Table of Contents
 Editor's page - Brent R. Weism...
 Computer graphics applications...
 The Little's Bayou west site :...
 An overview of the prehistory of...
 The Cheetum site : An archaic burial...
 A small site - Mulberry Midden,...
 A popeyed bird-head effigy of stone...
 The people who discovered Columbus...
 Chapter spotlight : Northeast Florida...
 Join the Florida Anthropological...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00042
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
notis - AAA9403

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editor's page - Brent R. Weisman
        Page 2
    Computer graphics applications in archaeology - Aubrey S. Adams and Glen H. Doran
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The Little's Bayou west site : Evidence of the late weeden Island-fort Walton transition in Northwest Florida - Gregory A. Mikell
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    An overview of the prehistory of the Wekiva River basin - Brent R. Weisman
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The Cheetum site : An archaic burial site in Dade County, Florida - Christine L. Newman
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    A small site - Mulberry Midden, 8CR697 - Contributes to knowledge of transitional period - Arthur R. Lee and John G. Beriault, with Walter Buschelamn and Jean Belknap
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    A popeyed bird-head effigy of stone from the Homosassa river, Citrus County, Florida - Brent R. Weisman
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    The people who discovered Columbus : The prehistory of the Bahamas, a review and commentary - Julian Granberry
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Chapter spotlight : Northeast Florida Anthropological society - Lloyd Schroder
        Page 64
    Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Back Cover
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text


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Volume 46 Number 1
March 1993

Page Number
Editor's Page. Brent R. Weisman 2

Computer Graphics Applications in Archaeology. Aubrey S. Adams and Glen H. Doran 3

The Little's Bayou West Site: Evidence of the Late Weeden Island-Fort Walton Transition in Northwest Florida.
Gregory A. Mikell 12

An Overview of the Prehistory of the Wekiva River Basin. Brent R. Weisman 20

The Cheetum Site: An Archaic Burial Site in Dade County, Florida. Christine L. Newman 37
A Small Site--Mulberry Midden, 8CR697--Contributes To Knowledge of Transitional Period.
Arthur R. Lee and John G. Beriault, with Walter Buschelamn and Jean Belknap 43

A Popeyed Bird-Head Effigy of Stone From the Homosassa River, Citrus County, Florida.
Brent R. Weisman 53

The People Who Discovered Columbus: The Prehistory of the Bahamas, A Review and Commentary.
Julian Granberry 56


Walthall and Emerson,(eds.), Calumet and Fleur-De-Lys: Archaeology of French Contact in the Midcontient.
Reviewed by Marvin Smith 61
Ste.Claire, True Natives: The Prehistory of Volusia County. Reviewed by Clara A. Gualtieri 63
Chapter Spotlight: Northeast Florida Anthropological Society. Lloyd Schroder 64

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)! Membership Application 65

Cover: AutoCAD plot of Windover stratigraphy, at an elevation of twenty degrees with a bearing of twenty degrees west of south
(see article by Adams and Doran).

Copyright 1993 by the
ISSN 0015-3893


Brent R. Weisman

The relationship between Florida's professional and
avocational archaeologists is at best uneven. Many
professionals have come to embrace avocational participation
in their projects; indeed, some projects have such participation
at their very core. Other professionals look upon the
avocational with disdain, someone sure to muck things up or
worse, become a nuisance with silly questions and self-taught
techniques. Grievances from both sides often are vehement,
and legitimate. "Teach us properly, spend time with us, and
we'll prove ourselves to be valuable assets," say the best of the
avocationals. "Archaeology is a science, not a hobby, a
profession, not a recreation," say the concerned professionals.
Too often this interaction leads to the birth of the rogue
avocational, who out of frustration and defiance decides to go
his own way. Most of the time this means digging sites for his
own benefit or for the benefit of a small group of compatriots.
Usually the results of these activities are not published or
reported, and the artifacts, particularly the good ones, are
squirreled away in the closet. Of course, much the same thing
can (and does) happen on the professional level. Sites dug,
results not reported, artifacts boxed up and forgotten. The net
result is the same.
On the plus side, The Florida Anthropologist has long
been the primary forum for the best avocationals in the state to
present the results of their work. One need only to scan issues
of the journal from the 1970s to see many valuable
contributions coming out of avocational projects in south

Florida. In many cases, if the avocational had not been there
to do the job, important sites would have been destroyed
without a record. The article in this issue by Lee, Beriault,
and associates shows how far the contribution of the
avocational to Florida archaeology has come, and sets high
standards for other groups or avocational societies. The article
also demonstrates what may be the most crucial function of the
well-trained avocational--the salvage of information from small
endangered sites that are unlikely to attract professional
attention. The number of professional archaeologists working
in Florida has increased greatly in the last twenty years.
Likewise, there are probably more true avocational
archaeologists (as opposed to pothunters or point collectors)
than at any time in the past. Certainly the demand for both has
never been greater. Those of us in public service archaeology
easily could spend most of our time responding to crises of
archaeological site destruction, yet this is only one of our
many responsibilities. At the same time, there are many
avocational archaeologists waiting in the wings for their chance
to do something important for Florida archaeology. How long
will they wait? Truly integrating the vast pool of willing
avocationals (perhaps best represented by the membership of
the various FAS chapters) into the mainstream of professional
archaeological research and archaeological resource
preservation certainly will be one of the major challenges in
Florida archaeology in the years ahead.


MARCH 1993

Vol. 46 No.1


Aubrey S. Adams and Glen H. Doran

Clearly, computer applications have attained a place of
prominence in the sciences, both physical and social. With the
availability of personal computers as part of the working
environment of most research professionals, word processors,
at the very least, are among the common tools of scholarship.
Not only word processing, but many analytic and statistical
programs allow more accurate and informative presentation of
investigations and results. A recent publication (Boone and
Wood 1992) covers a variety of computer applications for
anthropologists. Little mention is made by them, however, of
graphic applications termed CAD for computer aided design/or
drafting, which now permit the clear and adept presentation of
maps, charts, and other information in pictorial form. Graphic
presentation can greatly aid in the understanding of a wide
variety of information. Computer graphics have by now come
of age in all areas of physical and social sciences, not only in
the originally conceived applications of engineering graphics.
Those who have not yet taken advantage of these tools may in
the near future find it desirable to do so.
By computer graphics we mean the making of drawings
by means of computer hardware and software that allow the
user to create and present almost any form of graphical data,
including detail maps, charts, two-dimensional and three-
dimensional illustrations, etc., which can appear on a computer
screen display, be edited, and be plotted by high-speed printers
or plotters. The information usually is organized by a skilled
operator who uses both the elements in software packages and
individual abilities of graphics presentation. These can now
largely replace manual drafting and artwork formerly used to
prepare results for publication or demonstration.
The requirements for computer graphics are: a computer
and a monitor for information storage, processing, and display;
an input device, whether mouse, pen, or digitizer tablet; the
software that facilitates the graphics; and an output printing or
plotting device. These come in virtually unlimited forms,
models, and variations ranging in cost from a few thousand
dollars to tens of thousands of dollars for sophisticated
dedicated systems.
Software required for computer graphics is represented by
products such as AutoCAD, CADAM, CadKey, Corel Draw,
Drafix, Generic Cadd, IBM CAD Plus, Micrographx
Designer, Topaz, VersaCad, and a variety of others. This
discussion presents illustrations done with AutoCAD software
from Autodesk, Inc. (Autodesk, Inc., 2320 Marinship Way,

Sausalito, CA 94965). It is now one of the most effective and
widely used programs available for graphics because it has
been found to have extensive capability for a wide variety of

An Effective Workstation

For computer graphics work in the Department of
Anthropology at Florida State University a workstation was set
up with the following equipment:
DTK 386 desktop computer, DOS 3.1 based, 9
megabytes RAM, 148 megabyte IDE hard drive, with 80387-
20mhz coprocessor, 60 Mb tape backup, 3 button mouse, 512k
Orchid Prodesigner Videocard
14" VGA monitor, 800 x 600 resolution AutoCad,
Release 10 software
Calcomp Model 9500 digitizer tablet 24" x 36" with
16-button puck
Calcomp Model 1023 (A to D size) 8 pen plotter
This equipment is not necessarily the latest or best and
certainly not the fastest or most powerful, but for the funds
available when it was obtained, represents an adequate station
for the work contemplated. Total cost in 1990 was $15,081.

What Can Be Accomplished

For applications of computer graphics in archaeology our
primary focus has been: 1) illustrations for archaeological
projects (both before and after field work), 2) computerized
cartography base maps with derivatives, and 3), specialty
illustrations, such as stratigraphy In each of these areas,
graphics have been used for class work and other
presentations, field reference aids, theses, slides, and
publications, etc.


The Windover archaeological site (8BR246) is regarded
as one of the most significant and informative sites of the
twentieth century (Purdy 1992; Doran and Dickel 1988a,
1988b). At Windover, excavations between 1984 and 1986
provided a wide variety of information about burials more than
7,000 years old. Much of the information has been
computerized in a variety of formats. At the time of the field


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1993

work, cartographic work was done on vellum, and illustrative
graphics also were hand prepared.
During subsequent years the computer based graphics
system was acquired. More critically, a skilled operator
(Adams) brought the system "on-line" and has become a
valuable colleague, providing graphics assistance to a number
of department members' projects.
With the computer graphics system, a map of the area
surrounding the Windover site, considered the Central East
Coast of Florida, was compiled from digitized maps obtained
from the Florida Department of Natural Resources. By
stripping unwanted data from the files (roads, etc.) and
combining three separate maps, a composite base file was
created. The resulting map includes St. Augustine south to Ft.
Pierce, and inland to Orlando (Figure 1). To this base were
added the major flowing springs and minor tributaries of the
St. Johns River system, plus the known present-day swamp
areas taken from USGS maps. This yielded a current map of
the riverine system from which some inferences may be made
concerning the area at the time of the inhabitants of the
Windover site, a period some 7,400-8,000 years before
present. The file on this map is over 3.6 megabytes, but the
quality and editability is well beyond what we could have
achieved with a hand-drawn map. Most of the AutoCAD files
with which we deal occupy far less storage, with most in the
100-400 kbyte range.
An illustration of the excavation area and immediate
environs, prepared by digitizing previous vellums, shows the
pond burial area blocks by year and adjacent ground elevation
features. From the overall map, various "components" could
be extracted, manipulated, and printed.
Plots were generated to show the locations, orientations,
and class (age, #, sex) categories of the individual burials
found in the sections excavated in each season (Figure 2). On
these, we used the "layer" capacity of AutoCAD to separate
by color and symbols the classes of burials (color not included
herewith, but useful for slide and other visual presentations). A
layer in a CAD system is the electronic equivalent of an
overlay in manual drawing. Any number of layers may be
We also prepared a three-dimensional drawing to
illustrate the stratigraphy of the burial pond site showing the
various layers of peat. This information was taken directly
from elevation data collected during excavation. Figure 3
shows a view of Windover from the southeast at an angle of 30
degrees above horizontal. Various views or rotations of such
information are possible. This is a relatively direct task with
the capacity of a graphics package that handles three-
dimensional information.
Most of these graphics have been converted to slides that
are used for presentations but are also for direct use in future

Current Work

Pursuant to a contract from the Historic Tallahassee
Preservation Board, studies of two antebellum plantations in
Leon County, Florida are underway. For this project, a
general county map was prepared upon which the plantation
locations could be shown.
Both aerial photos and county property records were used
to prepare site maps that show property boundaries and other
features such as roads, buildings, and fields, and on which
could be overlaid a grid system (Figure 4). Plots of these
allowed field crews to have good maps, in appropriate sizes, to
conduct their work.
These maps serve three purposes: 1) site and feature
locational data prior to field work, 2) recordation of shovel test
and excavation unit locations, and 3) generation of a uniform
grid, which ties the entire site into a single coordinate system.
Items #1 and #2 are straightforward archaeological uses.
The third use provides a quick way to give the field crew
locational data and minimizes the time and effort involved in
tieing distant excavation areas in the overall grid. Geographic
features ranging from houses and woods to tree snags on the
computer grid can be identified and the coordinates rapidly
determined and supplied to the field crew. They could use
these to record the grid stakes placed at the site, shovel tests,
and other relevant information. The special features of
computer graphics that come into use here are: 1) the capacity
for drawing in accurate coordinates, 2) the facility to overlay
separate site coordinate systems on the basic Township-Range-
Section data of property records, 3) the ability to rapidly
enlarge (zoom in on) any area of a map and plot it to a
convenient size, and 4) the ability to have any layer on or off
for working on the drawing or plotting. This case is an
example of computer graphics being able to aid archaeological
work before going into the field, as well as ex post facto.

General Cartography for Anthropologists

Other FSU faculty have interests in Mesoamerica, for
studies of Maya civilization, agriculture, and linguistics.
Illustrations may be needed to show regions both large and
small. Special maps are easily derived if a digitized base file
exists for an area. From a base map, which contains
fundamental geography such as layered data relating to rivers,
political boundaries, modern cities, and/or information such as
Maya sites, we were able to select, edit, add to, and plot
graphics that fill specific needs. In our case, maps from the
National Geographic Society were manually digitized to form
It is also possible to purchase digitized cartographic files
from commercial sources. This eliminates the work of
transferring printed maps to computer files. These can cost


Central East

SSprmo. with vro-o flow
-or 6 m.lion goi.or/day
Sp"ngs with oevan t flow
undr 6 million gat90on./d.y


S Atlantic Ocean

Figure 1. The central east coast of Florida.





Figure 2. The Windover burial plot (1986).




Figure 3. Windover stratigraphy.


Selected Leon County, Florida

Antebellum Plantations

-GA EN ------


5 0 5 10 15 20 MILES -_

Figure 4. Antebellum plantations in north Leon County.

from $55 per 7.5 minute quadrangle in DLG (Digital Line
Graph), simple format, to $300 per quad in 1:24,000 scale
with XYZ elevation points (American Digital Cartography,
715 West Parkway, Appleton, WI 54914, (414) 733-6678,
Fax: (414) 734-3375). Another source offers area maps at
$350 per continent, which include major political boundaries,
rivers and lakes, and cities. (Whitestar Corp., 333 W.
Hampden Ave., Suite 604, Englewood, CO 80110, 1- (800)
736-6277, Fax (801) 224-2272.) Our experience suggests
some editing (deleting, addition, and labeling) is required to
tailor the end product to specific needs.
Other drawings were created to accompany the
cartography and show information such as the stratigraphy of
Belize wetlands, and areas of Mayan Language Isoglosses
(areas of common language, Figure 5). We also have made
contour maps of Mayan ruins and plotted these in a three-

dimensional format. These illustrations are particularly useful
for tours of the sites and provide a rapid method for the
visitors to orient themselves on the ground.

Educational Uses

Students in Florida State University classes in cultural
anthropology have been able to make use of computer
generated sectional maps of portions of the state of Florida
which are extracted from digitized whole state maps. We have
these files in both high and low-resolution form, some
containing a great number of features and others with simple
data such as county boundaries and names, rivers and lakes,
etc. This capacity allows students to focus on the subject of
the studies rather than the tedious process of finding and
copying maps that show the area with which they are




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concerned. The editing and plotting process is an elementary
matter for a computer graphics system once a data file exists.
For classroom work in Physical Anthropology in which
the reproduced parts of the "Lucy" skeleton (A.L. 288-1) are
identified and laid out by the students, a life-sized template
that shows the bones in relative body positions has been
prepared. This is a useful class or laboratory teaching aid.
In anticipation of the expanded use of computer graphics
in the study of anthropology and archaeology, some students
are acquiring the skills necessary for publication-quality work.
This is particularly helpful in thesis work and will be a useful
skill with later professional applications. Tina Rust, with
approximately 20 hours of training, quickly began developing
excavation plans of Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale
for her thesis. Rust (pers. comm., 1992) reports that
approximately 32 hours were required to produce the file of

Patale (Figure 6). Only a few of the 22 layers are shown.
This may seem to be a great investment of time for a one time
use. The map can be continuously utilized and modified by
others working at Patale, however.
In training a few students so far, we have found that
about 20 hours of personalized AutoCAD training is the
minimum needed to be able to be productive in the type of
work we do. More is a distinct plus.


Recurrent expenses in running a workstation include the
cost of pens, paper, and computer disks for file storage, in
addition to overhead. Consumption of supplies obviously
depends on production. Because our requirements are limited,
we buy rollerball black pens for check prints and liquid pens in

Figure 5. Maya languages isoglosses.

-N- ( t 140N

o s ^ ^/ ~/ L

NA ---- F 13O
1991 113 0
POSTPIT 144A /\ ./

00oo7 149

S 161 12N

Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale
8 Le 152
Tallahassee, Fl.
80E 90E 100E 110OE 120E TIA RUSC
JULY 1992

Figure 6. Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale

small quantities, in a few widths, for finish work. With a state
discount, style "W" pens for the Calcomp plotter are under $6
each and can last for perhaps 1-1/2 to 2 hours of plotting. Plot
bond paper in 24" x 36" size is about $36 per 100 sheets. Plot
time for Figure 6 was 7:06 minutes.

Summary and Conclusion

A computer graphics workstation, equipped with
digitizer, plotter, computer with monitor, a well-chosen
graphics software package, and with a skilled operator, can
provide a variety of quality graphics for supporting research
work and teaching in anthropology and archaeology. In order
to establish a foundation of CAD-based maps it may be
necessary to perform the work of digitizing some bases or
obtaining digitized bases from other sources. Once these are
on hand, maps and graphics for particular interests become
easy to produce and modify at will. Not only maps, but a
variety of illustrative graphics can be handily prepared,
altered, and plotted as desired. The advantages of an
AutoCAD or similar computer-based graphics/cartographic
system seem clear, particularly where variations on basic
drawings are expected, such as the inclusion or exclusion of
overlays or layers, where accuracy is required as in coordinate
systems, and where high quality output is needed.

References Cited

Boone, Margaret S. and John J. Wood,
1992 Computer Applications for Anthropologists. Wadsworth,
Belmont, CA.

Doran, Glen H. and David N. Dickel
1988a Radiometric Chronology of the Archaic Windover
Archaeological Site (8Br246). The Florida
Anthropologist 41:365-380.

1988b Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site.
In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara Purdy, pp.
263-289. Telford Press, Caldwell, NJ

Purdy, Barbara
1992 The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands. CRC
Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Aubrey S. Adams
Glen H. Doran
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida 32306


Gregory A. Mikell

Test excavations at the Little's Bayou West site
(8WL543) in Walton County, Florida, have recovered some
very interesting artifacts and data related to the Late Weeden
Island to Fort Walton transition in northwest Florida (Scarry
1980, 1981). The Little's Bayou West site has provided the
first evidence for this transition on the Northwest Florida Gulf
Coast. Unlike transitional Wakulla and Chattahoochee
Landing phase sites in the Apalachicola Valley, which date to
between about A.D. 850 and A.D. 1000 (Scarry 1980), the
transitional period in the Choctawhatchee Bay area apparently
occurs around A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1100. Ceramics recovered
from middens on the site provide an interesting mix of Weeden
Island and Fort Walton types and ware characteristics.
During the winter of 1992, test excavations were
conducted at 8WL543 in Walton County, Florida. The site,
known as Little's Bayou West, was initially discovered by
Calvin Jones in 1988. The site is situated in a hardwood
hammock on the southern shoreline of east Choctawhatchee
Bay. Elevated 8 to 10 feet above Choctawhatchee Bay,
8WL543 is isolated on high ground between two bayous.
Jones (1988) discovered the site while investigating the
probable site of Moore's (1901) Point Washington Cemetery
(8WL33). The Little's Bayou West site is located just over 1
km from 8WL33, and Jones (1988:2-3) believed that Little's
Bayou West and other local Fort Walton village sites may have
been donors to the Point Washington Cemetery. Ceramics
recovered along the shoreline in the site area indicated a Fort
Walton presence and Jones (1988) reported the recovery of
Lake Jackson Plain sherds from Little's Bayou West.
Since the area has not been disturbed by clear-cut logging
and because tidal erosion of the site is limited, Little's Bayou
West presented both a valuable opportunity to test Jones'
hypothesis and the potential to recover other important
information. Although the site does not appear to be the Fort
Walton village Jones was hoping for, it produced some vital

During the course of the present investigations, three 2
meter square units and fourteen 50 cm square shovel tests were
excavated. Excavation units were placed primarily in areas
that appeared to have potential for producing useful data
(middens). Shovel tests were excavated at 20 meter intervals

along two intersecting transects (Figure 1). An 1/8-inch steel
probe was used to determine the horizontal limit of each of the
seven shell middens identified, but only three were tested
(Figure 1).
Standard archaeological methods were used to conduct
and record excavations. The majority of the excavated matrix
was screened utilizing 1/4-inch mesh, and both features and
midden deposits were sampled for flotation and radiocarbon-
datable materials. Excavation proceeded in 10 cm levels, with
features and distinct midden deposits excavated and
documented separately. Features were recorded, sectioned, and
excavated as sub-units immediately following recognition in
excavation floors or on unit walls.
Six discrete shell midden areas of variable density and
organic richness are located on a point of high ground adjacent
to Little's Bayou. These discrete middens probably represent
household trash deposits or distinct activity areas that appear to
be temporally related. The tested middens are fairly thin (20
cm or less), they contain no evidence of physical or temporal
stratification and, therefore, represent short-term
accumulations or single event deposits. A seventh midden is
identified to the west of a slightly lower area or swale. The
seventh midden and at least three others located farther to the
west along the shoreline have not been investigated thoroughly
enough to determine whether they are temporally related to
those at 8WL543.
Certain limits of the present study should be recognized
from the outset. First, scattered shell middens located west of
8WL543 may or may not be related to the site as it is presently
defined. These middens may or may not be contemporaneous
with those investigated, but only excavations will determine
temporal relationships. Second, the entire site was not
investigated due to time limitations. Of the six shell middens
identified on the site proper, three were defined by probing to
determine their area or shovel testing (see Figure 1), although
a small amount of pottery was collected from the exposed areas
of each midden not tested.

The Excavations

Fourteen shovel tests were excavated across the site in
order to aid in identifying the site's boundaries and its internal
variations. The shovel tests and visible middens indicate that


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1"33




- Choctwhatchee Bay

- ~q -~

-~ z

0 10. o 1
9 8 7 6 5 1

0 0
14 13

Figure 1. 8WL543 site map showing test units, shovel tests, shell middens, and topographicfeatures of the site.

* 50cm x 50cm Shovel Test with recovery
o 50cm x 50cm Shovel Test, no recovery
a 2m x2m Test Unit With recovery

4/- k -L j---



4L IN '

n; ~:~,TU13~-awl-~


the majority of deposits are strung along the low, bluff-like
edge of the first terrace that forms a point adjacent to the
mouth of Little's Bayou where it enters Choctawhatchee Bay
(see Figure 1). Shovel Tests 1 and 5 located small shell
middens and Shovel Tests 7 and 10 recovered scattered
pottery. Shovel Tests 9 and 11-14 indicate that the site does
not extend into a relatively low area that forms the western and
southern extent of the site. As Figure 1 clearly shows, the
northern and eastern site boundaries are formed by the terrace
Test Unit 1 is a 2 x 2 meter square unit that was
excavated in an undisturbed shell midden situated along the
northern terrace edge of the site. This area was chosen for
testing because there was enough open surface area present to
allow for excavation into the majority of the midden. Figure 2
presents a matrix profile of the midden, which consists of 10 to
11 cm of humus and gray sand, an 8 to 13 cm thick shell
midden, a 15 cm thick stratum of light gray sand, and a base of
sterile yellowish brown sand at about 40 cm below surface.
The shell midden consists of mainly oyster (92% by count),
but minor amounts of quahog (5%), and scallop (3%) also are
present. The shell midden contained the vast majority of
cultural materials, including ceramics, daub, animal bone, a
deer metatarsal bone tool fragment, and a large quahog shell
cup. Ceramics recovered from Test Unit 1 include the
majority of a Wakulla Check Stamped bowl (Figure 3), other
check stamped sherds, one Weeden Island Plain rim, a
Carrabelle Incised body sherd, a Carrabelle Punctated body
sherd, Lake Jackson Plain rim (1) and body (1) sherds, and
plain sherds not clearly identifiable as specific types that are
tempered with sand, grit, and grog. A few of the unidentified
sand tempered sherds contain mica as well. Of the 57 sherds
recovered from this unit, 50 were recovered from the shell
midden. The Lake Jackson and Weeden Island sherds were
recovered in direct association.
The Wakulla Check Stamped vessel recovered in Test
Unit 1 also is of interest. Initial response by several colleagues
to the vessel was that it is a Deptford Bold Check Stamped
bowl. The rim is slightly incurvate with a simple smoothed and
rounded lip. The body shape is that of an open, deep
hemispherical bowl. The stamping extends up to the rounded
lip and was poorly executed. Temper is mainly fine sand with
crushed quartzite grit and some small grog inclusions present.
The description sounds very "Deptford-ish," but the vessel's
association with other ceramics and a radiocarbon date (A.D.
920+50) acquired from shell in the midden indicate that the
vessel is correctly classified as Wakulla Check Stamped. The
specimen serves as another indicator of the longevity of the
basic check stamped utilitarian vessel design as well as our
difficulty in distinguishing non-distinct check stamped vessel
forms in the absence of radiocarbon dates and associated
temporally diagnostic materials.
Test Unit 2 is also a 2 x 2 meter square unit excavated in
a shell midden situated to the west of Test Unit 1 (see Figure

1). The strata consisted of 8 to 10 cm of humus and gray sand,
an 8 to 11 cm thick shell midden, and a base of sterile
yellowish brown sand at about 20 cm below surface. The shell
midden consists of mainly oyster (95% by count), but minor
amounts of quahog (3%), and scallop (2%) also are present.
The shell midden contained all but a few of the artifacts
recovered. Cultural materials recovered include ceramics,
daub, and animal bone. Lake Jackson Plain, Wakulla Check
Stamped, Weeden Island Plain, Carrabelle Punctated, and
unidentified sand and/or grit tempered plain ceramics were
recovered from the midden. No radiocarbon date was obtained
for this midden, but the ceramics are similar enough to those
from Test Unit 1 to suggest a temporal relationship.
Test Unit 3 is a 2 x 2 meter square unit placed in a shell
midden where Jones (1988) recovered Lake Jackson Plain
sherds from a shovel test. Jones also identified a pit feature
below the shell midden. Test Unit 3 encountered a very
similar situation. Figure 4 illustrates the matrix profile, which
consists of 5 to 7 cm of humus and gray sand, an 8 to 20 cm
thick shell midden, a charcoal-filled pit feature (Feature 1),
which intrudes into the 20 to 25 cm thick layer of light gray
sand that occurs beneath the midden, and a base of sterile
yellowish brown sand at about 40 to 45 cm below surface.
The shell midden consists of mainly oyster (96% by count),
but minor amounts of scallop (4%) also are present. Animal
bone was curiously absent from the midden and pit feature, but
ceramics, a reused greenstone celt fragment, and hematite
fragments were recovered. Ceramics recovered from the
midden include Lake Jackson Plain, Lake Jackson Incised,
Pensacola Plain, Wakulla Check Stamped, Weeden Island
Plain, sand tempered sherds with micaceous paste, and
unidentified sand and/or grit tempered wares. Feature 1
contains Lake Jackson Plain, Fort Walton Incised, and sand
and/or grit tempered plain ceramics. The pit feature appears to
have been a hearth on which the shell midden later
accumulated. Charcoal recovered from the feature produced a
radiocarbon date of A.D. 1020+50.

Ceramic Artifacts

As is often the case with coastal shell midden sites,
ceramics are one of the most numerous artifacts, following
shell and animal bone remains. So far at the Little's Bayou
West site, ceramics and radiocarbon dates are the most
interesting and revealing classes of data recovered. The
ceramics recovered are detailed here.
The site has produced a healthy mix of Weeden Island
and Fort Walton ceramic types and characteristic tempering
agents. Table 1 presents the ceramics by unit, level, and
feature. As Table 1 indicates, a limited number of Weeden
Island and Fort Walton types were recovered in direct
association with each other. Weeden Island types include
Weeden Island Plain, Wakulla Check Stamped, Carrabelle
Incised, and Carrabelle Punctated. Fort Walton types include

Figure 2. Test Unit 1, east wall profile.

Figure 3. Wakulla Check Stamped Vessel recovered from TU 1. (1/3rd actual size)

East Wall Profile
Test unit 1 Stratum


Stratum I: Humus grey sand
Stratum II: Shell midden
Stratum III: Light grey sand
Stratum IV: Yellowish brown sand
0 40

Table 1. Ceramics Recovered by Test Unit, Level, and Feature

Classification TU 1 TU 2 TU 3 Tests
Level: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 F 1

Lake Jackson Plain 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 13
Lake Jackson Incised 1 1
Fort Walton Incised 1 1
Pensacola Plain 1 1 2
Pensacola Incised 1
Wakulla Check Stamped 1 16* 8* 2 7 2 1 2 39
Unidentified Check St. 11 1 1 1 1 15
Carrabelle Incised 1 1
Carrabelle Punctated 1 1 2
Weeden Island Plain 1 2 1 1 1 6
Sand Tempered Plain 2 5 1 1 3 2 1 1 7 1 2 2 28
Grit Tempered Plain 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 1 1 7* 2 27
Grog Tempered Plain 1 1
Unidentified 1 1 2

TOTAL 5 39 11 2 7 16 5 2 2 19 3 3 14 11 139

* Includes portion of partial vessel

Figure 4. Test Unit 3, east wall profile.

East Wall Profile
Test Unit 3

:: "-::..:::..:: :..:.... ........ . . I

Stratum I: Humus grey sand
Stratum II: Shell midden
Stratum III: Light grey sand
SStratum IV: Yellowish brown sand
2! c cm

Lake Jackson Plain, Lake Jackson Incised, Fort Walton
Incised, Pensacola Incised, and Pensacola Plain. Each of these
types is consistent with Willey's (1949) descriptions.
Numerous unidentifiable plain body sherds also exhibit an
interesting combination of tempering agents. Fine sand
tempered sherds with mica present, which are often considered
to be associated with Weeden Island and/or Santa Rosa/Swift
Creek assemblages, were recovered in direct association with
sand and/or grit tempered plain sherds. Sand and/or grit
tempering is common to Fort Walton ceramics from northwest
Florida. The Wakulla Check Stamped vessel and a few other
sherds recovered contain a combination of fine sand, grit, and
grog tempering.
Wakulla Check Stamped and Weeden Island Plain rim
sherds were recovered. Two Wakulla rim types are present: 1)
the classic folded (thickened), smoothed rim with or without an
incised line below it to offset the check stamping from the rim
and 2) a simple, rounded lip type where stamping extends up
to the smoothed lip. The Weeden Island Plain rims are: 1)
slightly incurvate with a flattened, outflaring lip and 2) slightly
excurvate with a folded, rounded lip. Weeden Island vessel
forms at 8WL543 consist of large, open, and deep
hemispherical pots, globular bowls, and open beakers or jars.
With the exception of one specimen, the Fort Walton
vessels are collared globular pots. Aside from the larger
Wakulla Check Stamped pots, the Fort Walton vessels appear
to be somewhat larger than the Weeden Island vessels. Fort
Walton rim types are either vertical or slightly incurvate as
they extend up 2 to 3.5 cm from the vessel collar. Rim lips
are either rounded or flattened. Broad, fairly deep incised
lines are present on the base of the rim at the collar on the Fort
Walton and Lake Jackson Incised rim sherds. Some of the
Fort Walton rims are characteristically notched and some are
not. One rim sherd, identified as Lake Jackson Plain based on
ware characteristics, is an undecorated, simple, slightly
incurvate rim with a pointed lip. Three shell tempered sherds
identified as Pensacola Plain and Pensacola Incised were
recovered. The presence of a small number of Pensacola
sherds is not unexpected for a Late Weeden Island/Early Fort
Walton site on the Choctawhatchee Bay (Mikell 1992a).
Figure 5 presents examples of the rim types recovered.
Only a few sherds recovered are heavily sooted and
appear to be strictly cooking pots. Two Wakulla Check
Stamped and five plain sherds are heavily sooted. One of the
plain sherds is grit tempered and may be from a Lake Jackson
Plain pot; this, however, could not be determined
conclusively. The large Wakulla Check Stamped vessel
recovered from Unit 1 (see Figure 3) shows evidence of
burning along its base that also may indicate that it too was a
cooking pot; its form certainly suggests a cooking vessel. The
other vessel forms suggest function as serving vessels and
storage containers.
Other ceramic artifacts include 10 pieces of daub
recovered from the middens in Test Units 1 and 2. One piece


contains the impression of a reed or small branch, indicating
that wattle-and-daub methods were utilized for building
structures that were apparently present on the site. No other
evidence of the structures, such as postmolds, was encountered
during the present investigations.

Other Artifacts

As described above, shellfish remains are plentiful on the
site. One large quahog shell that appears to have been ground
along its edge was recovered and may have served as a cup.
Vertebrate faunal remains, however, were interestingly sparse
in the shell middens. Only 11 deer limb bone fragments,
including a metatarsal tool fragment (awl), and seven fish
bones were recovered. Identifiable fish remains include drum,
catfish, and sheepshead bone. Other non-ceramic artifacts also
appear to be scarce. A greenstone celt fragment that
apparently was reused as a grinding implement and two pieces
of hematite were recovered from midden contexts.

Discussion and Summary

The pattern of scattered, fairly thin and small shell
middens combined with the less than abundant assemblage of
artifacts, suggests that the Little's Bayou West site was the
scene of a small, and perhaps, seasonal or intermittent
settlement. The small village or series of homesteads were
present around A.D. 1000. Shellfish harvesting, fishing, and
hunting were apparently primary to subsistence, and it may be
assumed that oyster beds in the Choctawhatchee drew people to
the site area. The inhabitants of 8WL543 left behind an
interesting ceramic assemblage. The ceramics are fairly typical
of a Late Weeden Island site in northwest Florida except that a
small number of Fort Walton ceramic types have been added.
Fort Walton types make up only 12.3 percent of the
assemblage and Lake Jackson Plain is the most common, but a
curious mixing of Weeden Island and Fort Walton tempering
traditions is evident in plain and check stamped ceramics.
The ceramic assemblage, with its mixture of Fort Walton
and Weeden Island types and ware characteristics, suggests a
site where a small part of the transition between the two
periods is visible. The Weeden Island-Fort Walton transition
has been documented within the Apalachicola Valley (cf. Brose
and Wilkie 1980) and has been named the Wakulla and
Chattahoochee Landing phases (Scarry 1980, 1981). The dates
for the apparent Choctawhatchee Bay area transitional phase
predate any Fort Walton dates previously documented in the
region (Thomas and Campbell 1990; Mikell 1992a), and they
are consistent, although 100 or so years later, with those
prescribed for the transition in the Apalachicola Valley (Percy
and Brose 1974; Brose and Percy 1978; Scarry 1980, 1981;
Brose 1984, 1985). The Little's Bayou West site dates also
post-date late Weeden Island dates in the region (Lazarus 1979;
Thomas and Campbell 1990; Mikell 1992b). Given the

Figure 5. Selected ceramics recovered from 8WL543. a-c: Wakulla Check Stamped; d-e: Weeden Island Plain; f. Carrabelle
Incised; g: Grit Tempered Plain rim; h: Unidentified (Ruskin?) Dentate or Simple Stamped; i: Pensacola Incised; j: Pensacola
Plain; k-l: Lake Jackson Plain; m: Fort Walton Incised; n: Lake Jackson or Fort Walton Incised.

Table 2. 8WL543 Radiocarbon Sample Analysis Results

Calibrated Date* (Intercepts)
Provenience: Context Age Range: 1 sigma Sample# Beta
TU 1/L 3: lower midden 1030+-50 (A.D. 911, A.D. 938) 54893 (A.D. 920) A.D. 892-A.D. 970

TU 3/L 3: Feature 1

930+-50 (A.D. 1034)

54894 (A.D. 1020) A.D. 965-A.D. 1058

*Calibration by CALIB (Stuiver and Becker 1986)

evidence collected for the Choctawhatchee Bay area to date, it
is apparent that 8WL543 is a transitional period (phase) site
where ceramics characteristic of Late Weeden Island and
(early?) Fort Walton assemblages were deposited together
between A.D. 900 and A.D. 1050 (Table 2).
Although a firm definition of a transitional Late Weeden
Island to Fort Walton phase for the Choctawhatchee Bay
region is not clearly indicated based solely on the present
investigation results alone, I will stick my neck out and
propose it be named the Little's Bayou Phase. Most
researchers have long suspected such a transitional phase
outside the Apalachicola Valley and here is evidence of it.
What began as work on a somewhat unexciting site has
blossomed into something very interesting with the completion
of ceramic analyses and the receipt of radiocarbon dates. It
goes without saying that the Little's Bayou West site has added
to what we know about Late Weeden Island and Fort Walton
on the Florida Gulf Coast. Thanks again, CJ.

References Cited

Brose, David S.
1984 Mississippian Period Cultures in Northwest Florida. In
Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory, edited by Dave D.
Davis, pp. 165-197. Ripley P. Bullen Monographs in
Anthropology and History 5. University of Florida
Press, Gainesville.

1985 "Willey-Nilly" or the Archaeology of Northwest
Florida and Adjacent Borderlands Revisited. The Florida
Anthropologist 38:156-162.

Brose, David S., and George W. Percy
1978 Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian
Settlement Patterns, edited by Bruce Smith, pp. 81-113.
Academic Press, New York.

Brose, David S., and Duncan C. Wilkie
1980 A Fort Walton Campsite (8Ja201) at the Scholz Steam
Plant Parking Lot, Jackson County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 33:172-206.

Jones, B. Calvin
1988 Survey of the W133 Area: Probable Site of the Point
Washington Cemetery Excavated by Clarence Moore.
Report on file, Florida Department of State, Division of
Historical Resources, Tallahassee.

Lazarus, Yulee W.
1979 The Buck Burial Mound, A Mound of the Weeden Island
Culture. Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach,

Mikell, Gregory A.
1992a The Fort Walton Mississippian Variant on the
Northwest Florida Gulf Coast. Southeastern
Archaeology 11:51-65.

1992b 80K5, A Coastal Weeden Island Village in Northwest
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 45:195-220.

Moore, Clarence B.
1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Coast, (Part 1). Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences 11.

Percy, George W., and David S. Brose
1974 Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistence, and Village Life
in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th Annual
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology,
Washington, D.C.

Scarry, John F.
1980 The Chronology of Fort Walton Development in the
Upper Apalachicola Valley, Florida. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Bulletin 22:38-45.

1981 Fort Walton Culture: A Redefinition. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Bulletin 24:18-20.

Stuiver, M., and B. Becker
1986 The CALIB Program for Calibration of C-14 Dates and
Its Implications. Radiocarbon 28:863-910.

Thomas, Prentice M., and Janice Campbell (editors)
1990 Cultural Resources Investigations at Eglin Air Force
Base, Florida: Technical Synthesis (Draft). New World
Research, Inc. Report of Investigations No. 192.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113, Washington, D.C.

Gregory A. Mikell
7707 Shadow Bay Drive
Panama City, Florida 32404


Brent R. Weisman

My objectives in this report are to introduce the
archaeology of the little-studied Wekiva River basin of
Orange, Seminole, and Lake counties and to provide the initial
context and problem orientation to guide and stimulate further
studies. The Wekiva basin is coursed by the 15-mile run of the
spring-fed Wekiva River and its smaller tributary, Rock
Springs Run. Most of the Wekiva River and its associated
uplands are state-owned or controlled (notable exceptions
occurring on the south and east, or Seminole County side, of
the river for a distance of approximately nine miles north from
the source spring and several important outparcels on the west
side). Wekiwa Spring, the origin of the Wekiva River, is part
of the 6,400 acre Wekiwa Springs State Park, which is
bordered on the north by Rock Springs Run State Reserve,
containing more than 10,000 acres. The northern reaches of
the north-flowing river to the point of its discharge into the St.
Johns River are part of the Lower Wekiva River State Reserve
(containing some 5,000 acres), with upland areas and portions
of Blackwater Creek included in the new Seminole State Forest
(of some 5,500 acres at present). More than two dozen
prehistoric archaeological sites have been recorded on these
state lands, while perhaps half a dozen known or suspected
sites are to be found on private lands. Most of these sites are
freshwater shell middens and contain evidence of human
occupation of the area from the Orange period (ca. 2500 B.C.)
through the St. Johns II period (post A.D. 800).
Natural communities of the Wekiva River basin include
floodplain swamp below the 15 foot contour line, which was,
prior to extensive logging in the 1930s and 1940s, thick with
cypress trees. Most of the known archaeological sites occur
within this zone. Small hardwood hammocks are interspersed
in this area and are also found at slightly higher elevations.
Upland areas, at elevations between about 30 feet and 50 feet
above mean sea level, support pine flatwoods, sandhills and, in
locations of deep sandy soils, sand pine scrub.
Notable animal species include the Florida black bear,
wood stork, Florida sandhill crane, Florida scrub jay, river
otter, alligator, and indigo snake. The black bear and scrub
jay in particular have been the subjects of concerted
conservation efforts in recent years as an attempt to create a
wildlife corridor linking the Wekiva basin to the Ocala
National Forest has been a top-priority objective of the state's
Conservation and Recreation Lands (C.A.R.L.) acquisition
program (through which Rock Springs Run State Reserve and

the Seminole State Forest were purchased). The only
archaeological faunal assemblage yet to be analyzed from the
area (to be discussed) contains 25 species of animals and
demonstrates a strong aquatic adaptation (Quitmyer 1991),
with particular subsistence emphasis on invertebrates
(primarily mussels) and bony fishes.

Archaeological Occurrences and Settlement Patterning

While most of the known sites are freshwater shell
middens on the Wekiva River or Rock Springs Run (Figure 1),
several lithic scatter sites are recorded on the east side of the
river. Directly from the river and run have come mastodon
remains and bone points (in unconfirmed association), plus the
unreported recovery of Archaic stemmed projectiles by local
divers. Two destroyed burial mounds are known; one at
Wekiwa Spring itself (8SE24) and the second at Rock Springs
on property owned by Orange County. Cultural materials
from these sites are not known (and have not been described)
in any detail. Unfortunately, no stratified preceramic Archaic
or Paleoindian period site is known, terrestrial or otherwise.
Surface searches and limited coring and testing of high scrub
areas (particularly Spear Scrub in Rock Springs Run State
Reserve) have failed to yield prehistoric artifacts of any
description. Likewise the upland terraces along Blackwater
Creek, some of which are almost bluff-like in appearance, do
not appear, on the basis of limited reconnaissance, to contain
archaeological sites. At least one artifact scatter (8LA471) of
very light density is known to occur in association with a small
upland springhead and suggests that similar small sites may
Of a total of eleven middens for which reliable volume
figures can be produced, five have total volumes of less than
160 cubic meters, three have volumes between about 300 and
500 cubic meters, two between 1,100 and 1,400 cubic meters,
and one (80R452) has an estimated volume of 74,420 cubic
meters, obviously the largest site in the basin by far (Table 1).
Because the middens can be grouped into different size classes
but are broadly contemporaneous (as will be discussed) it is
possible that the small and medium middens represent locations
occupied by individual families or bands while the largest site
represents an actual village. Presumably, the village site was
the central location from which the families or bands
dispersed. A second scenario holds that all the middens were


MARCH 1993

Vol. 46 No.1

Table 1. Estimated Volumes of Selected Sites in the Wekiva
Basin (based on Florida Site File information).

Site Number Site Name Volume (cu. m)

OR2228 Pappy's Cabin 7.5
SE577 Orange Tree 31.0
OR2227 Pennel's Cabin 100.0
SE578 Hollow Tree 120.0
OR454 Love's Cabin 160.0
OR447 Rock Springs #1 324.0
OR448 Rock Springs #2 432.0
OR457 Twin Mounds East 528.0
OR459 Twin Mounds West 1178.0
OR449 Haystack 1365.0
OR452 Rollins Island 74420.0
created by a relatively small group of people, whose annual or
seasonal movements from one location to another are
imperceptible in archaeological time and give the appearance of
contemporaneity. In this view, the largest site (80R452) was
simply the base camp, occupied more often (for longer periods
of time) than the other middens. In either case, the upland
artifact scatters would represent special-purpose hunting or
collecting camps. The known burial mounds are not directly
associated with middens or artifact scatters.

Cultural Sequence

The Wekiva River basin is located in the East and Central
Florida archaeological culture area (Milanich and Fairbanks
1980:22). The accepted sequence begins with the Paleoindian
period (ca. 12,000 B.C.-7500 B.C.), the presence of which
may eventually be confirmed in association with mastodon
remains known to be present on the bed of Rock Springs Run
and the Wekiva River. Given the popularity of the river with
amateur divers and collectors, such finds already may have
been made and the proper contextual relationships not
recognized. Collecting by divers also may have removed much
evidence of the subsequent preceramic Archaic period (ca.
7500 B.C.-2500 B.C.). Although bone points and stemmed
points are not certainly indicative of preceramic Archaic
presence, there is the strong possibility, based on comparison
to similar finds in other central and north Florida rivers, that
several local collections contain materials dating from this
With the Orange period of the Late Archaic (ca. 2500
B.C.-1000 B.C.) we see the first strong evidence for
substantial human occupation of the Wekiva drainage. Orange
period components have been documented at many of the
riverine middens (including the largest sites) by the recovery of
fiber-tempered pottery, and it is likely that most if not all of
the middens have deposits dating to the Orange period. In
light of the well-documented late Archaic presence at Lake

Monroe and elsewhere in the near St. Johns vicinity (Russo et
al. 1992) it is not surprising to find similar occupation in the
Wekiva basin. While future work at the Wekiva sites may
eventually bring to light preceramic Archaic midden deposits
underlying the Orange period levels, at present it can be
confidently stated that with the beginning of the Orange period
the basic aquatic adaptation was fully in place and would
remain so for some 3500 years (into the terminal prehistoric
occupation of the area in the St. Johns II period). Mention
should be made here of an apparently isolated find by a
snorkeler of a wooden bowl or mortar which, on comparative
grounds, may belong to the Late Archaic. The work at
Groves' Orange midden has provided certain evidence of the
processing, such as might be done in a mortar, of wild plant
foods such as acorns and hickory nuts by riverine peoples of
the Late Archaic (Russo et al. 1992:99).
Following the Late Archaic is the Florida Transitional
period (ca. 1000 B.C.-500 B.C.), which, as originally defined
by Bullen (1959), was marked not only by the replacement of
fiber-tempered pottery by semi-fiber-tempered and chalky
wares (in this area) but also a revolution in aboriginal lifeways.
Bullen's marker types for this period are abundantly present in
the Wekiva middens--particularly St. Johns Incised pottery.
Less evident is the revolution in lifeways, given the basic
continuity of the aquatic orientation from the Orange through
St. Johns periods.
Mention should be made here of Rollins Island

(80R452), the largest shell midden in the Wekiva basin
(Figure 2). Marilyn Stewart of Rollins College, who
excavated a test pit at the site, feels that a large portion of the
midden may date to the preceramic Archaic (pers. comm., 15
Jan. 1993), which would place the origins of the aquatic
adaptation even deeper in time. In excavations prior to Stewart
stone plummets, bone and stone points (Figure 3), and a
human burial were unearthed, for which, unfortunately, there
is no contextual information. Hernando projectile points
(Bullen 1975:6) and St. Johns Incised sherds found at the site
indicate Transitional period occupation, but again we might
question whether this period definition has any real meaning
other than in ceramic terms. Placing the concept of a
Transitional period in the Wekiva basin further in jeopardy is
the related question of defining the Transitional period
stratigraphically as will be discussed shortly with reference to
the Twin Mounds excavation. Bullen (1959) also had
difficulty identifying and defining the Transitional period in
the ground, at least in the St. Johns area.
There is ample evidence for the presence of the
succeeding St. Johns period as St. Johns Plain sherds in
association with shell middens are common finds in the basin.
There is limited evidence as well of the St. Johns subperiods as
defined by Goggin (1952:48-55) although, sadly, little is
known of the burial mound inventories in the area which
would likely have contained the exotic artifacts diagnostic of
the subperiods. The infrequent finds of Deptford pottery from





8 OR 457, 459

8 OR 452


0 1 2 3 4 5 miles
1 I I I
1 2 8 km

Figure 1. The Wekiva basin and sites discussed in text.

Twin Mounds 8 OR 459, 8 OR 457
Rock Springs Run State Reserve

Archaeological site

0] Modern municipality

Figure 2. View down the eroding south slope of Rollins Island. Figure 3. Artifacts from Rollins Island.

area middens (see the Twin Mounds discussion) may indicate
the St. Johns Ia Early subperiod. I have seen a photograph of
a private collection which contains what appears to be a Tucker
Ridge Pinched bowl (possibly of St. Johns paste), a marker of
the St. Johns Ib subperiod. The intervening Ia Late subperiod
is difficult to distinguish based on the available information
and again, burial collections (presumably in private hands)
need to be located and studied. It is probable that the bulk of
the midden deposits in the Wekiva basin date to the general St.
Johns I period (with the possible, but notable, exception of
Rollins Island), and it is almost certain that every site contains
deposits dating to this period.
The St. Johns IIa subperiod, marked by the appearance of
St. Johns Check Stamped pottery, is less well represented and,
to judge from the Twin Mounds excavation, may be confined
to thin or surficial midden deposits. There is no convincing
evidence of which I am aware for the St. Johns Uib subperiod,
which is, however, present at Mount Royal, Thursby, and
other Mississippian-influenced sites of the St. Johns River.
Similarly, we see no indication of an early historic period St.
Johns IIc occupation, as European trade goods have not been
found (or reported) in Wekiva sites. Given the recovery of

historic materials from Hontoon Island (Purdy 1987), on the
St. Johns River several miles north of the Wekiva confluence
and from sites around Lake Harris about 15 miles to the west
(Sleight 1949), it is reasonable to suppose that population
shifted away from the Wekiva basin sometime after St. Johns
Ha (post A.D. 800) but well prior to the seventeenth century.
If the basin was inhabited by a permanent local population
(who did not travel seasonally to the St. Johns River or
elsewhere), then it is possible that the demise of this
population, for whatever reason, led to the permanent
abandonment of the area. Indeed, the apparent absence of an
early historic period component alone justifies to some extent
the consideration of the Wekiva basin as a subarea slightly
apart from cultural developments along the St. Johns River
Overall the cultural picture is one of early settlement in
the Wekiva basin, perhaps as early as the Paleoindian period.
Strict archaeological documentation attests to definite
occupation by the late Archaic Orange period, during which
time the basic aquatic adaptation, based on riverine snails and
fish, was developed. This aquatic subsistence focus, in place
perhaps by 2500 B.C., characterized all subsequent culture

periods including the terminal prehistoric occupation of the
area which occurred (shortly?) after A.D. 800. Future
research can be directed to the questions of the true time depth
of the aquatic adaptation (does it extend back to the preceramic
Archaic?), the presence and significance of the Transitional
period (does it more properly belong to St. Johns la Early or as
a phase of the Orange period?), and the abandonment of the
area well before European contact (what role, if any, did the
environment play?, cf. Purdy 1988:646). The complete lack
of radiocarbon dates for the area is something to be remedied
by future stratigraphic excavations.

Previous Archaeology

The Wekiva basin seems largely to have been bypassed by
early Florida archaeologists who were drawn instead to dig
the larger and more accessible sites on the St. Johns River.
Jeffries Wyman briefly reported on his trenching excavations
of two "shell fields" on the east bank of the Wekiva (actually
said by him to be on the "right bank," but probably in the
locations of SE 25 and 26, see Goggin 1952:91), with
collections of pottery "stamped in squares" (Wyman 1875:22)
later placed by Goggin in the St. Johns II period. Also found
on the surface or in the trenches were shell chisels and awls, a
bone awl, a Unio valve with a drilled hole, a "rude
arrowhead," and numerous pottery sherds. A drawing of the
bone awl (Wyman 1875:Plate 3) shows two incised lines
around the head, a thinned neck, and a sharply tapering point.
Fauna identified by Wyman included three species of turtle,
two species of fish, two species of bird, opossum, rabbit, deer,
raccoon, and partially burned bear bones near an "old
fireplace." A few fragments of marine shell were found on the
surface. Wyman also noted that Ampullaria (now known as
Pomacea sp., or apple snail) and Paludina (probably what is
known today as Viviparus sp.) shells were found in the heaps
in great numbers (the Wekiva, he wrote, was one of the few
locations in the area where the riverbed was covered with
shells [Wyman 1875:12]), while those of Unio (freshwater
clam or mussel) were far less frequent. Less than twenty years
after Wyman, C.B. Moore retraced his steps by visiting many
sites on the St. Johns River in the general vicinity but seems
not to have voyaged down the Wekiva.
The obscurity of the area continues up through the
present day. Barbara Purdy's well-known wet site excavations
at Hontoon Island and the Groves' Orange midden took place
just to the west and east of the Wekiva drainage, respectively
(see Figure 1). Until the investigations reported here, the
only reported modern archaeological work in the Wekiva area
consisted of brief site visits and limited testing in the early
1980s by Marilyn Stewart at the request of Orange County
early in the C.A.R.L. acquisition process (Stewart 1982).
Stewart considered the Wekiva basin to be one of the most
archaeologically important areas in Orange County and
surmised that most of the cultural deposits dated to the St.

Johns I period. She also suggested that the combined area of
Wekiwa Springs State Park and Rock Springs Run State
Reserve would closely approximate the catchment area of a
single large band of aboriginal hunter-gatherers (or, more
correctly, gatherer-fisher-hunters) and thus could serve as a
study area for testing models and theories concerning
prehistoric settlement patterns. Despite the modest advances in
the archaeology of the Wekiva basin in recent years (to be
presented below) much of the area's archaeological potential
remains to be tapped.

The Twin Mounds Excavations

On the west bank of the Wekiva River in Rock Springs
Run State Reserve is the Twin Mounds site (see Figure 1),
actually two adjacent freshwater shell middens about 13 meters
apart. At the bank of the river is 80R457 (Figure 4), which
measures about 30 m north-south by 18 m east-west and is
about 3.5 m high. To the west is 80R459, the larger of the
two middens, measuring about 38 m north-south by 28 m east-
west and about 3.8 m high. Local testimony holds that
students from an unidentified university or college excavated at
the site in the 1960s, but the existence of this project has not
been confirmed. Twin Mounds was officially recorded by
Marilyn Stewart during the previously mentioned C.A.R.L.
archaeological assessment, during which time she excavated
two small test pits. As can be seen in Figure 5, some
vandalism has occurred at the mounds, but is relatively minor
given the size and depths of the deposits.
The site was revisited during the Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research, C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey
inventory and evaluation project at Rock Springs Run State
Reserve and was selected for test excavation to provide park
managers with information to be used in the proposed public
interpretation of the reserve's cultural resources. As initially
conceived, the site, with appropriate signage, would be an
interpretive point on a hiking trail traversing the reserve and
would be a stop on ranger-led tours for school groups,
naturalists, and others. Because the mounds appeared to be
representative of Wekiva middens but were also unique in
being adjacent, we decided to nominate the sites to the
National Register of Historic Places, if, of course, the
excavations demonstrated their significance. A National
Register listing also would bring recognition to the sites and
would provide the basis for future funding support for
interpretive development by the park service. Specifically, the
objectives of the excavation were to (1) obtain a representative
profile through the deposits; (2) make systematic, controlled
collections of artifacts and plant and animal remains; and (3)
produce a topographical map of the sites (see Figure 5).
The week-long project began on September 17, 1990 and
involved members of the park staff and 29 volunteers from the
local community (Figure 6). Excavations began in a shallow 1
m x 4 m vandal pit (named Excavation Unit A) in the northern

Figure 4. View of 80R457from the Wekiva River.

portion of 80R459 and continued through undisturbed deposits
to a depth of a little more than one meter (Figure 7) where the
natural substrate was encountered. At this depth a posthole
digger was used to advance the hole to a total depth of 1.87 m
from the midden surface. Excavation was done in arbitrary 10
cm levels within natural zones following the slope of the
midden, as recognized while work was in progress. Column
samples for faunal and floral analyses were taken from an
unexcavated portion of the unit in natural stratigraphic zones
down to culturally sterile substrate (see Figure 8).
Additional field activities included screening spoil piles at
80R457 and 80R459, digging two posthole tests between the
midden sites, and collecting artifacts underwater adjacent to
80R457. Of note is a portion of a human skull recovered from
the underwater area associated with 80R457.

Zooarchaeological Study

The stratigraphic position of the samples collected for
zooarchaeological and botanical analysis are indicated on
Figure 8 in the locations marked F.S. (field specimen) 11-17.
Irvy Quitmyer of the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory,

Florida Museum of Natural History (FMNH), conducted the
zooarchaeological analysis. The data and results reported here
are drawn from his study (Quitmyer 1991). Possible botanical
materials identified in the column samples have yet to be
Laboratory methods consisted of water screening the
samples through a set of nested 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), 1/8 inch,
and 1/16 (1.6 mm) inch sieves. Bone retained on the 1/4 inch
and 1/8 inch screens was identified by comparison to the
extensive FMNH collections, while for the most part the 1/16
inch bone could not be specifically identified. Minimum
numbers of individuals estimates were derived from the study
of paired elements as is standard practice. Biomass estimates
were provided by applying formulas of skeletal mass
allometry. Soil pH determinations were also made on each of
the samples.
Based on a total sample of 3,612 bone fragments
(2916.05 grams), 25 species of animals were identified,
representing 1,242 minimum number of individuals. Of the
total 25 species, 56 percent are aquatic species, 20 percent are
terrestrial animals, 12 percent are species that can occur in
both aquatic and terrestrial habitats (turtles and alligator), 4

8 OR 459

Figure 5. Contour map of Twin Mounds.

Twin Mounds, 8 OR 457 & 8 OR 459.
Rock Springs Run State Reserve
Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research,
C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey.
September 1990

S Vandal Pits

S Excavation Unit A,
130.4 N/111.5 E

l Concrete Monument



Figure 6. Excavating Unit A, 80R459, view to the south.

from the marine environment (e.g., horse conch), with the
remaining 8 percent not determinable to habitat. A summary
of the identified fauna from the Twin Mounds samples is
presented in Table 2. The specific results of each sample
analysis will be presented in the stratigraphic discussion below.

Twin Mounds Stratigraphy

One of the most valuable aspects of the Twin Mounds
project was recording the north and west profiles of Excavation
Unit A, 80R459, as shown in Figure 8. Stratification of the
midden is interpreted to show the presence of three cultural
periods (Orange, St. Johns I, and St. Johns II) in discrete soil
layers. While St. Johns Incised sherds are present, no certain
Transitional level could be identified in the tested portion of
the site. The following stratigraphic descriptions are given
with reference to Figure 8.
Stratum I consists of grey to white marl with a few
crushed apple snail shells, particularly at the interface between
this stratum and Stratum II. Stratum I appears to be the natural
Stratum II consists of marl and concretions, apple snail,
Viviparus snail, and fiber-tempered pottery (see Figure 10).

This appears to be an Orange period cultural deposit. The
greatest single contributor to biomass, based on the analysis of
F.S. 16 and 17, is the Viviparus snail (77 percent, averaged
from the two samples), with total gastropods (including apple
snail) accounting for almost 88 percent (Figure 9). Reptiles
account for about 4 percent of the biomass, fish 5 percent, and
bivalves about 1 percent, averaged. Mammal remains, absent
from the deeper sample (F.S. 17), are estimated to account for
almost four percent of the biomass of F.S. 16.
Stratum III is a thin layer of black soil and few shells,
showing in the north profile of the unit only (see Figure 8).
Three St. Johns sherds were profiled in the wall lying flat on
top of this stratum (or at the bottom of Stratum IV). Stratum
III may represent an occupation surface or feature. Stratum IV
is likewise shown only in the north wall and consists of black
soil with notable amounts of crushed mussel shell. Like
Stratum III, this layer is intruded on by Stratum V, the major
St. Johns I deposit, and was thus deposited earlier than V,
although how much earlier cannot be determined.
Stratum V is the dense St. Johns I shell midden deposit
that forms the core of the profile. Numerous St. Johns Plain
sherds were found here (accounting for more than 95 percent
of the total), as well as a few minority types, including five


Table 2. Presence and Absence of Fauna Identified from Twin Mounds, 80R459 (from Quitmyer 1991).


Sytvilagus spp.
Mammalian (Small)
Mammalian (Large)
Odocoileus virginianus

Common Name

e.g. mouse
e.g. deer
white-tailed deer



V-(L VII}--V V--------{L V}-------V V---{L II}---V
F.S. 11 F.S. 12 F.S. 13 F.S.14 F.S. 15 F.S. 16 F.S. 17


x x

Aves birds

Alligator mississippiensis alligator
Testudines turtles
Kinosternidae mud/musk turtles
Emydidae pond/marsh/box turtles
Gopherus polyphemus gopher tortoise
Serpentes snakes
Colubridae colubrid snakes

x x x x x
x x x x x

Lepisosteus spp.
Amia calva
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Ictalurus spp.
Lempomis spp.
Lepomis auritus
Lepomis microlophus
Micropterus spp.

bony fishes
golden shiner
bullhead catfishes
readbreast sunfish
redear sunfish
freshwater bass

x x
x x


x x

x x


Unionidae freshwater mussel


Campeloma geniculum
Viviparus georgianus
Pomacea paludosa
Elimia floridensis
Physella spp.
Pleuroploca gigantea
Gastropoda (Terrestrial)

ponderous campeloma
banded mysterysnail
Florida applesnail
rasp elimia
horse conch
e.g. Polygyra spp.

X x x x x x

A Key to the Symbols.
F.S. = Field sample number.
L = Levels
L = VIII St. Johns II A.D. 800
L = V St. Johns I
L = II Orange 2000 B.C.

T = Terrestrial
A/T = Aquatic/Terrestrial
A = Aquatic
M = Marine

Figure 7. West profile of Unit A, 80R459.

stamped Deptford sherds. As would be expected in a St. Johns
I deposit, St. Johns Check Stamped sherds were absent. An
O'Leno projectile point (see Figure 11) also was found in this
stratum, as were two bone points. F.S. 13, from the upper
portion of the stratum, produced biomass estimates of about 80
percent for gastropods, 12.4 percent for reptiles, about 9
percent for mammals, and 8 percent for fishes. Combined
analysis of F.S. 14 and 15 (see Figure 9), from similar deeper
portions of Stratum V, reveal biomass estimates of almost 71
percent for gastropods (with Viviparus accounting for all but 1
percent of this total), 18.4 percent for reptiles, 5.7 percent for
fishes, about 4 percent for mammals, and about 1 percent for
bivalves. In Qutimyer's opinion, the faunal samples from F.S.
13, 14, and 15 are very similar.
Stratum VI is a small intrusion in Stratum V containing
ash and charcoal-flecked fill. It is possible that this feature
dates to the St. Johns II period, which has been identified in
the overlying Stratum VIII. Intruding through the dense
midden of Stratum V and through Stratum VIII is Stratum VII,
a pit feature containing fills of black soil, ash, and lenses of
shell. This stratum was excavated as Feature 2 and bagged for
future zooarchaeological and botanical analyses.
Covering most of Stratum V (the St. Johns I stratum) in
the west profile is Stratum VIII, a layer of grey to black sandy
loam with visibly less shell than the stratum below. St. Johns

Check Stamped sherds, markers of the St. Johns II period
(post-A.D. 800), occur exclusively (with one minor exception)
in association with this stratum or the bottom of Stratum IX,
but even so account for less than 3 percent of total ceramics
from excavation levels in these strata. In this St. Johns II
association a lithic drill was found (see Figure 11). Biomass
estimates show the continued dominance of gastropods (about
80 percent), with mammals and reptiles (each about 7 percent)
and fishes (about 5 percent) accounting for most of the
The top stratum of black humic soil is referred to as
Stratum IX. Less shell is present here than in lower levels of
the midden. It is probable that large portions of this layer
reflect modem disturbance. A double-grooved columella
pendant and portions of a shell dipper or cup were found in
this stratum (Figure 11).

Other Field Activities

In addition to the stratigraphic testing of 80R459,
selected spoil piles from both middens were screened with the
assistance of the volunteers. While this activity resulted in the
recovery of numerous artifacts, little additional knowledge was
gained about the sites. Artifacts were also collected by
volunteer divers from the bottom of the river adjacent to

9 Olt 69 TWI MOUUO
Iq plolrIL
j30.4 M~

9EPEM"t"A20 29


3.51 mmsl -

3.25 -


2.43 -

1.64 --



0 .5 1 m

Figure 8. Profile of Unit A, 80R459, Twin Mounds.

Twin Mounds, 8 OR 459.
Rock Springs Run State Reserve
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research
C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey
20 September 1990

I Grey to white marl; few shell.
II Marl and concretion level, with apple snail.
III Black soil with fewer crushed shell.
IV Black soil with crushed mussel.
V Black 'dirt midden' and snail shell.
VI Ash and charcoal flecks.
VII Black soil with ash and shell lenses (feature 2).
VIII Grey to black sandy loam, less shell.
IX Black humic soil with snail and some mussel.
St. Johns sherds, laying flat at bottom of Zone IV.
Field Specimen (FS) number of column sample.


FS 14/15

FS 17


70 -
60 -
50 -

60 -
10 -


Mammal Bird Reptile Fish



0.00 0.00 0.70 3.50


Bird Reptile Fish Bivalvia



Fish Bivalvia 1.23
Fish Bivalvia <




3.93 6.96
.00 0 0.00 1.37


Mammal Bird Reptile Fish Bivalvia

Figure 9. Summary offaunal results, representative Orange period (FS 17) and St. Johns (FS 14/15) proveniences, 80R459.

0.00 0.72



1 4.16


--""""' '""~~~~~



S- St. Johns Incised,
m Orange Plain Sand Tempered Plain [ St. Johns Plain CS. heck Stamped,
'71 T m rCheck Stamped,
SOrange Incised Sand Tempered Plain I Other St. JohnsherSt.hns
and check stamped
Orange Plain and Tempered Plain St. Johns Incised, No Pottery
and Incised and tempered and Other Recovered
and Deptford




Z 60
O 50

W 40





Figure 10. Summary of pottery from Unit A, 80R459, by excavation level. Note: Excavation levels are not to be confused with
strata described in Figure 8.

n=178 n=132 n=251 n=254 n=232 n=14 n=0 n=4

80R457. Pottery tabulations from the underwater collections
(Weisman and Newman 1990) show that 20 percent of the 308
sherds collected are St. Johns Check Stamped, many times
greater than the percentages found in the associated terrestrial
deposits. This suggests that portions of 80R457 (now eroded)
saw heavier St. Johns II occupation than did 80R459, although
the sites appear to be largely contemporaneous. Finally, a
posthole test was placed in the low area between the mounds to
a depth of one meter. Here, in a uniform matrix of grey to
black clay, St. Johns Plain (9) and St. Johns Check Stamped
sherds (8) were found at depths of 35 to 90 centimeters below
surface, as was a small amount of unidentified faunal material.

Summary and Implications of Materials Recovered

Despite the minor differences in the faunal column and
the stratigraphic distinctions between Orange, St. Johns I, and
St. Johns II levels, the general picture is one of overwhelming
cultural continuity through all periods beginning with the Late
Archaic. Other than the noted changes in pottery types (Table
3, Figure 10) from bottom to top of the midden and the
absence of lithics from the sampled Orange period stratum
(where pottery sherds are also rare compared to St. Johns
levels), no dramatic technological trends are evident. Lithics,
mostly chert flakes and fragments, are present in all St. Johns
levels in some quantity (see Weisman and Newman 1990).
The thickness of the St. Johns I stratum relative to the other
deposits may be a factor of length of time represented or of
sampling, but it is likely that St. Johns I was the period of
greatest population density.

Table 3. Summary of Pottery From Unit A, OR459.

Type Count % Total

St. Johns Plain 955 90
St. Johns Incised 26 2
St. Johns Linear Check Stamped 8 1
St. Johns Check Stamped 6 1
St. Johns Punctated 1 < 1
St. Johns Simple Stamped 3 < 1
St. Johns unidentified 1 < 1
St. Johns Plain with sandy paste 4 < 1
Deptford stamped 5 < 1
Sand tempered Plain 9 1
UID stamped, sand tempered 1 < 1
Orange Plain 37 3
Orange Incised 9 1

Total 1065 100

Worked marine shell and marine shell fragments are
present at Twin Mounds in small numbers, as they seem to be
at other sites in the general vicinity (Purdy 1987; Russo et al.
1992) including the Wekiva sites investigated by Wyman
(1875:22). This indicates some degree of contact with coastal
groups or directly with the nearby Atlantic coast, which is not
unexpected given the widespread finds of marine shell in sites
throughout the Florida interior. That these shell artifacts,
including those found at Hontoon and the Groves' Orange
midden, appear to be ornamental or ceremonial rather than
tools in the strict sense also is not unexpected given that they
are not local in origin.

Comparison to Other Sites

Twin Mounds appears to lack the very late preceramic
Archaic levels found at Groves' Orange which have yielded
radiocarbon dates in the 4400 to 5700 B.P. range (Russo et al.
1992). Likewise, the site appears not to contain the 10 cm
shell-less midden deposit overlying the St. Johns shell midden
at Hontoon, dating to the early historic period (Purdy 1987,
1989). If the Twin Mounds situation is representative of the
entire Wekiva basin, then it might be concluded that the basin
was permanently inhabited somewhat later and abandoned
somewhat earlier in time than adjoining areas on the St. Johns.
However, we are again reminded of Rollins Island, where
preceramic Archaic shell midden deposits may be present, and
the need for serious investigation of deposits dating to this
Twin Mounds shares with Hontoon and Groves' Orange
the basic aquatic adaptation, as all sites show a long-term
reliance on the Viviparus snail with secondary use of mussels,
fish, turtles, and terrestrial mammals. The prehistoric use of
plant foods in the Wekiva basin has not been directly
documented, but almost certainly did exist and was comparable
to the broad-spectrum gathering of nuts and fruits in evidence
at the Groves Orange site (Russo et al. 1992:99). The scope of
comparison eventually can be favorably broadened to include
the freshwater shell middens of the Withlacoochee River,
which also show strong conservatism in material culture and an
early but persistent aquatic adaptation.

Initial Synthesis and Conclusions

The Wekiva River basin was inhabited by
archaeologically recognizable shell midden populations
beginning in the late Archaic period and extending through the
early to mid-St. Johns II period. The basic culture sequence
follows that established for the nearby St. Johns middens,
although the Wekiva occupation may have been slightly more
restricted in time. Even so, good archaeological evidence
indicates continuous and probably permanent human
occupation of the basin for a period of some 3,000 years or
more. Undoubtedly there was occupation during Middle

Figure 11. Artifacts from 80R459, Twin Mounds. Top) bone points; middle left) drill; middle right)O'Leno point; bottom left)
portion of possible shell cup; bottom right) columella pendant.


Archaic, Early Archaic, and Paleoindian times although little
but scattered finds are known at present.
In absolute numbers it is probable that population levels
were low, and it is possible that all of the middens were
created by a few people who shifted slightly the locations of
their camps seasonally or every several years. Of course, the
key to solving the problem is in determining how many people
the aquatic resources of the basin could support at one time,
or, phrased in human terms, how many people it would take to
deplete the supply of snails in any one location. How long
could a group stay in one spot before having to move?
Answers to these questions will come only as the result of an
intensive archaeological and paleoenvironmental research
program. The approach of intensive analysis undertaken at the
Groves' Orange site is one positive step and should serve as a
model for future investigations in the Wekiva basin. However,
there is still a need for broad scale survey and testing, aimed
particularly at the problem of identifying preceramic Archaic
and earlier deposits.
In the reverse of most areas of Florida, prehistoric
ceremonial or mortuary behavior in the Wekiva basin is much
less known than the domestic aspect. The unrecorded
destruction of the several known burial mounds and the
dispersal of artifacts is in large part responsible for our lack of
knowledge. At least one burial is known to occur in a midden
(Rollins Island), while skeletal material was recovered at Twin
Mounds. Again, the problem is lack of context. The pattern
of mound burial for some individuals and midden burial for
others is widespread in Florida but, frankly, is not well
understood anywhere beyond the assumption that differences in
status are the cause. Undiscovered burial mounds may exist in
the Wekiva basin, but given the apparent association of known
mounds with the major springheads at Rock Springs and
Wekiwa, the presence of additional mounds is far from certain.
The known mounds seem to have served the area of the upper
Wekiva and Rock Springs Run, the area of greatest population
density in the basin.

Archaeological Significance

The Wekiva River basin presents a rare opportunity for
future studies of gatherer-fisher-hunter lifeways because, as
Marilyn Stewart observed, an entire prehistoric catchment area
is probably contained (and preserved) on state lands. Cultural
developments clearly are related to and possibly derived from
better-known Archaic period and St. Johns period
developments of the St. Johns River, but there is some
evidence that local environmental or cultural variables
influenced the specific course of Wekiva basin prehistory. In
archaeological terms, overall site preservation and the
preservation of materials within sites is such that a number of
questions concerning the relationship between culture and
environment can be studied in a relatively controlled setting.

Of no less importance is the potential of the Wekiva area
for the public interpretation of archaeological resources,
especially in light of its location within minutes' drive of one
of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States.
Twin Mounds, successfully nominated to the National Register
of Historic Places in 1991 (Weisman and Newman 1991), still
offers excellent possibilities for public interpretation, despite
(understandably) stalled park service plans (J. McMurtray,
pers. com., 20 December 1991). Rollins Island, although
privately owned, is another site that lends itself to public
interpretation. The black bear and the scrub jay each have
attracted numerous supporters from the human community;
perhaps these same supporters are needed to promote an
awareness of the human history preserved in the archaeological
sites of the Wekiva River basin.


Jennifer McMurtray, Barry Burch, and Deborah Shelley,
all of the Department of Natural Resources, were of great
assistance in our field survey and the test excavations at Twin
Mounds. Of the numerous volunteers, Paul Barton and Eddie
Williford deserve special mention. Thanks also go to members
of the St. Augustine Archaeological Association and the
Volusia Anthropological Society.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Newsletter 6:43-53, 59-62.

1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile
Points. Kendall Books, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology, Florida. Yale University Publications in
Anthropology, New Haven.

Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1987 Investigations at Hontoon Island (8-Vo-202), A,
Archaeological Wetsite in Volusia County, Florida: An
Overview and Chronology. The Florida Anthropologist

1988 American Indians After 1492: A Case Study of Forced
Culture Change. American Anthropologist 90:640-655.

Quitmyer, Irvy
1991 Zooarchaeological Investigations of Fauna Excavated
From the Twin Mounds Archaeological Site (80R459),
Rock Springs Run State Reserve. Ms. on file, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Russo, Michael, Barbara A. Purdy, Lee A. Newsom, and Ray
M. McGee
1992 A Reinterpretation of Late Archaic Adaptations in
Central-East Florida: Groves' Orange Midden (8-Vo-
2601). Southeastern Archaeology 11:95-108.

Sleight, Frederick W.
1949 Notes Concerning An Historic Site of Central Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 2:26-30.

Stewart, Marilyn C.
1982 Report to the Orange County Planning Department on
the Archaeological Significance of the Rock Springs-
Wekiva Proposed Purchase Under the CARL Program.
Ms. on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,

Weisman, Brent R., and Christine L. Newman
1990 Archaeological Investigations at Twin Mounds
(80R457, 80R459), Rock Springs Run State Reserve.
Ms. on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,

1991 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form:
Twin Mounds Archaeological District. Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Wyman, Jeffries
1875 Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St. Johns River,
Florida. Peabody Academy of Science Memoirs No. 4,
Salem, Mass.

Brent R. Weisman
C.A.R.L. Project Office
714 NE 7th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Christine L. Newman

Archaeological investigations were conducted at the
Cheetum Site (DA1058) during the summer of 1986 by the
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Miami. Human
burials dating to the Late Archaic period were encountered
within a concretion level at the site. In addition, artifact
identifications suggest Glades I, Glades II and Glades III
occupations at the site.

Site Setting Physical Environment

The Cheetum site was located approximately two miles
west of the Florida Turnpike and three and one-half miles
north of the Tamiami Trail (US 41) in Township 53S, Range
39 East, Section 25 (Figure 1). The site is now a limestone
Located in the Everglades topographical region, much of
the land had been covered with peat, water and extensive
growths of sedge, but recent land development has drastically
altered the natural environment. The underlying rock of the
eastern Everglades region is an oolitic limestone or rock
composed of the marine animal bryozoan. These marine
animals form colonies which constitute as much as 70 percent
of the Everglades bedrock.
As is true of many of the sites in the Everglades region,
the Cheetum site was located on a tree island, a slight rise in
elevation often covered with hardwoods. In an area with an
average elevation of five feet above sea level, any rise in
elevation was often utilized by aboriginal populations.

Site Boundaries

Site size was roughly 60 meters east/west by 50 meters
north/south. Its boundaries were probably determined by the
elevation of the land versus the water level. Cursory
examination of the areas outside of the midden area revealed
few artifacts. It is possible that the Cheetum site had been
physically connected to the adjacent Coleman site (DA141),
but modern disturbance made verification of this impossible.

Culture Area

The Cheetum site lies within what has been termed the
Everglades Archaeological Area (Carr and Beriault 1984;

Griffin 1988). This area occupies southeastern Florida and the
Florida Keys. It encompasses an elevated land form that acted
as a barrier to the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades drainage basin
(Carr and Beriault 1984:5). Carr and Beriault (1984:6) state
that prehistoric settlement in the Everglades area occurred on
Everglades tree islands and on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge along
the banks and mouths of rivers, creeks, and tidal estuaries.
Site types within this culture area include sand burial mounds,
rock mounds, black dirt and shell middens and earthworks.

Site History and Research Considerations

The Cheetum site was first documented in 1962 by
Laxson. Testing and excavation by the Archaeological Society
of Southern Florida began in 1979 and continued through
When it was discovered that the site was located in an
area slated for quarry expansion, an acceptable scope of work
was agreed upon by the state, the county, and the client to
allow for mitigation of the impact.
It was known that the site could offer information about
human burial activities and the physical anthropology of a
prehistoric South Florida population. There was also the
possibility that information about habitation or domestic
structures was preserved at the site as well. The Division of
Archives, History and Record Management (now Division of
Historical Resources) and the Historic Preservation Division of
Metro-Dade County proposed a scope of work that would act
as a guideline for the mitigation of the destruction of the site.
Briefly, the scope called for:

removal and redeposition of all the soil from the site,
recording and removal of human remains uncovered at
the site,
recording and mapping of any significant features and,
production of an overall site map.

Additionally, several testable propositions were generated
to help provide answers to questions concerning areas of
interest in South Florida prehistory.
Several stages of work were proposed. The first stage
involved the placement of 50 cm x 50 cm shovel tests across
the site. The second stage involved the removal of all soil


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1993

All 4 U- A- '_ -z

Figure 1. Location of Cheetum Site (DA1058). Florida Department of Transportation County Highway Map.

from the site. This was done in quadrants with the use of
heavy equipment. The final stage was the removal of the
concreted level from the site. This last stage proved to be very

Discussion and Results

Test Pits

A total of eleven 50 cm x 50 cm test pits was placed
across the site. These were placed to determine the
approximate depth of the midden soil, the depth of the
concretion level, the boundaries of the site, and the artifact

An average of 27 cm of soil (ranging from 13 to 42
centimeters) was excavated before reaching the concretion level
of the site. Due to modem disturbance at the site, a level of
fill was often noted in the first 5-10 cm below surface. The
matrix, a dark colored soil with faunal material and artifacts,
continued to within an average of 5 cm above the concretion
level. Here, a thin level of lighter, grey/black soil was noted.
Profiles of two test units are shown as Figure 2.

Soil Removal

The Cheetum site was divided into four arbitrary areas of
approximately equal size. The soil was removed

36 31 "ARDEN'M~ \Pp275
33 34po. C t

Pop.40 53 I i -Ttf4

216 20 21 222

I~~o 14U54\Po 1,

27 J 26257I
30.= 20 25 G RDN

36 -831

59 5 L
-- AI -_ -_U -erPP~1

2K _A 1

99~2 1-24-/
O4ns J 24-1r, 20

Figure 2. South profiles of shovel tests 1021N/1040E and 1020.5N/1029.5E at the Cheetum Site (DA1058).

concentrating on one quadrant at a time, by heavy equipment.
Whenever a feature was noted, the operator was told to stop.
All features were mapped onto a large site map, profiled and
removed for further analysis.
A total of 109 features was recorded at the Cheetum site.
Many were identified as natural depressions in the concretion
level, root stains or other natural anomalies. Sixty three were
identified as either postmolds or other human related anomalies
(for further discussion of many of these features see Newman


While collected artifacts can be identified as to site
quadrant, there was little stratigraphic control within the
quadrants that would identify the artifacts temporally. Table 1
is a list of the total ceramic artifact types by quadrant. The
artifacts do not represent a statistically valid sample, but rather
a random collection from the midden soil.

Table 1. Cheetum Site Artifacts.


Sand Tempered Plain
St. Johns Check Stamped
Matecumbe Incised/Miami
Dade Incised
Miami Incised
Glades Tooled
Surfside Incised
Key Largo Incised
St. Johns Plain
Ft. Drum Ticked
Ft. Drum Punctated



3 85 63
1 12 3

1 2
1 1



1 1

5 109 78 21 39



A-1 **i-k I"-.$
A-2 i.eck Mn r. ill IlW.
B QMr wit Id. mIrI

- 14


a : Or mnls

- -D lon

Ceramics identified as belonging to Glades I, Glades I
and Glades m periods were all represented, but due to the lack
of stratigraphic control, discrete stratigraphic levels were not
identified. Additionally, one fiber tempered sherd was
recovered during the removal of a large tree.
Marine shell artifacts included several Strombus gigas
"celts" and worked columellas. Lithic material included chert
cores and one coral core in addition to several limestone pieces
identified as scrapers. Additionally, artifacts utilized as
scrapers, grinders, and perforators, as well as decorative items
were identified. No diagnostic artifacts were found in context
with the burials.

Concretion Level and Burials

The hardness of the concretion level at the site posed a
problem. These compact, cement-like lenses may be found in
the middle to lower levels of south Florida middens. They
range from small portions of a site to almost entire sites, as in
the case of the Cheetum site. They have been mentioned in the
literature as early as the late 1800s (Walker 1885:857) as well
as more recently (Moore 1905:425; Laxson 1970:157; Mowers
1972:129; von Burger 1972; Coleman 1973:126; Williams and
Mowers 1979:26; Newman 1986:48; Almy and Deming
1986). An excellent explanation for the formation of these
lenses can be found in Palmer and Williams (1977).
Excavation by the Archaelogical Society of Southern
Florida had revealed human material at the site. In the
southwestern section, the Society had excavated several burials
at the bottom of the midden soil on top of the concretion level.
They noted that additional human material was located within
the concretion level. This material had to be removed.
Material embedded in the surface of the concretion was
removed with a concrete saw attached to an edger. It was then
bagged and labelled appropriately. However, this procedure
was only possible for removal of material apparent on the
surface of the concretion, which did not include most of the
human skeletal material. Human skeletal material also was
located within the concretion level with no apparent surface
exposure. To solve this problem a front-end loader was used.
The loader removed large blocks of the concreted material.
Care was used to note the block locations within the
established grid. These blocks of concreted material were then
broken into more manageable pieces. If human skeletal
material was noted (Figure 3), the pieces were labelled by their
grid designation and sent to the lab where identification and
analysis could take place. All concretion from the site was
removed in this way, but burials were only located in the
southwestern portion of the site.
Approximately 21 human burials were located within the
concretion level at the site. An exact count is not available due
to the concreted condition of the burials. Much of the human
material is still encased in the

Figure 3. Concreted material with human material, Cheetum
Site (DA1058).

concretion blocks in which it was removed. An additional
eight burials were recovered at the top of the concretion level
by the Archaeological Society of Southern Florida. Evidence
of both primary and secondary burial practices was noted.
Based upon the human material located on the surface,
excavated by the Archaeological Society of Southern Florida,
and preliminary analysis of the concreted burials, preliminary
results are offered concerning the inhabitants of the site. A
study by Davis, Davis, and Souviron (1985), based upon 128
upper and lower extremity long bone fragments from the site,
suggests that the bones were allowed to dry prior to breakage
and that "the fracturing procedure was not applied at random
but rather, within a desire to create fragments within a
predetermined size range (Davis, Davis, and Souviron
1985:3)." The authors believe that the type of clean break
fractures would also suggest that the bones were allowed to dry
prior to breakage. Several of the bones show signs of having
been "chopped with a bladed instrument" (Davis, Davis, and
Souviron 1985:4). In addition, it was found that rodent
activity occurred on some of the bone fragments prior to
interment. This evidence is consistent with the practice of
bundle burials and may suggest the use of a charnel house.
Other indications consistent with the presence of a charnel
house would be a greater than normal concentration of small

human bones. This was not noted at the site.
The 1986 investigations at the site revealed several
primary burials. One burial bears special mention. Recovered
from within the concretion level, a string of shell beads was
found directly on top of a skull. It appears that these were
placed with the body at the time of interment.
Based upon the analysis done in 1985 by Davis, Davis,
and Souviron, the dental remains place the ages of the
individuals from 1.5 to around 50+ years of age. The
majority fall within an age group of 15 to 25 years.
Two charcoal samples removed from the burial area were
sent to Beta Analytic for radiocarbon dating analysis. Sample
1 was removed from the underside of a human skull found
within the concretion level. Sample 2 was removed from the
bottom of the concretion level (7.30 feet above sea level, 50
cm below surface). Sample 1 yielded a date of 4020 + /- 370
B.P. (uncorrected) and sample 2, a date of 5120 +/- 160 B.P.
(uncorrected). Both dates are consistent with what is known
about the cultural chronology of south Florida and the
Cheetum site. No ceramics were found in association with any
of the burials within the concretion level at the site.


The Cheetum site reveals a great deal of information
about prehistoric activities in the Everglades Archaeological
Area. The wide range of artifacts and depth of the midden
deposit suggest a habitation site. The variety of artifacts
suggests a broad range of activities. The ceramics collected
from the site suggest Glades I, Glades II and Glades III
occupations at the Cheetum site although lack of stratigraphic
control makes such a statement open to conjecture.
Interestingly, only one fiber tempered sherd was recovered
from the site. Whether this represents a hiatus of site use
between Archaic and Glades period or is the result of sampling
error is not known.
The presence of exotic artifacts such as the chert and
coral artifacts suggests trade and/or contact with individuals
outside the immediate area as these materials are not found
within this region of Florida.
The C14 dates associated with the burials reveal that the
Cheetum site was used as a burial area by human populations
as early as the Archaic period. The preliminary analysis on
some of human material is consistent with the practice of
bundle burials and may suggest the use of a charnel house. In
addition, the practice of primary burials is documented.


The field crew was Joe Davis, Norma Dieppa, Joe Healy,
Debra Sandler, and Karen Sandier. Wes Coleman was the
field assistant. Without their help, knowledge, and patience
the project would not have been possible. John Carruthers,
Sue Goldman, Dennis Kennelly, Seth Lefkow, Jim Lord, Bill

Lyons, Jim McLellan and Judy Trimble from the
Archaeological Society of South Florida volunteered their
services. The Society was very supportive. Debra Sandler,
with help from Joe Davis and Norma Dieppa, are
acknowledged as the laboratory analysts and cataloguers.
Norma Dieppa prepared the artwork. Employees of Florida
Rock Industries and Marks Brothers Company were
instrumental in the successful completion of the project. A
special thanks is extended to Bob Carr and Emily Perry
Dietrich for their time, advice, and assistance during the
project. Thanks also to Brent Weisman for his editorial

References Cited

Almy, Marion and Joan Deming
1986 A Phase I Archaeological Site Assessment Survey of the
Goodman Site (8Bdl88) Broward County, Florida. Ms. on
file. Archaeological Consultants, Inc., Sarasota, Florida.

Carr, Robert S., and John G. Beriault
1984 Prehistoric Man in Southern Florida. In Environments
of South Florida, Present and Past II. Edited by Patrick
J. Gleason, pp. 1-13. Miami Geological Society, Coral
Gables, Florida.

Coleman, Wesley F.
1973 Site DA-141, Dade County, Florida.
Anthropologist 26:126-128.

The Florida

Davis, Joseph H. Jr., Joseph H. Davis, and Richard R.
1985 Investigations of Human Remains From the Cheetum
Site (8-DA-1058). Manuscript on File. Metro-Dade
County Historic Preservation Board. Miami, Florida.

Griffin, John W.
1988 The Archeology of Everglades National Park. A
Synthesis. National Park Service, Southeast
Archeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida.

Laxson, D. D.
1962 Excavations in Dade and Broward Counties, 1959-
1961. The Florida Anthropologist 15:1-10.

1970 Seven Sawgrass Middens in Dade and Broward
Counties, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 23:151-

Moore, Clarence B.
1905 Miscellaneous Investigations in Florida. Journal of the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences 13:298-325.

Mowers, Bert
1972 Concretions Associated with Glades Prehistoric Sites.
The Florida Anthropologist 25:129-131.

Newman, Christine
1986 A Preliminary Report of Archaeological Investigations
Conducted at the Cheetum Site, Dade County, Florida.
The Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Miami,

Palmer, Jay, and J. Raymond Williams
1977 The Formation of Geothite and Calcareous Lenses in
Shell Middens in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

von Burger, D. L.
1972 The Coleman Site, Dade County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 25:97-100.

Walker, S. T.
1885 Mound and Shell Heaps on the West Coast of Florida.
Smithsonian Institution Annual Report for 1883:854-868,
Washington, D.C.

Williams, Wilma B., and Bert Mowers
1979 Bishops Hammock, Broward County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 32:17-32.

Christine L. Newman
501 Boating Club Road
St. Augustine, Florida 32095


Arthur R. Lee and John G. Beriault, with Walter Buschehnan and Jean Belknap

Exploration of a small tree-island inland from Collier
County's Gulf shore has yielded information on the poorly-
documented transitional period between the Late Archaic and
the beginning of the Glades cultural sequence. Its sand-
tempered plain pottery, tool representation, and bone content
provide indications of population dynamics and subsistence and
travel habits of the period. Its exploration has implications for
the role of avocational groups in the salvage of information
from threatened, smaller sites that might not fit agendas of
contract or academic organizations.

The Site

The site, Mulberry Midden, 8CR697, is located northeast
of Naples (Figure 1) some five straight-line miles from the
Gulf shore at the head of a coastal creek and at the extremity of
a slough that is draining, perhaps as a result of modern
drainage practices.
When Collier County environmentalists told the
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society that pottery and
shell had been found on property of Sand Castle, Inc., soon to
be developed, a walking survey was made which turned up
deer bone and a whelk-shell dipper in addition to food shell
and sherds typical of Glades ware. There was no evidence of
non-aboriginal activity.
The site is on an elevation of a Pleistocene limestone
formation, rising to a maximum of 70 cm above the slough's
water level, at the north end of a hardwood hammock which
has been heavily impacted by exotic growth. Habitable surface
is about 40 x 50 meters. Vegetation includes Indian (red)
mulberry (Morus rubra), Brazilian pepper (Schinus
terebinthifolius), dahoon holly (Ilex cassine), swamp bay
(Magnolia virginiana), wild coffee (Psychotria nervosa), hog
plum (Ximenia americana), myrsine (Myrsine sp.) wild grape
(Vitis rotundifolia), giant wild pine (Tillandsia fasciculata),
spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), Florida trema (Trema
micrantha), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), greenbriar
(Smilax), and swamp (marsh) fern (Blechnum serrulatum), and
the fern Thelypteris thelypteroides, whose presence helps to
define the site.
With permission of the owner, a plane-table survey was
made of the site (Figure 2), followed by the January 6 and 7,

1990, excavation of four test pits and 23 post holes.
Recovered material was processed and stored at the Society's
Craighead Laboratory, housed in a building of the Collier
County Museum, Naples, which holds copies of a detailed site
and laboratory report.

Objectives and Methodology

The main goal of the Society's investigation was to
preserve information under threat of destruction. Specific
objectives were to determine the site's physical and cultural
extent, and to learn more about a type of site of which it is
representative--small sites with thin cultural deposits located a
number of miles inland of the Gulf shore.
For the plane-table survey, elevation was taken from the
crown of the Immokalee Road and from a bench mark a half
mile away. Intervals of 10 cm were used in plotting contours
and a series of posts was driven and marked on the map to
provide reference points for subsurface exploration.
A grid of 23 post holes was dug to sterile soil and in
some cases to bedrock. Four test pits were dug: one 1 x 2 m
and three 1 x 1 m. All were excavated to sterile soil except
No. 4 which had to be abandoned at the first level.
Excavations, oriented to magnetic north, were in arbitrary
10 cm levels. Trowels, brushes, and wooden picks were used;
earth was shaken through 1/4-inch screens. All artifacts,
including food shell, were mapped in place (Figure 3).
Column samples, 50 x 50 cm and 25 x 25 cm, were taken from
Test Pits 1 and 3 respectively and water-processed through
1/16-, 1/32-, and 1/64-inch screens. Recovered material was
slow-dried and stored in a humidity-controlled (approximately
50%) environment. Fresh edge breaks and, where necessary, a
binocular microscope, were used to determine color and
temper composition of pot sherds.
Food shell and other shell were weighed, measured, and
examined for clues as to types of waters from which they could
have been taken. Bone was identified by reference to the lab's
limited comparative collection or by the Florida Museum of
Natural History. Tabulations permitted determination of
minimum numbers of individuals. Dating was by mean of
radiocarbon analysis by Beta Analytic Inc. of Miami.


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH l"33

II ~Golf Co se:u

V.- ~ ~' 'Pl*' t

V _

t~ -~Ci~T.---P _- C



P jam
L 31
i ftdw


ii it

ii 4- E 4
*I -t

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iL 30

12 i
11 I



it %


Figure 1. A section of the Bonita Springs USGS quadrangle map. Mulberry Midden site is at right. U.S. Highway 75 is to the
east, Vanderbilt Beach five miles west. State Road 846 north of the site is the Naples-Immokalee Route, and No. 31 to the west
Naples' Airport-Pulling Road. Star marks site on inset map.



- 12


"' II 7F "

,~----- .










Figure 2. Plane-table map of Mulberry Midden showing location of test pits. Contours are in 10 cm intervals; the assumed
elevation above sea level is 500 cm at Point "A. "


Excavation revealed a thin humic layer, giving way to
chalky marl and the hard, white limestone caprock within
about 50 cm of the surface. Test pit field notes showed
essentially the same strata: a blanket of pilled duff of BB to
buckshot size over a dark plastic soil with a heavy midden
component containing clayey limestone pebbles. At about 10
cm below the surface the soil is browner and shows an
increased content of sandy marl, picking up bone, shell, and
charcoal fragments (Figure 4). The 20-30 cm layer was
lighter, with charcoal and midden refuse; the compaction
relative to the other layers speaks of occupation. For the most
part the cultural zone ended by 30 cm; one pit reached the
limestone cap at 48 cm below surface. A wider, but similar,
picture was developed by the 23 post holes, though yellow
limey or calcareous sand was encountered in two tests, both at
the 30 cm level but at separated locations at the higher part of
the site.


The site's use as a temporary hunting camp was
evidenced by--in addition to the many animal bones -- the few
tool-type artifacts, which included portions of what might have
been two bone points and a Macrocallista nimbosa shell knife
(Figure 5). A deer-rib fragment found on the surface was
beveled at one end to look like a gouge, but the bevelingg"
could be the work of a rodent.
Quahog left valves bearing marks from hammer/anvil use
were found both on the surface and in test pits (see Figure 5).
As to their employ, there were some fragments of long bone
from which marrow could have been extracted. Loose deer
teeth and antler bases show that a skull had been opened.
There was quahog valve lip chipping, which could indicate
Numerous limestone fragments of various sizes and
shapes, some with smooth edges suggesting use as abraders,
and some bearing fire marks, were found both on the surface
and underground.
One left-handed whelk shell dipper and a columella pick
(see Figure 5) were found on the surface. It is indicative of the
satellite nature of the site that, despite their presence, it held
none of the debitage normally associated with the manufacture
of such tools.


Of major interest is the site's ceramic content. The bulk
of the pottery was found at a level that has been radiocarbon
dated at earlier than 3,000 B.P. -- a period in which fiber
tempering was commonly used, though giving way in its later
phases to sand tempering (Bullen and Bullen 1976; Russo et al.
1991; Carr and Beriault 1984; Widmer 1974). All sherds were

sand-tempered and many showed considerable sophistication
(i.e., wall thicknesses of about 3 mm and carefully turned
edges) though none was decorated.
Five rim shapes are represented (Figure 6). All were
incurving, though the orientation of one was nearly straight;
three types had lips folded in varying degrees; the lips of two
of those and another were flattened diagonally; one lip was
rounded and another tapered. Sand used as temper varied from
coarse to fine with occasional spicules. Pot diameters at the
orifice were from 18 to 32 cm. Colors varied from the
tan/brown shades to grey, with some, apparently re-heated by
a cooking fire, having shades of red and pink.
A total of 1,398 g of pottery was recovered, 167.5 from
the surface, 112.5 from 0-120 cm levels, 676.0 from 1-20 cm,
429.0 from 20-30 cm, and 12.9 from 30-40 cm (sherd/level
relationships are skewed because circumstances forced closing
Test Pit 4 at the first--0-10 cm--level; total Level 1 weight
without the contribution of T.P. 4 is 56.1 g).


A fragment of pristine quahog shell from Test Pit 1,
Level 2, the zone of most intense occupation (Stratum E in
Figure 4), was dated (Beta 50711) at 2990 +/- 70 radiocarbon
years before present, uncorrected. Since that date seemed old
for the apparently advanced Glades-type pottery, a second test
was run on an unmodified pear whelk shell from the same
level. It was dated (Beta 53141) at 3000 +/- 80 uncorrected
radiocarbon years before present (present A.D. 1950) or
around 1395 B.C. when calibrated (Stuiver and Reimer 1987).
The date was corroborated by a carbon-13 test. It is to be
noted that the sediments contained no sterile areas of major
size between occupation zones--periods of occupation
apparently were not widely separated.
Sand-tempered plain ware is not unknown at that date:
the Bullens (1976:9,13) found such sherds in the Hill Cottage
Midden of the Sarasota area in association with semi-fiber-
tempered plain and Orange Incised at a level dated at about
1400 B.C. which they ascribed to the Florida Transitional
In Dade County, fiber-tempered sherds have been found
at about the 3000 B.P. period (Carr et al. 1984). An
interesting discovery was made on Horr's Island, just south of
Marco Island, where Russo and Cordell (Russo et al. 1991:
Table 9.8) found one sand-tempered plain sherd and one fiber-
tempered plain sherd in the same level and a single fiber-
tempered plain sherd at the level just beneath them in a period
they called the "Terminal Late Archaic/Transitional."
Sears for Fort Center created four periods; its first period

runs from roughly 1000 B.C. to perhaps A.D. 250.
The early part of this period is marked by semi-
fiber-tempered pottery. During the period the
amount of fiber decreased and the sand content


Figure 3. Mapping artifacts, Test Pit 1.

A Surficial stratum (0-9 cm); dark sandy midden soil, heavy concentration ofhumic material, lateral roots, clayey (worm) castings. Little cultural material other
than oyster shell which appears in discrete "handfuls," especially in NE corner.

B Possible fire or trash pit with more charcoal and bone than surrounding area, including portions of a deer skull and antler fragments.

C Cultural interface zone (19-33 cm); marly, grey soil heavily charged with small charcoal particles; compacted; bones of snake, raccoon, fish, deer teeth.
Cultural material decreases, small marly limestone "pebbles" increase.

D Possible trash pit with marine shells, mostly immature univalves such as whelk and tulip.

E Main cultural level (9-27 cm); blackish-brown midden soil slightly lighter than surficial layer. The zone grades into a layer with small charcoal and bone
fragments. Many of the small shell fragments are from Polygyra and Euglandina terrestrial snails. There are several discrete lenses of more intense debris.

F Limestone basal zone (30 + cm); light grey to white; chalky, marly, culturally sterile. Friable marl grades down to harder and more compact limestone with a
sandy component.
(Drawing from field notes).

Figure 4. Test Pit 1, Eastern Wall.





A -:b- -. .- -..

C |;-I
________ ______ D

Figure 5. Artifacts from the Mulberry midden: a) fragment of possible bone point or pin; b) Macrocallista valve, possible knife; c);
modified Quahog shell; notch suggests use as scraper; d) Quahog valve showing damage as from hammer/anvil use, edge chipping;
e) columella pick. Shown approximately actual size.


Smal fold



Rim Sherds
122, 123, 60
fit together.
T.P. 4 Level 1


T.P.1 Level 2


T.P.1 Level 2



Figure 6. Rim sherds from Mulberry Midden.

increased, so that by the end of the period most of
the pottery was sand-tempered plain ware

Widmer (1988:Table 2) lists 500 B.C. as the earliest date
for the Glades tradition and his Table 3 shows 3500 B.P., a
little earlier than Mulberry Midden, as the earliest date for the
Pre-Glades mI period for South Florida with Orange Plain and
Incised, Perico Incised, and steatite as diagnostic. That table
starts the Transitional Period at 2950 B.P. with Norwood Plain
as the diagnostic ceramic.
Mulberry Midden's dates would place it at the beginning
of the Transitional, earlier, actually, than the 1000 B.C. date
sometimes given the first part of that period.


Other than the tools, the greatest evidence of the site's
use as a hunting camp, perhaps to provision a more permanent
community on the Gulf shore, comes from bones. Deer bone
or diagnostic fragments found on the surface and in the test
pits four levels showed both on-site consumption and possible
exportation elsewhere. On the other hand, presence of the
remains of local fauna indicates that the occupants lived off the
land to a degree, though they did consume food from Gulf
Judging from bones found at the location, at least one
hind quarter and one forequarter of deer from Test Pit 4
(Figure 7) and four quarters from the surface (though surface
finds can be accorded less credence than materials found
underground in appropriate association) would have been
either used as camp meat or stripped (and dried?) for transport
elsewhere. Barring the (considered unlikely) possibility that
all the missing bones are in an unexcavated part of the site or
left at kill sites or taken by scavengers, the bulk of the deer
meat would have been removed.
Other animals represented include raccoon, squirrel,
rabbit, turtle, frog, and four species of snake. Also present are
remains of a great blue heron, salamander, greater siren, drum,
snook, weakfish, jack, gar, bowfin, two species of shark, and
catfish. Shellfish includes oysters, quahog, sunray venus, surf
clam, lightning and pear whelk, and a scattering of other
Testament to the light use made of the site is its relatively
modest shell content. Test pits yielded 280 bivalves and 67
univalves, these including a minimum of 206 oysters, 39
quahog clams, 17 sunray venus, 10 surf clams, and 44
lightning and pear whelk, plus ones and twos of other shellfish
varieties. Considering the 10 calories provided by the average
oyster (Adams 1975) and the 3,000 calories burned by an
active individual in the course of a day, it would appear that
the shells represent food for a restricted number of people for a

short period of time.
Oyster shell shapes and traces of predator damage provide
evidence that most came from a sub-tidal growth environment.
A total of 46 percent of left valves had an intermediate shape
(i.e., height/length ratio [HLR] between 1.3 and 2.0 associated
with sub-tidal bottoms), and 19 percent had an elongate shape
(HLR >2.0) indicative of inter-tidal origin (Lawrence 1989;
Kent 1982). (Shapes could not be determined for some valves
which were broken but complete enough to identify as
individuals.) Fifty-one percent showed predator damage or
commensals compatible with sub-tidal environments of
brackish to high salinity.
An intriguing find was a tight cluster of 15 unattached
acorn barnacle shells not far from an apparent hearth (Stratum
B of Figure 4) in Level 2 of Test Pit 1 (stripped into the pot
from mangrove roots?). A total of 33 unattached individual
barnacles was found.
Sixteen left and no right quahog clam valves were found
intact; analysis of valves and fragments yielded an MNI of 39.
Other food sources include 50 whelk, all small and of the
gracile type, many showing rough breakage of the spire or
outer whorl. Crown conch from Stratum E of Test Pit 1,
Level 2, displayed an interesting uniformity in the pattern of
breakage of the outer whorl, the start of the breaks measuring
an average of 93 degrees from the whorl's edge. Shell from
the site area included that of Euglandina rosea, Elliptio
buckleyi (Florida shiny spike), and apple snail.


The possibility that quantities of deer meat were exported
to the shore, and evidence that fish and shellfish had been
imported from there, suggest that canoes had been used to
service the camp. Both types of food have considerable
weight, which would be less of a burden if transported by
water. The site is on a swamp near the headwaters of a tidal
Some of the fish would have been brought to the site
more or less intact, since the soil yielded otoliths and other
head parts. Preservation in sub-tropical heat would have been
a problem if backpacked from estuarine waters. Were the trip
made by canoe, the fish could have been kept alive, perhaps a
few hours, by being trailed in the water alongside; use of dried
fish cannot be excluded, however.


There appears to be little doubt that Mulberry Midden
was used as a temporary camp at various times by a small
number of people engaged in exploiting the region (Figure 8).
Hunting was certainly an important activity and there is room
for conjecture that it could have helped to supply a more

permanent community. There is a strong suggestion that
canoes had been used in transport to and from the site.
The hunters lived off the land to a degree, but the small
quantities of bone and shell involved, many of the food species
being represented by single individuals, indicate that the
human population was never great. Fairly concentrated or
repeated use, however, is indicated by compacted floors found
in test pits and the fact that at least five pots had been broken
That pottery was sand-tempered plain, radiocarbon dated
to the beginning of the transitional period between Archaic and
Glades cultures. As such, it gives rise to speculation as to the
population with which it is associated. Much of such
conjecture centers around the rise of Gulf waters and the
concomitant development of the highly fertile estuarine system
which ultimately was to support substantial fisheries-based
communities. Widmer (1988:213, 216) describes such a
gradual development; Russo et al. (1991:238) reports year-
round occupation of Horr's Island, not far from Mulberry
Midden, in the Late Archaic.
Griffin writes that during the latter part of the fiber-
tempered period

much of the rim around the Everglades and down
into the Upper Keys was sparsely settled, while, so
far as we know, the Everglades proper were not yet
being used, perhaps because of their immature stage
of development (1988:132).

Thus we have an area with an apparently increasing
population whose cultural deposits have contained largely
fiber-tempered ceramics. Into this Mulberry Midden exposes a
full-blown sand-tempered industry, raising the question as to
whether we are seeing indigenous potters learning new
techniques (from contacts with other regions?), or whether
foreign people are entering the area. (Note that the only sand-
tempered plain pottery as old as that found at Mulberry
Midden known to the writers was in the Sarasota area well
north of Collier County.) Other tools the Mulberry campers
left behind--the Busycon shell dipper and columella pick--are
traditional to the area, dating from the Archaic.
Newcomers or old families, their traces (buried in a
modest site outside the protection of the legal system in effect)
have been saved by the cooperative effort of a group of
avocational archaeologists volunteering their time out of
devotion to the past, and the owners. This cooperative work
indicates that the site is significant to Southwest Florida's past
and that it deserves protection.

Postscriptum: Steps Toward Preservation

Some of Mulberry Midden's information has been
recovered, and now the site itself has been given a measure of
protection by the owners recently ceding it to the county as an

environmental easement; further, its formal designation as a
county archaeological site is under consideration. Such
"designated" status would accord it further protection in
accordance with Collier County's Historic Preservation


Field work was directed by John G. Beriault, including
initial surveys, design of test pit excavations, and plane-table
mapping with the technical assistance of Joseph Long. Post
holing, laboratory work, and report preparation were directed
by Arthur R. Lee.
Field crews included Betty Anholt, Linda Ballou, Jean
and Toni Belknap, Paul and Phyllis Benedict, Walt and Mary
Buschelman, John Dante, Hunter Felt, Jack Gaddy, Brent
Hansen, Bud and Shirley House, Lynn Lee, Joe and Freda
Long, Leo Ruble, Ray Sequin, Charlie Strader, Anne Taylor,
Jack Thompson, Barbara and Reed Toomey, Suzan Watts, Dr.
Keith and Anne Waterhouse, Mike Weinberg, and Eleanore
Laboratory crews included Walt Buschelman, who
organized procedures and analyzed shell; Jean Belknap, who
worked on ceramics and did sketching; and Lynn Lee and Dr.
Aubrey and Dolores Sparks, who were the bone specialists.
Advice on ceramic analysis was provided by Ann S.
Cordell of the Florida Museum of Natural History, whose Dr.
Arlene Fradkin and Laura Kozuch identified the more exotic
bones. Dr. Brent Weisman and George Luer gave editorial
and other help and the Collier County Museum, directed by
Ron Jamro, provided the logistical support.

References Cited

Adams, Catherine F.
1975 Nutritive Value of American Foods. Agriculture
Handbook No. 456, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Bullen, Ripley P., and Adelaide K. Bullen
1976 The Palmer Site. Florida Anthropological Society
Publications, Number 8.

Carr, Robert S., and John G. Beriault
1984 Prehistoric Man in South Florida. In Environments of
South Florida: Present and Past II, edited by P.J.
Gleason, pp. 1-14, Geological Society Memoir 2, Miami.

Carr, Robert S., M. Yasar Iscan, and Richard A. Johnson
1984 A Late Archaic Cemetery in South Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 37:172-188.

Griffin, John W.
1988 The Archeology of Everglades National Park. A
Synthesis. National Park Service, Tallahassee, Florida.

Kent, B. W.
1982 Making Dead Oysters Talk: Techniques for Analyzing
Oysters from Archaeological Sites. Maryland Historical
Trust, St. Mary's City, MD.

Lawrence, D. R.
1989 Oysters as Geoarchaeological Objects: Environmental
Sources of Oysters. Geoarchaeology: International
Journal 3:267-274.

Russo, Michael, with Ann S. Cordell, Lee Newsom, and
Sylvia Scudder
1991 Final Report of Horr's Island: The Archaeology of
Archaic and Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns
Part II. Florida Museum of Natural History, Department
of Anthropology, Gainesville.

Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. University Presses of Florida,

Stuiver, Mince, and P. J. Reimer
1987 Radiocarbon, Calibration Program 1987, Rev. 1.3.
Quaternary Isotope Lab, University of Washington,

Widmer, Randolph J.
1974 Survey and Assessment of Archaeological Resources on
Marco Island, Collier County, Florida. Report of Bureau
of Historic Sites and Properties, Florida Department of
State, Tallahassee.

1988 The Evolution of the Calusa; A Nonagricultural
Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Arthur R. Lee
John G. Beriault
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965
Naples, Florida 33041


Brent R. Weisman

The roster of popeyed bird-head effigies in Florida is
increased by one with the recent discovery of a specimen in
apparent association with an eroding shell midden in the
general vicinity of Tiger Tail Bay of the Homosassa River,
Citrus County, Florida (Figure 1). The artifact was found in
the shallow water of the tidal zone by Steven Nguyen of
Homosassa, who, with his uncle Frank Ward, also of
Homosassa, reported the find to park ranger Leroy Smith of
the Crystal River State Archaeological Site. Mr. Smith
contacted me, and arrangements were made with Mr. Ward for
me to obtain the specimen on loan for photography and
documentation. After this was done, the artifact was returned
to Mr. Ward, where it remains in his family's possession.


The specimen was taken to the Department of Geology at
the University of Florida where it was identified independently
by Dr. Michael R. Perfit and Dr. Anthony Randazzo as being
of volcanic rock, either a tuff (rock blown from a volcanic
eruption) or a basalt or andesite. Hand lens examination
revealed that up to 60 percent of the rock contained crystals of
plagioclase feldspar. Thin-sectioning of the rock, the only
certain way to confirm its identification and to match it to a
probable point of origin, was not possible. Both geologists,
however, suggested that the rock is typical of island arcs such
as the Antilles or continental margins such as Mexico, with
some possibility of origin in the western United States or the
southern Appalachian area. Regardless, the stone is not
originally from Florida.


The artifact (Figure 2) is 8.5 cm long, 4.9 cm tall (to the
top of the crest), 2.4 cm wide at the beak, and 2.7 cm thick at
the base. The crest is smooth and tapers slightly to a rounded
point. The raised "popeyes," inside raised circles, are
approximately 2 cm in diameter, although the right eye is
larger and more bulging than the left. In the lower curve of
the beak is a simple wattle which curves slightly to the left
side. The object may have been snapped or broken from a
larger piece, but the irregular appearance of the base may have
resulted from erosion. Curiously, what can be interpreted as a

crude representation of a human face can be seen on the base.
When holding the object in the correct position to view the
face, the popeyes become ear or earspool-like features (Figure
2, bottom).

Comparison to Other Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies

Luer (1992) describes ten popeyed bird-head effigies
from west-central and southwest Florida, nine of which are
pottery adornos while one is carved and painted wood. Six
specimens are from burial mounds. The Homosassa bird-head

Figure 1. Locations mentioned in the text.


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1993

Figure 2. The Homosassa bird-head: top) side view; bottom)
view of base showing possible face.

is stone, in contrast to the previously described specimens, and
appears to be unique in that respect. While stone bird- heads
are not unknown in Florida (Bullen 1972) as plummets or
pendants, in style the Homosassa specimen appears to be one
of a kind. With specific reference to Luer, the reader will see
that the Homosassa artifact shares traits in a general way with
several illustrated specimens (the crest of Specimen #3,
unearthed by C.B. Moore from 8CI3, on the Chassahowitzka
River; the beak of the Patale specimen) but is not exactly
identical with any, including those from Weeki Wachee

(Mitchem et al. 1985) and the Tatham Mound (Mitchem
1989:Figure 7) not shown by Luer. None have the well-
developed wattle of the Homosassa bird.

Temporal Placement and Overall Context

Luer has provided ample evidence for the late prehistoric
and early contact period dating (ca. A.D. 1400-1700) for
Florida popeyed bird-head effigies. By association, the
Homosassa artifact can be given this same dating, although
specific contextual archaeological information is lacking. Late
prehistoric period pottery sherds (of the Safety Harbor
archaeological culture) have been collected in limited amounts
from shell middens along the Homosassa River but, despite the
recent state acquisition of large tracts in the area between the
Homosassa River and Crystal River, many of the larger shell
middens from which these sherds have been collected remain in
private ownership. Only one small possible Safety Harbor
burial mound is known in the direct Homosassa vicinity
(Bullen 1951), although Safety Harbor burial components at
the Tatham Mound in eastern Citrus County (Mitchem 1989),
Crystal River-(Weisman 1993), Buzzards Island (Willey 1949),
and Weeki Wachee (Mitchem et al. 1985) have been described.
This raises the unfortunate possibility that the Homosassa
bird-head is an incidental or isolated find, only weakly
connected (if at all) to a local Safety Harbor population whose
ritual center was elsewhere. More optimistically, the
possibility exists that the artifact marks the former (and
undiscovered) presence of a local but vigorous Safety Harbor
ritual and political center in the area of the Homosassa and
Little Homosassa rivers. If this is the case (and I hope it is),
then the large shell mounds at 8CI135 and around Tiger Tail
Bay should be of future interest.
Numerous other questions remain and will give rise to
easy and abundant speculation. Was the artifact made locally?
Where did the stone come from? Is the "face" the result of
erosion or intentional human manufacture?
Given the relatively poor state of our knowledge
concerning aboriginal habitation in the Homosassa area
(despite a large number of sites) further inferences regarding
artifact function and cultural context will be difficult to
develop. Further stylistic analysis is possible of course and
may be particularly interesting if the scope of comparison is
broadened beyond Florida.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1951 The Gard Site, Homosassa Springs, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 4:27-31.
1972 A Stone Bird Head Plummet From Kissimmee, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 25:92.

Luer, George M.
1992 Mississippian-Period Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies in
West-Central and Southwest Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 45:52-62.

Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1989 Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/Protohistoric
Archaeology in West Peninsular Florida. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Marvin T. Smith, Albert C. Goodyear,
and Robert Allen
1985 Early Spanish Contact on the Florida Gulf Coast: The
Weeki Wachee and Ruth Smith Mounds. In Indians,
Colonists, and Slaves: Essays in Memory of Charles H.
Fairbanks, edited by Kenneth W. Johnson, Jonathan M.
Leader, and Robert C. Wilson, pp. 179-219. Florida
Journal of Anthropology Special Publication Number 4,

Weisman, Brent R.
1993 Crystal River: A Prehistoric Ceremonial Center on the
Florida Gulf Coast. Florida Archaeology 8, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113. Washington, D.C.

Brent R. Weisman
C.A.R.L. Project Office
714 NE 7th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Julian Granberry

In William F. Keegan's The People Who Discovered
Columbus: The Prehistory of the Bahamas (Florida Museum of
Natural History, Ripley P. Bullen Series, Columbus
Quincentenary Series, University Press of Florida, Gainesville,
1992. xx + 279 pp., figures, maps, tables, preface,
acknowledgments, bibliography, index. $39.95) we have the
first and to date only published attempt at a broad, single-
volume coverage on the aboriginal peoples and cultures of the
Lucayan Archipelago, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, and
the Crown Colony of the Turks and Caicos Islands. The
professional and lay reader alike will find the volume well-
written, informative, and, in some sections, provocative. It
should certainly be on the shelves of every specialist in West
Indian archaeology and will be of value to those interested in
broadening their techniques for the use of archaeological data
in ethnographic reconstruction and subsequent prehistoric
Like most volumes, this one has its high points and its
low points. The high points are quite high--an importantly
innovative use of archaeological data to study selected
prehistoric Lucayan ethnographic themes and a writing style
that makes the reader want to read on, to discover the solutions
to the problems. Such high points characterize the bulk of the
volume: Chapters 2--Introduction to the Geology, Geography,
Climate, and Ecology of the Pre- Columbian Bahamas, 4--
Settlement and Settlers: Lucayan Settlement Patterns, 5--Honor
The Mother's Brother: Lucayan Social and Political
Organization, 6-Diet for a Small Island: Lucayan Subsistence
Economy, 7-Population and Procreation: Lucayan
Demography, 8-Christopher Columbus and the City of Gold,
and 9-Las Islas de Lucayos, 1499- 1520.
The low points, however, are also there, and, I fear, are
as low as the hight points are high. Specifically, the crucial
data summoned in Chapters 1-Before the Beginning and 3--
The Taino Colonization of the Bahamas, the only two chapters
specifically on prehistory, are, for reconstructive purposes,
distressingly incomplete. Such problems, however, do not
appreciably detract from an overall assessment of the volume
as an unusually important contribution to the body of
anthropological literature on the West Indies.
The final chapter, Chapter 10-After the End: Reflections
on a Paleoethnography, which might have been more useful as

part of the Preface, gives the reader the theoretical
underpinnings and methodologies used in the book. It is
suggested that, after reading the Preface, one should read
Chapter 10 first to gain a clear appreciation of the body of the
The reader should also bear constantly in mind that
archaeological work in the Lucayan Archipelago is only in its
late infancy, and there will certainly be data-based changes to
many of Dr. Keegan's sometimes overly definite assumptions,
data presentations, and interpretations. He nonetheless has had
the courage to "stick his neck out" and be the first to sketch at
least one possible scenario of Lucayan origins and culture as
we see it today.

Theory and Method

It must be pointed out at the onset that The People Who
Discovered Columbus, in spite of its subtitle, was not intended
to cover and does not deal with prehistory in the sense most of
us are used to an archaeologically based description of the
origins and development of the prehistoric peoples and cultures
of an area through time but, rather, provides an almost
exclusively spatial interpretation of certain specific
ethnographic and demographic traits as inferred through the
application of a set of rigorous models to a select and finite
corpus of archaeological data. This method establishes a set of
inferential ethnographic themes which, in the author's opinion,
permeated Lucayan culture.
The author has done this quite purposefully: "the present
study has a very weak handle on time, and spatial organization
is the primary basis for comparisons and inferences" (p. 225).
He is also well aware that such a departure from the norm,
with its broadly anthropological rather than exclusively
archaeological approach, represents "a break with previous
West Indian culture histories" (p. 225) and that "the basis for
the present study had little to do with the people whose lives
provided the empirical tests" (p. 229). He rightly considers
the picture he presents a paleoethnography: "a portrait of a
past society built up from traditional ethnographic categories"
It is the author's use of models and analytical techniques
hitherto largely unexploited for ethnographic reconstruction by


MARCH 1993

Vol. 46 No.1

archaeologists, and demonstration of their analytical capacities,
as well as the specific ethnographic domains the author
reconstructs, which mark the book as a uniquely original
contribution to West Indian archaeology. The dimension of
ethnographic reconstruction through attention to spatially
defined artifact distributions is not, of course, unique, in spite
of the use of the specific paleoethnography label, for such has
always been one of the two primary, coordinate dimensions of
archaeological reconstruction, the other being the temporal
dimension of prehistory itself. It must also be pointed out that
the paleoethnography so ably presented by the author is not,
and presumably is not intended to be, a total
paleoethnography. It is primarily concerned with things
demographic, the subsistence base of the society in question,
and that society's overall social and political structure as seen
through the use of macroeconomic, ecological, and
demographic models. The volume emerges in a sense more a
sociometric study than a study in prehistory.
Whether one agrees with this epistemology of cultural
materialism or not, the author's open espousal of that stance
and his use of its premises and models in the individual
chapters of the volume are honest, logical, and, if not the God-
Given Truth, quite informative and frequently provocative in
terms of the future lines of inquiry and data-gathering they
imply. It is, in short, important to realize that the volume
under review is both a highly unorthodox and highly
innovative study of certain selected ethnographic themes of
Lucayan prehistory, not a study of Lucayan prehistory itself.
It pretends neither to be a standard nor complete coverage of
either topic.
For these reasons, however, the book's title is a bit
misleading. Given its treatment of the subject matter, I would
have titled it something like: The People Who Discovered
Columbus: Essays on the Use of Selected Paleoethnographic
Techniques in the Interpretation of Lucayan Prehistory. I
specifically substitute the word Lucayan for Bahamas since the
latter does not include the Turks and Caicos Islands, a crucial
segment of the archipelago, and, importantly, since the
governments of both parts of the islands feel rather
understandably offended if one is left out by name in a treatise
that clearly concerns them both.
Lastly, while The People Who Discovered Columbus is as
it stands a unique and well-done paleoethnography of selected
Lucayan culture patterns, I think most readers would have
preferred a presentation that was both paleoethnography and
prehistory. It is particularly difficult for the nonspecialist to
see the Lucayans through ethnographic themes alone; he also
needs the more time-oriented, artifactually based view of
Lucayan history--potsherds and all. This, however, is not
what the author chose to do, and his inferences from the data
he has used are perhaps all the more informative because they
have not been imbedded in the full panoply of artifactual data.
It's a matter of point of view, and each reader will come away
with different feelings on this topic.

Data and Data-Use

In spite of the fact that this volume is, and will, I think,
remain, important for both Antillean studies and
paleoethnographic method there are, as I have indicated, a
number of important data gaps in Chapters 1 and 3. These
lacunae are crucial, since what is left out is frequently as or
more important than what is included, or, if taken into
consideration, would modify what was included.
For example, the initial chapter, Before the Beginning:
Native Peoples of the West Indies, if taken at face-value, would
be a bird's-eye view of what is presently known of pre-
Columbian Antillean peoples setting the stage for the
discussion of the Lucayan people later in the volume. In fact,
however, this is not the case. The chapter treats only the
genesis and development of a single Antillean people, the
Classic Taino of the Greater Antilles, with additional
consideration of two isolated problems in pre-Columbian
ethnic identification: Who were the Guanahatabey and the
Island Carib? The other native peoples, Casimiroid,
Ortoiroid, Redondan, Courian, Western Taino, Eastern Taino,
Ciguayo, Macoris, and Ciboney, spanning the period from ca.
4,000 B.C. to protohistoric times, are mentioned only in
As a result of such inadequate data consideration, the
Guanahatabey of the Cabo San Antonio region of far western
Cuba are dismissed as a figment of 16th-century Spanish
imagination and poor 20th century archaeology in spite of the
fact that we have solid archaeological, linguistic, and
ethnohistoric data indicating the presence of an ceramic, non-
Taino, non-Arawak people in Cuba's far western Pinar del Rio
province--the region called in those days by the non-Taino,
Warao name Guaniganuico "Land Where the Moon Sets"-
from approximately 2,000 B.C. (Residuario Fuenche) to at
least 1300 A.D. (Mogote de la Cueva) and no data to support a
Taino presence in this part of Cuba at any time period.
The most serious data gap of Chapters 1 and 3, however,
is the failure to distinguish Taino subgroups from one another,
either archaeologically: Western Taino, Classic Taino, Eastern
Taino; ethnically: Cuban Ciboney, Hispaniolan Ciboney,
Lucayo, Classic Taino, Lucayan Taino, Borinqueno; or
linguistically: Ciboney Taino, Classic Taino. The author
erroneously says that the Ciguayo, Macorix, and Ciboney were
but "subgroupings" of the Taino (p. 11), though we know with
certainty from Las Casas and Pane, the only two contemporary
participant-observer chroniclers, that the Ciguayo and Macoris
spoke languages mutually unintelligible with Taino and with
each other and that all had customs which differed from one
another (Las Casas 1875:11, 120; V, 256, 486; 1909: Chap.
120; Arrom 1974:49-50). Linguistic and toponymic data
positively substantiate these statements and indicate that neither
language was even Arawakan (Granberry 1987, 1991). We are
also explicitly told that the Ciboney

language, while a dialect of Taino, was not the same as Classic
Taino (Las Casas: 1875: III, 463ff). There are also sufficient
language data to substantiate this statement as well (Granberry
This unfortunate lumping of non-Taino, Classic Taino,
and the various Taino subgroups into an ill-defined,
amorphous whole--a kind of "generic Taino"--has far-reaching
implications for Dr. Keegan's entire paleoethnographic
reconstruction of Lucayan society, for he assumes, without
data support, that the Lucayans were, in the first place, a
unitary, single people and, secondly, that they were "Taino"',
subgrouping(s) unspecified. To say, in short, simply that "the
Taino" colonized the islands is not enough. It is important to
know which variety or varieties may have contributed to the
ethnic and cultural formation of the Lucayan people. The
question "Who were the Lucyans?" is crucial to the building of
a Lucayan paleoethnography as well as a Lucayan prehistory,
is not even asked in this volume .
The answer to that question becomes of particularly
critical importance when the author suggests an extension of
the probable Classic Taino matri-focal, avuncular socio-
political system into the Lucayan Islands (Chapter 5). If the
Lucayans were, indeed, simply a single, unitary extension of
the Classic Taino, then an extension of the Classic Taino socio-
political system into the islands does seem reasonable and
logical. If, on the other hand, as may be the case, the
Lucayans were, rather, Taino-speaking Ciboney, an ethnic
amalgam of Ciboney and Classic Taino, or a non-unitary little
bit of all of this, differing by island or island-groups, then the
presence of an islands-wide, cleanly defined matri-focal,
avuncular socio-political system becomes considerably more
problematic, distributional site data notwithstanding. While I
personally feel that Dr. Keegan's extension of some variety of
that system into the Lucayan archipelago is largely correct, in
our field, feelings do not count, only data.
In Chapter 3--The Taino Colonization of the Bahamas,
there are again omissions and errors of fact that must be
corrected. On p. 48 the author states, for example, that "the
majority opinion states that the Bahamas was colonized after
A.D. 800, coincident with the development of Meillacan
pottery and the expansion of the Tainos into Central Cuba."
He attributes the concept of an earlier, Ostionan settlement to
himself. This is simply not so. Most specialists in this field
(Tony Aarons, Mary Jane Berman, Charles Hoffman, Ian
Lothian, Richard Rose, Irving Rouse, Shaun Sullivan, the late
Gary Vescelius, John Winter, and the present writer) have long
been of the opinion that the islands were probably first settled -
"first" in terms of ceramic-making peoples-as Keegan himself
feels, "at least a century earlier" during Ostionan Ostionoid
times. In fact, data from Mary Jane Berman's work on San
Salvador, in spite of some radiocarbon problems, now seem
likely to confirm this long-held suspicion, first voiced by
Hoffman in 1967 (Hoffman 1967:66ff).

Though the islands must currently be considered
uninhabited prior to probable Ostionan Ostionoid settlement in
the 7th century A.D., on the basis of presently inconclusive
and insufficient data from Grand Bahama, New Providence,
and the Berry Islands, it has, in fact, been suggested, that the
first settlement of the archipelago may have taken place well
before the birth of Christ. The settlers would have been pre-,
non-Arawakan groups from the north coast of Cuba, bearers of
the archaeological ceramic Redondan tradition. This
suggestion was first raised by the late Herbert Krieger (Krieger
1937:98). More recently site types, site locations, and certain
artifactual types from the ceramic South Victoria Beach site
on Paradise Island (Bahamas Archaeological Team 1984) and
from the Gold Rock Creek site on Grand Bahama (Granberry
ms) show strong similarity to equivalent traits in ceramic sites
on the northern coast of Cuba as described by Osgood (1942).
The majority of us in the field, that is, have, to my knowledge,
never stated, categorically or otherwise, that the Lucayan
Archipelago was first colonized only after A.D. 800, and most
of us have at least viscerally felt that first ceramic settlement
came in Ostionan Ostionoid times.
In that chapter Dr. Keegan also describes three opinions
concerning the location of the initial "Taino" settlement in the
archipelago (p. 51f), attributing one--initial settlement on
Long Island from Cuba--to John Winter, Arthur Leibold, and
myself (Winter, Granberry, and Leibold 1985). When I first
read this statement (pp. 51-53) I was, to put it mildy,
nonplussed, inasmuch as the only mention of Long Island in
the Winter, Granberry, Leibold article is a citation of the
Keegan-Mitchell site survey of that island (Winter, Granberry,
and Leibold 1985:88)--without discussion. The entire thrust of
that article was, in fact, that all data pointed to multiple "first"
settlements, coming from both Cuba and Hispaniola to various
islands in the archipelago. A seminal article by Winter and
Gilstrap (1991, but available since 1987), describing an
isotopic analysis of the trace elements in Bahamian, Cuban,
and Hispaniolan ceramic specimens, points in the same
direction. In our article the most likely candidate for an initial
ceramics-bearing settlement island, in any case, was Great
Inagua, not Long Island (Winter, Granberry, and Leibold
The reader is also told that the Cuba-Long Island route
was suggested "before archaeological research had been
conducted in the central and southern Bahamas" and that we
"felt that the Tainos were severely restricted in their
movements by limited seafaring abilities." In fact, Winter had
conducted both site surveys and excavations on Crooked Island
and Rum Cay prior to the 1985 date (Winter 1978), I had
reported on an excavation by Rainey on that same island
(Granberry 1978), and rather extensive site surveys had been
conducted by Theodoor De Booy in 1912 (De Booy 1912,
1913) and in 1934 by Froelich Rainey (Rainey 1934) of all the
central and southern islands. It is certainly true that the most

thorough site surveys of the central and southern islands are
those conducted by Keegan (Keegan 1983a, 1983b; Keegan
and Mitchell 1984a, 1984b; Keegan, Williams, and Seim
1990), but they are by no means either the earliest or the only
surveys of those islands.
We had also commented specifically on the Taino's well-
known, well-documented outstanding maritime abilities
(Winter, Granberry, and Leibold 1985:83). It has been very
evident since Columbus' times that the Taino were extremely
competent seafarers and that, as Rouse demonstrated many
years ago, units of water such as the channels between islands
linked rather than separated cultural units (Rouse 1951;
Granberry 1987, 1992, 1993).
With regard to this putative "theory," it is lastly stated
that one rationale we felt supported our contention was that
Columbus' Lucayan informants had told him that there was
trade between Long Island and the Cuban coast. Again, such
an assumption was never made and never would have been
inasmuch as Columbus was simply told that there was trade
between some island, which he named Fernandina, in the
central Bahamas and the north Cuban coast. That island's
identification as the modern Long Island is up for grabs. It
may or may not have been Long Island. I can only add that I
know of no professional Lucayanist who subscribes, would
subscribe, or has ever subscribed to such a Cuba-Long Island
initial "Taino" settlement hypothesis. There is no reference to
it in the literature at any date or from any source.
Dr. Keegan himself agrees with the probability that Great
Inagua saw the, or one of the, first 'Taino' settlements in the
Lucayan Islands, though he feels that this proposal initiates
with him and that the source of the settlement was the Ft.
Liberte region of north Haiti, specifically during Ostionan
Ostionoid times (the A.D. 600's). His rationale is good and his
data well-summoned and presented, particularly the fact that
analysis of rock samples from Inaguan beach debris indicates
that a Ft. Liberte region source is feasible. The only problem
I can see with this route might be the name of the island itself,
Inagua, which, in both Ciboney and Classic Taino Arawakan,
means "Small Eastern Land' (i eastern + -na- small + -wa
land). Inagua lies to the northeast of the north Cuban coast but
to the northwest of Ft. Liberte and the Haitian coast. There is,
however, no necessary reason why the name would have to
have been given the island by its initial settlers, and I would
certainly not rule out the author's hypothesis. It needs, as he
suggests, archaeological testing.


The People Who Discovered Columbus remains, in spite
of my sometimes harsh criticisms of specific chapters in the
immediately preceding section, one of the most important
volumes to be published in recent years in the field of pre-
Columbian Antillean studies. All volumes have their
imperfections, and this one is no exception. The positive

points, however, outweigh the weak points, and I feel sure
that they will be remedied or answered by the author and that
there will be subsequent editions of this seminal volume which
will insure its position as an important work on Lucayan
peoples and cultures.
From a broader perspective the volume will become, I
think, a kind of model for those of us who are interested in
accompanying our prehistories with paleoethnographies, and
the number who will feel so inclined will, I think, increase as a
result of Dr. Keegan's work.

References Cited

Arrom, Jose Juan
1974 Relacion acerca de las Antiguedades de los Indios: El
Primer Tratado Escrito en America. Nueva version, con
notas, mapa y apendices. Siglo XXI Editores S.A.,

Bahamas Archaeological Team
1984 Archaeology in the Bahamas. Report for 1982/1983,
Bahamas Archaeological Team, Nassau.

De Booy, Theodoor
1912 Lucayan Remains in the Caicos Islands.
Anthropologist 14:81-105.


1913 Lucayan Artifacts from the Bahamas. American
Anthropologist 15:1-7.

Granberry, Julian
1978 The Gordon Hill Site, Crooked Island, Bahamas.
Journal of the Virgin Islands Archaeological Society

1987 Antillean Languages and the Aboriginal Settlement of
the Bahamas: A Working Hypothesis. Paper presented
at the conference Bahamas 1492: Its People and
Environment, Freeport, Bahamas.

1991 Was Ciguayo a West Indian Hokan Language?
International Journal of American Linguistics 57:514-

1992 Lucayan Toponyms. Journal of the Bahamas
Historical Society 13:3-12.

1993 Antillean Languages and the Aboriginal Settlement of
the Lucayan Islands. Antiquity (in press).

ms An Archaeological Investigation of the Aceramic Gold
Rock Creek Site, Grand Bahama.

Hoffman, Charles A.
1967 Bahama Prehistory: Cultural Adaptation to an Island
Environment. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona.

Keegan, William F.
1983a An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Crooked Island
and Acklins Island, Bahamas. Report, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural History,

1983b Archaeological Investigations on Mayaguana, Bahamas:
A Preliminary Report. Report, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural History,

Keegan, William F., and Steven W. Mitchell
1984a Archaeological Investigations on Great and Little
Exuma, Bahamas. Report, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.

1984b The Archaeological Survey of Long Island, Bahamas:
Final Report. Report, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.

Keegan, William F., Maurice W. Williams, and Grethe Seim
1990 Archaeological Survey of Grand Turk, B.W.I.
Miscellaneous Project Report Number 43, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural History,

Krieger, Herbert W.
1937 The Bahama Islands and their Prehistoric Population.
In Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian
Institution in 1936, pp. 93-98. Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C.

Las Casas, Bartolome de
1875 Historia de las Indias. 5 vols. Coleccion de
Documentos In editos para la Historia de Espafia, vol. 62-
66, Madrid.

1909 Apologetica Historia de las Indias. Madrid.

Osgood, Cornelius
1942 The Ciboney Culture of Cayo Redondo, Cuba. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, no. 25. Yale
University Press, New Haven.

Rainey, Froelich G.
1934 Diary Beginning January 22, 1934, Upon Arrival in
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Manuscript, Yale Peabody
Museum, New Haven.

Rouse, Irving
1951 Areas and Periods of Culture in the Greater Antilles.
Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 7:248-265.

Winter, John
1978 Preliminary Work from the McKay Site on Crooked
Island. In Proceedings of the Seventh International
Congress for the Study of the Pre-Columbian Cultures of
the Lesser Antilles, pp. 237-242.

Winter, John, and Mark Gilstrap
1991 Preliminary Results of Ceramic Analysis and the
Movements of Populations into the Bahamas. In
Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of
Caribbean Archaeologists, pp. 371-386. Fort-de-France,

Winter, John, Julian Granberry, and Arthur Leibold
1985 Archaeological Investigations within the Bahamas. In
Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress for the
Study of the Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser
Antilles, pp. 83-92. Centre de Reserches Caraibes,

Julian Granberry
800 Eight Avenue East, P.O. Box 398
Horseshoe Beach, Florida 32648


Calumet and Fleur-De- Lys: Archaeology of Indian and
French Contact in the Midcontinent, edited by John A.
Walthall and Thomas Emerson, 1992, Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, D.C., viii + 307 pages, illus., biblio.,
index, $45.00 (cloth).

When I first noticed Calumet and Fleur-De-Lys on a
colleague's desk, I immediately wondered where she had
obtained a new clothbound edition of the classic eighteenth-
century Penicaut narrative Fleur de Lys and Calumet edited by
Richebourg McWilliams. Hopefully others will not be so
easily confused; Walthall and Emerson have provided us with
quite a different book. Their version is a volume of great
importance to those studying the effects of European contact
on native Americans. The ten chapters in their volume
consider the archaeology of Indian and French contact,
primarily in the Illinois country and Lower Mississippi Valley.
This volume is the outgrowth of a 1988 Conference on French
Colonial Archaeology in the Illinois Country organized and
sponsored by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. It is
the second volume to appear from that conference, the first
being a collection of papers on French colonial sites (French
Colonial Archaeology, edited by John Walthall, Urbana:
University of Illinois Press). The volume is divided into three
Part One investigates "Lower Louisiane." Ian Brown
considers "Certain aspects of French-Indian interaction in
Lower Louisiane." This well-written and well-documented
paper is primarily a historical look at French contact with such
lower Mississippi Valley peoples as the Natchez, Tunica,
Yaxoo, Ofo, and Koroa. Brown stresses that trade was a two
way enterprise; the French often needed native supplies as
much or more than the Indians needed French merchandise.
He also details colonial gift-giving practices, and the
missionary connection.
Gregory Waskelkov discusses French colonial trade in the
Upper Creek area around Fort Toulouse in present Alabama.
Again, using a largely historical approach, Waskelkov presents
a valuable compendium of gift and trade objects distributed by
the French from 1701-1763. He also includes an equally
useful glossary of French trade terminology. This important
paper nicely complements his forthcoming research on English
trade goods.
Dan F. Morse forcefully argues that the Grigsby site in
northeastern Arkansas represents the Michigamea village
mentioned in late seventeenth-century French documents.

Documenting evidence is ambiguous at best, but years of
survey and excavation in northeastern Arkansas have produced
only one contact period site that might represent the
Michigamea village shown on the Marquette map of 1673.
Some 110 European artifacts were collected in surface
collections and in limited testing, and their analysis
substantiated the dating of the site. Morse concludes, "We
believe that we have found the 1673 site indicated on the
Marquette map but will be the first to admit we cannot prove it
with absolute certainty."
Part Two describes investigations in the Illinois Country.
Thomas Emerson and James Brown summarize what is known
of late prehistory and protohistory of Illinois. The
identification of specific ethnic groups with protohistoric
archaeological phases is particularly difficult in Illinois, as
many people were constantly moving through the area. Thus
the direct historical approach has proved to be especially
difficult in Illinois. Of considerable importance to those who
would study the impact of Europeans on native societies is
their recognition that there was a serious decline in the many
aboriginal cultures in their area ca. A.D. 1400, that is, prior to
any possible European effects. Indeed, much of Illinois was
unoccupied by the time the French entered the area. This
chapter makes an important contribution to studies of
prehistoric to historic transition and problems of ethnic
affiliation. It is a must read for anyone interested in European-
Indian contacts.
Walthall, Norris, and Stafford discuss survey and
excavations at the Naples site, believed to be the Woman Chief
Winter camp visited by St. Cosme in 1698 on the Illinois
River. This report is similar in many ways to Morse's
identification of the Michigamea seasonal settlement in
Arkansas, and shows a good example of the direct historic
John Walthall studies aboriginal pottery used by the
eighteenth-century Illini. The Illini apparently ceased pottery
manufacture by 1719, but they used pottery manufactured by a
number of other groups, including perhaps Tunica
(Mississippian tradition), Natchez (Natchezan tradition),
European wares (French faience, German stonewares, various
coarse earthenwares), and Chinese porcelain. The lower
Mississippi vessels were small serving and storage vessels,
including bowl, jars, and bottles. No large cooking or storage
vessels were noted. A 1723 inventory from the French village
of Kaskaskia mentions "2 Natchez earthenware jugs full of
oil," confirming the archaeological findings. The rapid demise


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1993

of ceramic crafts among the Illini can be contrasted with the
conservative ceramic tradition of many southeastern groups
who continue to make pottery well into the nineteenth century.
Part Three describes French-Indian interaction in the
Western Great Lakes area. Susan Branster looks at Tionontate
Huron occupation in St. Ignace, Michigan. After providing a
historical and ethnographic sketch of the Huron, Branster
reports archaeological evidence. Again, there is a paucity of
aboriginal ceramics, but partial longhouses, bark-lined storage
pits, hearths, and burial pits provided an abundance of other
material culture items. Instead of a process of acculturation,
Branster proposes a decision model of the acceptance of
European goods based on "criteria such as efficiency,
preference, and availability."
Douglas Birk and Elden Johnson describe initial French
contact with the Mdewakanton Dakota of the Mille Lacs region
of Minnesota. Initial French contact may have taken place as
early as the 1600s, and by the early eighteenth century,
occupation of the region was probably seasonal. In some
cases, the authors have isolated early French artifacts from
larger collections of multi-component sites, and they appear to
have been largely successful. They carefully catalog evidence
of early French contact from several sites, and conclude that
"the initial impact of European goods on Mdewakanton Dakota
technology was minimal."
Neal Trubowitz discusses his investigations of the Wea
and Kickapoo-Mascouten villages near French Fort Ouiatenon
on the Wabash River of Indiana. Investigations were limited
to the study of extant collections, surface collections, and small

test excavations. Nevertheless, some patterns emerged. In
spite of the proximity to the European fort, the natives used
very few European ceramics and pipes. European weapons
and ornaments were much more common in the Indian
The final chapter, by Lenville Stelle, investigates the
archaeological remains of the 1730 Mesquakie Fort in Illinois.
Although a siege of some 23 days took place effectively
crushing the Mesquakie, the location of the fort has never been
known. Documents provided little evidence, but an unusual
archaeological site, investigated over the years by amateurs and
recently tested by professionals, provides a strong case for the
location of the conflict. Stelle carefully documents his case
with both history and archaeology, and again provides
evidence that even short-term occupations by native groups
may be identified with careful attention.
Walthall and Emerson have produced an important
volume on French and Indian contacts in the midcontinent.
The volume combines history, ethnohistory, and archaeology
in a meaningful manner. The approaches to several of the sites
provide excellent case studies in how to do ethnohistoric
archaeology. This book is highly recommended to anyone
interested in European-native American contact.

Marvin T. Smith
Sociology and Anthropology
University of South Alabama
Mobile, Alabama 32288

True Natives: The Prehistory of Volusia County, 1992, by
Dana Ste.Claire, The Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona
Beach, Florida, 52 pages + 42 figures, glossary, chronology
of prehistoric culture periods, suggested readings, and
membership information for archaeological organizations,
$3.95. Paper.
This handbook on the prehistory of Volusia County
recently was published by the Museum of Arts and Sciences,
Daytona Beach. As noted in the Introduction, prepared by
Museum Director Gary R. Libby, the book is a guide "to the
exotic and fascinating prehistory of Volusia County for the
general reader." The compact book succeeds mightily and has
broad appeal--not only to the general public but to amateur
archaeologists as well as area educators (the latter helped to
produce curriculum-related programs designed to accompany
the book).
The author, Dana Ste.Claire, is the Museum's Curator of
Science and History and the Director of the Division of
Archaeological Research. He directs the Archaeological
Salvage Excavation Team, a volunteer effort that works on
projects in the Flagler to Brevard county areas. The project
was partially funded by historic preservation grant assistance
provided by the Florida Department of State, Bureau of
Historic Preservation, assisted by the Historic Preservation
Advisory Council.
True Natives also is a self-guided tour of ten of the most
accessible prehistoric sites on public lands in Volusia County.
The reader is well prepared before visiting. Ste.Claire has
written chapters on the county's four major prehistoric
occupations: the earliest people, the Paleo-Indians; the Archaic
Period peoples, including the Mount Taylor culture; the
Orange Period peoples; and the St. Johns Period people, who,
during the St. Johns II period, are known as the Timucuan.
Each chapter includes an overview of the culture, its
chronology, its material markers and subsistence practices, and
the current theories archaeologists use to interpret these
occupations. In addition, the chapter on prehistoric
implements describes and illustrates tools and utensils used for
everyday survival by those who have gone before. The county
map and explicit directions will get you to sites in east Volusia
County (Nocoroco, Ormond Mound, Green Mound, Spruce
Creek Mound, Old Fort Mound, Turtle Mound, and Castle
Windy); mid-county (Lake Ashby midden); and to Hontoon
Island and Thursby Mound in west county. These are some of
the largest and most extensive prehistoric shell mounds in the
United States. The tour provides insight into the different
environments prehistoric peoples exploited, from coastal
adaptations to inland lakes and the St. Johns River Basin.

Ste.Claire also addresses and advocates for "The Future
of the Past," which is as dismal in Volusia County as it is
wherever development gorges itself on archaeological sites.
As he says, although "some federal, state and county laws
protect archaeological sites or allow on-site research before
their destruction, most prehistoric resources remain
unprotected and threatened." Dr. John W. Griffin, to whom
the book is dedicated as the father of Volusia County
archaeology, notes in the Preface that partat of Volusia
County's prehistory is scattered as far south as Palm Beach," a
reference to the policy of mining and sending south road
material from prehistoric shell mounds in the county. The loss
of these sites and irreplaceable scientific data has other
implications for society, for as Ste.Claire notes, "we lose our
sense of place, our source of beginnings, and a unique and
fascinating story of... prehistoric development" when
nonrenewable cultural resources are destroyed.
Readers will find almost two pages of suggested readings,
from Jeffries Wyman's 1875 exposition on freshwater shell
mounds of the St. Johns River, to recent studies of Tomoka
Point (Piatek 1992; Russo and Ste.Claire 1992). This little
book really should be purchased in pairs: Keep one in your
home library and the other in the glove compartment of your
car. That way, you can satisfy those often unpredictable urges
to visit prehistoric sites fully prepared except for insect
repellent. Whether you are a Volusia County resident or a
visitor, the book is a megabuy at $3.95.
A glossary serves to explain some of the terms used in the
text, a truly user-friendly gesture. The book is handsomely
designed and well organized and illustrated. It includes some
of the well-known engravings based on the Jacques Le Moyne
paintings, renderings of artifacts from each major occupational
period, and maps that show the locations of sites and, for
example, ancient coastlines of Florida at different sea levels.
The author and other museum staff who participated in
this project have produced a volume that educates and
advocates. Would that each county in Florida boasted a
similar publication.
The book is available at bookstores in Volusia County or
by contacting the Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1040 Museum
Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32014, (904) 255-0285.

Clara A. Gualtieri
43 Rohde Avenue
St. Augustine, Florida 32084


MARCH 1993

Vol. 46 No.1


Lloyd Schroder

The Northeast Florida Anthropological Society has a
history rich in archaeological research. For eight years during
the 1960s the society, then known as the Jacksonville
Archaeology Club, worked on the Mayport Mound project
known as DU96 and 97. Work on the large sand mounds,
owned by Judge Harold R. Clark, was headed by Dr. Tom
The club worked several underwater sites until interest
began to wane. Finally, in July of 1970, Dr. Joe Sasser of the
Florida Community College at Jacksonville and Dr.
Gouchnour began work on the bylaws of a society which
would be aligned with the Florida Anthropological Society.
On the first Friday in January, 1971, about twenty members of
the Northeast Florida Anthropological Society met for the first
time. Meetings typically centered around what would be the
next day's activities. Several projects were to follow.
In 1971 Dr. Goodman of Miami gave permission for the
excavation of what would become known as the Goodman
Mound. Several child bundle burials were recovered as well as
a skull fragment engraved with "weeping eyes," which became
the logo of the society.
During the following years the society hosted its first
FAS annual meeting, which featured Dr. Gordon Willey. In
1975 another excavation, this time at the Black Hammock
mound, yielded a child's burial with a mastodon vertebra.
Again, in 1977, Jerry Hyde, a longtime FAS representative for
the society, and member Ralph Goslin met Dr. Wilcox while
returning from an FAS meeting. Dr. Wilcox, owner of the
property at the Mount Royal site, suggested that if the society

would restore the site he would donate it to the state of
Florida. A seven year project ensued. The length of the
restoration was due to the undertaking of another simultaneous
excavation on Pelotes Island in north Jacksonville at the Dent
mound site, a project led by Arthur "Frenchie" LaFond. Both
projects where completed in 1984.
Subsequent legislation meant an end to these types of
projects allowing only minor test pit excavations including
those at the Grant Mound site in Duval County. Laboratory
restoration still continues each month from the Dent mound
project at the Museum of Science and History where the
artifacts are housed. An extensive report of the Dent project is
currently being prepared by professional archaeologist Keith
NEFAS has now redirected its efforts toward education
and is currently developing programs with "ToMoKe" (Todd
Morton Kelley) which includes an excellent living history
presentation of Timucuan life and a hands-on experience for
young people in understanding the past through archaeology.
Other educational efforts for this sixty-member society
include a writing project entitled "The Anthropology of
Florida Points and Blades," a museum project which looks
very promising. Also the society is developing a film lending
library which now includes over 30 films. Perhaps still
another opportunity awaits to clean the rust off the excavation
trowel in north-central Florida.

Lloyd Schroder
10247 Bear Valley Road
Jacksonville, Florida 32257


Figure 1. Illustration from the NEFAS projectile point project.


Vol. 46 No.1

MARCH 1993


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informed ... and a stimulating perspective on the
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304 pp. Cloth $39.95
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Archaeology of Aboriginal Culture
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Marvin T. Smith
"This superb archaeological study establishes the
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Excavations on the

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Archaeology at the Fig Springs Mission
Brent Richards Weisman
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