 A Stratified Early Site at Silver Springs, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 11:33-52.

Newcomer, Mark H.
1974 Study and Replication of Bone Tools from Ksar Akil,
Lebanon. World Archaeology 6(2):138-153.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1973 The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Bone Points
in the State of Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

1987 Hontoon Island, Florida (8V0202) Artifacts. The
Florida Anthropologist 40:27-39.

1991 Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, Florida.

Richardson, Sue B., and Mary Pohl
1982 The Bone Tool Industry from the Granada Site. In
Archaeology and History of the Granada Site, vol. 1,
edited by John W. Griffin, pp. 83-170. Florida Division
of Archives, History and Records Management,

Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archaeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 44.

Russo, Michael
1988 Coastal Adaptations in Eastern Florida: Models and
Methods. Archaeology of Eastern North America 16:159-

Russo, Michael, Barbara A. Purdy, Lee A. Newsom, and Ray
M. McGee
1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden
(8Vo2601). Southeastern Archeology 11(2):95-108.

Sassaman, Kenneth E.
1992 Gender and Technology at the Archaic-Woodland
Transition. In Exploring Gender Through Archaeology,
edited by Cheryl Claassen, pp. 89-94. Prehistory Press,

1993 Early Pottery in the Southeast. University of Alabama
Press, Tuscaloosa.

Sears, William H.
1953 Excavations at Kolomoki: Season III and IV, Mound D.
University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Semenov, S. A.
1964 Prehistoric Technology. Cory, Adams and Mackay,

Small, James F.
1966 Additional Information on Poverty Point Baked Clay
Objects. The Florida Anthropologist 19:65-76.

Steinen, Karl T.
1971 Analysis of the Non-ceramic Artifacts from a
Hopewellian Related Site in the Okeechobee Basin.
Unpublished M.A. thesis, Florida Atlantic University.

1982 Other Nonceramic Artifacts. In Fort Center: An
Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Stewart, Hilary
1977 Indian Fishing: Early Methods on the Northwest Coast.
University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Thanz, Nina
1977 A Correlation of Environmental and Cultural Changes
in Northeastern Florida during the Late Archaic Period.
Florida Journal of Anthropology 2(1):3-22.

Walker, Karen Jo
1989 Artifacts of a Fishy Nature: Southwest Florida's
Prehistoric Marine Fishing Technology. Paper presented
at the 46th annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Tampa, Florida.

1992 Bone Artifacts from Josslyn Island, Buck Key Shell
Midden, and Cash Mound: A Preliminary Assessment for
the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture and Environment in
the Domain of the Calusa, edited by William H.
Marquardt, pp. 229-246. Institute of Archaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida,

Webster, William J.
1970 A New Concept for the Busycon Shell Receptacle. The
Florida Anthropologist 23:1-7.

Wernecke, D. Clark
1993 Baked Clay Objects from the Jupiter Midden Site
(8PB34): A Literature Search. The Florida
Anthropologist 46:282-290.

Wharton, Barry R., George R. Ballo, and Mitchell E. Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 34:59-80.

Wheeler, Ryan J.
1992 Time, Space and Aesthetics: Decorated Bone Artifacts
from Florida. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

1993 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Shell Tools from
the East Okeechobee Area. Paper presented at the 50th
annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina.

1994 Early Florida Decorated Bone Artifacts: Style and
Aesthetics from Paleo-Indian Through Archaic. The
Florida Anthropologist 47:47-60.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949a Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113.

1949b Excavations in Southeastern Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology 42.

Ryan J. Wheeler
Ray M. McGee
Department of Anthropology
1350 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee

Florida archaeological wet sites are becoming well known
for the rare wooden artifacts and other preserved organic
materials that they have produced. Site type and depositional
environment, along with preservation conditions, are
significant in determining what kinds of wooden artifacts will
be found, not to mention the condition they are in.

Archaeological Wet Site Types of the
St. Johns and Malabar Areas

Some materials are deposited directly into quiet water or
mud and become covered quickly. Sites with this type of
depositional environment tend to have well preserved organic
materials. The Windover site in Brevard County represents
one type of wet site that satisfies the above conditions. At
Windover, excellent preservation conditions resulted in the
recovery of woven fabric as well as human brain tissue (Doran
and Dickel 1988; Purdy 1991). Elsewhere in Florida, cemetery
sites with similar preservation quality include Republic
Groves, Little Salt Spring, Warm Mineral Springs, and Bay
West (see Wharton et al. 1981; Clausen et al. 1979; Clausen et
al. 1977; Beriault et al. 1981; Purdy 1991). Since all of the
above mentioned sites are cemeteries it is unwise to assume
that the artifacts recovered from them represent the full
spectrum of domestic material culture. For example, shell
tools are rarely found at these cemeteries, yet we would argue
that they were an important part of Floridian material culture
because most of the wooden artifacts recovered from these sites
were probably produced with shell implements. Tick Island
and Bluffton are two other Middle Archaic sites of the upper
St. Johns River, both of which produced marine shell
implements (Jahn and Bullen 1978; Bullen 1955). The shell
tools from Groves' Midden may be some of the earliest
examples from Florida (see Wheeler and McGee, this issue).
Edwards (1954) reports on another site type that
facilitates the excellent preservation of organic materials,
including wooden and woven artifacts. While excavating for
Paleo-Indian deposits at South Indian Field (8BR27), Edwards
(1954:72) discovered several large and small prehistoric wells
or ponds that contained wooden and textile artifacts in an
Orange period context. Apparently, the Indians who originally
excavated the wells discarded material directly into them,
accounting for the preservation of basketry, cordage and
wooden artifacts. Rouse (1951:94-104) originally documented

the South Indian Field wells, but does not describe any organic
materials coming from the various excavations into them.
The material reported on below was recovered from the
third type of archaeological wet site, the subaqueous shell
midden. Organic remains from shell middens tend to represent,
like the other classes of artifacts from these sites, refuse that
has been discarded in or near water. The wooden artifacts
recovered from Hontoon Island (8V0202) represent roughly
the same categories and quality of preservation found at Lake
Monroe. Tick Island also has produced some wooden artifacts
and carvings (Jahn and Bullen 1978; Benson 1967). Purdy
(1987:28,34; 1991:118-127) reports large quantities of adzed
wood and debitage from the lagoon excavations at Hontoon,
along with canoe paddle fragments, stakes, planks, posts,
plugs, wedges, handles, an effigy pin, and numerous
unidentified specimens. Most artifacts from Hontoon probably
represent objects lost in the water or discarded with other
midden trash. The artifacts of Hontoon Island and Groves'
Orange Midden are separated in time by about 3,000 years, yet
many are similar in style and technique of manufacture.

Wood Artifact Types

Comparable collections of wooden artifacts are rather
limited; the primary sources considered here include the
Hontoon Island, Volusia County and Key Marco, Collier
County collections (Purdy 1987; Gilliland 1975). Many tools
dating to 6,200 B.P. at Lake Monroe have counterparts from
the post-Archaic sites mentioned above, indicating a fairly long
and stable tradition of woodworking in Florida. Classes of
tools represented include wood and bone working, fishing,
cooking and transportation. Many wooden items clearly are
artifacts, but are too fragmentary for proper classification.
Table 1 summarizes wooden artifact types by stratigraphic
Tool Handles (n=9. Figures 1-2). Specimens in this
category are probably handles used in hafting shell cutting-
edge tools, shell adze/gouges or other implements. Some
examples are manufactured from cross-grain cut wood, while
others are radial branch sections that have been modified with
a tenoned head and polished base (LM93-820-1, LM93-822).
Two of these handles (see Figure 2a) show evidence of incised
decoration or lashing with cordage (LM93-817-3, LM93-
1051), while other specimens have pitch adhering to their


Vol. 47 No. 4



0 1 2 3
I rcm

Figure 1. Wooden tool handles: a.) LM93-820-1, Zone II. Radial branch with tenoned head.

o 1 2 3

Figure 2. Wooden tool handles: a.) LM93-1051, Zone V;
b.) LM93-994- 1, Zone III. Side and end views.
Specimen a is incised.

surfaces (LM93-994-1). A wooden implement fragment from
the Middle to Late Archaic Bay West site also has pairs of
parallel lines incised around its shaft (Purdy 1991:61-62,
Figure 16; Beriault et al. 1981:46, Figure 5).
Knife Handles (n=2. Figure 3). Two handles are
identifiable as components of shark tooth or chert knives.
LM93-807-1 has a slightly expanding head topped with a
notched tenon. Similar specimens are known from Hontoon
Island and Key Marco (Gilliland 1975:133,135, Plates 82 and
87; Kozuch 1993:4); apparently this form is part of a
longstanding implement tradition. Like specimens from Key
Marco this handle was probably set with a shark tooth blade
for finer wood and bone carving. LM93-1062 is a slightly
different form of knife handle, with a partially grooved and
rounded tip. It is possible that a handle of this nature was set
with one of the many small chert flakes recovered from the site
(see discussion of these in Purdy, this issue). Kirk and
Daugherty (1978:50) report similar hafted chert knives from
the Hoko River, Washington and note that in replicative
studies they were most useful for cutting fish, not carving bone
and wood.
Net Floats (n=6. Figure 4). Produced from radial
branch sections, these "net floats" have finished ends with
notches or grooves set parallel to the object and opposite one
another. These objects are similar in form to the wooden net
floats recovered from Key Marco (Gilliland 1975:152, Plate
101), and it is possible that they represent an analogous type of
implement. In some cases the cut marks made while incising
the notches are visible under a hand lens.
Stirring Paddles (n=3. Figure 5). Stirring paddles
recovered from Lake Monroe are all fragmentary, but show
considerable finishing on surfaces, rounded edges and evidence
of wear along margins. A similar spoon-like object was
recovered from Hontoon Island (Purdy 1991:120, Figure 45).
Willey (1949b:54, Plate 13) reports on wooden stirring
paddles from Belle Glade that appear similar to the Lake
Monroe and Hontoon artifacts.
Canoe Paddle (n=l. Figure 6). LM93-161 is a
fragmentary blade from a canoe paddle. Similar specimens are
known from Hontoon Island (Purdy 1987:34, Figure 7) and
Key Marco (Gilliland 1975:123, Plate 76).


Figure 3. Wooden knife handle: LM93-807-1, Zone II. Note expanding tenoned head.

0 1 2 3

Figure 4. Wooden netfloats: a.) LM93-722-1, Zone V;
b.) LM93-722- 2, Zone V. Note notches in ends.

Pins (n=2). The objects classified as pins are thin, round
shaft sections of cross-grain cut wood. They may be
components of decorated wooden pins like those known from
Hontoon Island (Purdy 1991:120, Figure 44) and Key Marco
(Gilliland 1975:116, Figure 72b), or they may be simple pins.
Miscellaneous Forms (n=21. Figures 7-9). Within this
category we have included a range of objects that appear to be
fragments of finished artifacts that are not easily placed in
other classes. These include flat pieces with polished surfaces
and finished edges, perforated or grooved fragments, and
specimens resembling stake tips and bases (as compared with
objects from Hontoon Island). LM93-156 is a cut and polished
fragment of what could be a hook or hook-like object. Six
objects have squared covers and finished surfaces, suggesting
that they might be fragments of tool handles (see Figure 7).
LM93-781-1 is a rather unusual example of a square-cornered
object, since both finished ends appear to be tenoned and one
surface has some pitch adhering to it (see Figure 8). This may
be an example of prehistoric joinery. Specimens LM93-820-2
and 974-4 appear to be fragments of hollowed-out cylindrical
objects, with finished surfaces and ends (see Figure 9). The
artifacts most closely resembling these two fragments are
complete specimens from the Windover cemetery; these objects
appear partially hollowed-out from their ends, with holes
placed along the shaft (Purdy 1991: Figure 80). The function
of these items is unknown.
Debitaae (n=7571. Figures 11-13). Most of the wood
recovered from Lake Monroe should be considered debitage.
Many of the fragments are chips of adzed wood or radial
branch pieces. Some objects are large beams or planks, while
yet others are fragmentary sections of posts. At this point only
a preliminary study has been conducted of the wood refuse
from the Groves' site. We have, however, identified 3,637


pieces of adzed and split wood, and 3,916 radial branch
fragments. Most radial branch fragments are unmodified and
may simply reflect natural deposition in the lake. Tables 2 and
3 summarize the wood debitage by zone, using count and
weight for split and radial wood, respectively. Table 2 shows
the total number of fragments recovered and their weight by
zone. The data in this table are skewed because some levels
did not produce wood. For example, the terrestrial portion of
the excavation had no wood preservation in 24 levels of Zones
I and II.
Table 4 was calculated to reflect the number of levels in
each zone that did produce wood. This information helps
clarify the problems with the raw data, and was used in
constructing Table 3 and Figure 10.



so o










Figure 10. Graph of debitage and refuse wood weight per
level, per zone.

Table 3 was produced to look at the range of preservation
in those levels that produced wood. Minimum count,
maximum count, minimum weight and maximum weight, as
well as the mean value of count and weight per level in each
zone, are presented. The count of fragments per level is of
little use since the wood is so fragile that each time it is
handled it breaks into more pieces. Weight, as opposed to
count, is a much more reliable indicator of the quantity of
wood recovered.
The mean values of weight for both split and radial wood
are graphed in Figure 10. This graph indicates that there is
very little wood preservation in Zone I, which is disturbed
material at the top of the midden. Zone II is the upper shell
midden deposit and has the greatest weight of split wood per
level with a ratio of split to radial at about 2:3. Zone III is a
natural peat deposit that formed when the lake was shallow and
has only some secondary deposits of split wood that eroded off
the primary midden and washed into the peat. The wood from
this zone is primarily radial, with a ratio of split to radial at
about 1:4. Zone IV is the lower shell midden and has less split
and radial wood than Zone II, although the ratio of split to
radial at 4:5 is much closer to that of Zone I1 than any of the
other zones. Zone V holds evidence of the earliest occupation
at the site, and like Zone III, is a secondary deposit. The ratio
of split to radial wood is 1:4, like that observed in Zone III,
again reflecting a primarily non- cultural deposition.
We have at present analyzed 18 pieces of debitage that are
thought to be characteristic of the general collection and most
representative of the types of tool marks encountered.
One unique specimen (LM93-87) is a split-out piece of
wood that exhibits saw marks (approximately 2.5 cm apart)
running against the grain on one surface (see Figure 11). It is
unclear what type of tool was used to saw this wood, though
Cushing (1896:371; Gilliland 1975:215) describes fish dentary
"saws" from Key Marco, though no similar implements were
found at Lake Monroe. We have observed bone and chipped
stone saw blades in the Simpson Collection, housed at the
Florida Museum of Natural History. These specimens from
the Ichetucknee River have very fine teeth and were used, we
suggest, for more detailed wood working.
LM93-95 is a radial branch piece exhibiting one end that
is cut (axed) to a point (see Figure 12). This piece may
represent a small tree that was felled or modified in production
of a tool, leaving this cut end and shaft as debitage.
LM93-783-2 is similar to the above object, produced
when cuts were made at opposite transverse angles, then
snapped into two pieces, leaving this specimen. This reduction
technique is similar to the score and snap method already
observed for bone at Lake Monroe, and numerous other sites
in Florida (see Wheeler and McGee, this issue).
Numerous specimens (LM93-467, 807-4, 807-5) are
classified as "adzed" wood. These are chips of wood that have
been split off a large piece in some type of reduction sequence.
The Busycon adze marks are shallow depressions, with slight



Figure 5. Wooden stirring paddles: a.) LM93-974-1, Zone III; b.) LM92-251, Zone IV.

Figure 6. Wooden canoe paddle fragment: LM93-161, Zone II.

0 1 2 3

Figure 7. Miscellaneous forms, squared-up objects: LM93-974-3, Zone Ill.

Figure 8. Miscellaneous forms, tenoned object: LM93-781-1, Zone II.



Figure 9. Miscellaneous forms, hollow cylindrical object: LM93-820- 2, Zone II. Top and side views



Figure 12. Debitage, axed wood: LM93-95, Zone IV.

Figure 13. Debitage, adzed and chopped wood: LM93-984, Zone III.
The tool marks evident on this specimen were probably made with a
Busycon carica shell cutting-edge tool.
Figure 11. Debitage, sawn wood: LM93-87, Zone III.

0 ~_a 3

Table 1. Wooden Artifacts by 7Tpe and Stratigraphic Zone,
Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601), Lake Monroe, Florida.

Wooden Artifact Zones I II III IV V Total

Tool Handles 4 2 2 1 9
Knife Handles 1 1 2
Net Floats 1 1 4 6
Stirring Paddles 1 1 2 4
Canoe Paddles 1 1
Pins? 1 1 2
Squared-up Objects 3 1 1 1 6
Cylindrical Objects 1 1 2
Unidentified Artifacts 3 3 6 12

Total 1 15 9 5 14 44

Table 2. Wood Debitage by Stratigraphic Zone.

Zone Split # Split Wt. Radial # Radial Wt.
I 94 338.7 64 491.9
II 2081 15425.6 1484 26771.3
III 289 2467.0 639 8477.7
IV 565 4867.1 620 6125.0
V 608 3908.9 1109 16948.3

Totals 3637 27007.3 3916 58813.5

Table 3. Wood Preservation by Level Per Stratigraphic Zone.

Split Count Split Weight
Zone Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean
I 3 29 9.4 4.2 96.4 33.9
II 3 259 48.4 6.6 2257.2 358.7
III 0 197 18.1 0.0 2497.8 154.2
IV 0 74 23.5 0.0 1713.3 202.8
V 0 86 18.4 0.0 446.1 118.5

Radial Count Radial Weight
Zone Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean
I 0 23 6.4 0.0 132.3 49.2
II 1 145 34.5 4.0 2997.2 622.6
III 3 102 39.9 33.7 3431.2 529.9
IV 0 115 25.8 0.0 1062.6 255.2
V 1 78 33.6 3.3 2233.2 513.6

Table 4. Levels With Wood
by Stratigraphic Zone.


Zone Levels Levels
per Zone with Wood
I 26 10
II 51 43
III 21 16
IV 26 24
V 34 33


semi-circular facets closely resembling the shell tool bit.
Comparison of Busycon shell tool cutting-edges and the marks
on the adzed wood suggests that these implements were used in
the reduction process. The use of shell adzes and axes leave
many pieces of split wood without tool marks, analogous to the
splitting of wood with a metal axe.
Chopping marks made by Busycon cutting-edge tools are
found on a series of wood chips and larger fragments (LM93-
552-1, 552-2, 552-3, 817-1, 984). Marks left by the cutting-
edge tools are deeper and narrower than those produced by the
shell adze, in many cases the cutting-edge tools seem to have
been used to detach larger pieces of wood. Like the adze
marks, the cutting-edge tools leave a slightly rounded or semi-
circular cut mark (see Figure 13).
Finer cut marks are found on several specimens (LM93-
745, 783- 1, 864). The patterns noted on the aforementioned
pieces appear to have been made with a bone gouge or celt, as
the shallow, very small nibble-like marks would indicate.
Beriault et al. (1981:47) describes worked wood from the Bay
West site that also exhibits finer gouging of this nature.


The wooden artifacts recovered from Lake Monroe
represent the types of objects one should expect to find
preserved in a wet site shell midden. The artifacts recovered
are primarily debitage from tool production, as well as
discarded or broken implements. The wooden artifacts from
Groves' Orange Midden represent elements of daily life for the
people of the Mount Taylor culture (6,000 to 4,000 B.P.).
Many of the objects are tool handles like those recovered from
other Florida wet sites, while others include parts of stirring
paddles, broken ornaments, net floats and canoe paddles. Like
the bone and shell implements from Lake Monroe (see Wheeler
and McGee, this issue), the wooden artifacts are an integral
part of a technological complex in which all parts rely on the
others. For example, some of the wooden handles were
probably used to mount shark teeth and shell tools, which were
also needed in the production of wooden items.

References Cited

Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson, and
Jack Meeder
1981 The Archaeological Salvage of the Bay West Site,
Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Benson, Carl A.
1967 A Unique Wood Carving from Tick Island. The
Florida Anthropologist 20:178-180.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 8:1-16.

Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains in the
Gulf Coast of Florida. Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society 135(153):329-448.

Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site.
In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara A. Purdy, pp.
263-289. Telford Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.

Edwards, William Ellis
1954 The Helen Blazes Site of Central-Eastern Florida: A
Study in Method Utilizing the Disciplines of Archeology,
Geology, and Pedology. Ph.D. dissertation, Political
Science Department, Columbia University, New York.

Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco. University of
Florida Press, Gainesville.

Jahn, Otto L., and Bullen, Ripley P.
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication 10.

Kehoe, Alice B.
1990 Points and Lines. In Powers of Observation: Alternative
Views in Archaeology, edited by Sarah M. Nelson and
Alice B. Kehoe, pp. 23-38. Archaeological Papers of the
American Anthropological Association 2.

Kirk, Ruth (with Richard D. Daugherty)
1978 Exploring Washington Archaeology.
Washington Press, Seattle.

University of

Kozuch, Laura
1993 Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South
Florida. Institute of Archaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida,

Purdy, Barbara A.
1987 Hontoon Island, Florida (8V0202) Artifacts. The
Florida Anthropologist 40:27-39.

1991 Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, Florida.


Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 44.

Wharton, Barry R., George R. Ballo, and Mitchell E. Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 34:59-80.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeastern Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology 42.

Ryan J. Wheeler
Ray M. McGee
Department of Anthropology
1350 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32603


Barbara A. Purdy

A total of 210 chipped stone objects was recovered from
Groves' Orange Midden during the 1992 and 1993 seasons.
These included 18 complete or broken stemmed bifaces (Figure
1), 1 "handaxe" (Figure 2), 45 utilized flakes, and 146
nonutilized flakes or fire-damaged pieces (see Table 1). Two
tiny phosphate pebbles were also collected in addition to
steatite objects which are described with the other artifacts.
Each object was examined with a 5X hand lens and
measurements of length, width, thickness, and weight were
taken. Nearly all of the utilized and nonutilized flakes were
thinning, pressure, or resharpening flakes with tiny prepared
striking platforms and small but prominent bulbs of
percussion. The great majority can be classified as secondary
or tertiary flakes because of the multiple flake scars on their
dorsal surfaces and because they lack cortex typical of primary
flakes. The combined weight of these two categories (191
specimens) was only 167.5 g with an average of 0.88 g per
object. This average weight per specimen would be reduced
considerably if the three or four larger flakes that were
recovered had not been included in the total.
Except in only four or five cases, the determination of
utilized or nonutilized could not be stated positively. The
majority of the specimens were so fragile that it is quite
possible use wear was obscured because the feathered edge had
broken off. On the other hand, certain flakes thought to have
been utilized may only appear that way because the fragile
edges were "chipped" accidentally. Scraper use is usually the
easiest to detect on small flakes, whereas cutting or knife use is
more difficult to determine. Some of the snapped flakes could
have been used as burins. It is obvious from the small size of
the stone remains that no heavy stone working was occurring
on at the site. The tasks that may have been accomplished with
some of the flakes include incising, slicing fish flesh, or
cutting and scraping plant fibers in preparation for making
Approximately 50 percent of the chipped stone was
silicified coral including five of the stemmed bifaces. Of
particular interest is the presence of at least two flakes
produced from porcelainite, which is thought to occur only in
a restricted area of the Tampa embayment. These specimens
plus the coral furnish convincing evidence that the stone
material was coming from that area of the Gulf Coast. In this
regard, another important observation is that an

overwhelming majority of the bifaces and thinning flakes
appeared to have been heat altered because they were very
glossy, but they were not pink or red as they would have been
if they had been made of chert from Florida's central highlands
(Purdy and Brooks 1971; Purdy 1974, 1975, 1982). Silicified
coral is also available along the Suwannee River and that
location cannot be ruled out as a possible source for the raw
material recovered at Lake Monroe.
Of the total number of specimens counted in Table 1, the
greatest number of stone remains (89 flakes, 12 of the 18
bifaces, and the only "tool") came from the 1992 excavations,
which were the most landward of the areas investigated at the
The chert bifaces recovered at Groves' Orange Midden
are variable with regard to both form and material: six are
Late Archaic, 4 are Mid-Late Archaic, 1 looks Middle Archaic
but is an unfamiliar style, 1 is an Early Archaic Kirk type, and
6 are too fragmentary for identification (Bullen 1975; Purdy
1981a). The complete, or nearly complete, stemmed bifaces
are shown in Figure 1. Except for the Kirk, the recognizable
styles fit nicely with the radiocarbon dates at the site which fall
primarily between 6,000-4,000 years B.P. The Kirk and
possibly a few other stone remains are probably out of place
chronologically. As has been noted elsewhere, stone tools that
predate a midden often are found at shell midden sites.
Whether they have been incorporated accidentally during
resource gathering activities or occur there as heirlooms or
curiosities is not known (Purdy 1987). As an example, Willey
(1949: Plates 54B and 55) illustrates spearheads from the
Parrish Mound that are now known to range from the
Paleoindian period to historic contact. He calls them all Safety
Harbor period artifacts.
While the overall configuration of the biface styles
suggests that they belong somewhere in the Archaic period,
there are no "typical" specimens except for the Kirk and the
base of the broken Culbreath.
The "handaxe" does not appear to have been utilized
extensively. It may, instead, have been a source for thin,
sharp flakes. Numerous flake scars around the periphery
match the size of the flakes described above and, thus, support
this suggestion.
Chert must have been a valued commodity to perform
certain tasks, but from the quantity and sophistication




Vol. 47 No. 4


i i r a t O i i, 1 2 3

Figure 1. Bifaces recovered at the Groves' Orange Midden Site, 1992-1993.

Figure 2. "Handaxe" recovered at the Groves' Orange Midden Site, 1992.


Table 1. Distribution of Chipped Stone Remains at Groves' Orange Midden (8V02601).

1992 1993

S22 S23 S24 S34 S35 S35 S36 S36 S53 S54 S54 S64 S65 S65
E20 E20 E20 E27 E26 E27 E26 E27 E26.75 E25.75 E26.75 E18 E17 E18

38 35 29 1 14 10 18 9 7 7 4 23 7 8

Note: See McGee and Wheeler, Figure 1, this issue for unit locations.

manifest in our 1992-1993 collections, it cannot be
concluded that stoneworking or using was a very important
part of the cultural activities in that area of the site during the
time of its occupation. This observation reinforces my
findings from two large quarry sites in the central highlands
that stoneworking begins to decline or change in focus in
Florida after the Middle Archaic (Purdy 1975, 1981a,1981b;
Purdy and Beach 1980; Ericson and Purdy 1984). Bone and
the developing marine shell industry probably provided
suitable substitutes for many stone tool types.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile
Points. Kendall Books, Gainesville.

Ericson, Jonathan E., and Barbara A. Purdy, (editors)
1984 Lithic Quarry Production. Cambridge University

Purdy, Barbara A.
1974 Investigations Concerning the Thermal Alteration of
Silica Minerals: An Archaeological Approach. Tebiwa

1975 The Senator Edwards Chipped Stone Workshop Site
(Mr-122), Marion County, Florida: A Preliminary
Report of Investigations. The Florida Anthropologist

1981a Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

1981b An Investigation into the Use of Chert Outcrops by
Prehistoric Floridians. The Florida Anthropologist

1982 Pyrotechnology: Prehistoric Application to Chert
Materials in North America. In Early Pyrotechnology:
The Evolution of the First Fire-using Industries, edited
by Theodore A. Wertime and Steven F. Wertime, pp.
31-44. Smithsonian Institution Press.

1987 Hontoon Island, Florida (8-VO-202): Artifacts. The
Florida Anthropologist 40:27-39.

Purdy, Barbara A., and Laurie M. Beach
1980 The Chipped Stone Tool Industry of Florida's
Preceramic Archaic. Archaeology of Eastern North
America 8:105-124.

Purdy, Barbara A., and H.K. Brooks
1971 Thermal Alteration of Silica Minerals: An
Archaeological Approach. Science 173(3994):322-325.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113, Washington,

Barbara A. Purdy
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Ryan J. Wheeler and Ray M. McGee

Our analysis of zooarchaeological samples collected from
Groves' Orange Midden has provided an opportunity to test
and augment the original analysis conducted by Russo (see
Russo et al. 1992). It is also possible to make some
comparative notes between the zooarchaeological analyses of
the pre-pottery Groves' site and the St. Johns II and historic
periods of the Hontoon Island Midden.
Russo et al. (1992:95-99) have published a critique of the
pioneering research in St. Johns basin subsistence and have
developed a new hypothesis concerning the importance of
prehistoric resources in this area. Original studies of St. Johns
subsistence suggested that freshwater shellfish and fish
provided a small portion of the diet, with major contributions
formed by deer and other terrestrial vertebrates (Cumbaa
1976). Russo (Russo et al. 1992) identified several problems
with Cumbaa's analysis and interpretation, and developed a
new model of St. Johns basin subsistence with the
contemporary study of the Groves' Orange site samples
collected in 1989. The earlier model of Archaic period
subsistence relies on several tenuous points, including the idea
that shellfish are of limited nutritional value and the notion that
Late Archaic populations were only semi-sedentary, making
seasonal trips to the coast. Another aspect of this framework
was that Late Archaic populations in the St. Johns River basin
originated with hunter-gatherers from the central uplands.
Cumbaa (1976) confirmed the importance of big game hunting
by excluding fish and shellfish from quantified analysis, and
by using a technique that overestimated the importance of the
deer remains found in the Colby site faunal sample. Russo's
study (Russo et al. 1992:101-103) presented a methodology to
calculate meat contributions of shellfish and has utilized a more
contemporary set of collection and analysis techniques. The
results of the study demonstrate the important contribution of
shellfish to the Archaic period diet at Lake Monroe.
Zooarchaeological studies conducted on materials from
Hontoon Island have demonstrated the need for technical
analysis to be grounded in interpretation of site stratification.
As McGee (1986) suggests, many of the changes observed in
faunal remains at Hontoon can be correlated with changes in
stratification and ultimately with depopulation and
reoccupation sequences at the site.
Our analysis of the 1992 and 1993 samples from the
Groves' site took into account Russo's new model of St. Johns
River basin subsistence. Further, we attempted to correlate

data with ethnoenvironmental zones already defined (see
McGee and Wheeler, this issue).


Column samples of 50 cm by 50 cm by 10 cm levels,
following stratigraphically designated zones, were collected
from each of the three areas tested at Lake Monroe in 1993. A
column sample of 30 cm by 30 cm by 10 cm arbitrary levels
was collected from the area adjoining the test excavations in
1992. Samples analyzed for this report were drawn from the
above collection, with at least one sample analyzed for each of
the four stratigraphic zones defined for the site. Samples were
washed through 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm and .5 mm screens, with
the latter three fractions retained for botanical analysis. The 4
mm samples chosen for zooarchaeological analysis were sorted
into bone, shell, and wood/seed categories, with the latter
material saved for botanical analysis (see Newsom, this issue).
All bone and shell specimens were identified to their lowest
taxonomic rank using the Florida Museum of Natural History
study collection.


The accompanying data are presented in eleven tables.
Tables 1 through 5 are complete lists of animals identified
from column samples and adjoining unit samples, estimated
minimum number of individuals (MNI), and skeletal weight in
grams. Tables 6 through 10 are summaries of the major
categories of animals identified in the column samples, with
meat weight estimates (using conversion factors provided in
Wing and Brown 1979; Russo et al. 1992). Skeletal-to-meat
weight ratios are as follows: Mystery snail and other
freshwater snails = 1.72; Apple snail = 2.32; mussel shell =
0.68; fish = 5.25; mammal = 1.85; and turtles = 0.69. The
taxa are organized according to percent of meat weight,
allowing for comparison between zones. Some of the changes
observed may be due to varying exploitation strategies, while
others are contingent upon changes in deposition, formation
processes, as well as changes in environmental conditions and
the human responses to them. In general, the
zooarchaeological data agree with the interpretations of site
stratification described in McGee and Wheeler (see this issue).
Relation of types of species identified, as well as the ranking




Vol. 47 No. 4


of the major taxonomic classes, needs to be understood in the
context of the type of deposit represented by each zone.


LM92/25S20E/L13 (these designations refer to the year,
unit, zone and level from which material was recovered) is
understood in terms of radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic
type to be a landward facies of Zone IV, which was identified
in the 1993 excavations. Comparison of Tables 6 and 9
demonstrate largely the same pattern, with the primary
difference being the larger percentage of mussel shell in
LM93/34S27E/ZIV L16. Both facies probably represent direct
midden deposit, though the offshore aspect of Zone IV may
have undergone some reworking due to its deposition directly
into the lake. In general it was composed of shell midden, but
in a sandier matrix most similar to the lake mud and sand
observed today.
LM93/34S27E/ZII L12 is the upper midden deposit
identified only in the 1993 tests (Table 7). It is thought to be a
continuation of the lower midden deposit described above.
Like Zone IV, the presence of a mussel shell lens contributes
to the higher relative frequency of this animal in the sample.
Moreover, the relative frequency of fish is consistent with that
described for the lower midden at somewhere between 10
percent and 20 percent. In all of the midden deposits the
relative frequency of turtles and mammals appears low.
The higher relative frequency of fish noted in Table 8 for
Zone III can be explained in terms of environmental changes at
the site and the human response to them. We have postulated
that higher water levels provided conditions for a marsh, from
which the Zone III peat was deposited. Direct deposition did
occur in the marsh area, accounting for the shell midden
material identified, however, the majority of material deposited
in the marsh was probably reworked from the landward
portions of the shell mound.
Zone V is also considered to be redeposited midden
material washed off the landward portion of the site (see Table
10). Presumably there is a landward facies of Zone V, but it
was not identified in the 1992 excavations. Note in Table 5
the total absence of land snails, and the high number of
commensal freshwater snails.
Faunal material from all units were examined for rare or
unusual species. Table 11 presents a list of those animals
identified from unit samples that were not commonly observed
in the column samples or their adjoining units. Interesting
among these are the two specimens of beaver (Castor
canadensis). This animal no longer lives in peninsular Florida
(Johns 1958; Evers 1976). Cumbaa and Gouchnour (1970:49)
report finding the remains of beaver at the Colby site, a late
Orange/early Transitional period site located along the
Oklawaha River. Van Winkle Houck (1951:53-54) identified
beaver remains from Orange period deposits at South Indian
Field, Brevard County. Beaver now only inhabit some

portions of the Florida panhandle, some portions of the
Suwannee River and points north. The constriction of their
range may be due to a variety of environmental reasons and
over-exploitation by humans.
Examination of faunal remains from Lake Monroe
revealed the presence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).
Dogs have been identified from many time periods and cultures
in Florida and the Southeast, including the northern St. Johns
and Malabar areas (Hemmings 1973). Bullen (1955:12) found
dog in Mount Taylor and Orange period levels at Bluffton.
Van Winkle Houck (1951:53,56-57) identified numerous
examples of Indian Dog from the Orange period of South
Indian Field. Leuschner identified dog remains from a St.
Johns II period level at Hontoon Island (Wheeler 1991).
Several fragments of human bone have been identified
from Groves' Midden. Most human remains are teeth; these
have not been analyzed, but those examined did not appear to
be worked. Loose teeth are often found in midden deposits.


Russo's (Russo et al. 1992) analysis of Level 7, the upper
pre-pottery zone excavated in 1989, provides a new model of
Archaic era subsistence that highlights the importance of
shellfish resources. Table 12 reproduces Russo's results,
which rank Mystery snail and other shellfish as major sources
of usable meat. The 1989 sample differs in several ways from
those of 1992 and 1993. The 1989 samples consisted of 25 cm
by 25 cm by 10 cm column samples, while those of 1992 were
30 cm by 30 cm by 10 cm, and those of 1993 were 50 cm by
50 cm by 10 cm. Russo analyzed the 6.4 mm and 1.6 mm
fractions of the 1989 samples, while we have only analyzed the
4 mm fractions of the 1992 and 1993 samples.
While the general trends described by Russo are
replicated in our study, the differences in collection,
processing and analysis may help to account for the higher
ranking of fish in the 1992 and 1993 samples. It is unclear if
analysis of the smaller fraction significantly increased Russo's
gross shell weights without increasing fish skeletal weights,
though this is one possible explanation. Figure 1 compares the
meat weight contributions of vertebrate and invertebrate
remains at Lake Monroe. Note that the 1989 samples analyzed
by Russo have the highest percentage of invertebrate meat
weights. Figure 1 also indicates the important dietary role of
shellfish. Examination of the 2 mm fractions from the 1992
and 1993 samples indicated that shell weights would probably
not increase more than 100 g, but fish MNI would increase
substantially. Russo's figures actually seem to indicate that
fish provide approximately the same amounts of meat as do
mammals (Russo et al. 1992:95-96). It is possible that the
smaller size of the 1989 sample accounts for this
overdetermined importance of freshwater shellfish relative to
that of fish. To further refine the differential importance of
aquatic versus terrestrial resources we have made a separate





-l II -- - - -

1989 Zll

1992 1993


Figure 1. Meat weight (expressed in percent) of vertebrate
and invertebrate remains from Lake Monroe (based on
data in Tables 6- 10, 12). Note that the 1989 samples
have the highest ranking of invertebrates.

analysis of vertebrate remains, shown in Table 13 and Figure
2. Figure 2 demonstrates the consistently higher utilization of
aquatic vertebrates (i.e., fish and fresh water turtles).
Zooarchaeological comparison of the pre-pottery Groves'
Midden with the prehistoric and historic components of
Hontoon Island demonstrate a relatively long aquatic-oriented
subsistence economy, which shifted toward terrestrial
resources following the onset of the early Spanish period
(Wing 1987:129-130). Other analyses, however, point toward
increasing use of aquatic vertebrates, and a decrease in the use
of shellfish (Wheeler 1991; McGee 1986:15-16). The increase
in utilization of terrestrial resources observed by Wing (1987)
is due to the higher frequency of gopher tortoise (Gopherus
polyphemus) remains at Hontoon. Unlike Hontoon Island,
tortoise remains are infrequent at the Groves' Midden. The
increases in terrestrial vertebrates in Zones I and IV at Lake
Monroe probably reflect particular mammal hunting episodes
(see Figure 2). Specific differences in the dietary contribution
of species at the Groves' and Hontoon sites probably results



Figure 2. Meat weight (expressed in percent) of vertebrate remains
arranged according to habitat (based on data in Table 13).
from the variation in local environments. Groves' Midden is
situated on a shallow lake bank, with extensive marsh
communities, while Hontoon sits on the edge of the deeper
river channel. We applied the fish typology outlined by Cheek
et al. (1984) to the Hontoon Island and Lake Monroe samples.
This system groups fish into one of four classes, namely sport
fish (i.e., Centrarchids, Esox niger), food fish (i.e., Ictalurids,
Mugil sp. ), forage fish (i.e., Notemigonus sp., Fundulus sp.,
Brevoortia sp. ) or rough fish (i.e., Amia calva, Lepisosteus
sp., Ermyzon sp.). Cheek et al. (1984) noted that the
percentages of these classes of fish vary between modern lake
and river habitats. A variation also was observed in the
zooarchaeological samples, with sport fish percentages
consistently higher at Lake Monroe (see Table 14). Food fish
represent the highest percentages at Hontoon Island (see Table
14). These variations can be attributed to the differences in
exploitation of river versus lake habitats, but may also reflect
some changes in procurement strategies, species desirability
and the like. Overall the zooarchaeological studies from Lake





Table 1. LM92/25S20EI(ZIV) L13, Column Sample 30x3rO10 4mm, 8V02601. (*identified from LM92/23S20E/(ZIV) L19, unit

Land Snails
Polygyra cereolus
Glyphalinia indentata
Hawaiia miniscula
Freshwater Snails
Pomacea paludosa
Viviparus georgianus
Elimia floridiensis
Tryonia aequistotatus
Notogillia wetherby
Planorbella duryi
Planorbella scalaris
Freshwater Bivalves
Marine Shell
Dinocardium robustum
Unid. Marine Shell
Bony Fish
Lepisosteus sp.
Amia calva
Esox niger
Notemigonus chrysoleucas
Ictalurus sp.
Micropterus salmoides
Lepomis punctatus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis auritus
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis sp.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Amphiuma means
Unid. Anuran
Gopherus polyphemus*
Apalone sp.
Meleagris gallopavo*
Canis familiaris*
Procyon lotor*
Odocoileus virginianus*

Common Name
Southern Flatcoil
Carved Glyph
Minute Gem

Banded Mysterysnail
Rasp Elimia
Smoothribbed Hybrobe
Alligator Siltsnail
Seminole Ramshorn
Mesa Ramshorn

Freshwater Mussel






22 35.20

Heart Cockle

Chain Pickerel
Golden Shiner
Largemouth Bass
Speckled Perch
Unid. fish


Water Snake
Nonpoisonous Snake
Mud/Musk Turtle
Gopher Tortoise
Softshell Turtle
Unid. Turtle

Surface-feeding ducks

Indian Dog
Small mammal








Table 2. LM93/34S27E/ZII L12, Column Sample 50x50xlO 4mm, 8V02601. (*identified from LM93/35S27E/ZJI L12, unit sample)

Land Snails
Polygyra cereolus
Zonitoides arboreus
Freshwater Snails
Pomacea paludosa
Viviparus georgianus
Elimia floridiensis
Tryonia aequistotatus
Littoridinops monroens.
Notogillia wetherby
Planorbella duryi
Planorbella scalaris
Physella sp.
Freshwater Bivalves
Bony Fish
Lepisosteus sp.
Amia calva
Esox niger
Notemigonus chrysoleuci
Ictalurus sp.
Micropterus salmoides
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis sp.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Amphiuma means
Rana sp.*
Unid. Anuran
Chelydra serpentina*
Gopherus polyphemus
Apalone sp.
Meleagris gallopavo*
Didelphis marsupialis*
Sylvilagus sp.
Peromyscus gossypinus
Procyon lotor
Lynx rufus
Odocoileus virginianus

Common Name
Southern Flatcoil
Quick Gloss

Banded Mysterysnail
Rasp Elimia
Smoothribbed Hybrobe
is Cockscomb Hydrobe
Alligator Siltsnail
Seminole Ramshorn
Mesa Ramshorn

Freshwater Mussel

Chain Pickerel
is Golden Shiner
Largemouth Bass
Speckled Perch
Unid. fish


Water Snake
Nonpoisonous Snake
Poisonous Snake
Unid. Snake
Snapping Turtle
Mud/Musk Turtle
Pond Turtle
Gopher Tortoise
Softshell Turtle
Unid. Turtle

Unid. Bird

Pine Mouse



















Table 3. LM93/34S27E/ZIII L14,

Land Snails
Euglandina rosea
Freshwater Snails
Pomacea paludosa
Viviparus georgianus
Elimia floridiensis
Tryonia aequistotatus
Littoridinops monroensis
Planorbella scalaris
Physella sp.
Freshwater Bivalves
Marine Shell
Unid. shell
Cartilagenous Fish
Dasyatis sp.
Bony Fish
Lepisosteus sp.
Amia calva
Esox niger
Notemigonus chrysoleucas
Ictalurus sp.
Mugil sp.
Micropterus salmoides
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis sp.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Siren lacertina
Unid. Anuran
Nerodia sp.
Gopherus polyphemus
Apalone sp.
Alligator mississipiensis
Casmerodius albus*
Didelphis marsupialis*

Column Sample 50x50x10 4mm, 8V02601. (*identified from LM93/35S27E/ZIII L14, unit

Common Name
Rosy Euglandid

Banded Mysterysnail
Rasp Elimia
Smoothribbed Hybrobe
Cockscomb Hydrobe
Mesa Ramshorn

Freshwater Mussel


Chain Pickerel
Golden Shiner
Largemouth Bass
Speckled Perch
Unid. fish

Great Siren

Water Snake
Nonpoisonous Snake
Poisonous Snake
Mud/Musk Turtle
Pond Turtle
Gopher Tortoise
Softshell Turtle
Unid. Turtle

Great Egret
Unid. Bird



wt. (g)


11 20.10








Procyon lotor Racoon
Odocoileus virginianus Deer
Mammalia Unid. Mammal




Table 4. LM93/34S27E/ZIVL16, Column Sample 50x50xlO 4mm,. (*identified from LM93/35S27E/ZIVL16, unit sample)

Land Snails
Polygyra cereolus
Euglandina rosea
Freshwater Snails
Pomacea paludosa
Viviparus georgianus
Elimia floridiensis
Tryonia aequistotatus
Planorbella duryi
Planorbella scalaris
Freshwater Bivalves
Marine Shell
Mercenaria campechensis
Unid. Marine Shell
Cartilagenous Fish
Dasyatis sp.
Bony Fish
Lepisosteus sp.
Amia calva
Esox niger
Ictalurus sp.
Micropterus salmoides
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis sp.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Siren lacertina
Unid. Anuran
Chelydra serpentina
Gopherus polyphemus*
Apalone sp.
Didelphis marsupialis*
Sylvilagus sp.
Procyon lotor
Odocoileus virginianus*
Homo sapiens

Common Name
Southern Flatcoil
Rosy Euglandid

Banded Mysterysnail
Rasp Elimia
Smoothribbed Hybrobe
Seminole Ramshorn
Mesa Ramshorn

Freshwater Mussel



Chain Pickerel
Largemouth Bass
Speckled Perch
Unid. fish

Great Siren

Water Snake
Nonpoisonous Snake
Poisonous Snake
Unid. Snake
Snapping Turtle
Mud/Musk Turtle
Pond Turtle
Gopher Tortoise
Softshell Turtle
Unid. Turtle

Surface-feeding Ducks

Small Mammal
















Table 5. LM93/34S27E/ZVL18, Column Sample 50x5OxlO 4mm, 8V02601. (*identified from LM93/35S27E/ZVL18, unit sample)

Freshwater Snails
Pomacea paludosa
Viviparus georgianus
Elimia floridiensis
Tryonia aequistotatus
Littoridinops monroensis
Notogillia wetherby
Planorbella duryi
Planorbella scalaris
Physella sp.
Freshwater Bivalves
Marine Shell
Crassostrea virginica
Dinocardium robustum
Mercenaria campechensis
Unid. Marine Shell
Bony Fish
Lepisosteus sp.
Amia calva
Esox niger
Ictalurus sp.
Mugil sp.
Micropterus salmoides
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis sp.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Unid. Anuran
Pseudemys nelsoni*
Gopherus polyphemus
Didelphis marsupialis*
Procyon lotor
Odocoileus virginianus*

Common Name
Banded Mysterysnail
Rasp Elimia
Smoothribbed Hybrobe
Cockscomb Hybrobe
Alligator siltsnail
Seminole Ramshorn
Mesa Ramshorn

Freshwater Mussel

Heart Cockle

Chain Pickerel
Largemouth Bass
Speckled Perch
Unid. fish

Water Snake
Mud/Musk Turtle
Red-bellied Turtle
Pond Turtle
Gopher Tortoise
Unid. Turtle

Unid. Bird

Small Mammal




48 87.10








Table 6. Meat Weight Estimates, LM92/25S20E/(ZIV) L13.

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail
Other Snails

Skeletal Wt.

Table 7. Meat Weight Estimates, LM93/34S27E/Z11 L12.

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail
Other Snails

Skeletal Wt.

Table 8. Meat Weight Estimates, LM93/34S27E/ZIII L14.

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail

Skeletal Wt.

Table 9. Meat Weight Estimates, LM93/34S27E/ZIVL16.

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail
Other Snails

Skeletal Wt.

Table 10. Meat Weight Estimates, LM93/34S27E/ZVL18.

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail
Other Snails

Skeletal Wt.

Meat Wt.

Meat Wt.

Meat Wt.

Meat Wt.

Meat Wt.


Table 11. Specimens Identified from Unit Samples.

Crotalus adamanteus
Canis familiaris
Canis familiaris
Canis familiaris
Lutra canadensis
Castor canadensis
Lynx rufus
Crotalus adamanteus
Canis familiaris
Lutra canadensis
Lutra canadensis
Sciurus carolinensis
Canis familiaris
Lutra canadensis
Canis familiaris
Castor canadensis
Canis familiaris

Common Name
Eastern Rattlesnake
Indian Dog
Indian Dog
Indian Dog
Eastern Rattlesnake
Indian Dog
Indian Dog
Indian Dog
Indian Dog

54S26.75E/ZV L10
54S26.75E/ZV L12
53S26.75E/ZIII L5
64S18E/ZIV L9
36S27E/ZV L18
36S27E/ZV L19
35S26E/ZIII L11
35S26E/ZII L6
35S26E/ZIII L10

Table 12. Estimates of Relative Abundance of Meat from Level 7, Groves' Orange Midden (from Russo et al. 1992:104).

Mystery Snail
Apple Snail
Other Snails

Skeletal Wt.

Table 13. Meat Weight (in grams) of Vertebrate Remains Arranged According to Habitat, Groves' Orange Midden.








ZIV'92 ZIV'93





776.16 463.15 217.60 503.92 313.76

Total 886.05 477.55 221.74 557.00 321.36

Table 14. Comparison of Fish Groups from Hontoon Island and Lake Monroe (in percentage of skeletal weight). Variations
Probably Reflect Riverine Versus Lacustrine Habitats, As Well As Changes in Procurement Strategies.

Site Hontoon Island Lake Monroe

Sport fish 32 22 33 33 66 50 57 65
Food fish 61 69 52 51 8 27 29 13
Forage fish 4 5 <1 <1 -
Rough fish 3 9 10 16 26 23 15 22

Meat Wt.


Monroe tend to clarify the early establishment of an aquatic
subsistence system in the St. Johns River basin, one which
lasted into the historic era.


We would like to thank Dr. Elizabeth S. Wing of the
Florida Museum of Natural History and her staff for providing
access to the comparative faunal collection and assisting in
identification of some specimens. All faunal material analyzed
for this report is curated in the Zooarchaeology Range of the
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 8:1-16.

Cheek, Terry L., Laurence L. Connor, Eric A. Long, Anton
M. Wicker, and Robert L. Smith
1984 Relationships of Fish Populations to Habitat Types in
the Lower St. Johns River. Dingell-Johnson Project F-33,
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee,

Cumbaa, Stephen L.
1976 A Reconsideration of Freshwater Shellfish Exploitation
in the Florida Archaic. The Florida Anthropologist

Cumbaa, Stephen L., and Thomas H. Gouchnour
1970 The Colby Site, Marion County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 23:43-56.

Evers, Johnny H.
1976 Florida Beaver: Distribution and Modification of Their
Environment. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of
Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Hemmings, E. Thomas
1973 Man-animal Interactions with a Substantive Example:
Man and Dog in the Prehistoric Southeast. Paper
presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Memphis, Tennessee.

Johns, Bette Ann
1958 The Distribution of the Beaver in Florida and a Study of
Its Ecology in the Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola
Region. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of
Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

McGee, Ray M.
1986 Analysis of the Faunal Remains in Two Column
Samples from Hontoon Island, Volusia County, Florida.
Ms. on file, Archaeological Research Laboratory,
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,

Russo, Michael
1988 Coastal Adaptations in Eastern Florida: Models and
Methods. Archaeology of Eastern North America 16:159-

Russo, Michael, Barbara A. Purdy, Lee A. Newsom, and Ray
M. McGee
1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden
(8V02601). Southeastern Archeology 11(2):95-108.

Van Winkle Houck, Margaret
1951 Animal Remains from South Indian Field. Appendix to
Chronology at South Indian Field, by Vera Masius
Ferguson, pp. 51-57. Yale University Publications in
Anthropology 51.

Wheeler, Ryan J.
1991 Vertebrate Remains from Hontoon Island (8VO202).
Ms. on file, Archaeological Research Laboratory,
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,

Wing, Elizabeth S.
1987 Integration of Floral and Faunal Data from Hontoon Is
land, Florida. Archaeozoologia 1(1): 127-136.

Wing, Elizabeth S., and Antoinette Brown
1979 Paleonutrition. Academic Press, New York.

Wing, Elizabeth S., and Laurie McKean
1987 Preliminary Study of the Animal Remains Excavated
from the Hontoon Island Site. The Florida Anthropologist

Ryan J. Wheeler
Ray M. McGee
Department of Anthropology
1350 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Lee Newsom


This is a synthesis of small-scale studies of plant remains
from Groves' Orange Midden designed to assess the extent of
plant preservation at the site and add to a data base of plant
identifications established after test excavations in 1989. The
data collectively contribute to an ongoing effort to refine
understanding of prehistoric plant use and human adaptation at
the site, and to the general interpretation of human activity in
Florida during the Middle and Late Archaic periods. The
occupation spans a critical time period during which occurred
cultural developments preceding and leading to pottery
production and to the apparently more widespread sedentism of
later periods. To put these developments in clear context, it is
necessary to understand how resources were used by Archaic
period human groups in Florida, and the relative stability or
sustainability of their subsistence patterns.
Groves' Orange Midden is the remnant of a prehistoric
occupation(s) along Lake Monroe in the middle basin of the St.
Johns River floodplain of east-central Florida. Together, the
presence of diagnostic lithic tools, the absence of ceramics in
undisturbed contexts, and a series of radiocarbon dates
demonstrate that the primary occupation occurred during the
Florida late Middle to Late Archaic periods (McGee and
Wheeler, this volume; Purdy 1993, this volume [lithics
paper]). Archaeological deposits in and along the edge of the
lake consist primarily of shell midden refuse and associated
domestic debris attributable to the preceramic Mount Taylor
culture. In certain locations on the midden, limited evidence
also exists for the subsequent presence of Orange and St. Johns
period occupations (characterized respectively by the presence
of fiber-tempered and other distinctive sponge-spiculite
ceramics). However, these later-aged materials appear
consistently in the upper 20 to 30 cm of disturbed deposit
capping the preceramic midden (McGee and Wheeler, this
volume; Russo et al. 1992).
Anaerobic conditions characterizing near shore,
shoreline, and lacustrine deposits have resulted in exceptional
preservation of organic remains, including botanical and faunal
components of the prehistoric shell midden, as well as bedding
materials from adjacent natural deposits. The results of
preliminary analyses of macrobotanical and animal remains
from the site, both with diverse species lists, indicate great
potential for more extensive and in-depth, problem-oriented
This article describes the analysis of plant remains from

samples retrieved from Groves' Orange Midden during
excavations conducted by Purdy, McGee, and Wheeler in 1992
and 1993 (McGee and Wheeler, this volume; Purdy, this
volume, and 1993). These data, along with those from a
limited analysis of materials recovered in 1989 (Russo et al.
1992), provide detailed information about the types of plants
used by the prehistoric inhabitants of the site, along with
evidence portraying the nature of the physical environment
around the site during the occupation period.
Archaeobotanical analysis of materials from a 1989
excavation unit and column sample revealed that an array of
plant species very likely was associated with prehistoric human
activities at the site. Among the edible nut species recovered
were hickory and at least three types of acorn, including two--
live and swamp white oak--from the nonbitter, white oak
group. Other potentially edible species and useful plants
identified in the 1989 research include native cane, Cucurbita
pepo gourd, persimmon, bottle gourd, red mulberry, shelf
fungi, elderberry, wild grape, and toothache tree (Russo et al.
1992; and see below).
In the previous report and specifically with the gourd
remains in mind, we indicated that we were able to discern no
clear evidence for horticultural activity or other types of more
directed plant production at Groves' Orange Midden. This
statement was based primarily on the lack of artifacts that
arguably were associated with gardening or plant processing,
and on the small size of a single Cucurbita pepo gourd seed,
the dimensions of which are securely within the range of wild
morphotypes. Subsequent analysis of ten additional Cucurbita
pepo specimens from the 1992 excavations lent further support
to the conclusion that the Archaic-aged Cucurbita assemblage
from Groves' Orange Midden did not derive from a
domesticated form(s) of the plant (Newsom et al. 1993).
Nevertheless, the apparent lack of domesticated gourd forms in
the preceramic deposits does not negate the possibility that
some form of horticulture or limited gardening may have
occurred. Indeed, a single larger seed (see Newsom et al.
1993) from the stratigraphically superior, ceramic-bearing, but
disturbed levels at the site, was recognized as possible evidence
for some level of selection and deliberate maintenance of gourd
forms--at least during the later time periods--but more data
were needed to clarify this possibility. This most recent
analysis of Groves' Orange Midden plant remains supplements
the previous data with additional gourd remains, as well as


Vol. 47 No. 4



adding new evidence for other useful plants, including edible
species. The question of whether or not gardening was
practiced by the sites inhabitants is still debatable; however the
combined data from the series of analyses help to interpret the
overall subsistence pattern at the site.

Environmental and Stratigraphic Summary

Lake Monroe is part of the extensive St. Johns River
freshwater marsh and lake ecosystem of east-central Florida
(Fernald and Patton 1984). At approximately 29 degrees north
latitude, the lake lies roughly within the climatic boundary
between Florida's tropical and subtropical zones, based on the
18 degrees C isotherm and plant hardiness scales (Little
1978:5; Nieuwolt 1977; Pierson 1956:48). The vegetation
within this zone of intergradation is characterized by the
presence of both tropical and temperate species. Principal
plant communities include freshwater marsh, hardwood river
swamp, various broadleaf hardwood associations, pine
flatwoods, and sand pine scrub. In general, the communities
reflect a soil moisture/composition and topographic gradient
ranging from wetter conditions and lower elevations in the
river basin to progressively better-drained soils and higher
elevations on adjacent Plio-Pleistocene sand ridges.
The early to middle Holocene (ca. 5,000 to 12,000 years
ago) in Florida was a time of fluctuation and adjustment of
environmental and climatic conditions leading toward those
that exist today (COHMAP 1988; Grimm et al. 1993;
Schneider 1987; Watts 1980; Watts and Hansen 1988). About
the time that the cultural deposits began to accumulate at the
Lake Monroe site, the warm, dry middle Holocene climatic
episode was drawing to a close, as wetter conditions began to
prevail after approximately 5,000 years before present and
essentially modern vegetation became established (Brown and
Cohen 1985; Grimm et al. 1993; Watts and Hansen 1988 ).
During all this time, sea level was adjusting on its erratic and
episodic course to present-day levels. Middle Holocene high
and low sea level stands are believed to have affected interior
water tables, including the primary flow of the St. Johns
River. Thus, McGee and Wheeler (this volume) hypothesize
that spatial shifts in the deposition of midden materials at
Groves' Orange Midden may have correlated with a fluctuating
lake margin which necessitated movements of living space and
refuse deposition. The researchers posit also that a fluctuating
water table would have altered local stream-flow gradients, the
varying water volumes and velocities affecting the amounts of
midden material that were intermittently transported by stream
action lakeward.

Excavations and General Stratigraphy

Excavations at the Lake Monroe, Groves' Orange Midden
site were carried out over a period of five years. They include
coring and an exploratory 1 by 2 m test conducted at the lake

edge in 1989 (Russo et al. 1992). The primary directive of
these initial tests was to verify the presence of waterlogged
deposits with good organic preservation and to try to ascertain
the age of strata that contained organic materials (Purdy 1993).
In 1992, three adjacent 1 by 1 m squares were excavated on
land a short distance from the water's edge and the earlier
excavation unit (see Figure 3, in McGee and Wheeler, this
volume). This second series of tests penetrated buried
anaerobic deposits similar to those discovered in 1989, and
helped to clarify the stratigraphy, chronology, and extent of
waterlogged midden deposits (Purdy 1993). Most recently,
excavations in 1993 were placed in three additional locations
that follow an old stream channel which runs perpendicular to
the lake edge, from the surrounding hardwood forest, across
the lake shore, and into the present water-filled lake basin
(Purdy 1993). These tests consisted of a set of four adjoining
1 by 1 m units on land near the lake edge, and two sets of three
1 by 1 m units forming L-shaped configurations in a shallow
water area of the lake bed. Bulk stratigraphic columns also
were excavated in conjunction with the 1992 and 1993 test
units. Additional supplemental data were gathered by a series
of piston cores placed on a grid system throughout the midden
area. The excavations and core data helped to further define the
stratigraphy and the extent of prehistoric cultural deposits, as
well as to illuminate more details of the prehistoric occupation
(McGee and Wheeler, this volume; Purdy 1993).
McGee and Wheeler (Figures 9-15, this volume) have
defined five broad stratigraphic units that describe the
prehistoric shell midden, intervening, and enveloping deposits.
Zone I, comprising the uppermost 20 to 30 cm of deposit in all
of the 1993 excavation units, is considered to be grossly
disturbed based on the admixture of material culture items
from several distinct time periods, as well as other evidence of
disturbance. Zone II is designated "Upper Shell Midden" and
consists of dense midden composed primarily of freshwater
snail. The Zone II midden extends from the present lake bed
to shoreline and terrestrial areas. McGee and Wheeler
hypothesize that lateral dispersion and transport of the midden
materials may have been facilitated by the irregular flow of the
stream into the lake. Radiocarbon dates place the time of
deposition between approximately 4,000 and 4,300 years
before present.
Zone III is an extensive peat lens that separates the Zone
II upper midden from a more deeply buried Zone IV midden.
According to McGee and Wheeler, the blanketing peat
(ranging from 25 to 35 cm thick) possibly is associated with a
period of fluctuating water levels that allowed for peat
formation in the quiet, littoral/emergent zone of the lake basin.
Defining radiocarbon dates from above and below the peat
deposit are 4190 +- 60 and 4930 +- 80 (Beta 65864, 65860)
years before present, respectively. Small, discontinuous shell
midden lenses occur at various places within the peat zone,
demonstrating that the site was occupied during the period of
peat formation.


Zone IV is the "Lower Shell Midden" deposit located
below the peat stratum of Zone III. The thickness of this
freshwater snail-dominated midden varies from 15 to 50 cm;
its spatial extent spans the lake bed deposits of the 1993
excavations across the present lake edge and near-shore
deposits tested in 1989, 1992, and 1993. As possibly occurred
with the Zone II midden material, some stream transport of the
Zone IV midden may have occurred (McGee and Wheeler, this
volume). Radiometric assays place the deposition of this more
deeply buried midden between approximately 5,000 and 6,000
years before present.
Zone V is a sandy deposit underlying the Zone IV
midden; it represents the deepest stratum penetrated by the
excavations. This sand zone produced wood fragments, stray
shell, and artifacts that are believed to be redeposited from
shoreward midden deposits (probably by the action of the
stream flow mentioned above; McGee and Wheeler, this
volume). Zone V was encountered in both the 1992 and 1993
excavations; it appears to date to approximately 6,200 years
before present (McGee and Wheeler, this volume).

Archaeobotanical Analysis

This study of plant remains from Groves' Orange Midden
encompasses material from three 1 m test units from the 1993
excavations, and from a pair of stratigraphic columns,
including one column sample segment from the 1992 column
(Zone IV, Level 13), and four from 1993 Column 34S/27E
(Table 1) that was excavated in conjunction with the terrestrial
excavation unit (as opposed to the two units in the lake). Like
the general excavation units, column samples were excavated
in 10 cm increments, with recognition and maintenance of the
major stratigraphic episodes described above. The unit
samples analyzed here are the combined seed and nut remains
from a given excavation level that were collected in 1/2" and
1/4" meshes during excavation (see Wheeler and McGee's
report on the zooarchaeological analysis, this volume). All of
the unit samples analyzed and reported come from the
submerged 1993 excavation areas. Corresponding bags of
wood remains from these excavation unit/levels were not
incorporated in this analysis.
Column sample matrices were gently washed through a
nested sieve series with graduated mesh sizes of 4 mm, 2 mm,
1 mm, and 0.5 mm. Time constraints dictated that we
construct a scheme for analysis of the waterlogged materials
that would economize our efforts and still allow for fairly
extensive coverage of the materials collected. Toward that
end, all materials from the 4 mm size fractions of the column
samples--which incorporates the majority of the plant materials
exclusive of small, mostly aquatic/emergent seed types--were
analyzed, with the exception wood of identifications. Wood
identifications from the 1992-93 column samples thus far
extend only to one sample (Number 922; Table 1), which for
now must serve as representative. Similarly, subsamples

(10 % by volume) of the 2 mm and 1 mm components of
Column Sample Number 928 serve as a representative sample
of materials from the finer size fractions until the analyses are
Seed and nut remains were identified on the basis of
morphological characteristics using modern specimens for
comparison, local floras (Reed 1986; Simons et al. 1989;
Wunderlin 1982), and guides to seed and wetland species
identification (Hotchkiss 1972; Martin and Barkley 1961).
Gourd rind was classified by anatomical observation in thin-
section, with emphasis on subepidermal layers and comparison
with modern representatives. Finally, wood identifications
were made on the basis of three-dimensional anatomy, with
reference to comparative specimens, keys to diagnostic
anatomical features (Panshin and deZeeuw 1980; Record and
Hess 1942-1948), and published anatomical data (Record and
Hess 1943; Urling and Smith 1953).


The complete list of species identified by this analysis, as
well as those from the earlier work (Russo et al. 1992) is
contained in Table 2. In combination, more than 50 plant taxa
were recovered by the excavations, and the tentative
identifications of three species from the 1989 excavation and
analysis were verified by additional specimens recovered in
To judge from the species list (Table 2), a diverse array
of potentially edible food plants was available to and probably
utilized by the site's human inhabitants. Edible nut types
include hickory (e.g., pignut hickory), live oak, and what
appears to be swamp white oak, based on the hull thickness
and large size of the acorn shell fragments. Seeds and wood
remains exist as evidence for the presence of plants that bear
pulpy, edible fruit, including black gum, prickly pear cactus,
saw palmetto, maypop, wild plum, blackberry, persimmon,
red mulberry, elderberry, and wild grape. Each of these, as
well as several types of oak and hickory, occur in proximity of
the site today, either on the lake margin or adjacent slopes, and
nearby drier woodlands.
Other plant species identified by the analyses and also
occurring locally may have contributed to the diet of
prehistoric inhabitants (Angier 1980; Coon 1974; Peterson
1977). These additional species would have been useful in the
form of small starchy seeds, fresh greens, carbohydrate-rich
tubers, and supplemental foods. Among these are
amaranth/water hemp, atriplex, pigweed, and
smartweed/knotweed as small seeds; amaranth/water hemp,
atriplex, pigweed, and pokeweed as greens; water shield,
sedges, spatterdock, and waterlily, as a few of the many
potentially edible wild tubers; and cane seeds, spatterdock
seeds, waterlily seeds, palm hearts, shelf fungi, and perhaps
also gourd seeds (edible germ, seed oil) as supplemental foods.
Pokeweed, toothache tree, and several others of the plant taxa




25S/20E, Zone IV, Level 13
34S/27E, Zone II, Level 12

34S/27E, Zone III, Level 14

34S/27E, Zone IV, Level 16

34S/27E, Zone V, Level 18

64S/18F Zone II. Level 02

64SS/18E Zone V. Level 08

64S/18E, Zone V, Level 09
65S/17E, Zone II, Level 04
65S/17E, Zone IV, Level 10

65S/18E, Zone IV, Level 08
65S/18E, Zone V, Level 12



180-190 369
12-29 922






12-22 143




51-61 99




lower midden
uooer midden





lower midden

upper midden


upper midden
lower midden
lower midden













*C = column sample collected in its entirety for analyses of botanical and faunal constituents.
U = general-level test unit materials collected in 1/4" screens during fieldwork operations.

* Column sample materials were sieved through nested sieve series with mesh openings ranging
from 4.0 mm to 0.5 mm; 4 mm indicates that preliminary analysis incorporated materials collected
in the 4 mm sieve only, 1 mm indicates that plant remains from the 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm fractions were
analyzed. Excavation unit samples analyzed here consist exclusively of seed and nut remains.

may have been useful for medicinal purposes. Moreover, the
native cane and gourd types undoubtedly were used as
utilitarian items, for example, as housing material, in the case
of the former, and the latter as containers, rattles, net floats,
and various multipurpose uses.

Unit Samples

Plant identifications from the excavation unit samples
are listed in Table 3. Ironwood, Calusa or possum grape, cf.
bedstraw, and spatterdock are identified exclusively from the
excavation unit samples. Variation in terms of species content
between the samples is minimal. Nut remains and seeds from
edible species occur with regularity throughout the strata, as do
gourd remains (which are further discussed below, following
the description of column sample data). Saw palmetto seeds
consistently are heavily carbonized, and occasional grape,
maypop, and plum seeds are carbonized (this observation is
true also of the column sample materials). The carbonization
of these seed types possibly had something to do with food-
processing activities (e.g., drying fruit), during which some
specimens may have been accidentally dropped into campfires
and burnt.
Specimens of hickory nut shell from the various strata
tend to be opened and cracked, and occasionally also partially

burnt, all of which may be indications of use by prehistoric
peoples. The samples from Level 8, Zone IV and Level 12,
Zone V (numbers 99 and 125, respectively; Table 3) also
contained whole, unopened nuts of bitter-tasting water hickory
(Carya aquatic) (one per sample), as well as aborted hickory
nuts, presumably all representative of natural deposition.
Similarly, most of the acorn remains are shell fragments that
by morphology approximate sweet, edible forms, specifically,
live oak (Quercus virginiana) and swamp white oak (Q.
michauxii), but some fragments and whole specimens from
other species, including bitter-fruited trees (most likely laurel
and/or water oaks [Q. laurifolia; Q. nigra]) also are present.
A single carbonized acorn nutmeat was recovered with sample
99 from Zone IV. Aborted acorns representative purely of
environmental debris also occur, though infrequently (e.g., 3
specimens from sample 125, 2 from sample 192, and 1 each
from samples 187, 59, and 99). Also present are occasional
acorn cups involucress).

Column Samples

Major categories of sample constituents for the column
samples from Groves' Orange Midden are shown in Table 4.
The values are the converted volumes of a given class
standardized per liter of sample. Wood charcoal is most








1993 12-22 143

1993 64S/18E Zone V,

I -




Scientific Name Vernacular Name Excavation Year
1989 1992-93

Acer sp.
Amaranthus sp.
Arundinaria sp.
Atriplex sp.
cf. Asteraceae
Brasenia schreberi
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya sp.
Carya sp.
cf. Castanea sp.
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Chenopodium sp.
cf. Chionanthus sp.
Cissus sp.
Cladium jamaicense
Cornus (florida)
Cornus (foemina)
Cucurbita pepo, sub-
species ovifera
Cyperus sp.
Diospyros virginiana
Fraxinus sp.
cf. Galium sp.
Lagenaria siceraria
cf. Liquidambar styr.
Magnolia grandiflora
Morus rubra
Nuphar lutea
Nymphaea sp.
Nyssa sylvatica
Opuntia sp.
Passiflora incarnataa)
Pinus sp., section
Phytclacca americana
Polygonum spp.
Potamogeton sp.
Prunus caroliniana
Prunus sp.
Prunus sp.
Quercus sp., red group
Quercus sp., white group
Quercus virginiana
Rubus sp.
Sabal palmetto
Salix caroliniana
Sambucus canadensis
Serenoa repens
Taxodium sp.
cf. Ulmus sp.
Vitis sp.
Zanthoxylum sp.
Unid. spiny seed/fruit

amaranth, water hemp
native cane
sand atriplex
sunflower family
water shield
hickory, true group
water hickory
fringe tree
Calusa grape
flowering dogwood
swamp dogwood
Cucurbita pepo gourd

sedge family
native persimmon
bottle gourd
southern magnolia
red mulberry
black gum
prickly pear cactus
palm family
hard pine group,
(southern hard pines)
smartweed, knotweed
shelf/wood-rotting fungi
Carolina laurel cherry
wild plum
cherry wood
e.g. laurel, water oaks
e.g. swamp white oak
live oak
cabbage palm
Coastal Plain willow
saw palmetto
e.g. Solanum (nightshade)
wild grape
toothache tree, wild lime
unid. littoral/wetland


abundant in midden Zone II and the sample from the
underlying Zone III peat deposit (sample numbers 922 and
924, respectively). Smaller quantities of charcoal were
recovered from samples associated with the more deeply buried
midden of Zone IV (sample numbers 369 and 926) and the
Zone V sandy deposit. It is very likely that all midden
charcoal from whatever location tested represents secondarily
deposited fuelwood remains because no hearth-like
concentrations of carbonized wood were discerned during
excavation. Carbonized wood specimens are predominantly
oak, based on the charcoal assemblage from sample 922,
including the red oak anatomical group (25%), and live oak
(25 %). Also present is pine belonging to the hard or southern
yellow pine group (10%), hickory of the true hickory group
(10%), cf. sweetgum (15%), ironwood (5%), cf. wild cherry
(5%), and ash (5%). The 1989 samples helped to document
the presence of other local hardwood species that occur as
wood charcoal and may have been used as fuel, including red
mulberry, white oak group, willow, and tentatively identified
Two additional categories of modified wood were
recognized (Table 4). Modified roundwood consists of radial
lengths of branch or stem wood that exhibit straight cut marks,
and/or faceted, and/or beveled surfaces. The category "flat-
adzed" wood includes flat wood chips that derive primarily
from mature stem wood (trunks/boles), judging by the
curvature of the growth rings, and some of which have tool
marks similar to those on the roundwood specimens.
Occasional roundwood or chip specimens also exhibit localized
burnt areas, generally on the tips of the roundwood or the flat
surfaces of wood chips. To illustrate, several adzed chips
possess adze-like tool marks on one flat surface, and the
opposite face is lightly carbonized. This pattern of wood
modification also was observed on specimens from the shell
midden at Hontoon Island (Newsom 1986), and probably
results from a large wood-working task, for example, the
chipping and burning procedure described ethnohistorically for
dugout canoe manufacture (see Newsom and Purdy 1990).
Worked wood of both categories (roundwood and flat-
adzed) is relatively abundant in the Zone II and Zone V
samples (Table 4). There are particularly large quantities of
flat-adzed wood specimens from Zone V, Level 18 (sample
928): 95 individual chips measuring greater than 1.5 cm in
length (575 ml total, excluding numerous uncounted smaller
chips). To compare, there are 6 adzed chips from sample 926,
60 from sample 924, 61 from sample 922, and 18 from sample
369. Wood identification of adzed specimens from sample 922
revealed that nearly all (99%) are cypress. Based on direct
visual inspection and comparison of adzed pieces from the
other samples, cypress predominates in those assemblages as
well. Cypress also was predominant in this wooden
artifact/debitage class from the Hontoon Island excavations

(Newsom 1986).
Two specimens from sample 922, identified respectively
as buttonbush and maple, serve for illustrative purposes as
examples of modified roundwood. The former, like cypress,
grows around the lake and in the river swamp; maple occurs in
various areas, depending on the particular species. The
modification on the buttonbush fragment (on which also a
portion of the bark still adheres) is in the form of a burnt tip
and possible, but vague, cut marks; the fragment may represent
incompletely spent fuelwood, or something similar. The
maple specimen actually consists of 8 fragments, 5 of which
can be refitted together. The original branch/stem was cut or
split along a tangent that just misses the pith and then angles
away toward the outer surface; in addition, cut marks occur
diagonally in various places along the length of the specimen
and two of the sections appear to have been cut across the
grain. Similar specimens in the same sample (number 922)
exhibit diagonal cut marks and/or partial burning (patches of
burnt area). All together 167 wood specimens have been
classified as modified roundwood, including 45 from sample
369, 62 from sample 922, 42 from sample 924, 7 from sample
926, and 11 from sample 928.
The presence of natural wood debris (Table 4) in the
column samples, including unmodified roundwood, bark,
twigs, knots, and variously shaped specimens, is fairly regular
and consistent throughout the deposits. These materials were
probably deposited independently of prehistoric human
activities at the site, having become incorporated into the lake
basin sediments as surrounding trees shed branches and other
parts. Some of the nut shell (Table 4) represents natural
deposition, but as was pointed out above in regard to the unit
samples, the bulk of the nut shell seems to be the residue of
processing nutmeats for food consumption (i.e., the shells are
cracked open and fragmented, they lack the outer pericarps,
and occasional specimens are charred). None of the hickory
nut shell fragments bear signs of rodent gnawing. Likewise,
some of the cane specimens may have entered the deposits as a
natural component of the lake margin and stream-edge
vegetation, but the presence of numerous carbonized fragments
(e.g., 159 out of 161 total from sample 924) suggests that cane
was utilized by the site's inhabitants, even though natural fires
may have contributed to the burnt debris.
The distributions and quantities of plant taxa among the
column samples are reported in Table 5. Sample 928 from
Zone V is more diverse of species, but this diversity cannot be
measured against the other samples because it is the only
sample for which analysis incorporated materials from the
finer-meshed sieve fractions (1 mm and 2 mm components),
adding significantly to the types and numbers identified.
Upper (Zone II, sample 922) and lower (Zone IV, samples 369
and 926) shell midden samples have similar types and relative
quantities of taxa, and generally appear to represent the same



TAXON #143 #21 #59 #99 #187 #192 #125
---Upper Midden- - -Lower Midden - Sand Sand Sand
Carpinus caroliniana 1
Carya spp., nutshell count 64 36 10 12 65 8 19
Carya spp., nutshell volume (ml) 375 50 50 60 300 20 30
Cornus (foemina) 1
Magnolia grandiflora 3
Prunus sp., wild plum type 3 2 3
Quercus spp., nutshell volume (ml) <10 <5 <5 10 10 <10 10
Sabal palmetto 1 2
Serenoa repens, seeds 4 4 4
Serenoa repens, endocarp tips 1 2 29 7 4
Zanthoxylum sp. 1
Cissus sp. 1
Cucurbita pepo, seed 1 3 3 4
Cucurbita sp., rind fragment 1
Cucurbitaceae, peduncle scar 1
Lagenaria siceraria, seed 3 1 2 2
Lagenaria siceraria, rind frag. 5 7
Passiflora incarnataa) 1 1 3
Vitis sp. 1 2 28 12 5
Vitaceae tentril fragments 1 3
cf. Galium sp. 1
Nuphar lutea 1 1 1 1 9
Unid. spiny seed/fruit 1 1 1
Carbonized wood fragments 1 4
Unid. amorphous wood or root 1 3
Unid. bark fragment 1 1
Unid. small fruit 1 1
Unid. parenchymatous tissue 2
Unid. insect (oak) galls 1



NUMBER Charcoal Roundwood Flat-adzed Roundwood Bark Twigs Amorphous SHELL STEMS

369 25S/20E, Zn.IV Lv.13 16 39 11 6 1 1 39 24 0
922 34S/27E, Zn .It Lv.12 24 8 6 8 8 3 12 9 <0.4
924 34S/27E, Zn.lll Lv.14 20 6 1 4 8 2 12 2 2
926 34S/27E, Zn.IV Lv.16 7 0.40 2 1 3 <0.4 2 3 0
928 34S/27E, Zn.V Lv. 18 14 4 23 14 12 1 <0.4 14 <0.4

*Standardized volume (ml) per liter of sample; total seed volumes from individual samples are less than 10 mi.

basic subsistence pattern with fresh fruits and nuts as
conspicuous elements. The peat layer (Zone III, sample 924)
and sand/discontinuous midden stratum (Zone V, sample 928)
differ little from the shell midden strata in terms of overall
species composition and the range of edible types. Even though
the plants may have been useful to the site's inhabitants, some
seed types from these strata (e.g., swamp dogwood, sedge
family, southern magnolia, black gum, pokeweed, toothache
tree, and cypress cone fragments) probably represent strictly
environmental deposition from the lake and surrounding plant
Bottle gourd and Cucurbita pepo gourds have long been
associated with archaeological sites in the Western
Hemisphere, including Florida, and are generally thought to
have been among the first domesticated plants produced by
prehistoric cultures on the American continents. Research in
other areas of Florida and the southeastern United States
recently has demonstrated that Cucurbita pepo gourds have a
long history of occurrence in the eastern United States, at least
as long as 12,000 years in north Florida and predate evidence
of human occupation (Newsom et al. 1993; and see Cowan and
Smith 1993, and Decker-Walters et al. 1993). The new data
make it possible to view Cucurbita pepo gourds as elements of
the native flora, at least of Florida, thereby eliminating the
need necessarily to classify remains of the small gourds as
introduced and/or domesticated species. Thus, the Cucurbita
pepo, and possibly even the bottle gourd remains from Groves'
Orange Midden contexts, may have come from weedy vines
that grew in open areas along the edge of Lake Monroe and the
St. Johns River, depositing fruit and seeds into the lake
sediments by natural means and regardless of whether or not
they were used by the human occupants of the area (see
Newsom et al. 1993 for more details about prehistoric gourds
in Florida, their inferred niche, dispersal mechanisms, and
Morphometric data for Cucurbita gourd seeds from
Groves' Orange Midden are presented in Table 6. The seeds
are relatively round in outline (possessing width to length
values of 0.60 and greater, on a scale of 0.10 to 1.00), with
distinct, smoothly curved margins. Marginal and surface hair
appears to be lacking or minimally present, except for three
seeds from 1993 Zone IV, Level 8 (sample number 99; Tables
3 and 6) that have considerable hair at the margins and across
the surfaces of the seeds. The size and general morphology of

the Groves' Orange Midden seeds conform with Cucurbita
pepo subspecies ovifera, which includes ornamental gourds,
scallop, and crookneck squashes (variety ovifera), and wild
gourds (var. ozarkana, var. texana). Rind thickness for the
single positively identified specimen of Cucurbita rind is 1.76
In the absence of seed lengths greater than 11 mm, and
textured and/or relatively thick (>2 mm) rind-features
roughly equated with domesticated forms (see Cowan and
Smith 1993)--there is no evidence to suggest anything other
than that the Cucurbita pepo remains from undisturbed
contexts at Groves' Orange Midden are from wild gourd
populations (the single 12.79 mm long seed is from disturbed
Zone I-II of the 1992 excavation unit; Table 6). The same may
be true of the bottle gourd specimens--that they represent wild,
instead of domesticated, plants--but there is no baseline or
standard with which to assess the status of the early bottle
gourds. It is generally believed that bottle gourd originates in
Africa and that wild forms no longer exist; the earliest North
American bottle gourd [7,290 years B.P.] comes from the
Windover site, Brevard County, Florida (Doran et al. 1990).
Bottle gourd seed measurements from Groves' Orange Midden
are shown in Table 7.
The coefficients of variation (100 x standard
deviation/mean) for Cucurbita gourd and bottle gourd seeds
from Groves' Orange Midden are quite low (C. pepo C.V.
length = 2.1, C.V. width = 3.8; Lagenaria C.V. length =
1.6, C.V. width = 2.1). This indicates that the seeds derive
from relatively homogeneous populations of gourds. By
contrast, if different forms, varieties, or domesticates were
growing or being maintained at the site, then the seed
dimensions would exhibit a wider range of variation and the
coefficients would reflect this as higher values approaching 10.
The low coefficients of variation, in combination with general
seed size and the rind characters mentioned above, may be
interpreted as evidence that the Late Archaic human groups
exerted little or no selective pressures on local gourd
Regardless of their status as wild versus domesticated
gourds, both types of gourd from Groves' Orange Midden
were almost certainly used by inhabitants of the site as
containers, net floats, for the edible seeds, or for other
purposes. Most (92%) of the Cucurbita gourd remains come
from the deeply buried midden deposits of Zones IV and V


(Identifications are seeds unless indicated otherwise; numbers are actual counts,
except where volume is indicated.)

TAXON #922 #924 #369 #926 #928
Up.Midden Peat ---Lower Midden-- Sand
Acer sp., wood present
Carpinus caroliniana, wood present
Carya spp., nutshell count 109 16 30 22 121
Carya spp., nutshell volume (ml) 200 20 25 25 225
Carya sp., true group, wood present
Cephalanthus occidentalis, wood present
Comus (florida) 1*
Cornus (foemina) 4
Fraxinus sp., wood present
cf. Liquidambar styraciflua, wood present
Magnolia grandiflora 11
Nyssa sylvatica 1 1 1
Palmae, stem needle fragment 1
Palmae, petiole fragment 1
Pinus sp., wood present
Prunus caroliniana 1
Prunus sp., wild plum type 1 1 1 1
Prunus sp., wood present
Quercus spp., nutshell volume (ml) 30 30| 190 40 130
Quercus spp., wood present
Sabal palmetto 3 2
Sambucus canadensis 26
Serenoa repens, seed endocarps 1 11 5 3 13
Serenoa repens, seed exocarp tips 1 2i 11 3
Taxodium sp., seed/cone 1* 2*
Taxodium sp., wood present present present present present
Zanthoxylum sp. 3 4
Unid. nut shell, cf. Castanea 1 2
Cucurbita pepo, seed 1 1 1
Cucurbitaceae, rind fragment 1*
Lagenaria siceraria, seed 2 2. 2 1
Lagenaria siceraria, rind fragment 7i 2 6 4
Passiflora incarnataa) 4; 7 1
Vitis sp. 17i 1461 32
Vitaceae, tendril fragments 1 3
Amaranthus sp. 18
Arundinaria sp., cane stem 8 161 1
Atriplex sp. 20*
cf. Asteraceae, infloresence 1
Brasenia schreberi 19
Chenopodium sp. 7
Cladium jamaicense 9


TAXON #922 #924 #369 #926 #928

Cyperaceae 1 7
Cyperus sp. 2
Nymphaea sp. 3 1
Opuntia sp. 1
Phytolacca americana 1 26
Polygonum, ovate/lens-shaped 1
Polygonum, triate form 1
Potamogeton sp. 5
Rubus sp. I
Rubus sp., thorn 1*
Solanaceae, cf. Solanum sp. 5
Polyporaceae, spores 2
Polyporaceae, thallus fragment 1 2
Unid. spiny seed/fruit 3
Unid. seed 11
Unid. small peduncles (?plum) 5
Unid. root/rhizome, carbonized 1
Unid. parenchymatous tissue 1 9 1
Unid. insect (oak) galls 5; 2 3 5
Unid. ?coprolite fragments, small 9

TOTAL NUMBER OF TAXA 151 18 10 8 32
TOTAL SEED COUNT 24i 187 10 8 228
TOTAL VOLUME NUTSHELL 230: 50 215 65 355
SEED:NUTSHELL RATIO 0.101 3.74 0.04 0.12 0.64

*indicates tentative identification; total seed count is exclusive of nutshell and palm exocarp
fragments; sample 928 has greater numbers and diversity of plant remains because analysis of
this sample encompassed materials from the 2 mm and 1 mm size fractions.

(Tables 3, 5, and 6) that date between approximately 6,200 and
5,000 years before present (McGee and Wheeler, this volume).
One Cucurbita pepo seed from Zone II (Table 6) is evidence,
however meager, that the small gourds continued to be used,
or at least were present in the area later. Bottle gourd remains
are more evenly dispersed throughout the site deposits,
appearing in each major stratum. Both types of gourd are well
represented in still later, ceramic period deposits at other
prehistoric sites along the river (see Newsom et al. 1993).


Analyses of plant remains from Groves' Orange Midden
have verified the presence in prehistoric deposits of plants that

existed as components of the natural environment, and which
may have contributed to the plant-use aspect of subsistence
during the Mount Taylor occupation of the site. Most of the
plants identified are wetland species, including aquatic and
wet-ground herbs, and various woody taxa. Many, including
cypress, willow, buttonbush, black gum, and elderberry, are
trees and shrubs that inhabit the lake margin, and are
prominent members of the river swamp and back waters of the
St. Johns River ecosystem. These and other species of the
wetlands and adjacent environments were utilized in one form
or another by human groups living at the site. Peak usage of
the various nuts, fresh fruits, and small seeds as food resources
would have been from early summer to the mid-fall, the
ripening period for virtually all of the taxa identified. Greens,




Length - - Width -
proximal mid-sect.

1989 Zn.lI lv.05 bag 25
1992 Zn.l-ll lv.03 bag 5
1992 Zn.IV lv.07 bag 185


1992 Zn.IV Iv.12 bag 322
1993 Zn.IV Iv.08 bag 99
1993 Zn.IV lv.16 bag 926
1993 Zn.V Iv.08 bag 187

1993 Zn.V Iv.12 bag 125

Stand. dev.

Mean w/o 1992 Iv. 3 seed
Std. w/o lv.3 seed



















6.11 4.77
0.14 0.15







Width/Length ratio is based on midsection (widest) width.
Note: nine additional C. pepo seeds were not measured due to their
fragmented condition; the 1992 Level 3 seed is from a disturbed zone
that has mixed cultural contexts, including historic artifacts.

tubers, and some supplemental foods were available throughout
the year.
Together the plant foods appear to have contributed to a
stable subsistence base, judging from the constancy of the plant
types in the Groves' Orange Midden deposits, as well as the
appearance of many of the same species in midden strata from
Hontoon Island and other down-river locations (Newsom

1987). The duration and level at which these resources, in
combination with the dietary contribution from animal species,
could have sustained the human groups is a question that
should be examined. Russo (1990) has demonstrated that
Archaic period groups in south Florida were able to remain
relatively or completely sedentary, largely as a function of the
rich and dependable resource base that supported prehistoric






1989 Zn.ll Iv.07 bag 35
1992 Zn.IV [v.07 bag 185
1992 Zn.lV Iv.12 bag 322
1993 Zn.ll Iv.02 bag 143

1993 Zn.II Iv.12 bag 922
1993 Zn.lll lv.14 bag 924
1993 Zn.lV lv.08 bag 99

1993 Zn.IV Iv.10 bag 59
1993 Zn.V Iv.08 bag 187

Stand. dev.

Length -- Width -
proximal mid-sect.














Lagenaria rind thickness measurements from four specimens are: 1.62 mm,
2.30 mm (from Sample 99), 2.94 mm, 2.45 mm (Sample 125). Cucurbitaceae
bundle scar diameter is 8.53 mm maximum, 4.70 for the inner-most
ring of vasculature.

Width/Length ratio is based on midsection (widest) width.
Note: four additional bottle gourd seeds were not measured due to their
fragmented condition.

inhabitants of the region. A similar situation may have existed
in east-central Florida. With the presence of relatively large
and extensive Middle to Late Archaic period deposits and
mortuary areas (Doran and Dickel 1988; Jahn and Bullen
1978; Jones and Carr 1981; Russo 1986; Wharton et al. 1981),
there is reason to believe that at least by Mount Taylor times
human groups were relatively sedentary.
Cucurbita and bottle gourds may have been associated
with the natural wetland plant assemblages. The lack of
evidence for domestication does not negate the possibility that
gourds were at least casually tended or maintained in some way
by the Late Archaic people, though it is not possible, based on

the present data, to demonstrate conclusively that gardening
practices existed. Some level of gardening or horticulture
would seem to imply a more sedentary existence, and may at
least eventually have been part of the developments leading to
extended or longer-term settlements, pottery production, and
ultimately the extensive occupations along the St. Johns River
observed at the time of historic contact (Deagan 1978). This is
another area of inquiry to pursue with further research.
We have undertaken very limited studies of the
archaeobotanical and faunal assemblages from Groves' Orange
Midden. These small-scale analyses demonstrate the
exceptional preservation of subsistence remains, and hint at the


considerable diversity of taxa that we might expect to discover
with further work. The data collected at this juncture help to
establish the range of plant use at the site and to start to
illuminate how plant resources articulated with the complete
settlement and subsistence dynamic. The additional taxa
identified in this second stage of analysis contribute also to a
better understanding of the environmental parameters during
the period of occupation, with evidence that the lake was an
essentially stable feature of the landscape. Its lacustrine and
adjacent forested habitats existed as a continuous source of
dietary and other subsistence items. The inherent overall
stability of the lake and its environment is undoubtedly a key
factor that led to the sustained existence of the prehistoric
human groups in the area and the eventual development of
sedentary lifeways.


This study was partially supported by a grant from the St.
Johns Regional Water Management District. Space to carry
out the research and other support were provided by the
Florida Museum of Natural History and the Center for
Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at
Carbondale. Special thanks to my lab assistants, Peter Betts,
Lesa Davis, and Jon Hageman. I am most grateful to Barbara
Purdy, Ray McGee, and Ryan Wheeler for inviting my
participation in this study and providing the opportunity to
explore the wonderful plant preservation in yet another Florida
wet-site deposit.

References Cited

Angier, B.
1980 A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Stackpole Books,
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Brown, J.G., and A.D. Cohen
1985 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Peat Deposits,
Little Salt Spring. National Geographic Research

Coon, N.
1974 The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press, Rodale,

COHMAP (Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project)
1988 Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 years: Observations
and Model Simulations. Science 241:1043-1052.

Cowan, C.W., and B.D. Smith
1993 New Perspectives on a Wild Gourd in Eastern North
America. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(1):17-54.

Deagan, K.D.
1978 Cultures in Transition: Fusion and Assimilation Among
the Eastern Timucua. In Tacachale: Essays on the
Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia during the
Historic Period, edited by J.T. Milanich and S. Proctor,
pp. 89-119. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Decker-Walters, D.S., T.W. Walters, C.W. Cowan, and B.D.
1993 Isozymic Characterization of Wild Populations of
Cucurbita pepo. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(1):55-72.

Doran, G.H., and D.N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site.
In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by B.A. Purdy, pp. 263-
289. Telford Press, Caldwell, N.J.

Doran, G.H., D.N. Dickel, and L.A. Newsom
1990 A 7,290-year-old Bottle Gourd from the Windover Site,
Florida. American Antiquity 55:354-360.

Ferald, E.A., and D.J. Patton (editors)
1984 Water Resources Atlas of Florida. Institute of Science
and Public Affairs, Washington, D.C.

Grimm, E.C., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., W.A. Watts, B.C.S.
Hansen, and K.A. Maasch
1993 A 50,000-year Record of Climate Oscillations From
Florida and its Temporal Correlation with the Heinrich
Events. Science 261:198-200.

Hotchkiss, N.
1972 Common Marsh, Underwater, and Floating-leaved
Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover
Publications, Inc., New York, N.Y.

Jahn, O.L., and R.P. Bullen
1978 The Tick Island site, St. Johns River, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 31(4):part 2.

Jones, B.C., and R. Carr
1981 Florida Anthropologist interview with Calvin Jones
(Part II): Excavations of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa
Beach, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34:81-86.

Little, E.L., Jr.
1978 Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 5: Florida.
U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No.
1361. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,


Martin, A.C., and W.D. Barkley
1961 Seed Identification Manual. University of California
Press, Berkeley.

Newsom, L.A.
1986 Plants, Human Subsistence, and Environment: a Case
Study from Hontoon Island (8Vo202), Florida. Master's
Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

1987 Analysis of Botanical Remains from Hontoon Island
(8Vo202), Florida: 1980-1985 Excavations. The Florida
Anthropologist 40:47-84.

Newsom, L.A., and B.A. Purdy
1990 Dugout Canoes from Florida.
Anthropologist 43:164-179.

The Florida

Newsom, L.A., S.D. Webb, and J.S. Dunbar
1993 History and Geographic Distribution of Cucurbita pepo
Gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(1):75-97.

Nieuwolt, S.
1977 Tropical Climatology. John Wiley and Sons, London.

Panshin, A.J., and C. deZeeuw
1980 Textbook of Wood Technology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill,
New York, N.Y.

Peterson, L.A.
1977 A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Houghton Mifflin,

Pierson, W.H.
1956 The Coastal Climates of Lower Peninsular Florida.
Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences

Purdy, B.A., Ray M. McGee, and Ryan J. Wheeler
1993 Excavations in Water-Saturated deposits at Lake
Monroe, Volusia County, Florida: Overview. Paper
presented at the 1993 Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess
1943 Timbers of the New World. Yale University Press, New
Haven, Conn.

1942-1948 Keys to American Woods. In Tropical Woods
72:19-29 (1942), 73:23-42 (1943), 75:8-26 (1943),
76:32-47 (1944), 85:1-19 (1946), 94:29-52 (1948).

Reed, P.B., Jr. (Wetland Ecology Group)
1986 Wetland Plants of the State of Florida: In Cooperation
with the National and Regional Wetland Plant List
Review Panels. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, St.
Petersburg, FL.

Russo, M.H.
1986 The Coevolution of Environment and Human
Exploitation of Faunal Resources in the Upper St. Johns
River Basin. Master's Thesis, Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

1990 Reinterpreting the Southwest Florida Late Archaic:
Horr's Island. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida.

Russo, M.H., B.A. Purdy, L.A. Newsom, and R.M. McGee
1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden
(8Vo2601). Southeastern Archaeology 11(2):95-108.

Schneider, S.H.
1987 Climate Modeling. Scientific American 256(5):72-89.

Simons, R.W., S.W. Vince, and S.R. Humphrey
1989 Hydric Hammocks: a Guide to Management. U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, Slidell, Louisiana.

Urling, G.P., and R.B. Smith
1953 An Anatomical Study of Twenty Lesser Known Woods
of Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of
Sciences 16(3):163-180.

Watts, W.A.
1980 The Late Quaternary Vegetation History of the
Southeastern United States. Annual Review of Ecology
and Systematics 11:387-409.

Watts, W.A., and B.C.S. Hansen
1988 Environments of Florida in the Late Wisconsin and
Holocene. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by B.A.
Purdy, pp. 307- 323. Telford Press, Caldwell, N.J.

Wharton, B.R., G.R. Ballo, and M.E. Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 34:59-80.

Wunderlin, R.P.
1982 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central Florida.
University Presses of Florida, Tampa.

Lee Newsom, Center for Archaeological Investigations
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 62901
Carbondale, Illinois 62901



Pottery from Spanish Shipwrecks 1500-1800. Mitchell W.
Marken. (University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 1994. xvi
+ 264 pp., illus., tables, bibl., index, $39.95 cloth).

Reviewed by Bonnie G. McEwan, Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research, San Luis Archaeological and
Historic Site

This is not an easy book to review since shipwreck
archaeology, in general, is fraught with so many problems. It
is a credit to the author that he makes the most out of a less
than ideal ethical, political, and archaeological situation.
While most anthropologically-trained archaeologists have long
appreciated the value of pottery and its potential ramifications
for understanding aspects of culture ranging from technology
to symbolism, it is disturbing to find how little many
underwater archaeologists know about such fundamental
categories of material culture. As Marken notes in his
discussion of the Atocha excavations, pottery was not even
regularly collected from that excavation by the salvors until it
was made known that he was studying it (p. 30). This created
a significant bias in the ceramic data base, and Marken
acknowledges the futility of quantitative analyses given the
inherent problems with this and other collections he examined.
Hence these data are not directly comparable with those from
contemporaneous terrestrial sites or from shipwrecks where
systematic recovery techniques have been employed.
This study is successful in its basic goal of describing
ceramic assemblages from a group of shipwrecks, and takes
full advantage of the fact that they represent closed contexts


from the time the vessels were wrecked. It is debatable
whether the assemblages found on a limited number of
shipwrecks, however firmly dated, are truly representative of
the Spanish (Old and New World) ceramic industry as a whole,
or simply a reflection of individual potteries that happened to
supply the ships investigated. Systematic recovery techniques
and comparison with a range of Spanish colonial sites will be
needed to address this issue adequately.
One cannot help but note that the author does not seem to
have a grasp of basic archaeological concepts such as
"tradition," and continually confuses it with type. The
discussion of Columbia Plain (to which an entire chapter is
devoted) is equally disconcerting in that the author outlines
physical attributes by which Columbia Plain can be
distinguished from majolica (p. 139) when, it fact, Columbia
Plain is majolica. In other words, some of the fundamental
theoretical, technological, and classificatory knowledge with
which most archaeologists approach ceramic analysis appears
to be lacking in this study.
Having said this, it is obvious that the author had noble
intentions of studying an important but heretofore
underutilized aspect of material culture. He does a
commendable job of underscoring the importance of ceramics
and categories of material culture other than treasure from
shipwreck excavations, and promotes sensitivity to this issue.
Perhaps the greatest contribution of this study is its underlying
message that systematic sampling using tightly controlled
techniques is imperative if shipwreck archaeology ever hopes
to generate data with contextual information and integrity
comparable to that which is regularly recovered from terrestrial

CANAfford the
Masters -





S They and other greats of Florida anthropol-
S ogy are in back issues of TheFlorida Atuiro-
I : po]ogist at the original Drice from the

:: ';r of Archaeology and Natural History
Sf418 South Federal Highway
Dania, FL 33004
Phone (305) 925-7770 FAX (305) 925-7064


Vol. 47 No. 4




Harv Dickey

The Pensacola Archaeological Society (PAS) is a
collection of about 100 people interested in archaeology in
general and archaeology in west Florida in particular. We
meet once a month except during the summer when we don't
have meetings because it is too hot and everyone is either
sunburned from the beach or off visiting grandchildren in out-
of-town locations. The First Presbyterian Church of Pensacola
has graciously provided us a free meeting place.
Our meetings consist of a short business period during
which we pass out information, answer questions, beg for
money, and do our best to find volunteers to do whatever we
need done. As in any organization, it seems that most of the
work is usually done by a dedicated core of people.
After the business period, we have a speaker present a
program on some aspect of archaeology. Some of the more
"off the wall" programs have been: Why There Are No
Dinosaur Bones In Pensacola, Old Clothes, Show and Tell,


Forensic Archaeology, and The Indians Did It First. More
traditional subjects have included: Colonial Wells, Old Millis,
Computer Archaeology, The Maya, and Ancient Turkey.
At the end of the formal meeting, we have coffee, soft
drinks, and cookies for refreshments. Since we are doing our
best to conserve our funds, any uneaten cookies are retained
for the next meeting. If our cookie can is inspected carefully,
cookies dating back to the colonial period may be found.
After an appropriate period of conversation and cookie
crunching, everyone heads for home after about an hour and a
half of riotous fun.
PAS works closely with the Archaeology Institute, a
semi-self supporting organization connected to the University
of West Florida. Most of the permanent Institute employees
are members of PAS. PAS has not conducted any independent
archaeological excavations, but furnishes volunteer sweat labor
for many of the Institute's projects. Institute members conduct

Figure 1. PAS members E. L. "Connie" Franklin (standing) and Harvin Dickey (kneeling) teach troweling technique to Oriole
Beach Elementary School gifted program students taught by Mrs. Judith Rowland.



Vol. 47 No. 4


training classes for PAS members to increase our value as
volunteer laborers.
Our older members, who may be past their prime digging
and hauling years, do their volunteer archaeology in the form
of talking to the tourists at downtown digs. This keeps the
archaeological noses to the grindstone and in the dirt, and it
keeps the visiting tourists happy by answering most of their
PAS members give numerous presentations to school
classes using equipment furnished by the Archaeology
Institute. Occasionally, we have helped in the conduct of
simulated excavations by elementary school classes. Third
graders have good eyes and nimble fingers.
Some of the most recent archaeological projects that PAS
members have worked on in Pensacola include:

The Colonial Forts. During the colonial period (1752-
1821), Pensacola was occupied by the Spanish and British who
built a series of forts in what is now downtown Pensacola.
The State of Florida and City of Pensacola financed two phases
of a project to excavate the area near the west entrance of the
British fort and the grounds of the commandant's quarters.

Bernath Place Indian Site. This privately-owned site on
Mulatto Bayou has been used for the last two University of
West Florida archaeological field schools. Several additional
periods of field work have been done to investigate the many
Swift Creek artifacts found throughout the area.

Shipwreck Survey. The State of Florida conducted an
underwater survey of Pensacola Bay. Many possible sites were
identified, and excavations have commenced on a shipwreck
which is believed to be from the sixteenth century. In 1559,
Tristan de Luna brought a fleet to Pensacola Bay to start the
first settlement in the area now known as the United States of
America. A hurricane put the majority of the fleet on the
bottom of Pensacola Bay and the expedition failed. The ship
found by the survey could be one of these ships. This project
will continue for many years.

Exhibits. PAS has constructed two exhibits for use in
public events and presentations. We have a multi-panel exhibit
of artifacts and information on archaeology. We also have
constructed a sample colonial excavation unit to show what
things look like in the field.

Many of the members of PAS are also members of the
Pensacola Historical Society. They have a Resource Center
(library) and a small historical museum located on Seville
Square. We use their facilities for our Board meetings. The
director of the museum is a member of the PAS Board.

Submitted by:
Harv Dickey, President
Pensacola Archaeological Society
P. O. Box 13251
Pensacola, FL 32591

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Florida Indian (
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida. <
Available for a
$6.50 donation
to FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon
and purple on a
heavy paper.

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

i-- i -----ll l -ln i l-- i-- ---- i l- I m
: YES! I want to join FAS!
SMembership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
SOther rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
Patron $100, and life $500.

I YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).

I Name:
I Address:
I City: State: Zip:
Telephone:( )
SFAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, PO. Box 82255,
I Tampa, FL 33682

You and

Florida's Past

Florida's history is long: it goes back 10,000
years to people who hunted mammoth with
stone-tipped spears.
It is colorful: 7,000 years ago, Florida's Native
Americans wove cloth as fine as a T-shirt.
It is unique in the world: around 800 years
ago, some Floridians had a civilization so
complex that they built long canoe-canals and
huge pyramid-shaped mounds of shells and
You can be part of it! New pages of this story
are being written every week. Teams of
amateur and professional archaeologists
together are making fascinating discoveries in
the field and in the lab.
You can help save it! Florida's rapid develop-
ment puts many valuable sites in jeopardy.
Amateur and professional archaeologists,
elected officials and planners, and just plain
concerned citizens are working together to
save this history in the soil.
How do you put yourself into this picture? By
joining the Florida Anthropological Society
(FAS) or one of its chapters, or both, as many
interested citizens do!


Each spring an FAS chapter hosts a state-
wide meeting attended by members of FAS
and its chapters, and the public. Both pro-
fessionals and amateurs deliver papers about
their activities and investigations. A banquet
features a guest speaker who is usually
nationally-known in the field of archaeology
or anthropology. FAS elected officers are
instated at a business session.
During the year, the FAS Executive Board
holds several meetings. FAS chapters have
monthly meetings, field trips, and other


1. FAS publishes a scientific journal, THE
year. Both professionals and amateurs con-
tribute articles about investigations in Florida
and nearby areas. These articles keep FAS
members up-to-date on many aspects of
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and pre-
servation. Many libraries around the nation
and world subscribe to the journal.

2. FAS publishes a newsletter four times a
year which keeps FAS members abreast of
FAS chapter activities and of pertinent events
and news around the state and wider region.


FAS has chapters throughout Florida
which are open to the interested public. By
joining FAS and one of its chapters, citizens
can take an active part in helping to study and
preserve Florida's heritage. Activities include
meetings, field trips, and archaeological digs
supervised by professionals.

FAS Chapters
Write your area's chapter for membership informa-
tion today!
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142
Broward County Archaeological Society
481 S. Federal Hwy., Dania, FL 33004
Central Florida Anthropological Society
810 East Rollins Street, Orlando, FL 32803
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682
Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons.
P.O. Box 970, Sebring, FL 33871
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
10415 Skycrest Dr., Jacksonville, FL 32216
Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32085
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 33941
Time Sifters Archaeology Society
P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277
Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 504, New Smyrna, FL 32170



You CAN Afford the
Old Masters --



and the other greats of
Florida anthropology.
They're in back issues of
SThe Florida AniLropolo-
Sgist- at the original
Srice from the
Graves Museum of
Archaeology and
Natural History
418 South Federal High-
way, Dania, FL 33004

Phone (305) 925-7770

FAX (305) 925-7064

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs