TABLE OF CONTENTS
A Safety Harbor Incised Bottle With Effigy Bird Feet and Human Hands F
rom a Possible Headman Bu
Archaeology and the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System; A Pr
of Archaeological Site Location in Santa Rosa County,
Phillips and Steve Duncan
Analysis of Skeletal Remains From the Tierra Verde Site, Pinellas County,
Human Remains From the Archaic Brickell Bluff Site.
Mehmet Yascar Iscan, Morton H.
Baked Clay Objects From the Jupiter Midden Site (8PB34): A Literature S,
Regarding Distribution and Uses.
D. Clark Wemecke
The Royce Mound:
Middle Woodland Exchange and Mortuary Customs in South Florida.
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy.
Featured Photograph: Robert
Carr at Tequesta Trail Marker, Pine Island Ridge, Broward County.
The Florida Anthropologist Fund.
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST,
VOLUME 46(4), D]
scathing, editorial called "The
the November/December 1993
Fagan challenges the academic
embodied by "the arrogant
archaeologist." Why, asks Fagan, when so many
archaeological sites are being vandalized or threatened, does
academia continue to produce narrowly-focused specialists who
will compete with other specialists in an already overcrowded
job market? Why is not more research and brainpower
directed at global problems threatening the past? How many
archaeologists give thought to conservation or site management
issues when planning their excavations? In an informal
nationwide poll of his academic colleagues,
entrenched academic (and no wild-haired
that, in many cases, lip service was given t
preservation concerns, while the traditional
research (meang excavation) prevailed.
archaeologist replied to Fagan, "The Ph.
research degree." In Fagan's view, moc
academia is guilty of a skewed value system
Fagan, much basic research can be directed
I do not k
did, did he find
Fagan, himself an
:o conservation and
emphasis on basic
As the arrogant
D. is, after all, a
. Certainly, argues
at the problems of
looting, and other crises of the archaeological
now if Fagan polled anyone in Florida. If he
San arrogant archaeologist? Or did he find an
establishment truly informed about threatened
vicinity of Charlotte Harbor alone,
sites reads like the roll call of an ides
Mound Key, Mound Key, Dog Islau
Mound, Acline Mound, Shell Creek-m
undertake activities at these sites,
conditions and personal risk? What d
why? According to Fagan, questions
within the purview of basic archaeolc
only the efforts of ambitious scholar
the traditional value system.
In this issue of the journal, adrt
Luer show another way in which ba
primary archaeological questions
excavation. This is the area known a
y excavated (or looted) b
Such research, particularly)
with our authors, contribu
e of the past without beii
I thing it would be for studio
e state to start pulling ot
Y dusty boxes to see what
by old things!
10 direct the reader's attenti!
SMound and the associated
e Valley group. I know \
In an angry, sometimes
Arrogant Archaeologist" in
issue of Archaeology, Brian
A SAFETY HARBOR INCISED BOTTLE WITH EFFIGY BI
FROM A POSSIBLE HEADMAN BURIAL, SARASO
George M. Luer
This article presents an analysis of a Native American
pottery bottle which was unearthed in pieces from a Florida
burial mound, apparently in the 1930s. The bottle belongs to
the Mississippian-influenced Safety Harbor culture of west-
central Florida (circa A.D. 900-1700) and displays five
applique effigies: three bird feet and two human hands. The
bottle and its effigies are significant because they might have
been symbols marking a high-ranking military headman,
perhaps the same individual with whom they were interred.
Safety Harbor Incised Pottery
effigy bottle, described below, belongs to
RD FEET AND HI
'TA COUNTY, FL(
Incised pottery (see Figure 2). Many
other Mississippian-period ceramic
southeastern United States where t
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. T
motifs suggests some widely
A" 4% Ww -d 1W v I 0 i'
concepts. Safety Harbor Incised motif:
volutes, scrolls, guilloches, concentr
barred ovals, herring-bone and zil
resembling batons or maces, and possil
designs, and crescent "moons" (Bullet
1985:Fig. 3; Luer et al. 1987:14
10:1 and 2; Warren et al. 1965; W
On bottles, incised and pu
usually to the shoulder and neck.
Incised" (see Luer 1985 and Sears 1967). To help understand
it better, this first section provides a detailed description of the
Safety Harbor Incised pottery dates to circa A.D. 900-
1700, occurring in both prehistoric and early historic period
contexts. It is one of a number of rare pottery types occurring
in Mississippian-period burial mounds in the greater Tampa
with some also found in southwest Florida.
recent decades, many investigators
types of decorated pottery, sucl
Englewood Incised (see below).
have confused it with other
i as Sarasota Incised and
was created on the shoulder by repeal
and/or effigies for a total of three to six
plain, given a single wrap-around desij
or three horizontal panels each with
These panels usually were separated bK
the rim of a neck had one, two,
paralleling the lip. Similar design treat
strip, and lines paralleling the lip) occui
On Safety Harbor Incised pottery,
outlined by punctations or are within
Rarely are incised motifs filled with pu
Figure 1. Some Safety Harbor Incised vessel shapes. Left to right: long-nec/
squat-necked bottle with rounded base, cone-shaped vessel, and beaker.
? d bottle with slab-
%6___ __ _ -M f-aIL0 -rd S .IL M --MM
pp, -.e- an& M qlk-aU
tumpline at the base of a bottle neck (Luer 1980), and also
effigy ropes around the neck and globular portion of bottles
(Moore 1903:Fig. 71; Sears 1967:Fig. 5:9). Applique
anthropomorphic effigies include human faces (Luer 1986 and
1991:70-71) and human hands (Sears 1967:Fig. 8:1; and see
below). Applique zoomorphic effigies include a possible cat
paw (Luer 1980) and bird feet (Willey 1949:Fig.63:e; and see
Other applique forms are known. They include nodes
around the base of a bottle neck (Luer 1985:Fig. 3:c) and
raised pendent triangles around the base of the neck of bottles
(Lyon 1989:161; Sears 1967:Fig. 9:2; also a vessel from
8S0401). Applied handles, however, are not reported for
Safety Harbor Incised.
In addition, Safety Harbor Incised vessels lacked everted
which dates to the Mississippian period
Incised apparently lacks punctations, it
and scroll motifs are similar to those ol
(Schnell et al. 1981:166, Fig. 2.13). M
seen one sherd of Nunnally Incised fri
Site in Georgia (Gail and Frar
communication, 1984) which has paste
resembling those of some Safety Harbc
suggests that the two ceramic types a
some similar fabrication techniques.
Recording the Bot
In early 1981, archaeologist Je
Florida Museum of Natural History (
or thickened lips, with the possible exception of the effigy
bottle described by this article (see below). Typical lips were
straight, undecorated, and unthickened. Decoration on the lip
was rare, but did include notches in the outer edge of the lip.
Bottoms of vessels usually were rounded, but a few were flat
and had a squat round pedestal or slab-like base. Some
bottoms had a central round hole, some small and others large,
which were made intentionally before firing.
Safety Harbor Incised pottery often has a smoothed or
burnished surface of brown color. The paste is hard and
compact, often with a gray core. Many examples are tempered
with apparent grit, some with sand. Inclusions can be a
mixture of black, gray, and brown particles which apparently
were added purposefully to the clay before it was shaped and
important to note close similarities among some
specimens of Safety Harbor Incised in west-
Olson, a collector
at Holmes Beach
Manatee County, v
private collection i
its style as "a Fl
Ralph Olson of C
of American Indian I
on Anna Maria Islh
earlier, Olson had s
n the northern Unite
orida piece" and bo
Olson wanted to re
scientific community and so, at Mil
contacted the author who visited Olson :
The author photographed Olson's
a Safety Harbor Incised bottle (see F
restored by gluing together fragments a
pieces) with plaster. Recreated portion
black to match the bottle's burnished bi
some black fire-mottling on one side.
It appeared that, during restoration
0 0a g q*ulp' *
a lpaIu en
i %' ,
.6 ri mw *t .'%,h i
I II~, S
i i! i I !i llU~
0o liw 5' l.i_.q-4
t 0._F U._L *' **~ w e am% U -
,..*_, ,,%,.rh.S. bit,,
II- I- I I I I I
6 r w~ we w
, *,* m *.-
S 9 aaa a S S m 0
,i.a-a s o
4. 6 i *I w .... ,v3 1: it, *4106.52$' &
aa 0 .a *lp % & d
4hU IS 0* 0 ,.'g ::44"' 4
6 g 4 a I me
"l i I I i i =! -- I Ill I I Il 'e.i
qL i I m MA i96 41 ae% _ a
i l .i i ll1L
"o .. .41k- ; ,., P"OO ,'De ..'.ob
I ~lla' % 9_ 0
o _.16 @,, FA. "% ..! .i p%
" "... b ..- i4 =_*@ -_ "
u~ s _ , 4 L o fr e lk' 4 % b B
l_" -ol!% maeowe
changed hands soon after the a
research on ceremonial tablets
Carr 1984), the author noticed
in Venice, Florida.
author saw it. While conducting
in 1983 (see Allerton, Luer, and
the bottle in a private collection
A Note About H. L. Schoff
or Wilson Mound B (8S077), both
community of Old Miakka. Today,
charm is in need of preservation, and it i
may encourage appreciation of Old Mial
The Wilson Mounds are named fi
ie "H. L. Schoff" of the bottle's label
an archaeologist from western New
Schoff worked in western Pennsylv
excavations for the W.P.A.'s Frontier I
Survey of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission.
1930s through early 1950s, Schoff authored and co
number of manuscripts, and he published articles in
The Pennsylvania Archaeologist.
Schoff was an accomplished photographer of
s Harry L.
In the late
and artifacts. He excavated a large number of human burials,
especially of the historic contact period. He was adept with an
early metal-detector and was using one by late 1936 in
Pennsylvania (Schoff 1937:10). Schoff collected artifacts (for
example, see Witthoft, Schoff, and Wray 1953:100-104), and
he engaged in the "expert restoration of damaged specimens"
Although little is known of Schoff in Florida, he did visit
the state in 1931-1935. He dug at a number of sites in west-
central Florida including in Hemando, Manate
Counties (Mitchem 1989:43, 191, 219, 227;
Willey 1949:343-344, 344). Schoff might
contact with archaeologists from the Smithson
such as M. W. Stirling, who were in Florida in
Schoff also might have talked with local diggers
such as Manatee County's Montague Tallant,
e, and Sarasota
have been in
the same years.
from whom he
family who helped settle
1991:8D; Williams et i
beginning in late 1934,
Miakka became part of
Old Miakka in I
much of the an
1946:268). This was just months after
acquisition of the "Wilson Mound" botti
later, in 1961, Wilson Mound A was di
little was found (Fritts 1961).
Today, Wilson Mound A sits in a g
meters (200 feet) north of historic Mia
Church (8S01855). For many years,
clearly visible just beyond a barbed-w
alongside County Road 780 which wind:
Although road-building removed some
portion, it can still be seen that the :
outline, a diameter of about 38 meters (1
height of about 1.6 meters (5 feet).
borrow pit rims the mound's north amn
should be noted that, as a burial m
deserves our profound respect and is
Florida Statute 872.05.
Mound B, destroyed m
short distance southwest
School House (8S0596), a woode
National Register of Historic Places
descriptions of the school house,
the greater Tampa Bay area appear to have interacted closely
with other communities on the coast, including some large
"temple towns" around Tampa Bay to which they appear to
have been oriented politically (see below).
Finally, it should be remarked that, as in the case of
Wilson Mound B, there are many reports of contact period
material from sites in the Myakka River region, although poor
provenience hinders interpretation (Mitchem 1989:199-201,
207-210, 220-222, 227; 1990:55). The presence of contact
period material should be noted, however, because one
proposed route for DeSoto's army is through the immediate
Old Miakka area was undoubtedly
fishing, and gathering. Extensive ai
wetlands included nearby Tatum Sawj
and Lower Myakka Lakes to the s(
Swamp and Cow Pen Slough to the v
and cabbage palm grew along the M'
creeks and sloughs,
such as alligators,
known about how 1
especially in their'
were rich in fish,
turtles, and deer.
native Americans e
11). Faunal remain
Old Miakka area (Williams 1986: 178, 1989:Fig. 6).
Native Americans apparently favored Old Miakka as a
locus of settlement because of its well-drained ground. Both
Wilson Mounds were on well-drained sandy soil which is not
common in the poorly-drained Myakka River region
(U.S.D.A. 1959:sheet 12). In contrast to poorly-drained
areas, well-drained soil supports distinctive "scrub" vegetation
including pine, saw palmetto, and scrub oak.
Well-drained soil encouraged American pioneers to
establish Old Miakka. It offered dry ground for their houses
and livestock and, although poor and sandy, the soil could
support some subsistence gardening as well as some cultivation
of citrus, a much-needed cash crop (Zilles 1976:144). This
soil might have held a similar attraction for earlier Safety
Harbor peoples who raised gourds and squashes, and perhaps
some beans and corn (although cultivation of the latter two are
However, if and how Safety Harbor peoples might have
it will be
fish and tu
Luer et al. I
marsh birds sud
cultural ecology of Safety Harbor and i
in the Myakka area.
intervening upland areas of pine 1
marshy ponds. Lightning strikes
places, fires helped create o
Indeed, interior west-centra
1* 1 *r -
frequent lignmning strinKes 01ot any regi
States (Newcott 1993:90-91). Fire is ]
ecology, and many plants are depend:
beautiful native orchid -- see Luer
natural fires, Native Americans also r
areas (for example, see Kalisz et al. 1
game such as deer which prefer to
(Dobyns 1983:82-87; Maynard Hiss, j
Bottle Form and Design
The Olson bottle is an outstanding example of Safety
Harbor Incised pottery. Great skill was needed to make it. Its
globular body was shaped carefully, and its neck and effigies
were applied expertly. Before firing, its dried surface was
shaved, smoothed, and burnished, and a hole carefully crafted
in its bottom. Then, the piece was fired successfully.
The bottle's large punctations and wide incised lines are
typical of Safety Harbor Incised pottery. Their rather sloppy
execution is also typical, and contrasts with the skill required
to shape the bottle and its effigies. The bottle's
paralleled by punctations
Incised pottery, and they
and punctations on some I
The form of the 0Q
globular body, suggests t
are not common on Safety Harbor
form a motif resembling the arcades
Fort Walton and Lake Jackson series
Ison bottle, with its long neck and
iat it represents a container normally
intended to hold liquid. Perhaps it is a conventionalized effigy
of a carved gourd container. Whether this particular bottle
held liquid or not, however, is uncertain considering the hole
in its base.
It seems clear, however, that this bottle was intended to
be seen. Its large size and its effigies were conspicuous.
Indeed, the bottle and its effigies might have been intended to
communicate status, identity, and meaning (see below).
The bottle's applique bird feet and human hands resemble
some reported previously (see Figure 5). For example, three
similar applique bird feet occur on a Safety Harbor Incised
bottle from DeSoto County near Arcadia, Florida, about 40 km
(25 miles) east- southeast of Old Mia
Fig. 63:e). Four or five similar appli
on another Safety Harbor Incised botti
near St. Petersburg, Florida, about 60 1
of Old Miakka (Sears 1967:Fig. 8:1).
The bird-foot effigies, on both
Arcadia bottles, are three-toed. Wh
hawks, owls, woodpeckers, pelicans,
four well-developed toes, some birds d
toes, such as wild turkeys and ducks.
webbed feet, perhaps accounting for ti
and punctations between the toes of the
long toes of wild turkeys, ideal for wal
ground, closely resemble the toes of the
The effigy feet and hands may re
both the Old Miakka and Arcadia vest
downward as if representing real feet tiq
the necks of the bottles. Similarly, the
Miakka and St. Petersburg bottles ma'
hands tied to the base of the necks. Si
northeast Florida Timucua in the 1560s
worn as ear ornaments as well as the s
parts (see below).
The Olson bottle apparently was
time of excavation. This is suggested i
restored condition, but also by its s
breakage pattern which suggests that
I -a a a-
:re the intact bottle. It seems unlikely
have produced such breakage during excE
excavators had broken the bottle, it
they would have overlooked its now
pieces, some of which would have bee
appears that the excavators found a s(
sherds, and that some of the bottle's shen
Inspection of the bottle's breakah
indicates the following. First, the bottle
about a dozen pieces. Such a condition
Harbor Incised vessels which usually
apparently from intentional smashing.
Second, the bottle was struck force
n sizeable. Thus, it
it of already broken
Is were missing.
;e pattern or mends
had been broken into
n is typical of Safety
ibly on the shoulder,
with breaks radiating outward from the point of impact and
diverging across the globular portion of the bottle. That is, the
lines of force diverged from the point of impact and produced
a series of wedge-shaped sherds. One wedge-shaped section,
which was close to the point of impact, remained attached to
the cylindrical neck which broke off as a single piece. Such
breakage suggests that the bottle was intact when it was
broken. These observations and interpretations are consistent
with intentional smashing.
Third, some portions of the bottle are missing. This
suggests that all of its fragments were not present when
excavated from their place of interment. This may suggest that
the vessel was broken elsewhere prior to burial.
Fourth, the bottle was struck on one of its three applique
bird feet, an
formed a sin
d the resulting fracture pattern
ely or mostly intact.
, one applique human hand
gle oval-shaped sherd whereas
left the other four
bottle, suggest that it was a high-status 1
interpretations are discussed here.
First, it is known that late Weea
Harbor stratified societies built burial n
located high-status burial(s). Examples i
Burial Mound (Sears 1959:33-35) and
primary mound (Mitchem 1989:474-483
cases, the death of an important indiv
building of, or the addition to, a burial
interment of charnel house remains (Mit
Second, it is known that some of
base of the
and shell b
accompanied by rare and
id, for example, a group o
mound was accompanied
tic stone celts, galena (an
heads (Mitchem 1989:479
?re symbolic of the identity
Similar practices continued into eat
example, Le Moyne shows a burial
deceased chief (Figure 6). It was capp
cup," in this case an apparent whelk sh
take black drink. This particular mou
built for a paramount chief, such as S
rather for a lesser chief who was moui
and "the other chiefs and his friends" (1
Moyne pictures one of these lesser chiefs
is unbroken and
the other applique
hand was on a piece which is missing
. This breakage suggests
S a *
* #m* rwe *p
Le Moyne's Burial of a Chief, A.D. 1560s.
Note mourners and shell drinking cup.
Moreover, incised or applique human hands occur with incised
mace- or war club-like motifs on two other Safety Harbor
region which represents the
In the 1560s, for example,
I& 4A a in a AM
chiefs. Among the Timucua, Le Moyne clearly distinguished
between them and shamans in terms of dress, social activities,
and burial treatment (Lorant 1946:59, 67, 115).
This article describes a Safety Har
its effigy bird feet and human hands wh
the Safety Harbor period (circa A.D. LM
appears to have been smashed intentic
burial ritual, and most of its pieces
individual buried near the center of a
effigies, especially its applique bird fee
military authority which marked the i
they were interred,
possibly a high-ranki
Archaeological data were shared
Jeffrey Mitchem, Ralph Olson, Gail ai
Brent Weisman. Jean Huffman, Park
River State Park, and Maynard Hiss
specialist, provided helpful insights into
Myakka River region. Artist The
encouragement. Biographical data
University Museum Library of the Univ
and via personnel at the Manuscript Coil
Philosophical Society Library, Philadelp
Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and
Ceremomnial Tablets and Related
The Florida Anthropologist 37:5-5d
9w a 3 s r maEK N z- dILIA6, Aa -Li nM&-,rs rin...r-
Benson, Carl A.
1967 The Philip Mound: A Histor
1961 "Shovels Bite Deep Into County's Past.
Herald-Tribune, October 1.
Historic Resources at the Pit
Florida. The Florida Anthropol4
Goggin, John M., and William C. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society (With
Notes on Sibling Marriage). In Explorations in Cultural
Anthropology. edited by Ward H. Goodenough, pp. 179-
219. McGraw- Hill, New York.
Grismer, Karl H.
1946 The Story of Sarasota.
Howard, James H.
1968 The Southeastern C
Interpretation. Memoir N4
West-Central and Southwest
Anthropologist 45:52- 62.
Luer, George M., and Marion M. Ali
1987 The Laurel Mound (8So98)
Comments on the Safety Harb
Anthropologist 40:301- 320.
The Florida Grower Press,
ceremoniall Complex and Its
o. 6. Missouri Archaeological
Luer, George M., Marion M. Alml
Robert J. Austin
1987 The Myakkahatchee Site (8
Period Inland from the Shore
Florida. The Florida Anthropol
z, Paul J., Alan W. Dorian, and F
Prehistoric Land-Use and the 1
Pine on the Ocala National
Interdisciplinary Synthesis. The
'arl L. Stone
Distribution of Longleaf
Forest, Florida: An
1989 Pedro Menendez's Plan for Seti
Encounters, Spanish Exploratio,
the United States, 1492-157C
Milanich and Susan Milbrath, j
of Florida Press, Gainesville.
Lorant, Stefan (editor)
1946 The Narrative of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues.
New World, the First Pictures of America, pp.
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York.
Milbrath, Susan, and Jerald T. Milani
1990 First Encounters: An Exhibit
of Natural History, Gainesville.
Luer, Carlyle A.
1972 The Native Orchids of
Botanical Gardens. W.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1988 Some Alternative Interpretation
Mounds. The Florida Scientist 5
rv Harbor: Late
Padgett, Thomas J.
1976 Hinterland Exploitation
Manatee Region During the
Florida Anthropologist 29:3!
in the Central Gulf
Safety Harbor Period
Williams, J. Raymond, Joan Deming,
Patricia Carender, and Daniel Dei
1989 A Historic Resources Survey
Selected Portions of the Myakka ]
Florida. Unpublished report I
County. On file, Sarasota C
Historical Resources. Sarasota.
Reeves, F. Blair
1989 A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture.
of Florida Press, Gainesville.
Williams, Lindsey W.
1986 Boldly Onward. Precision
Charlotte Harbor, Florida.
Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Gail S. Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee, Archaeology of a Mississippian
Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Schoff, Harry L.
1933 Report of Archaeological Investigations at Pool
Hammock, Laurel, Florida. Unpublished report dated
January. On file, National Anthropological Archives,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
A Charlotte Harbor Perspective
Site. The Florida Anthropologist
Winsburg, Morton D.
1988 Florida History through Its Plc
National Register of Historic Plat
Preservation, Florida Departme
Florida Institute of Government, I1
The Excavation of the Site of Provincial Fort Manucy.
The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 7:9-11.
Witthoft, John, Harry L. Schoff, and C
1953 Micmac Pipes, Vase-Shaped Pip
Pennsylvania Archaeologist 23:89
Letter to J. Alden Mason. Dated June 11. On file,
Manuscript Collection, American Philosophical Society
, William H.
Sciences, No. 5
1976 A History
of Agriculture of Sam
by Sarasota Cou
and The Sarasol
Island Period Burial Mounds, Florida.
if the Florida State Museum, Social
/.--% e T ,avaas
ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE GEOGRAPHIC RESOUR(
PRELIMIINARY MODEL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE L
John C. Phillips and Stevi
The distribution of archaeological sites across the
landscape reflects complex selection processes that involved
many cultural and environmental variables. Site selection was
dependent, at least in part, on resource availability and the
settlement and subsistence strategies that were utilized to
exploit these resources. There is a logical order to land-use
patterns that is related to the character of an environment;
therefore, the distribution of sites is decidedly nonrandom.
Understanding the relationships between archaeological sites
and the fabric of relevant environmental variables is critical to
modeling archaeological site location and delineating patterns
of land use.
The Blackwater Soil and Water Conservation District
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service)
and the University of West Florida, Archaeology Institute have
developed and evaluated a preliminary computerized model of
archaeological site locations in Santa Rosa County, Florida.
This first generation model, created with the Geographic
using site locate
of State, Divisi
The model wa
Support System (GRASS),
on data obtained from the Florida Department
on of Historical Resources, Florida Site File.
ts designed as a very limited test of the
GRASS technology as an archaeological
Project budgetary constraints limited both the
complexity of the model and the subsequent ground truth
:ES ANALYSIS SUPP
LOCATION IN SANTA
and Campbell 1992; Phillips 1991).
about archaeological site locations
archaeological research on Eglin Air ]
suggests that sites are located on wel
near potable water (Thomas and Can
Eglin data document a marked preferer
for the coastal strip along Choctawhatc
Sound, at the upland/lowland juncture,
water. The Eglin study indicates that
within 150 m (ca. 500 ft) of fresh w
less than 50 ft above the water source.
Reconnaissance level surveys in
basin in Santa Rosa and Okaloosa coi
more than 175 archaeological sites
McKenzie 1988a; Phillips 1989; Pel
exception of a few recent historic occ
sites are situated on well-drained, rel
close proximity to fresh water. It shc
prehistoric sites are located as far as 5(
a perennial water source; however, sp
drainages, not readily apparent on
usually much closer. Specific topo
sources, vegetative communities, and
to a certain extent; nonetheless, sites
transitional zones near several mncroen
fertile soil, mineral deposits, forest products (lumber,
pulpwood, and turpentine), and streams suitable for damming
or navigation, directed recent historical land use. In addition,
recent historic populations often utilized wells rather than
streams as a source of water. Therefore, these occurrences are
found not only in the traditional settings, but also may be
located some distance from flowing water and on a wider range
of topographic settings.
The common theme in these empirical models is that the
relationship between site location and environment is
incredibly complex and difficult to accurately define.
Geographic Information Systems technology is a very powerful
computer-based tool for evaluating these complex relationships
so that sophisticated archaeological models can be developed.
This technology is particularly useful for examining the
relationship between archaeological sites and ecological
variables such as water sources, natural communities, soil
types, slope, and drainage.
surveyed. The recorded archaeologic
analysis are the product of many years c
This data is not without bias: The sit
represents varying levels of archaeologi
encounter to intensive survey and exca
the data reflect the biases of the indivic
others who recorded these sites, and i
recording errors, especially in the orih
plotting. Nonetheless, this data set
complete information available aboui
archaeological sites in Santa Rosa Count
This preliminary model of archaeo.
Santa Rosa County developed using G
analysis of the relationship between ai
soils; both variables are available as d
Archaeological sites occur m a ve
environments. Studies indicate that (
between archaeological site locations a
environmental attributes. This associ
Developing the Model of Archaeological
Site Locations with GRASS
The Geographic Resources Analysis Support System
(GRASS) is a public domain GIS that was developed by the
U.S. Army Corps
which, in combinati
analyze complex SP
digitizing, input and
of Engineers, Construction Engineering
. GRASS is a set of computerized tools
ion with other systems, can be used to
applications are natur
A a e a na. n "I o
al variables. It is capable of data
tput conversions, storage, analysis, and
It 1988:2). GRASS includes database
word processors, statistical analysis
.ed mapping facilities. Among its
al resource inventory and analysis,
wuntAaqr uill n
l 1, hflfllrc;C 0nA nulfiu-irl
for sites and soil characteristics.
ysis of the Perdido basin, Phillips
that 64 percent of the study sites occui
These two soils, Lakeland and Hucka
level soils that occur near water. This
83 percent of the study sites occurred o
drainage properties and 92 percent wern
with little or no slope. In the Perdid
subsume 83 percent of the sites and d
probability areas for archaeological
Perdido River drainage (Phillips 1991:3
Soil types characterize relatively
They are defined by several attributes ,
property, texture, composition, and v
rendI tvnPQc P-Pn hP UnUQP tn drlfin. P.nvirnn
-A ~ a a
strength of association between variables, it tests only whether
the observed departure from the expected is more than chance
would suggest (Thomas 1976:284). In this case chi-square
provides a statistical test of the hypothesis that archaeological
site distribution is associated with soil types. The null
hypothesis is that archaeological site location is independent
from soil type.
As Table 1 shows, the chi-square value is 565.386 with
49 degrees of freedom. This value far exceeds the value
necessary at a significance level of .01. Therefore, the null
hypothesis is rejected and a relationship between
archaeological sites and soil types is indicated. Because more
than 20 percent of the expected values in Table 1 are less than
5.0 and several are under 1.0, this table was then recalculated
by combining the soil types into broader, yet still meaningful
soil types (Siegal 1956:46). For example, the Gullied, Urban,
and Pits soil types were combined; Lucy 0-5 percent was
combined with Lucy 5-8 percent; and the three Tifton soils
were combined with Esto. The recalculated chi-square value is
359.255 with 30 degrees of freedom (see Table 2). This chi-
square value also exceeds the value necessary at a significance
level of .01. The recalculated chi-square test also suggests that
there is an association between archaeological sites and soil
The nonstatistical assumption
specific soil types characterize
archaeological sites are found.
a of this analysis is that
environments in which
Those soils in which the
results. This evaluation of the GIS m
results. This evaluation of the GIS m
into the utility of GRASS as an archaeol
The model was tested by system
transects totalling 16.7 linear miles. 1
placed throughout Santa Rosa Coun
physiographic zones. Individual trans
however, in total they included the maji
(as defined on the basis of soils, topogi
found within the county. Each transect
low probability zones as defined by the !
The selection of these transect lo
four basic principles: 1) the transect
distributed across the county; 2) the tnr
cross section of physiographic zones an
types as possible; 3) each transect haw
not previously surveyed and without r
sites; and 4) the transects had to
visibility. The transects were chosen
maps and files at the Archaeology Instit
documents included a copy of the Flori
Rosa County, the Soil Survey of Santa i
al. 1980). county road maps, and the cc
observed frequency of sites exceeds the expected frequency are
defined as high probability soils for archaeological deposits.
As Table 2 demonstrates, 18 soil types exhibit a greater
observed number of archaeological sites than expected. In
other words, the analysis indicates that a relationship
between archaeological site locations and soils, and 18 soil
44*~ t l~tfle v %Laan rI an f A n r nrnclu i antl a rno 1 1 ,can c4ii tin T7kb l csa
topographic maps fo
targeted as potential
the interior portions
diffuse artifact scatto
these occurrences a
or the county. Pip
I roads, farm field
of the county most
ers. When surface
re extremely diffi
Ayvtfncwvpn gnrl timp.-rnnviumina chnve.
/r7 0 a dr
, 3MW 4La t --A1 :i;. 7S
Chi-square Valuesfor Sites and Soil Types.
Soil type Observed
Albany loamy sand, 0-5% 7
Angie variant loam 1
Bohicket and Hansboro 2
Bonifay loamy sand, 0-5% 12
Dothan fine sandy loam, 0-2% 1
Dothan fine sandy loan, 2-5% 23
Dothan fine sandy loam, 5-8% 7
Escambia fine sandy loam, 0-2% 3
Esto loam, 2-5% 2
Esto loam, 5-8% 0
Fuquay loamy sand, 0-5% 9
Fuquay loamy sand, 5-8% 0
Garcon loamy fine sand 2
Gullied land 0
Johns fine sandy loam 6
Kalmia loamy fine sand, 2-5% 2
Kureb sand, 0-8% 20
Lakeland sand, 0-5% 55
Lakeland sand, 5-12% 10
Lakeland sand, 12-30% 5
Leon sand, 0-2% 12
Lucy loamy sand, 0-5% 5
Lucy loamy sand, 5-8% 0
Lynchburg fine sandy loam 5
Maxton loamy fine sand, 2-5% 7
MIulat loamy fine sand 0
Orangeburg sandy loam, 0-2% 0
Orangeburg sandy loam, 2-5% 2
Orangeburg sandy loam, 5-8% 0
Ortega sand, 0-5% 7
Pactolus loamy sand 53
Pickney loamy sand 1
Rains fine sandy loam 1
Red Bay sandy loam, 0-2% 3
Red Bay sandy loam, 2-5% 0
Rutlege loamy sand 17
Tifton sandy loam, 0-2% 0
Tifton sandy loam 2-5% 0
Expected (0-K) j
-- A A A
Recalculated Chi-square Valuesfor Sites and Soil Types.
Soil type Observed Expected
Albany loamy sand, 0-5% 7 3.8
Angie/Rains 2 3.5
Bibb-Kinston 34 31.6
Bohicket and Hansboro 21 4.8
Bonifay loamy sand, 0-5% 12 18.8
Chewackla-Wahee-Riverview 11 13.9
Dorovan -Pamli co 22 11.8
Dothan fine sandy loam, 0-2% 1 9.0
Dothan fine sandy loan, 2-5% 23 36.8
Dothan fine sandy loam, 5-8 7 6.8
Escambia/Lynchburg 8 4.9
Esto/Tifton 2 4.8
Fuquay loamy sand 9 16.8
Garcon/Mulat 2 2.6
Gullied/Urban/Pits 0 2.0
Johns/Kalmi a/Maxton 15 5.5
Kureb/LeonlOrtega 39 5.5
Lakeland sand, 0-5% 55 67.4
Lakeland sand, 5-30 15 6.3
Lucy loamy sand 5 16.5
Orangeburg sandy loam, 0-2% 0 8.4
Orangeburg sandy loam, 2-8% 2 7.6
Pactolus loamy sand 53 17.4
Pickney loamy sand 1 2.6
Red Bay sandy loam, 0-2% 3 13.1
Rutlege loamy sand 17 89
Troup loamy sand, 0-5% 45 76.9
Troup loamy sand, 5-8% 7.4
Troup loamy sand, 8-12% 14 4.1
Troup-Orangeburg-Cowart s 13 17.6
Coastal dunes and beaches/water 3 3.0
Degrees of freed
Summary of Survey Transects.
Environmental and Archaeological Data For Survey Sites.
U U U U U U U
8SR1017 shorlie Bhkt/Honsbr poor st order ddal
8SR1018 taracc Bonifay, 0-5% good 2nd order
8SR1019 trace Lakeld, 0-5% xc v 4thosd
8SR1020 ridgecreit Lakcland, 0-5% czceaive ucp spring
8SR1021 idelope Bonifay, 0-5% good ep spring
8SR175 ridgecr t Dotba, 0-2% good seep spring
8SR1176 Ndslopc Troop, 0-5% good eep spring
8SR1177 terrace Dothan, 0-2% good ivr
8SR1178 ridgecret Bonifay, 0-5% good ep spring
8SR1179 ridge Pctolus, 0-5% moderate It order
8SRI180 ridge Dothb, 0.2% good It order
8SR1181 ridge Lucy. 0-5% good 1t order
8SR1182 ridge Red Bay, 0-2% good 1It order
8SR1183 ridge Lucy, 0-5% good It order
8SR1184 terrace Docks, 0-2% good 3rd order
8SR1185 Troap. 0-5% good 2ad order
II I I Seas
150 msa gra h
450 oak/pn. ii
450 oak/pine F
300 oak/pine I
150 owk/piDe F
300 pine P
180 pimeuc/pime F
250 oak/ping F
750 pine b
1350 oak/pine b
1250 peu&i/ottO D
550 pccaD/cotbom I
350 gras I
northwest Florida (New World Research 1985; Bense 1989;
Phillips 1989; Phillips and Bense 1990a, 1990b; Penton 1991;
Phillips 1991). These studies indicate that sites are consistently
associated with well-drained, level phase soils of the Lakeland,
Bonifay, Dothan, Kalmia, Kureb, Troup, Pactolus, and Ortega
series, and with the more poorly drained Bibb-Kinston
Association and Bohicket-Hansboro soils. It has been our
experience that these 10 soil types
archaeological sites in Santa Rosa
distributions noted in this survey
Bay level phase soils, both prime
to be added to this list of 10 soils.
produce the majority of the
County. The historical site
suggest that Lucy and Red
agricultural types, may need
Comparison of the GIS Model and the Survey
A comparison of the survey data with the model
developed by GRASS suggests that the model is in need of
refinement. During the survey, 30 encounters with 11 high
probability soils occurred, producing 7 sites (see Table 5).
These seven sites are located in three high probability soil
types (Bohicket-Hansboro, Ortega, Pactolus). Seven of 30
high probability soil encounters produced archaeological sites
for a success rate of 23 percent. The remaining 16 sites are
located in what were predicted as low probability soils (see
The seven sites that are associated with the high
probability soils represent 30 percent of the sites recorded
during the survey. These seven are coastal sites associated
with Bohicket-Hansboro (3), Ortega (2), and Pactolus (2) soils.
The remaining 16 sites (70 percent) that fall in the low
probability areas are in the interior portions of the county.
These 16 sites are associated wil
mC I alralund Trnuim fRnnfiav an
th well-drained level soils such
Although the number of re
is quite high, the expected values fo
observed. For example, Lakeland, 0
produced 55 recorded sites (expected
are recorded for Troup 0-5 percent (e:
2). Conversely, many of the high pr
by GRASS (again where the expe
observed) exhibit very small number
example, Albany loamy sand is a ]
defined by GRASS with an observe
expected value of 3.8 (see Table 2).
that the Brass model defines as archae
of the more steeply sloped variants of
we intuitively believe are high proba
case with both Lakeland and Troup.
Several positive observations c
model generated by GRASS. T
demonstrates that a relationship
archaeological sites and soils. In add
to work in the Coastal Lowlands. The
forecast all the archaeological sites ft
transects. This ability to accurately m
coast reveals that GRASS can be used
modeling tool. The coastal areas ha
attention from researchers; hence mna
recorded in this region and much mo
modeling site locations. Therefore, G
a fairly complete picture of coastal
accurately forecast high probability soi
The preliminary GRASS model
the interior Western Highlands sites lo
One reason for this is that GRASS ev
a n a- .n a* i n' v n a n n n + n tu *
High Probability Soil Encounters Broken Down By Sites.
Soil Type Encounters
Albany loamy sand 2
Bohicket and Hansboro 6
Dothan fine sandy loam, 5-8% 5
Escamnbia fine sandy loam, 0-2% 3
Johns fine sandy loam 1
Ortega sand, 0-5% 2
Pactolus loamy sand, 0-5% 5
Rutlege loamy sand 2
Troup loamy sand, 8-12% 1
# of site
Soil Types, Sites, and Probability Zones.
Soil Type Count p
Bohicket /Hansboro 3
Bonifay, 0-5% 3
Dothan, 0-2% 4
Fuquay, 0.-2% 1
Lakeland, 0-5% 2
Tiinv."S 0-S 2
sensitive areas with a very broad brush. More complex
analyses that consider many environmental and cultural
attributes are needed to more accurately model archaeological
site locations. Subsequent GRASS analyses should be geared
toward developing these more complex site location models by
examining the relationships between archaeological sites and
World Research, Inc.
Cultural Resources Investigat
Base, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa
Florida:. An Interim Report on
Research, Inc., Report of Investij
several environmental variables such as slope,
properties, soil texture, topographic setting
communities, and proximity to potable water.
future work should utilize the cultural data in the
to model diachronic change in land-use patterns.
GRASS has tremendous potential as an i
research tool. The chi-square test used to
capabilities of GRASS as a modeling instrument is
many statistical applications that are available for
archaeological models. Remote sensing images
vegetation or drainages and other spatial variables
digitized and added to the GRASS system to
location models or to develop more sophisticated
but one of
can also be
and subsistence models. With GRASS or similar GIS
technology, complex archaeological and environmental
relationships can be efficiently modeled and tested.
Interim Draft Report on
Investigation on the Four Mile 1
County, Florida. New World R
Penton, Daniel T.
1991 Phase III Archaeological Survej
Drainage. University of Wes
Institute, Report of Investigations
Phillips, John C.
1989 Archaeology on the Blac
University of West Florida, In
Archaeology, Report of Investigai
University of I
West Florida, In;
port of Investigal
Bense, Judith A.
1983 Settlement Pattern, Climate and Marine
Correlation in the Escambia Bay Drainage
Northwest Florida. Paper presented at
Southeastern Archaeological Conference,
Fatal Flaw Cultural Resc
Rainwater Tract, Escambia Coun
of West Florida, Archaeology
.6 4%rA% nuuIAM I ns JIM
Phillips, John C., and Judith A. Bense
A a~ m -aa-M
m m _
Weeks, H. H., A.
1980 Soil Survey
G. Hyde, A. Roberts, D. Lewis, and C.
of Santa Rosa
1988 An Introduction to GRASS. U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Construction Engineering Research
Laboratory. Ms. on file, University of West Florida,
John C. Phillips
University of West Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32514
Blackwater Soil and Water Conservation District
Milton, Florida 32570
ANALYSIS OF SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE TIERRI
COUNTY, WEST-CENTRAL FLORID
Dale L. Hutchinson
investigations of the
burial mound (8PI51) occurred in 1900 by Clarence B. Moore
(Moore 1900:355), although the mound might have been
visited earlier by S.T. Walker (Mitchem 1989:81-82). Moore
(1900) described a mound located on Pine Key which measured
18.3 to 25.9 m in diameter and 1.8 m high. At that time, he
noted that some previous superficial digging had occurred on
the mound. Moore did not conduct extensive investigations,
but noted flexed burials, large shell beads, and pottery sherds
with incised and punctated decoration.
William H. Sears encountered the
burials in both the mound and the are&
batches of pottery sherds that appeal
over the burials. Sears hypothesized t
previously curated in a charnel s
interment. A second burial area was
on the eastern side in an area of pottt
that mound fill sherds fit with those
cache indicates that the events of mouw
of pottery deposition are contempor
All pottery in both areas was broken
recovered from the mound that were
mound while performing an archaeological survey for the new
"Bayway," a system of causeways and bridges, from the
mainland to Mullet Key. The mound was located on Cabbage
Key and is now in the Tierra Verde subdivision (Figure 1).
The initial exploratory probes Sears conducted produced no
evidence for burials or pottery, and he hypothesized that it was
a small temple mound (Sears 1967). Cautiously, however, he
arranged to have the contractor notify him when clearing of the
mound began, and at that time he returned to observe the
removal of approximately one-third of the eastern part of the
mound. Again, no pottery or bone was observed.
No artifacts except pottery v
mound or the pottery deposit area, ex
projectile point. Most of the pottery
in date, although a few Weeden Islan
well. Mitchem and Luer suggest that
in date, probably between A.D. 900 a
Almy 1987:311, Figure 5; Mil
communication, 1991). Luer and Air
state that the ceramic assemblage
extremely similar to ceramic assem
Mound in Sarasota County (8S098) a
in Charlotte County (8CH69).
OLD TAMPA BAY
, CABBAGE KEY
\ r-.Os I 1 9 xa49
Estimation of sex was derived by cranial morphology (Bass
1987; Krogman and Iscan 1986; n=5), pelvic morphology
(Bass 1987; Krogman and
combination of cranial an
conducted, and x-rays were I
University of Illinois.
Many skeletal remains
en of a
1986; nl), and
t few specimens at
et al. 1982; Buikstra and Cook 1980)
prehistoric health using skeletal remain
of both malnutrition and infection mus
nutrition and disease are synergistic ;
impairs the function of the immune sys
nutrients from other areas where they
homeostasis. Paleopathological diagn
two major categories of pathological c
portions of elements necessary for age and sex estimation were
absent. This prohibited extensive classification of the
skeletons to age and sex groups, and further prohibited any
demographic analysis. Much useful information was derived
from the study of the materials, however, particularly with
respect to prehistoric health and disease. Examination of the
human remains contributes to the growing database on the
regional patterns of disease among these native populations in
Sears (1967) reported that 40 individuals were removed
during the course of his excavations. Analysis of the skeletal
remains housed in the FMNH revealed a total of 48
individuals, close to the count of Sears's original inventory. In
most cases, the materials inventoried support Sears's (1967)
original observations regarding number of individuals present
and type of burial (flexed or secondary bundle). Age and sex
estimates resulted in 12 adults, 6 subadults, 2 males, and 5
females (Table 1).
-bf n t anIIrann ndr 0D Cfl rn4rO 'A n Tof a '
refection, or both, and more specific
and/or disease factors.
General Indicators of Metabolic Distur
Enamel hypoplasia is generally ri
general systemic stress
Larsen and Hutchinson
general health. Enamel
of the teeth caused by
nutritional deficiency c
1991). Dental enamel
and records metabolic
subject to alteration onli
wear. Consequently, ei
record of health during i
1992) and is of
)r disease (Go4
is not remodel
y through the p
the years betwc
Teeth exhibiting extreme wear or
were eliminated from analysis. Only c
Tierra Verde, burial 24, exhibited en
individual had extreme linear enamel
and right maxillary central and later
Another general measure of infec
f xtfrffan lcnp r thp ruaiarnctauiim rPal
Summary of Tierra Verde Individuals.
IMN " ro Ml r-)
I a a__
n9. r ~
Dental Measurements (mm*),
number measured is
U W ~& ~ ~ ~ L_ _
- - ------ ---- - ---
Burial Gleser 1958 IS
13,1 Tibia 162.471 + 3.24 cm Tibia 155.98
(5'2" to 5'5") (5'1
29 Femur + 163.09 + 3.24 cm Femur 155.93
Tibia (5'2" to 5'5") (4'i
19 + 3.513 cm
." to 5'3")
+2 + 3.816
.0" to 5'2")
i1 + 3.513
.It to 51 3"11)
Periosteal Reactions Osteo-
Burial n=* Healed Unhealed myelitis DJD**
1 6 1 1
13 17 1
28 4 3
29 18 2
97753 9 1
97801,1 17 2
99683,1 16 3 3 1
99683,4 6 1
Totals 93 9 7 1 2
*number of elements
knalar orlA rtf .nht anA 1]A fr cit tnmnlarce kth nf th firct
ran rnntnridt n anpmi fiiruttnr f b
Burial 99683, individual 1, showing periosteal reactions.
populations inhabiting the
Charlotte Harbor. Our study,
coastal region m the area of
still in progress, utilizes the data
From top to bottom.: left fib ula, rig,
parietals) for determg
derived from stable isotope analysis and shows that the stable
carhnn and nitrnogen isntnnes are much the same as those from
Adelaide Bullen (1972:160) first
in the Tierra Verde remains that resem
syphilis in both the Old and New
treponemal infections might have been
attributed to other diseases. Most
coworkers (Rensberger 1993) reported
from England support a hypothesis of t
syphilis in the Old World prior to
No matter what the origin, it is
infections were present in native populk
long before Europeans arrived here."
evidence comes from Illinois (Cook 1
1988), Mississippi (Ross-Stallings
1991), North Carolina (Bogdan and W
(Robbins 1978), and Florida (Bullen 1
1991, n.d.; Iscan and Miller-Shaivit2
and Iscan 1991).
Although it has been nearly 30 ye
of the Tierra Verde mound, there is !
from studying the skeletal remains. Fc
attempts to learn about the diet of
inhabitants of the Tampa Bay region i
clues regarding the anemia that afflict
individuals interred at Tierra Verde.
remains shows the people from Tiern
healthy, with regard to dental health
exhibited dental carious lesions ar
periodontal infection was observed.
P'L I I .
Stellate Porotic/ Alveolar
Burial Lesions Cribra* Infection
99683,1 1 1
Totals 3 2 1
U a I m i .... -m 2 .. ..... l ........ ........... ....... ..
I would like to thank Jerald T. Milanich for access to the
skeletal materials curated at the Florida Museum of Natural
History and for his comments regarding Florida archaeology
over the years. Other people who have influenced the thoughts
expressed in this manuscript through editing or comments
include Linda Klepinger, Clark Spencer Larsen, George Luer,
Jeffrey Mitchem, and Mary Lucas Powell. I thank all of them
for their assistance, but any errors in interpretation remain my
own. I gratefully acknowledge Wiley-Liss who first published
Figures 3 and 5 in the American Journal of Physical
Baker, Brenda J., and George J. Armelagos
1988 The Origin and Antiquity of Syphilis.
Crosby, Alfred W.,
1972 The Colum
Studies No. 2,
bian Exchange: Bi
of 1492. Conti
El -Najjar, M. Y.
1977 Maize, Malaria and the Anemia
New World. Yearbook of Physica
El-Najjar, M. Y., B. Lozoff, and D. J.
1975 The Paleoepidemiology of Poro
American Southwest: Radioloj
Considerations. The American Joi
Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Mei
1967 Proportionality of the Long Born
Stature among Mesoamericans.
Physical Anthropology 26:67-77.
Human Osteology:. A Laboratory and
(third edition). Missouri Archaeological
Publication No. 2, Columbia.
an, Georgianne, and David S. Weaver
Pre-Columbian Treponematosis in
Carolina. In Disease and Demography
edited by John W. Verano and Douglas
155-163. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Goodman, Alan H., and Jerome C. Ros
1990 Assessment of Systemic Phys
from Dental Enamel Hypopli
Structures. Yearbook of Physicc
in the Americas,
H. Ubelaker, pp.
Dental Enamel Hypoplasias as 1i
Status. In Advances in Dental A
Marc A. Kelley and Clark Spence
Wiley-Liss, New York.
Assessing the Impact of Introduced Diseases in Sixteenth
Century Spanish Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation,
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois,
pp. 155-270, New York.
On the Frontier of Contact: Mi
La Florida. The Florida Anthropt
Treponematosis from a Regional and Chronological
Perspective in Central Gulf Coast Florida. American
Journal of Physical Anthropology, in press.
Hutchinson, Dale L., and Clark Spencer Larsen
1988 Determination of Stress Episode Duration from Linear
Enamel Hypoplasias: A Case Study from St. Catherines
Island, Georgia. Human Biology 60:93-110.
Larsen, Clark Spencer, and Dale L. Hu
1992 Dental Evidence for Ph)
Biocultural Interpretations front
Borderlands, U.S.A. Journal
Monographic Publications 2:15 1-
Laynsse, M., and M. Roche
1964 The Relationship Between A
Infection. American Journal of H
Stress and Lifeway Change on the Georgia Coast: The
Evidence from Enamel Hypoplasia. In The Archaeology
of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale: 2. Biocultural
Interpretations of a Population in Transition, edited by
Clark Spencer Larsen, pp. 50-65. Anthropological
Papers of the American Museum of Natural History,
volume 68. New York.
Lovejoy, C. Owen, Richard S. Meind]
and Robert P. Mensforth
1985 Chronological Metamorphosis c
of the Ilium: A New Method fc
Adult Skeletal Age at Death.
Physical Anthropology 68:15-28.
Hutchinson, Dale L., and Lynette Norr
1991 Corn and Subsistence in Central Gulf Coast Florida: The
Evidence from Stable Isotope Analysis. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the Society for American
Archaeology, New Orleans.
n.d. Late Prehistoric and Historic Diet in Gulf Coast Florida.
In In the Wake of Contact, edited by Clark Spencer
Larsen and George R. Milner, Wiley-Liss, in press.
SI n "Ir C I g u a I a 0 m.0 0
Luer, George M., and Marion M. Aim
1987 The Laurel Mound (8So98) a
Comments on the Safety Harboi
Anthropologist 40:301- 320.
Mensforth, Robert P., C. Owen Lov
George J. Armelagos
1978 The Role of Constitutional Factc
Disease in the Etiology of Poi
Periosteal Reactions in Prehistori
Moore, Clarence B.
1900 Certain Antiquities of the
of the Academy of Natural
Florida West Coast. Journal
Sciences of Philadelphia, vol.
i (second edition).
Moseley, J. E.
1965 The Paleopathological Riddle of "Symmetrical
Osteoporosis." American Journal of Roentgenology,
Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine 95:35-142.
Ortner, Donald J., and Walter G. J. Putschar
1985 Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human
Skeletal Remains. Reprinted. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, D.C. Originally Published 1981,
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 28.
Powell, Mary Lucas
1988 Status and Health in
Walker, Philip L.
1986 Porotic Hyperostosis in a Marir
Indian Population. American
Warren, Lyman 0., Francis Bushnell, g
1965 Six Contributions to the Hand
Harbor Burial Mound on Cabbag
Florida. The Florida Anthropolog
Wiesel, Sam W., Phillip Bernini, and F
1982 The Aging Lumbar Spine. W.B.
Prehistory:. A Case Study of the
Smithsonian Institution Press,
Prehistoric Southeastern Uni
of Chronic Endemic Disease.
Current Syntheses and Futur
J. Ortner and Arthur C.
Smithsonian Institution Press
Sand Tuberculosis in the
cited States: Biological Costs
SIn Human Paleopathology:
e Options, edited by Donald
Aufderheide, pp. 173-180.
, Washington, D.C.
Dale L. Hutchinson
Department of Anthropology
East Carolina University
Greenville, North Carolina 27858-435
1992 Findings Counter Theory on Syphilis.
Post. November 19, 1992.
HUMAN REMAINS FROM THE ARCHAIC BRICKELL BR
Mehmet Yasar Iscan, Morton H. Kessel, and Robert S. Carr
Brickell Bluff site (8DA1082) was one of
period (4000-3000 B.P.) sites recorded i
during an inventory conducted from 1978 to
County Historic Preservation Division (Canr
plain (Glades Plain),
from the burial and
, dating from ca. 5(
(Milanich and Fi
midden areas were
Along with the Flagami South site (8DA1053) 16 km west of
Biscayne Bay (Iscan et al. n.d.) and the Santa Maria site
(8DA2132) 2.5 km south of the mouth of the Miami River
(Carr et al. 1984), it is one of three Late Archaic sites with
human skeletal remains (Carr et al. 1984:172). It was
excavated in 1980 as a salvage archaeology effort (Carr
1981b). All three were scheduled for building projects by
developers, and the sites have since been partially or
completely destroyed. Other burials may still exist at the site
because it was determined that part of the cemetery would be
in a green-space
island. Carr ordered
Bluff site is a prehisl
fill placed over the
and a driveway was
to A.D. 200 with most at a mean of 15(
Previous reports on south Flori4
Archaic to Transitional periods provide
a seminomadic existence with seasonal
1985; Iscan and Kessel 1988, 1992; ]
Brickell Bluff Site is consistent with t]
subtropical climate and rich coast
supplemented by seasonally available
purpose of this paper is to analyze hum
site, and compare them with findii
toric coastal mortuary
Materials and Metl
and associated midden located on and adjacent to a bluff
overlooking Biscayne Bay, some 5 km south of the mouth of
the Miami River (Figure 1). This limestone bluff is known
locally as Silver Bluff and is part of the Miami Formation, a 5-
meter thick oolitic limestone cap that overlays and conforms to
the subsurface morphology of the Pliocene Miami reef tract
4-L A. 1 AA re r% +Lem+ n%*%Ae!1AI -% f PC U Iex lIas..^
The badly fragmented skeletal material
secondary burials and disturbed pos
received the severely fragmented skelet
zip-lock bags. Because there was no
L. af "n n" 4 M A. 4I, 1 0%a&1%A"% aen n at L&1 a ae w u n 4 a I %a" A %1 0rJ-a, a
U II I I m
1986:329). Pathological lesions and anomalies also were
diagnosed based on published criteria (Steinbock 1976; Bass
1987; Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1981).
Inventory and analysis of skeletal remains determined that
rum of four people were represented. The main
contributing to the estimation of the MNI are the
ends of three right ulnae and the distal end of a right
of a juvenile that does not match in robusticity any of
ulnae. This calculation was supported by the molar
27, which included 10 second molars with three
wear patterns representing three different
plus one newly erupted molar, confirming an MNI
It was possible to determine the sex of only
one male and one female. This was based on the
of the mastoid process fragments, the mention and
of the mandibular fragment and the supraorbital
t age groups
border of a
The study of skeletal remains
information about the diet, pathology,
characteristics, and affinities of prehi
and Kennedy 1989). As in so m
however, Brickell Bluff did not prodi
meaningful or even representat:
comparisons among these Archaic
preservation and often fragmentary nai
small sample size, may lead to a
paleodemography of this region. Evei
reveal quite a bit about the past, howeN
The presence of male, female, a
the burial population and the absei
characteristic of egalitarian social org
ages represented in the burial grc
The stature calculated for the ont
fragmentary humerus is admittedly
calotte (M). The other adult and juvenile could not be sexed
from the available bones.
Age estimation is based, as previously mentioned, on the
dental wear patterns on the occlusal surfaces of the molars. The
molars readily sorted into three groups that represented the
ages of 20-24 (horizontal to the enamel), 35-40 (horizontal
with some dentin exposure) and 50+ years (diagonal lingually
with full dentin exposure) (Lovejoy 1985:48-53). There was
one newly erupted, mandibular first molar with incomplete
roots, and very slight occlusal wear.
years (Krogman and Iscan 1986).
Age was estimated as 5-7
error. A height of 17
from five other south
(n=49) was 167.4 cm
The thickened cv
2.3 cm is consis
Florida sites wh
(Iscan and Kesse
anemia (Angel 1967; Steinbock 1976:2
1981:43), even though radiographic
confirm it. The cribra orbitalia (a
porotic hyperostosis) observed in the
attributed to a nutritional deficient
frequently in children (64%), whose
more susceptible to dietary disruptions
Demographic Comparison of Three South Florida Archaic Sites.
Site BR FS
MNI 4 16
M1: F:U* 11:2 2:410
Infant 1 3
Adult 2 8
Senile 1 2
Av. Stature (cm) 172.3 174.7
a U. a a
Carr, Robert S., and John G. Beriault
1984 Prehistoric Man in Southern Florida. In Environments of
South Florida Present and Past H, edited by Patrick J.
Gleason, pp. 1-14. Miami Geological Society, Coral
Carr, Robert S., Mehmet Yasar Iscan, and Richard A. Johnson
1984 A Late Archaic Cemetery in South Florida. The Florida
Craig, Alan K.
1991 The Physical Environment of South Florida. In South
Florida: The Winds of Change, edited by Thomas D.
Boswell, pp. 1-16. Association of American
Goodman, Alan H.
1991 Paleoepidemiological Inference
Enamel Hypoplasia: A Reply to
Journal of Physical Anthropology
and Neanderthal Dental
Lovejoy, C. Owen
1985 Dental Wear in the Libben P(
Pattern and Role in the Determi
Age at Death. American
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fi
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic
Ortner, Donald J., and Walter G. J. Pt
1981 Identification of Pathological
Skeletal Remains. Smithsor
Washington, D. C.
of the Pre-drainage 5
Florida. In Environ
Past II, edited by Pa
Geological Society, C
Grayson, Donald K.
1984 Quantitative Zooarchaeology: Topics in the Analysis of
Archaeological Faunas. Academic Press, Orlando.
Iscan, Mehmet Yasar, and Kenneth A.R. Kennedy (editors)
1989 Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton. Alan R. Liss,
Petuch, Edward J.
1986 The Pliocene Reefs of Miami:
Significance in the Evolution
Ridge, Southeastern Florida, U.S
Steinbock, R. Ted
1976 Paleopathological Diagnosi
Charles C. Thomas, Springfield,
Iscan, Mehmet Yasar, and Morton H. Kessel
1988 Osteology of the Prehistoric Boynton Beach Indians.
Florida Scientist 51:12-18.
Tebeau, Charlton W.
1980 A History of Florida.
Analysis of Human (
Dsteolosical Material from the
BAKED CLAY OBJECTS FROM THE JUPITER MIDDEN S
SEARCH REGARDING DISTRIBUTION A
D. Clark Wernecke
;IT (8PB34): A
Baked clay objects
United States but never
clay objects recovered
Midden site (8PB34) ai
regarding distribution a
unique artifacts. Further lines
would expand our knowledge
trade and technology.
Excavations carried out by
Archaeological Research Center
have been found in many parts of the
before in South Florida. Two baked
during excavations at the Jupiter Inlet
re examined in terms of the literature
nd theories regarding the use of these
of study are suggested which
of prehistoric South Florida
the Florida Atlantic University
at the Jupiter Inlet Midden site
regarding trade and technology in prehistoric
The artifacts found were two baked clay objects,
in shape, with finger impressions in them.
The purpose of this article is to
archaeological literature regarding these oh
specifically at the distribution, experiments
regarding their use. As we still know very 1
Jupiter site itself and because only two of these
have been recovered from the site, this paper
draw conclusions rega
questions about these
can be tested for throu
j ects looking
little about the
5e clay objects
will not try to
trding these specific artifacts. Various
two objects are posed, however, which
tgh further study of the artifacts and the
The survey work was conducted
Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aid Pr
accomplish several specific goals:
boundaries of the prehistoric compon
acre site, b) to identify the nature of ti
over time, and c) to provide a chroi
occupational sequence. Excavations E
conducted by Dr. W. J. Kennedy of FA
and involved a controlled systematic
23 one meter units and one 1 m X 2
units, approximately 18 meters apart,
objects within 30 cm of the surface.
found in association with sand-temper
Check Stamped ceramics. The gem
seriation for the area gives a prelimini
objects of post-A.D. 1200. Further
Both artifacts are hemispherical ai
a fist (Figure 1). Both items weigh bel
Artifact A2649 was recovered within :.
the low crescent-shaped feature and haI,
two fingers and thumb of the left han
found within 30 cm of the surface at t
mound has the imprint of the first fmn
Baked Clay Objects
* measurements of length and width made from top surface
* artifacts are in the Florida Atlantic University Collection
Baked clay objectsftom the Jupiter Inlet midden.
11 1 W ~ ~ ~ ? 1 1 I LOta a s .f l1III rI Ut.. A aUI
L 4. --,. -J3 a - . -t 0 A 1:1 a, SW
* "/ I ~-
H '^i^^ >0 ^
however, that the Poverty Point culture refined and greatly
expanded the use of the clay objects.
Baked clay objects similar to the types found in Poverty
Point sites have also been found on the East Coast of the
United States (Ford et al. 1955; Williams 1968; Sassaman
1993; South 1969). Excavations by AntoCo Waring, Jr. on
shell rings along the Georgia coast produced biscuit-shaped
and spherical clay objects that probably predate yet overlap
with the Poverty Point culture. These artifacts also have been
found in South Carolina in association with shell middens and
Baked Clay Objects in Florida
Many sites in East, North and Northwest Florida have
revealed caches of baked clay objects (Figure 4; Rouse 1951;
Goggin 1952; Lazarus 1958; Fairbanks 1959; Webb 1968;
Stoltman and Bullen 1972; Jahn and Bullen 1978). These
artifacts have been found primarily in the area of the St. Johns
River and the Panhandle region. The sites in the Panhandle, in
Okaloosa and Walton counties, have been termed the Elliott's
Point Complex and are considered to have predated the
Poverty Point culture.
Recent excavation near Lake Monroe has recovered a
laree number of baked clay objects similar in form to manv
- - C
of 0p- w
Theories Regarding Usage of Bi
There have been many theories p
baked clay objects. Although there
accepted theories, the only concept
among archaeologists was that the
substitute. Suggested uses include:
stones, bolo stones, sling stones,
weights, gaming pieces, sweathouse
paste, hearth surrounds and amorpI
beneath fire pits. One archaeological
was that these objects were simply :
made sieving difficult. Of an estimate
one site only 150 were kept (Aten 19(
cited above recall a caution: all of thes
had the same purpose, many of the
right. In addition, there are some
these objects may have changed over
first hesitant explanations fo
they were "boiling stones."
e the natives would bake the
put it in a gourd or basket I
make soups. Experiments w
found they did not hold up
. Also most objects recovery
found at Tick Island. These objects fall
categories: amorphous lumps, objects with
with knobs, flat, round and spool shaped.
found in preceramic contexts, were mostly
oxidized, the significance of which will becor
this article (Ryan Wheeler, personal c
into six rough
The objects were
broken and fully
ne clearer later in
record show complete oxidation, a
possible under repeated, possibly up tc
1973). In addition, experiments regard
phosphate content argue against this fu
Later archaeological excavations
that, according to James Ford and Cla
doubt as to the function of the bake
Arrows indicate conduction of heat. o
Model of an earth oven (from Hunter 1975:68).
excavation... Before the heat in the clay nodules, and
the bottom of the hole has become completely
exhausted, the opossums are beautifully cooked, as
perfectly so indeed as though the operation had been
performed in the most improved kitchen range extant
[Beveridge 1889, in Ford, Phillips and Haag 1955:56-
There are other interesting observations that bear further
testing. At Poverty Point there is some apparent household
preference as to type of baked clay object used (Webb 1968).
There is a possibility that the style of the artifacts changes over
time so that a seriation could be put together (Webb 1977).
One theory proposes that each design radiates at a different
temperature and for different lengths of time making it possible
to choose the right clay object for the dish that is being
Aten, Lawrence E.
1967 Excavations at
1889 The Aborigines of Victoria an
Peter Beveridge. Melbourne, Vic
Bunn Jr., Jennings W.
1974 Clay Balls: Ceremonial or
Anthropologist 27:47 -48.
Campbell, T. N.
1960 Archeology of the Central and
prepared (N. Clenenden,
appears to suggest that ti
different periods of time.
Poverty Point, personal
the archaeological record
were used differently at
objects found on the East
Fairbanks, Charles H.
coast, for example, are not often found in earth ovens or pits
but scattered about the site (Webb 1977).
This article has attempted to show the distribution and
possible uses of objects such as those found at the Jupiter Inlet
Midden site. Much more work, however, needs to be done to
determine if indeed these clay artifacts exhibit similarities to
the earth oven objects other than morphological. The materials
used in manufacture and extent of oxidation, for instance, may
tell us much more about their use. Future excavations at the
*, S 'S all2 I4' S CS aj m r a
Additional Elliott's Point Comj
Ford, James A., and Clarence H.
1956 Poverty Point, a Late
Anthropological Papers of
Natural History 46, part 1.
Ford, James A., Philip Phillips, and W
The Jaketown Site in
Anthropological Papers of
Natural History 45, part 1.
Bulletin of the Texi
Hunter, Donald G.
1975 Functional Analyses of Poverty Point Clay Objects.
Florida Anthropologist 28:57-71.
Huxtable, J., M. J. Aiken and J. C. Weber
1972 Thermoluminescent Dating of Baked Clay Balls of the
Poverty Point Culture. Archaeometry 14:269-275.
Mound of the Boyntor
on a Midden Mound and Burial
i Mound Complex (8PB56). The
Jahn, Otto L., and Ripley P. Bullen
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publications 10.
Lazarus, William G.
1958 A Poverty Point Complex in Florida. The Fl
Stoltman, James B., and Ripley P. Bull'
1972 Fiber-Tempered Pottery in th
States and Northern Columbia: It
Significance. Florida Ani
Publication 6, Tallahassee.
Webb, Clarence H.
1968 The Extent and Content of I
American Antiquity 33:297-321.
Intrasite Distribution of Artifac
Site, With Special Reference tc
Activities. In The Poverty Point i
J. Broyles and Clarence H.
Southeastern Archaeological Coi
The Poverty Point Culture Ge.
17. Louisiana State University, B
Lien, Paul M., Ripley P. Bullen and Clarence H. Webb 1974
A Poverty Point Owl Amulet Found in Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 27:165-168.
nd James H. Force
Lt, Prehistoric C
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, Orlando.
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 44, New Haven.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949a Archeology of the Florida G
Miscellaneous Publications 113,
1949b Excavations in Southeast Fio
Publications in Anthropology 42,
THE ROYCE MOUND: MIDDLE WOODLAND EXCHANGE
Robert J. Austin
E AND MORTUA
In August 1992, limited excavations were conducted at
the Royce Mound located near Lake Placid in south-central
Florida. The excavations were directed by the author, utilizing
volunteers from the Kissimmee Valley Archaeological
Historical Conservancy (KVAHC). The mound was bro
to the attention of the KVAHC by the land owner,
Raymond Royce, who was in the process of preparing the
around the mound for use as a citrus grove. Suspecting
the mound was aboriginal in origin, Mr. Royce called
to find out if the mound might be si
direction, a KVAHC crew placed a s
near the center of the mound. T
d in 10 cm levels to a depth of 150
Only five artifacts were recovered:
simple-stamped ceramic sherds; a si
gnificant. At the
ingle 1 m by 1 m
"he test unit was
cm below ground
two very small,
mall distal biface
a basal fragment of a large biface implement; and a
biface measuring nearly 21 cm long. Arrangements
were subsequently made
excavations at the moun
cultural affiliations, its
with Mr. Royce to conduct limited
d to determine its chronological and
functional nature, and methods of
The excavation results indicate use of the mound during
the Middle Woodland period (ca. A.D. 1-350), making it one
_& ..1 - A 1 1 1- - I - ., A n
accompanied it, reached its maxin
Hopewell cultures of Ohio and I1I
investigations at burial mounds in I
native peoples who occupied this part
immune to developments elsewhere
indicate that at the beginning of th
there occurred an influx of exotic ma
the region from the Midwest and g
degree of intersite similarity exhibits
early investigators to suggest
participation in a pan-regional Hopei
(e.g., Greenman 1938; Willey 1948, 1
or in a hierarchically integrated track
sphere") that served to redistribute e
local elites (Caldwell 1964; Struever a
recent studies have abandoned the
"center" directing or influencing the
ideology and instead have focused o0
settlement patterns, subsistence pursu
(e.g., Seeman 1979b; Brose 1979b;
and Fairbanks 1980:84-86, 90, 160-4
studies have concluded that the Hopew
Woodland sites represent I
9m 4m -.
The development of inter-regional exchange among the
prehistoric cultures of the eastern woodlands is closely linked
to the emergence of mortuary ceremonialism. In an attempt to
explain this relationship within a processual framework, Brose
(1979a) has forwarded a model that views the coemergence of
elaborate exchange networks and corporate group leadership
through achieved status as an adaptive response to changing
Essentially the model predicts that as resources become
more abundant, widespread, and dependable, there will be a
reduction in the geographic range exploited by local
populations, an increase in sedentism, and the establishment of
defendable territories. Under such conditions, population size
and density are likely to increase resulting in increased
territorial pressures and competition for available resources. I
think an important point to stress here is that the concept of
population pressure as it relates to subsistence resources is not
a simple matter of too many people and not enough food. It is
instead defined in part by the perceptions of the inhabiting
population regarding the ability of the environment to provide
an accustomed level of resource abundance (Johnson 1982).
Within any environment, plant and animal resources vary
in abundance both spatially and temporally, and critical raw
materials may also be differentially distributed across the
landscape. In interior south Florida, for example, durable
materials such as chert, shell, or shark's teeth are nonexistent.
Potential conflict over resources can be alleviated somewhat by
cementing relations between neighboring groups through
intermarriage and/or exchange thereby providing mutual access
to needed resources. The establishment of exchange networks
linking south Florida's interior to both the northern chert-
bearing region and coastal marine shell resource areas would
imbued with emblemic information idi
the corporate group occupying a speci
would be expected. Emblemic
eyed through the possession and (
, adornment, dress, body decora
ps or in stylistic variation of iter
rent groups (Wiessner 1983; Brai
Sonveved by the presence of ft
reaffirm a group'
serve as both s'
to a territory
of group me
If such a structure existed in Fl
Woodland period then there should t
regionalism with economically
subsistence systems occurring in dii
(Brose 1979a: 8). There should also b
integration and intergroup contact.
mortuary contexts should be associated
individuals representing those who ha
community through the control of e
should be evidence of emblemic
evaluates the Royce Mound data in ligl
The Royce Mound Ex
The Royce Mound is located app
Mr-L IL w r- m 1, m q
Ix iopm" OF
% \. 41c:z::::IIID
-~ I. 7%~ccz;
%L hI --N,.j
ground surface at the mound base nor was any evidence of
basket loading observed in the mound fill.
The charcoal zone may represent an intentional deposit
related to mound construction because it seems to be associated
with some of the more exotic artifacts recovered from the site.
During excavation we speculated that the charcoal may have
formed a mound cap c
remains plausible, disc
the land around the mo
Although he did not kn
cleared, the possibility
deposit is the result
)r been distributed as part of a ritual
'ny. Although this interpretation
missions with Mr. Royce indicated that
md had been cleared during the 1940s.
ow whether the mound itself had been
cannot be discounted that the charcoal
of burnin off palmettos and other
vegetation prior to land clearing. A large, burned tree stump
encountered during the last day of excavation lends support to
this interpretation of the stratigraphy.
Yet another possibility, suggested by an anonymous
reviewer, is that the charcoal represents the efforts of native
peoples to clear the mound of vegetation between or
immediately preceding burial episodes. Mound maintenance
through the use of fire is an intriguing suggestion that requires
serious consideration; however, the high density of charcoal in
some portions of the mound, and its relative concentration near
the mound's surface, suggests that mound maintenance, if it
occurred, consisted of a single burn-off event rather than a
series of intermittently recurring burnoffs.
Although different in form, th
vessels share similar design features.
was recovered closest to the surface at a
unit datum in unit 101N/98E. This slij
bowl with a short, constricted neck and
was recovered in a fragmented
reconstructed (Figure 4). A portion o
missing as is most of the base. Thi
design is restricted to the body of the bI
and is well executed. The reconsti
approximately 15 cm high and is 25 (
The diameter of the vessel orifice is al
A large stone pendant was recovered 52
this vessel at the same depth. No
recovered in association with the vessel
The second vessel
cm in height witk
This small jar
O/101E at a depti
I is smaller than t
i a maximum dia
was recovered a
I of 93 cm belo
a globular body with a short,
mn (Figure 5). The body is
larger specimen and it has
The base has been perfo
n what is often referred to a;
is present on the lower two th
(s are relatively small (avei
) and are slightly rectang
is well executed with no ove
oriented diagonally across the vessel
displays dark brown clouding in som
once covered the entire jar.
Typologically, both vessels are
examples of what Willey (1949:387)
StamnerI which he- anncinteAd with a la
*, .. .~ I ~-s
~ ~ I 0
Reconstructed check-stamped bowl.
Vertical Distribution of Ceramics by Level.
* All sherds from a single vessel.
STJP = St. Johns Plain SPICw/I = Spiculite paste with impressed lines
STPw/M = sand-tempered plain with micaceous paste SST = simple-s
(Moore 1902:272-273, Figures 236, 238; 1903:387-393), by
Kellar et al. (1962:341, Figure 4) from late I
at the Mandeville site in southwest Georgia,
(1979:164) from Mound C at the Tuna
northwest Georgia. A radiocarbon date of A
reported by Jefferies (1979: 164) for this last
(1938:Figure 19. 330) compares the small
and by Jefferies
cunnhee site in
L.D. 150 95 is
and Fairbanks 1980:Table 2). In south
pottery typically appears in small bu
after about A.D. 1200 (Widmer
assumed to represent trade from the i
31), however, reports that Deptford Ch
broken tetrapods were recovered I
complex at Fort Center in Middle Wo
second large biface were recovered during excavation of the
initial I m by 1 m test unit (Figure 6). (This unit, referred to
as Test Unit A, was subsequently given the coordinate location
of 100.5N/95E.) The pr
was later recovered from
the original KVAHC test.
and contracting, rounded
with large, flat percussi
oximal end of the broken specimen
unit 101N/94E, which encompassed
Both bifaces possess weak shoulders
stems. Their surfaces are covered
on flake scars, and fine pressure
their margins. Although neither
evidence of use, the surface of the
abraded, possibly with a sandstone
ake scar facets are worn flat and display
biface is made from a fine-grained,
homogeneous chert. The lower half is grayish tan in
the upper half is black. Small needle-like inclusions,
)ear to be sponge spicules, are very common. Other
include quartz sand, a small amount of pyrite, and
small white peloids of an unidentified material. Several
"healed" fractures are observable on the lower half of the
blade. These were caused by the folding and deformation of
the parent formation with subsequent resilicification of the
resulting fractures. Coastal Plain cherts typically do not
exhibit this type of fracturing because the flat-lying parent
formations have not existed long enough to have experienced
deformation (Sam Upchurch, personal communication,
1993). Although the exact provenience of the chert is not
known, cherts containing sponge spicules are common in the
mid-continent area (e.g. Birmingham 1985; Ray 1985; Sam
Upchurch, personal communication, 1993).
Both fragments of the broken biface display a high luster
that is similar to that exhibited by heat-treated material. The
chert is gray in color and is relatively fine grained and
homogeneous. The wackestone fabric contains very small
large, expertly flakedI
ve items in Middle Wood
United States (Mills I
1926:132-142; Brose et al. 1985:15
from exotic, nonlocal materials. Th
caches, and individual specimens an
most of the fragmented pieces occu
(e.g., Mills 1922:523). The type
these implements is typically a radia
this type of fracture is caused by use;
of an intentional blow to the center
and Bradley 1980:44, 97-99).
implements, the use of exotic ram
exclusive occurrence in mortuary con
intentional breakage at the site of buri
use in mortuary ceremony. In el
represent the lithic equivalent of sacred
Stylistically, the large bifaces fro
unlike any of the standard "types" defit
Similar implements in terms of morphology and
determine because only
have been recovered from unprovenienced contexts in the
Withlacoochee River (Lien 1985) and from Pinellas Point in
St. Petersburg (Al Goodyear, personal communication, 1992).
The latter was made from chert derived from local Tampa
Limestone deposits. Two large biface implements were found
Oak Knoll Mound in Lee County (Dick
2-62, Figure 8). Although unsimilar in
Mound artifacts, both implements were
lithic material and both were fractured
Both displayed interior facets that had
:el and Carr
and polished (Dickel and Carr 1991:55, 61). At the
Mound near Tarpon Springs two large bifaces were
crossed beneath the skull of one individual, and a third
ribed as having the flake scars on both surfaces
4 by rubbing or grinding (Bullen et al. 1970:102).
One is rounded and
pendants. The sec
may have been mad
Iond is flattened on
The proximal ends of all of the
ies around the entire circumference
assumed that these were meant
re 1903:408). Four of the stone p
flattened surface. Reiger (1990:2
have been to facilitate their lying
i suspended either from the neck or
Drawings by LeMoyne that illustrate
Five of the pendants were located
of the mound near the original K'
recovered approximately 4 m to th
one was recovered about 7 m t(
Moore (1902:271) recovered a bifacial
nearly 9 in (ca. 23 cm) long from the Yi
bifaces were also recovered from the
Center near Lake Okeechobee (Sears
One of these displays a classic radial f
central impact clearly visible. It has
surfaces heavily ground and abraded
(A.D. 305 + 115 and A.D. 340 + 11
place the Fort Center mound-pond corn
Woodland period during the first half
which he assigns a time range of A.D. .4
800 (Sears 1982:186-189, 194-199, Tab
The remaining three bifaces an
manufactured from local (i.e., St
limestone) cherts. Ten waste flakes
Seven are Tampa limestone cherts from
ent Mound. Two large
charnel pond at Fort
1982:80, Figure 6.2).
fracture with a point of
also had its edges and
L Radiocarbon dates
10) and artifact content
plex within the Middle
of Sears' Period II to
200 to about A.D. 600-
e all small fragments
wannee and Tampa
were also recovered.
the Hillsborough River
q m m 1 AIL T '- .. .. ..
distribution ranged from 12 to 76 cm
the majority coming from above 45 cm
Expanded center pendants are
typically found at Middle Woodland mc
Florida (e.g., Moore 1902:269, 271, ]
407; Bullen et al. 1970:104, Plates 1
Figure 6; Sears 1982:83-84, Figure 6
ed from exotic material
al, and copper, as well
Share commonly found
and the greater Souw
; Shetrone and Greenm
Quarry Cluster and two are silicified coral
r- 1 1 -t l A1_-_L- I A 1*L T L', 1 .. -
the source location
a11_ % .L .Aia1... r%
I l 4 1 1 i p9 1.9'I, i
0 9 qu I 6 v*S 4k i 9
10 IF Ay v ~9 ..IF lip t
, I. r
*a p -
Y q !
~ 'S *
. I p
I P 4 ~
U 6 .
q e q -
S. 4 *
V US '9
. (. r
. a .~ V
-I 9 ;q
'a ~ 9
, 7 2 1
.. U ig .
' !;~, 7
'1 'a *
.9 -5 a. -I
'B v 'a
1 t -
S t 9' I
9 1 U S
A ~ ~
S 9. 5. 9
.9 9 p V
'p 4 ..
55 0 P3
55 55 r 'a
. S 9~
I 'a ~'
I f~ ~l i~
p q~ 45 &
B 54 59.
'1 .9 '
* Ur j t
p 9 4 '"h " q . . . ., .0 .9
- ... _s .p : a ". . S 0 .
._ . ,. t ... *. .. S, S , S,. U.
:. ,, .' S... S i W.'. A., S'
U y es sq K P r li 9t
O '- ... . .. ... -**9" .. *. t t t.
Sf P V '
.. -S..-."t. "a
. j .* . .. 2 7 ?.. P. '
*J' ',': .t p u t
a* 0 1 F t- I IF
-9.. .-, 5 9* *. If- 9 3 S S UJj 9 S A
? J t..: ? S B 1...
t f r f j- t T 1 4 9 '
* U 'I yi Seq' < *'
* ** *?-~ 5 ** *.* - 'y>55., .as^3,, t.. : F S.. 9. ,. y 7,*..
-' -- ^ t eal 's -- --4 f 5 .5 5 3 'S t
*. : ,4 Ci**'l/- .. J? .! '? . 9'' , ., .: ..
.' I V U * 3^ 9- S S U ii a 5r t t1 S* S' y k: t '
1, rJ .4 '.. , 9 t **..wA a -... .5 s SI S. -".
*i j' a ." *. ;. ,. ! ^ .1 t S 9. ^ .
St / r ,y ? s .5 n. i, '*
S. r S S s p i t ** * *
*a* .1 * ? ', V* .;.i E I, ? .~ S ,.,
** W t 9 5. ,, ~i .1 yA LA T %.b J I V! t i S "*
a. 7 1 u *.? K* s': 4" 1 5 15 1 r **'
p* 4 * r -u * t* I T k' 9' U' ' A* t I A *
S. *4 .* **' f 5' 4 .. r
1' *i S p4^t 1 *-
t. 4f S t .aT- r ** * * .-- **. 4
fle :55 ~.^f-frr- t 34 .: V **"* ?. .
'it"5. 4 L CLB"tr t *.L"-rI t "
4h.l|H t i. *.,< j, ,IlI,.....' 5 '
I t 59
.. I. .y
59 I r
I B S
. a. a
U B P
S .9 55.
'5. 1 T ~
9 1 .5
.. 5. IS
~ 1 9
5. 9 9
9 .5 4
& .; S
.5 5 I ~ I' 5555. > I. 5' .' 4
. .. .. .b
- "a *ab.A*f
I t. 1 t
'I' rr.,r ~
I ~ I '5
* ... "- ,- -- ,I- -. . :
Stone and ceramic pendants.
Center (Sears 1982:69). Galena was also recovered from late
Woodland contexts at the McKeithen site in Columbia County
such an association. Four teeth and
recovered from 100N/94E, 100N/96E
(Milanich et al. 1984:62) and in post-Woodland context
the Pineland site (ca. A.D. 1200) in Lee County
Walker, personal communication, 1992) and the
Mound in Citrus Countv (Mitchem 1989:408-41 i.
general area of the
100N/96E was found
bone fragments were
would niace them at 1
next to a stont
found at 105 ci
the same level i
, 9 '5
'a 5. 51 4 ~.
k I 9~ i
p. 5 ~. 9 1
Provenience Data For Skeletal Material.
Bone is burned
1 upper right molar, burned
1 probable lower right molar;
Very small fragments
1 possible incisor, burned
Extremely fragmented, burned
Includes some very small tool
Provenience and Metric Data of Stone and Ceramic Pendants.
riC t u
panded center, distal
clustered in the central core area of the mound where tl
majority of the artifacts were also recovered. If the pendar
are interpreted as representing adornment associated wi
individuals, then it is possible that as many as nine individual
were interred within the area excavated.
Comparisons with other Middle Woodland burial moun
in Florida indicate that the mode of interment varied wide
both between sites and within single burial populations. Sea
(1962) reports that primary flexed, secondary bundle, a
single skull interments were all represented at Early a
Middle Woodland mounds in northwest Florida. Evidence
cremations was also common. In central and south Flori
secondary interments appear to dominate (Cushing 1896:35
Dickel and Carr 1991:14; Sears 1982:157, 165).
This individual may have been the
whose death either stimulated initial ca
or, more likely, signaled the end of it
stamped vessel may have been placed
part of a final mound-closing ceremoi
have included the ritual distribution
surface of the mound although th
ambiguous at present. The other in'
members of the corporate group wit]
pendants representing symbols of tl
ct the hi
of a subi
of stratification and the fragmentary nature
remains make it difficult to accurately
story of the mound's construction. It is
some inferences based on the data that are
First, the excavation did not encounter any
nound charcoal layer indicative of a burned
Woodland burial mounds (Seeman 1979a:39; E
1979:213). Second, the burials appear to be spatially loch
near the mound's center (Figure 8) and at least one
interred below the base of the mound (Figure 3).
individuals were apparently cremated while others may
been interred in the mound as either primary or secondary
formula (vrr2h)/2 where r equals the r
is its height (Jeter 1984:92). Since t
oval, an average diameter was calculi
arrive at a radius of 16.25 m. Pluggi
the volume of soil used to construe
estimated to be approximately 498 cul
earth-moving rate of 0.18 cubic r
(Erasmus 1965), we arrive at a figure
hours to construct the
substantial investment o
day could accomplish
comparison, Mound B
contained about 6,913 (
f labor, 20 pe<
the task in c
at Fort Ceni
:ubic meters o
mortuary pottery, particularly the miu
exotic lithics, galena and mica, the e:
and the suggestion of multiple mode
cremation all point to similarities witl
northwest coast. This mortuary-
originally defined by Sears (1962)
Missouri to communities inhabiting the Flint and Apalachicola
rivers of southern Georgia and northwest Florida. The only
galena from Florida sites that has been assigned to a specific
source area comes from post-Middle Woodland contexts. The
galena from both the McKeithen and Pineland sites has been
identified as coming from deposits in southeastern Missouri
(Waithall 1981:54; Milanich et al. 1984:62; K.Walker,
personal communication, 1993). Galena samples from the
Royce Mound and Fort Center have been submitted to the
University of Toronto's Department of Physics for sourcing.
The Hopewellian similarities, the presence of Gulf Check
Stamped pottery, and the absence of Belle Glade Plain all
suggest that the Royce Mound was in use sometime between
A.D. 1-350. Belle Glade Plain ceramics are ubiquitous at later
period sites along the Lake Wales Ridge and in the Kissimmee
Valley (Austin 1987, n.d.) but are absent at the Royce Mound.
This ceramic type is absent or very rare in early Period II
contexts at Fort Center and does not begin to appear there in
appreciable quantities until after A.D. 400-600 (Sears
1982:Figure 7.1). Radiocarbon dates from the Fort Center
mound-pond complex and the Oak Knoll Mound span the
period from A.D. 85-340. Both of these sites are presumed to
areas of the Southeast and Midwest.
this larger scale was sporadic, not con
the low proportion of truly exotic m
copper, and mica at Florida sites. It
probably decades, for the materials to
areas to their eventual resting places
rarity of these materials contributed to
consequently enhanced the status of the
Interring them as grave goods tende<
even more by removing them from circ
Exchange, or the process of recij
individuals, is often viewed simply in
its nature it is a social action and so
medium for the transmission of social
made a conscious attempt
exotic goods between sites 1
cultural regions of the state
The redundancy exhibited
important aspect of their sy
societies. The consistent
Woodland exotics can Ix
transmission and receiving
similarities in artifact content and mortuary customs.
Summary and Conclusion
The tentative reconstruction of the Royce Mound offered
here suggests that the mound was constructed in at least two
phases, that it contains members of a corporate
a a v 6- Ud a r%- --
the chance of misinterpreting
encoded into the material ite
Woodland burials conveyed the
resulting from participation in
economic relations. Other obje
operated at a more parochial I
regarding group membership. TI
network of exchange while simultanec
The author owes a debt of gratitude to Mr.
Royce for allowing scientific excavation of
property to occur. Mr. Royce also provi
project and, more importantly, he has
commitment to preserve the mound. His
should be an incentive to others who are c
preservation of Florida's past. Addition
the mound on his
ded funds for the
made a personal
concerned with the
1 funding for the
project was provided by the Kissimmee Valley Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy. KVAHC members assisted in the
field work and did an outstanding job during a particularly
sweltering Florida August. Jerry Westphal contributed his
usual able assistance while serving as co-supervisor of the
project. Janet Rackley is responsible for the fine ceramic
reconstruction. Special thanks to Anne and Charles Reynolds
for their hospitality and for providing Jerry and me with an
exquisite field house and makeshift laboratory overlooking the
shores of Lake Placid. Sam Upchurch identified the exotic
lithic materials and provided information on possible source
locations. Nancy White, Jerry Milanich, Bob Carr, Al
Goodyear, and George Luer all provided useful comments and
information regarding various aspects of the site's artifact
assemblage and its cultural/temporal association. Randy
Bellomo examined the skeletal material for evidence of
exposure to fire. None of these individuals is responsible for
any errors of interpretation or reasoning on my part.
Avon Park Air Force Range.
A Synthetic Overview
Kissimmee Region. Ms. in F
1978 Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer:
World Archaeology 10:204-222.
Bense, Judith A.
Pensacola Archaeological Si
Archaeology in the Pensacola A
1988. The Pensacola Archaeolog
Birmingham, Nancy Ryden
Birmingham, Nancy Ryden
Lithic Assemblages of the Mo&
Rock Island and Henry Countit
Resource Procurement: Proceed
Conference on Prehistoric Chert
Susan C. Vehik, pp. 133-152. Ci
Investigations Occasional Paper
Southern Illinois, Carbondale.
Braun, David P.
1986 Midwestern Hopewellian Ex
Interaction. In Peerpolity Intera
Change, edited by Colin Renfre'
117-126. Cambridge University
Braun, David P., and Stepi
1982 Evolution of "Tri
Kent State University Press, Kent,
TI, James A.
Charnel Houses and Mortuary Crypts: Dis
Dead in the Middle Woodland Period. I
Archaeology: The Chillicothe Conference,
David S. Brose and N'omi Greber, pp. 211
State University Press, Kent, OH.
iposal of the
Goad, Sharon I.
1979 Middle Woodland Excha
Southeastern United States. In
The Chillicothe Conference, editt
N'omi Greber, pp. 239-246.
Press, Kent, OH.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile
Points (second edition). Kendall Press, Gainesville.
Bullen, Ripley P., William L. Partridge, and Donald A. Has
1970 The Safford Burial Mound, Tarpon Springs, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 23:81-118.
Caldwell, Joseph R.
1964 Interaction Spheres in Prehistory. In Hopewellian
Studies, edited by Joseph R. Caldwell and Robert L.
Hall, pp. 133-143. Illinois State Museum Scientific
Papers Vol. 12, Springfield.
Carter, Lewis J., Dc
1989 Soil Survey
Chert Utilization in Georgia
Exploitation: Studies from the
Brian M. Butler and Ernest E. I
for Archaeological Investigation
2, Southern Illinois University, (
Greenman, Emerson F.
1938 Hopewellian Traits in Flori
1990 Nimrods, Piscators, Pluck
Emergence of Food Produ
Anthropological Archaeology 9:3
iuglas Lewis, LeRoy Crockett, and Juan
Sof Highlands County, Florida. U.S.
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
Jefferies, Richard W.
1979 The Tunacunnhee Site: Ho
Georgia. In Hopewell Archai
Conference, edited by David S. I
pp. 162-170. Kent State Univers
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1896 Exploration of Ancient
' Remains on the
, Marvin D.
Luer, George M., and Marion M. Almy
1980 The Development of Some Aboriginal
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida.
Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S.
Timothy A. Kohler, and
1984 McKeithen Weeden
Florida, A.D. 200-900Y.
Pottery of the
Vernon J. Knight,
\e Culture of Nonrt
r, Olaf H.
Ohio Hopewell Ceramics: Ai
Collections. Anthropological Pa
Anthropology, University of Mic
i An Overview of Chipped Stoi
Missouri. In Lithic Resource P
from the Second Conference
Exploitation, edited by Susan I
Center for Archaeological Ir
Paper No. 4, University of Souti
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Reiger, John F.
1990 "Plummets" An Analysis
Artifact. The Florida Anthropolo
of the Mound City Group.
Ohio Archaeological and
Sears, William H.
1962 Hopewellian Affiliations of (
Coast of Florida. American Anti
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1989 Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/Protohistoric
Archaeology in West Peninsular Florida. University
Microfilms International, Ann Arbor.
r e, Clarence B.
Certain Aboriginal Remains of th
Coast, Part II. Journal of the /
Sciences of Philadelphia 10:449-502.
e Northwest Florida
academy of Natural
Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Central Florida West
Food Production and Vill
Southeastern United States. Arci
Fort Center: An
Seeman, Mark F.
1979a Feasting with the Dead: I
Ritual as a Context for Redis
Archaeology: The Chillicothe
Struever, Stuart, and Gail D. Houart
1972 An Analysis of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere. In
Social Exchange and Interaction, edited by Edwin S.
Wilmsen, pp. 47-79. Museum of Anthropology,
University of Michigan Anthropological Papers No. 46,
Upchurch, Sam B., Richard N. Strom, and Mark G.
1982 Methods of Provenance Determination
Cherts. Ms. on file, Department of Geology,
of South Florida, Tampa.
Walthall, John A.
1979 Hopewell and the Southern Heartland. In Hopewell
Archaeology: The Chillicothe Conference, edited by
David S. Brose and N'omi Greber, pp. 200-208. Kent
State University Press, Kent, OH.
Galena and Aboriginal Trade in Eastern North America.
Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers Vol. 17,
Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa.
University of Alabama
1983 Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile
Points. American Antiquity 48:253-276.
Z17 117r4%w fla Naaa001
KISSIMMEE VALLEY ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND
Charlie Brown said, "A great potential is a heavy
burden." The members of KVAHC feel that the great potential
for new discovery in the Kissimmee Valley equals a world of
opportunity, not a heavy burden. Most maps, graphs or charts
used to define archaeological sites, cultural regions and
ceramic or lithic pathways in the State of Florida inevitably
ignore the Kissimmee Valley. The region is virtually
unexamined, but that's changing.
Thanks to the efforts on one man, Creighton Northrup,
the Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy was chartered by the State of Florida as a non-
profit corporation and held our first meeting, in June of 1991.
The founding officers were: Jim Fitch, President, B'Jo
Summers, Vice President; Sandy Umbel, Secretary; Carol
Mills, Treasurer; with Creighton Northrup and Anne Reynolds
serving as Trustees.
Bob Austin, the 1993 winner of the Bullen Award for
service to avocational archaeology, was and is, our mentor and
guide. To kick things off, Bob taught and "Introduction to
Archaeology" course with the co-operation of the South
Florida Community College. He also held a field school for
all members that first summer. A video was made of the
course and is available to new members.
Our first official project was documenting and recording
such a map is a requirement of th
KVAHC has always had representation
Historic Preservation Commission.
Some other worthy and interesting
Investigation of the
(Figures 1, 2), a ceremonial
had been preserved by one
four generations. It was
request, gained by favorable i
that we had this opportunity.
planting the area surrounding
new grove and asked us to
site. This was a major pro
Austin this issue). The Ro
agreed to continue to prote<
this valuable site.
archaeological exhibit at
County Children's Museum.
includes a large rendering
interpretation of a Kissimme
as one may have appeared
the Kissimmee River, Osceola, Polk,
Highlands, Okeechobee, and Glades, and ask
for their co-operation in establishing the
Kissinmmee Valley Museum of Regional
History. We will also be working with these
same counties to designate both banks of the
Kissimmee River as "Archaeologically
No less an effort will be our
commitment to host the 1995 annual FAS
KVHAC has been able to establish and maintain a high
community profile thanks to the efforts of a membership that is
willing to work. We have a number of speakers who are
available to address civic organizations and to make
educational presentations to school children, This same
membership is committed to identifying, recording and
preserving the archaeological and historical resources of the
Kissimmee Valley. There is much work to do and the level of
commitment is high, insuring an interesting future.
13300 US 98
Sebring, FL 33870
Bruce Stepp checking the level
- - .-----.----a..a... ~ ~C* C.** '*
FEATURED PHOTOGRAPH: ROBERT S. CARR AT T
ISLAND RIDGE, BROWARD
Pictured here is Bob Carr standing next to the Tequesta
Trail marker in the Forest Ridge development on Broward
County's Pine Island Ridge. The attractive wooden marker
was donated by Sea Ranch-Forest Ridge, Ic., developers of
the property, and marks the location of a Tequesta Indian A
cemetery and village excavated by Carr's Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy prior to and during construction. The
results of this project were reported to the readers of The
Florida Anthropologist in the December 1990 issue. This
property is adjacent to the state-owned Pine Island Ridge tract,
purchased through the Conservation and Recreation Lands
EQUESTA TRAIL M
the Town oi
program, managed by Broward
park for hiking and nature
cal middens have also been docu
portion of the ridge, and one or
are recorded for an adjoining area
County as a
mented on the
now owned by
, Davie (see the article by Patsy West in the March
1989 issue of this journal).
Carr hopes to extend the Tequesta Trail from Pine Island
to points north and south and, eventually, east to the New
River. Key archaeological sites will be interpreted for the
motonst or pedestrian in exhibits or trailside markers.
Portions of the trail may also be suitable for equestrian use.
According to Carr, the trail, when finished, will contribute not
only to archaeological preservation but to public education as
well. To learn more about the Tequesta Trail, see Florida
Antiauitv (the newsletter of the Archaeological and Historical
0 U N
The Board of Directors of the
Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. (FAS)
is pleased to announce the establishment of
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST FUND.
Gifts will build a
The Florida Anthropologist, the
quarterly by FAS
oatinns air0 nnw hoinr" nnnnad frrm ITS iine
A I C-N
A non-profit organization founded in 194
with chapters throughout Florida
Anthropology is the study of people and their culture
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual t
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a ne
tive journal four times a year.
ti ave journal four times a year.
The journal features interest
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.
r m|i -n ---mi miimilm m umnm
Dancer is the
of an attractive
the major tribes
that once in-
SYES! I want to join FAS!
Membership is only $20 per year (individual)
patron $100, and life $500.
L YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50
and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).
Nam e: .... ...
to FAS, this 18 by
and purple on a
Tampa, FL 33682
o Terry Simpson,
A non-profit organization founded in 194
with chapters throughout Florida
Anfhrnnnlnor ic thpa chidv nf npnnlp and thpir nilhlrpe
A nth ropologist
A n thropologist.
I in arnAMUis. U4
..;~ .. ;I_. 1. ....., i. .. -.;. ... ;.~i.., i i