Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editor's page
 Comments from the president : The...
 An invitation to join the Florida...
 Find new members : Earn back issues...
 Join/rejoin the Florida anthropological...
 A case of mistaken identity : Is...
 Archaeology of a rural blacksmith's...
 The Myakkahatchee site (8So937),...
 Changing settlement patterns and...
 Liaison group furthers cooperation...
 Obituary : Adelaide Kendall Bullen...
 Shell mounds of the lower Applichicola...
 Dendrochronology and dendroarchaeology...
 Book review : The North American...
 Book review : Alabama and the borderlands...
 Book review : The tombigbee watershed...
 Announcement : 1987 southeastern...
 Back issues order forms
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00037
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 109
    Editor's page
        Page 110
    Comments from the president : The year of preservation - Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
        Page 111
    An invitation to join the Florida anthropological society
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Find new members : Earn back issues credits
        Page 114
    Join/rejoin the Florida anthropological society
        Page 114
    A case of mistaken identity : Is it "wood" or what? - Donna L. Ruhl
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Archaeology of a rural blacksmith's shop - David S. Rotenstein
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    The Myakkahatchee site (8So937), a large multi-period inland from the shore site in Sarasota County, Florida - George Luer, Marion Almy, Dana Ste. Claire, and Robert Austin
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Changing settlement patterns and pottery types in Withlacooche cove (region of Florida) Jeffrey M. Mitchem and Brent R. Weisman
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Liaison group furthers cooperation in British archaeology - Arthur R. Lee
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Obituary : Adelaide Kendall Bullen - Jeffrey M. Mitchem
        Page 169
    Shell mounds of the lower Applichicola valley, northwest Florida - Nancie Marie White
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Dendrochronology and dendroarchaeology - Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Book review : The North American Indian, volumes 18-21 (continued from last issue)
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Book review : Alabama and the borderlands : From prehistory to statehood - Edited by R. Reid Badger and Lawrence A. Clayton, reviewed by Claudine Payne
        Page 180
    Book review : The tombigbee watershed in southeastern prehistory - Nancie Marie White
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Announcement : 1987 southeastern archaeological conference
        Page 183
    Back issues order forms
        Page 184
    Back Cover
        Page 185
        Page 186
Full Text


2000 Florida Anthropological Society Inc.

The Florida Anthropological Society Inc. holds
source text of the Florida Anthropologist
considered the copyright holder for the text
these publications.

all rights to the
and shall be
and images of

The Florida Anthropological Society has made this publication
available to the University of Florida, for purposes of
digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Anthropological Society reserves all rights to this
publication. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use"
provisions of U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted.

Contact the Florida Anthropological Society for additional
information and permissions.



Volume 40 Number 2

June 1987


713. -77

THE FIAIDA ANTMHOPOLOCIST la plihlialhd by Itn Floi ida Anthropological Sn. iety
In-., P.O. Boa I101 Tallahassee, Florida 32102. SubsLi pLion is by membersiaip
in the Society. Mr.ibership i nolt restricted to residents of Ithe Srtat ol
Florida nor to tlie United States of America. Membership is for ithe allildal
year, January Ist through December 31st. Except as iitherw lse noted in
periodic special offers, membership may be received for any current year by
remitting dues for that year ON OR BEFORE S'1Lt.MBEP J1H iof thit year. Di.t,
postmarked or hand delivered on October Ist or later will he applied to
membership in the following calendar year. Annual dues are 512 Ilndividual),
S18 (Family), $15 (Institutional), $25 or more ISustaining), $100 or more
(Patron) and 5200 (life). Foreign subscriptions are an additional '5 US to
cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family or institutional
membership categories. Except for back issues purchases, copies of the
journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues.

Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms and
notifications of changes of address should be sent to the Membership
Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through
the Editor to facilitate acknowledgement in subsequent issues of the journal.
Requests for information on and orders for back issues, as well as requests
for copies of the Editorial Policy and Style Guide (see FA 37(I)) and
submissions of manuscripts, should be sent to the Editor. Newsletter items
should be sent to the President. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30
days prior to the mailing of the next issue. The Post Office will not forward
bulk rate mail. We publish the journal quarterly in March, June, September
and December of each year.


Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
1343 Woodbine Street
Daytona Beach, FL 3201Z

Chris Newman
Historic St. Augustine
Preservation Board
P.O. Box 1987
St. Augustine, FL 32084

(Three Years):
Donna Ruhl
Dept. of Anthropology
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Cainesville, FL 32611

Marlene Levy
Dept. of Anthropology
Florida Atlantic Univ.
Boca Raton, FL 33431

Joan Deming
308 6th St. NE
Largo, FL 33540


(Two Years):
Ralph Gorlin
7347 Hennessey Road
Jacksonville, FL

Fltzabeth Horvath
P.O. Box 290U7b
Temple Terrace, FL. 3308

AGENT: Wallace Spears
422 Brentwood Drive
Daytona Beach, FL 3201'

(One Year):
Jeffrey Mitchem
FlorLds State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Louis D. Tesar
P.O. Box 1013
Tallahassee, FL

Joan Deming George Lue
308 6th St. NE 3222 Old (
Largo, FL 33540 Sarasota,

er Candy Printers, Inc.
Iak Drive 1800 5 Monroe St.
FL 33579 rallahassee, FL


James J. Miller
Div. of Historical Resources
Department of State
The Capitol
Tallahassee, FL 12309-0250

John W. Griffin
konte 5 Box IQ
St. Auguestine, Fl. 12084

William H. Marquardt
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Glen Doran
Dept. of Anthropology
C-24 Bellamy
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Fl. 12306

Morgan H. Crook
Dept. of Sociology
and Anthropology
West Georgia College
Carrollton, GA 30118

NOT( : It n .lllll i. l I., Iti. al'i.e Filliarial R, lard pmh.erA, III.t r"st llnmrnhiits of
. h1III.n kii.-wltlr dg. le II1 in mr linlicrripiR silh j t malrrr are vtli l .i,1 .- I'l1i "I
..".u I- reV, I I. 1-,,,.- *




Volume 40 Number 2

June 1987 TITLE PAE NO.

Editor's Page . . . . . . . ... 110

Coments from the President: The Year of Preservation Harold D.
Cardwell, Sr .................. ... ... 111

An Invitation to Join the Florida Anthropological Society . .. 112

FIND NEW MEMBERS: Earn Back Issues Credits . . . 114


A Case of Mistaken Identity: Is it "Wood" or What? Donna L. Ruhl 115

Archaeology of a Rural Blacksmith's Shop David S. Rotenstein .... .124

The Myakkahatchee Site (8So397), A Large Multi-Period Inland from the
Shore Site in Sarasota County, Florida George Luer, Marion Almy,
Dana Ste. Claire, and Robert Austin . . . .... 137

Changing Settlement Patterns and Pottery Types in the Withlacoochee
Cove (Region of Florida) Jeffrey M. Mitchem and Brent R. Weisman .154

Liaison Group Furthers Cooperation in British Archaeology Arthur R. Lee 167

OBITUARY: Adelaide Kendall Bullen Jeffrey M. Mitchem . . 169

Shell Mounds of the Lower Applichicola Valley, Northwest Florida
Nancie Marie White .. . . . . ....... 170

Dendrochronology and Dendroarchaeology Harold D. Cardwell, Sr. .. 175

BOOK REVIEW: The North American Indian, Volumes 18-21 (Continued from
last issue) . . . ........ . . .. 177

BOOK REVIEW: Alabama and the Borderlands: From Prehistory to Statehood
Edited by R. Reid Badger and Lawrence A. Clayton
Reviewed by Claudine Payne ............... .. 180

Reviewed by Nancie Marie White .................. .181

ANNOUNCEMENT: 1987 Southeastern Archaeological Conference ...... 183
BACK ISSUES ORDER FORMS ................ .. ..... .. 184

COVER ILLUSTRATIONS: Front. Recorded archaeol -gical sites in the Withlacoo-
chee Cove region of Florida (See "Changing Settlement Patterns and Pottery
Types in the Wilhlacoochee Cove" by Jeffrey M. Mitchem and Brent R. Weisman).
The Withlacoochee Cove area has until recently been poorly studied from an
archaeological perspective. The information which we now have on that nar-
reflects what can happen when professional and avocational archaeologists and
historians, and concerned citizens, work together on the study of their com-
munity's historic heritage. The focus of this study has ben through the
Withlacoochee Kiver Archaeological Council, a Chapter of the Florida Anthropo-
logical Society. Our Society encourages and supports such cooperative ven-
tures. Back. Portion of "Thief of Time" poster of the Division of Archives,
History and Records Management (reorganized in July 1986 as the Division of
Historical Resources) of the Florida Department of State. Reproduced with
permission. This poster reminds us all that archaeological sites are subject
to looting and vandalism by individuals seeking personal gain in search of
"valuable" artifacts, which are only rarely found after much site destruction.
Others simply appear to take pleasure in damaging or destroying that which
conscientious people seek to protect. These individuals are destroying the
evidence of our prehistoric/historic heritage. They are "thieves of time."
We must all be "stewards of our past" to protect these resources from such
unscrupulous individuals. Join with the Florida Anthropological Society in
efforts to properly study and protect our historic resources.




It is with pleasure that I announce that I
have been reappointed as the Editor of our
journal. I also wish to thank our members
for a most unexpected surprise at the con-
clusion of our banquet at this year's an-
nual meeting in Clearwater Beach, Florida.
At that meeting, I was honored with the
presentation of the Bullen Award for my
efforts to further cooperation between
avocational and professional archaeolo-

With this issue we are half way through our
40th year of publication. Our journal is
expanding and we are working to increase
our membership. Please read and circulate
copies of "An Invitation to Join the
Florida Anthropological Society" and its
accompanying membership application form.
Also, our Society's new President, Harold
D. Cardwell, Sr., has written "Comments
from the President: The Year of Preserva-
tion" to provide his thoughts on our
Society's future goals and direction. His
view of our future deserves careful con-
sideration -- and implementation.

The remaining articles provide a mix of
topics from prehistoric to historic archae-
ology, ethno-archaeology, a British cooper-
ative program for developers and archaeol-
ogists to consider, and a series of book
reviews. I believe that you will find them
all to be of interest.

I wish to thank all of those authors who
provided final wordprocessed galleys of
their texts to me for paste-up. Not having
to retype and reproof articles saves time.
My next task, however, is to standardize
type styles and formating. One means of
accomplishing this will be for authors to
send their diskets to me so that all (or
as many as possible) articles are printed
on the same equipment.

For those of you who do not have word-
processors, please do not be discouraged
as I will continue to type your accepted
final text into final galley form for you.

The advantage of the wordprocessed text
is that it will allow me to process more
articles in the same amount of time so
that I can continue effort to increase the
content of each issue, while also making
efforts to improve the journal's layout
and content.

I hope that you find this issue to be both
educational and entertaining. I continue
to encourage you to bring our Society and
its journal to the attention of others and
to seek to increase our membership. As our
Society grows so does our ability to im-
prove the content and size of our journal.

Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist
May 26, 1987

June, 1987


Volume 40 Number 2


Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.

Want to thank the officers and the member-
ship of the Florida Anthropological Society
for their trust in electing me their 40th
President and the 36th individual to head
this illustrious organization. I pledge to
do my best, as have past officers, to direct
the policies and philosophy of this great

I wish to suggest goals and objectives for
the 1987-88 year. My first goal will be to
extend the membership to 1000 by the end of
my term.

The next goal will be to write a complete
history of the organization from its be-
ginnings in 1948 to the completion of my
term in 1988 -- a period of 40 years.

My third goal will be to establish a re-
pository for our Society's records in the
P.K. Yonge Library the Florida History
section of the University of Florida at

The fourth goal would center on communica-
tion among the chapters. In this way,
through an exchange of newsletters, the
society may keep informed of chapter activ-
ities and respond to emergencies concerning
site preservation. A standardized form
could be prepared to help chapters in fil-
ing their annual reports.

A fifth goal would be to encourage chapters
to collaborate with historical societies on
the local level to present a unified holis-
tic approach in identifying both historic
and prehistoric sites. This would also
apply to archaeological investigations and
the recorded history would give a complete
coverage of the research for the chapters'

The sixth and final goal would be educa-
tional in scope in offering field schools,
field trips, symposiums and conferences.
This is not to sponsor them, but to make
them known to all chapters by compiling a

listing of the chapters' yearly activities,
both within this country and in foreign
countries, as well as to notify chapters of
opportunities for FAS members to partici-
pate in such activities.

Since I have titled my year as the Year of
Preservation, the Society should stand as
a symbol to preserve our cultural resources
and our heritage while understanding our
identity and by establishing a continuing
basis for education.

Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
1343 Woodbine Street
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014


June, 1987

Volume 40 Number 2


What do the Smithsonian Institution, the
Museum of the American Indian, Museum of
Mankind, and over 155 American universi-
ties, colleges, and public libraries,
and more than 475 individuals and
families in the United States of America,
Canada, England, Puerto Rico, the West
Indies, Barbados, the West Indies and
elsewhere have in common?

They are all members of the FLORIDA

The Florida Anthropological Society was
founded in 1948 by a small group of
Floridians who saw a need for an organi-
zation dedicated to the advancement of
anthropological and archaeological mat-
ters in Florida and nearby areas. By
May of 1948, when the first issue of The
Florida Anthropologist (Volume 1 Numbers
1-2) was published, the Society had grown
to over 70 members, representing every
major section of the State (Ehrman 1948:
16). It has since grown to 10x that size,
with individual and family members and
institutional subscribers in nearly every
state, as well as in Canada, England,
Australia, Puerto Rico, the Republic of
Panama, and elsewhere. Its distribution
is actually worldwide when one takes into
account its distribution through the
University of Florida, Gift and Exchange
Library. Membership in the Society, which
includes subscription to its journal, The
Florida Anthropologist, is from January
through December of each year.

From its beginning the Society's member-
ship has been made up of professional
anthropologists, amateur archaeologists
and concerned citizens interested in
learning about and helping to preserve
Florida's, and surrounding area's, pre-
historic and historic heritage. Indeed,
the only real qualification for member-
ship in the Society is an avowed interest
in these matters. You do not have to be
a resident of Florida, or even the United
States of America, to join the Florida
Anthropological Society or subscribe to
its journal; although, there is an addi-

tional $5.00 U.S. postage and handling
fee for out of country mail which is not
covered by our bulk mail permit (See
application form, this issue).

The Goals of the Florida Anthropological
Society are:

1) To provide a formal means by which
individuals interested in archaeological
and anthropological studies in the State
of Florida and related areas may come
together for mutual benefits;

2) To promote the continuing study of
the peoples of Florida from ancient
times to the present;

3) To establish and promulgate to its
members and to the general public, rules
of conduct, a code of ethics, and stan-
dards of quality to govern anthropologi-
cal work;

4) To effect harmony and cooperation be-
tween the amateur and the professional
anthropologists and archaeologists so
that the work of all will permanently
enrich our knowledge of human history;

5) To bring to the attention of the
general public and appropriate govern-
mental agencies the need for the preser-
vation of archaeological and historical
sites within the State of Florida (and
elsewhere) as well as for the recording
of the ways of life of extant groups in
Florida and related areas;

6) To disseminate information on anthro-
pology and archaeology and in particular
on the work of Society members through
periodic, regularly scheduled meetings
of the Society, through a program of
publications by the Society, and through
such special events and other activities
as the Society may consider proper to
further its objectives;

7) To assist in establishing archaeologi-
cal museums through contributions or
gifts of materials or money;


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987

8) To encourage the scientific collection,
preservation, classification, study and
publication of ethnological materials and
archaeological remains; and,

9) To initiate and maintain appropriate
By-Laws, Rules, and Regulations in the
best interest of all its members.

Unquestionably, a major attraction to
prospective FAS members is its quarterly
journal, The Florida Anthropologist,
which is in its fortieth year of publica-
tion. While the majority of its articles
have dealt with anthropological and archae-
ological topics in Florida and adjacent
geographic areas of the Southeastern
United States and Circum-Caribbean region;
efforts are being made to broaden the
breadth and scope of topics published.
A brief review of the nearly 600 articles
listed in the 1948-84 index published in
FA 37(3):124-150, or the over 100 articles,
etc. listed in the Table of Contents of the
FA 37-40(2) issues published from 1984 to
present, will provide an understanding of
the wide range of topics published in The
Florida Anthropologist. In addition, the
Society also periodically publishes a
Newsletter. Society members receive all
publications published during each year of
membership. A Style Guide for prospective
authors is contained in FA 37(1). Dona-
tions, grants and back issues sales are
used to raise funds for our Monograph
Account to fund publication of enlarged
special issues of our journal.

But there is more to the Florida Anthropo-
logical Society than its journal ...

The Society has local chapters scattered
throughout the state. These chapters work
at the local level and in concert with the
state organization to preserve the fragile
remnants of Florida's past. Some of the
many accomplishments of the individual
chapters include alerting authorities to
the vandalism or potential destruction of
archaeological or historic sites, prepar-
ing exhibits, establishing a museum,
working with local organizations to edu-
cate the public, working on the historic
preservation aspects of local government
comprehensive plans, excavating endangered
archaeological sites, and recording 100s
of archaeological sites in the Florida
Master Site File.


Each Spring the Society holds its annual
meeting to hear formal presentations on
scholarly and general topics of interest
to its members, hold workshops, exchange
ideas, and to invest newly elected offi-
cers in their posts. In addition to
elected positions, the appointed positions
of Membership Secretary and Editor are
filled or renewed by the newly elected
Board of Directors. All Officers in the
Society serve without compensation, as do
appointed positions. Such volunteer
service helps to minimize the Society's
administrative costs, and permits it to
devote most of its membership fees to
publishing and distributing its journal.
However, with increasing postal and
other costs we need to increase our mem-
bership in order to reduce the relative
cost of each issue, if we are to retain
our current low fee schedule.

If you like what you have read in this
and other issues of The Florida Anthro-
pologist, then you should join the Florida
Anthropological Society. If you are in-
terested in helping to protect significant
historic resources and study aspects of
our historic heritage, then you should
join the Florida Anthropological Society.
If you wish to join with and meet others
interested in these topics, then you should
join the Florida Anthropological Society.

If you are presently a member and have not
yet renewed your membership, then please do
so now. If you are a member then help find
new members and earn back issues acquisi-
tion credits, or consider giving gift sub-
scriptions to our Society (and earn back
issues acquisition credits for each such
gift subscription). If you know anyone in
the Acquisition Department of your local
library, then encourage them to subscribe
so that students and the general public
may learn more about historic resources
and the issue of historic preservation. If
you edit (or know someone who edits) the
newsletter or journal of an organization
whose membership may be interested in
joining our Society and receiving The
Florida Anthropologist, then please reprint
(or ask them to reprint) this notice and
our membership application form in that
newsletter or journal. (Likewise, if you
publish this notice for your readers, we
will publish your similar notice to our

Thank you for your time and efforts in
this matter. We look forward to your join-
ing our Society and receiving and enjoying
The Florida Anthropologist, as well as
participating in other aspects of our
Society for years to come. Your comments

are always welcome.

Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist


The Florida Anthropological Society now has a program for its members and
chapters to earn credits toward back issue purchases by getting new members to
join our Society. The membership application form has been changed to include
a space for new members to indicate how they found out about our Society.

A $2.50 credit toward back issue purchases will be given for each new member
who joins and who indicates that you were the person or chapter that got them
to join. (If you wish you may identify yourself in the proper space on forms
which you provide to potential members). This credit will be in addition to
the 10% member's discount for back issues purchases. For FAS Chapters, who
wish to use this program to build chapter libraries, the $2.00 postage and
handling charge will be waived (since there is no 10% chapter discount) when
applying the new member finder's credit for back issue acquisitions. Every
two months, participating members and chapters will be notified of credits
earned during that period. A record of such credits will be maintained by the

While membership in our Society is from January through December of each year,
tabulations will be kept from May through April so that certificates may be
awarded at the FAS annual meeting for those individuals and chapters credited
with finding the most, second most and third most new members during that
period. They will also receive $15, $10 and $5 bonus credits respectively to
be used towards back issue purchases.
If you are interested in archaeology, ethnology, physical anthropology,
cultural anthropology and associated topics with a focus on Florida and
surrounding areas in the southeastern U.S. and Caribbean, then The Florida
Anthropologist, the journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, and the
papers presented at our annual meeting will be of interest to you. If you
wish to join with professional and avocational archaeologists and others in
efforts to preserve and protect our historic and cultural heritage, then join
the Florida Anthropological Society to achieve that goal. You do not have to
be a resident of Florida to belong to our Society. Your membership fee
includes your subscription to the Society's journal and newsletter. We are a
non-profit organization founded in 1948.

F.A.S. Chapter affiliation
If gift membership, name of donor
If new member, indicate how you learned about
our Society

Mail Application to: Membership Secretary,FAS
308 6th St. NW
Largo, Florida 33540


*Foreign subscribers add
$5 US for postage, etc.

114 Make check or money order payable to: Florida Anthropological Society

Thank you for your time and efforts in
this matter. We look forward to your join-
ing our Society and receiving and enjoying
The Florida Anthropologist, as well as
participating in other aspects of our
Society for years to come. Your comments

are always welcome.

Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist


The Florida Anthropological Society now has a program for its members and
chapters to earn credits toward back issue purchases by getting new members to
join our Society. The membership application form has been changed to include
a space for new members to indicate how they found out about our Society.

A $2.50 credit toward back issue purchases will be given for each new member
who joins and who indicates that you were the person or chapter that got them
to join. (If you wish you may identify yourself in the proper space on forms
which you provide to potential members). This credit will be in addition to
the 10% member's discount for back issues purchases. For FAS Chapters, who
wish to use this program to build chapter libraries, the $2.00 postage and
handling charge will be waived (since there is no 10% chapter discount) when
applying the new member finder's credit for back issue acquisitions. Every
two months, participating members and chapters will be notified of credits
earned during that period. A record of such credits will be maintained by the

While membership in our Society is from January through December of each year,
tabulations will be kept from May through April so that certificates may be
awarded at the FAS annual meeting for those individuals and chapters credited
with finding the most, second most and third most new members during that
period. They will also receive $15, $10 and $5 bonus credits respectively to
be used towards back issue purchases.
If you are interested in archaeology, ethnology, physical anthropology,
cultural anthropology and associated topics with a focus on Florida and
surrounding areas in the southeastern U.S. and Caribbean, then The Florida
Anthropologist, the journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, and the
papers presented at our annual meeting will be of interest to you. If you
wish to join with professional and avocational archaeologists and others in
efforts to preserve and protect our historic and cultural heritage, then join
the Florida Anthropological Society to achieve that goal. You do not have to
be a resident of Florida to belong to our Society. Your membership fee
includes your subscription to the Society's journal and newsletter. We are a
non-profit organization founded in 1948.

F.A.S. Chapter affiliation
If gift membership, name of donor
If new member, indicate how you learned about
our Society

Mail Application to: Membership Secretary,FAS
308 6th St. NW
Largo, Florida 33540


*Foreign subscribers add
$5 US for postage, etc.

114 Make check or money order payable to: Florida Anthropological Society


Donna L. Ruhl

Recently, six "beads" from the Lykes
Brothers Fort Center collection
(currently deposited at the Florida
State Museum, Gainesville) previously
believed to be made of wood have been
found to be made from three different
materials (Figures 1 and 2). Three of
the "beads" are Chinaberry seeds (Melia
azedarach L.); two appear to be a
semi-hardened resinous material
(possibly copal); and the other is
either bronze or brass. Surfaces of
all specimens look like wood with the
naked eye, but under a stereomicroscope
other features are apparent.
Unfortunately, this type of equipment
was not used when these and other
specimens were first analyzed (see
Sears 1982:59). Except for the
accidental fragmentation of one of
these "wooden beads" in the dismantling
of an exhibit, these particular
specimens probably would have remained
misidentified. The seemingly sturdy
wooden bead was a brittle seed that was
fragile internally due to dessication
and age. Consequently, other wooden
beads were reanalyzed to determine
their composition, whether their
morphology was natural or worked, and
also to ascertain if they were
intentional inclusions or incidental
intrusions at the site.

Apparently these beads came from the
historic materials found in the top of
Mound B at the Fort Center site located
west of Lake Okeechobee in Glades
County, Florida. Unfortunately, this
part of the mound had been dug
extensively before Sears' excavations
began in the mid 1960s (see Sears
1982:59-60; Allerton, Luer and Carr
1984:36). Sears (1982:66) indicated
that there was some doubt concerning
the association of all of the beads in
the collection. Sears expressed

skepticism concerning the preservation
of the few wooden beads when he
commented that the "lack of deep copper
staining makes one wonder also about
the wooden beads" (1982:66). These
concerns can be answered, in part, by
the fact that the specimens are not
really wood but are either arils (a
woody coccus or covering encasing the
seeds of chinaberry), a resinous
material much like amber, or metal.
Consequently, three possible
explanations for the "preservation" of
these unique specimens will be

Melia azedarach L. (Chinaberry)

Chinaberry arils' are unique
morphologically. The arils uniqueness
coupled with the occurrence of a
similarly shaped metal bead (see
Figures 1 and 2) aroused my interest.
This enticed me to study and compare
chinaberry arils and the "beads."
Results of these observations are
discussed below. However, before
discussing the beads individually a
brief description of the Chinaberry
tree, its economic uses, and especially
its seeds will be considered.

Chinaberry trees are small (12 to 15 m
tall) with grey to brownish
fissured bark; alternate, bipinnately
compound, serrate leaflets; pink to
lavender flowers; with 4-5 locules
(chambered areas containing seeds); and
fruit drupee) in a capsule (Clewell
1985:432; Kunkel 1978:260) (Figure 3).
It grows in disturbed sites along
roadsides, fence rows, and other
similar areas and ranges from south
Florida to North Carolina, Oklahoma and
Texas. Native to southern Asia, it was
introduced into this country as an
ornamental and a shade-tree. It has


June, 1987

Volume 40 Number 2

0 1 2 3

scale in cent

Figure 1. Chinaberry "beads" from Fort Center.
while # 2 was broken into two pieces,
damage is generally still complete

4 5

meters -

#1 is broken into three parts
and # 3 although has structural

0 1 2 3 4 5

scale in centimeters

Figure 2.

Resinous and Metal Beads from Fort Center. Top- Two amber-like
beads (one spherical and the other is melon or oval shaped).
Bottom- Metal bead in surface view (morphology similar to
Chinaberry aril).



empty locules



with seed

Melia azedarach L. (Chinaberry) graphic. Numbers 1-3 are the
remains of the arils and seeds from Fort Center (8-G1-13), 2x.
Number 4 is a surface and longitudinal view through a chinaberry
aril (adapted from Corner 1976).

Graphic of beads from Fort Center. Top Surface and side view
of spherical amber-like bead; Longitudinal surface view of melon
shaped amber-like bead and enlargement of "goose-skin" surface.
Bottom- Metal bead in surface and side view (morphology similar to
Chinaberry arils), beads are all 2x.


Figure 3.


Figure 4.

escaped from cultivation and is now
naturalized on floodplains and in
disturbed sites (Clewell 1985; Kunkel
1978; Small 1972; Wunderlin 1982).

Economically, parts of the plants have
been used for various purposes. Its
wood has been used as fuel and its
reddish heartwood in cabinet making,
tool handles, and cigar boxes. Leaves
have been used as a diurectic, a
vermifuge, and remedies for headaches
(Neal 1965 and Burkill 1966 in Kunkel
1978). Flower extracts have been used
for remedies against lice, while its
crushed bark is used for skin
diseases. The fruits are toxic and
have been reported to kill animals and
humans; only birds seem to be immune to
these toxins (Kunkel 1978; Morton
1982). Morton (1982:35-36) suggests
that the bark, leaves, flowers, and
roots, which contain saponin and a
toxic alkaloid (azaridine, margosine,
or mangrovin) that effects the central
nervous system, are poisonous to humans
and animals. The seeds themselves are
used to make rosaries and beads, while
its oil has been used for lamps (Kunkel

Chinaberry seeds are arillate because
the seeds are encased in an outer
covering (see Corner 1976:185-190 for a
thorough discussion on Melia spp.
seeds). Seeds are located in cavities
loculess) within a woody coccus (aril,
covering). According to Corner, the
individual seeds are "3.5 x 1.6 mm, 1
per locule, 1-5 per fruit, oblong,
brown, smooth, exarillate, with very
short funicule, each enclosed in a
fibrous-woody coccus..." (1976:190)
(see Figures 1 and 3). Five ridges
around give the chinaberry its
distinctive shape. A few locules
contain hollow seeds with small holes
in their outer seed coat.

The Seed "Beads"

Two of the three specimens that were
found to be Chinaberry arils were
fragmented; one (#1) was in three
pieces, another (#2) was split in half,
while the third (#3) was intact but
partially decayed (see Figure 3). Aril

#1 was analysed to determine whether or
not there were any drilling marks or
other intentional workmanship displayed
on the interior surface (between
locules-cavities or chambers where the
seeds are housed) and the circular
opening of the aril exterior, which
looks much like a drilled hole when the
interior contents are decayed (see
Figure 3). Using a stereomicroscope
(10-60x magnification) no intentional
toolmarks were observed in either area,
and the central hollow appears to be the
result of natural decay and the
chinaberry's shape.

The woody coccus of specimen #2
exhibited a similar appearance having a
cylinder-like column in the central
portion of the aril connecting four
empty locules. This produces a
spherical to circular longitudinal
spacing between the chambers, which
superficially appears like a hole or
cylindrical shaft in a drilled bead (see
Figure 3). Specimen #3 was the best
preserved of the woody arils and,
consequently, it did not resemble a
drilled bead as both the apical and
basal surfaces were decayed only
partially and not split. The aril's
aperature was decayed slightly, but the
region on the opposite end of the
coccus exhibited only minor decay
and2no hole (see Figure 3). This aril
(9 mm length x 8 mm width) was also
five-ridged but it was slightly more
elongated than the other two specimens;
one groove/ridge section was almost
totally missing (decayed). Again,
neither of these specimens appeared to
have been worked intentionally.

Three suggestions for the preservation
of the "wooden" beads from the site were
suggested from the reanalysis. The
first of these is that the convoluted or
grooved wooden beads are really
Chinaberries that were probably not
deposited at the same time as the other
specimens and represent a later
introduction to the site at some point
after the Chinaberry tree had been
introduced into the United States.

The actual date of introduction for
this ornamental shade tree into Florida


is unknown. Although it may have
arrived with other seeds from the Old
World early in the contact period,
presently available data would suggest
a contrary viewpoint. Treatment of
this plant in the botanical literature
usually refers to Chinaberry as an Old
World plant, originally from
Persia/Asia, which was brought into the
Southeastern United States for its
aesthetic and shade values (e.g.,
Clewell 1985; Kunkel 1978; Small
1972). Documentary and archaeological
data suggest a general pattern that
most plants brought into the New World
early during contact were subsistence
items (e.g., wheat, grapes, broadbeans,
sugar cane, garlic, peas, and a variety
of fruit stones or pits for orchards
such as peaches, figs, pomegranates,
oranges, and mulberries) (see Lyon
1976, 1977, 1981, 1984; Morison 1963;
Reitz and Scarry 1985; Scarry 1983,
1984, 1985a, 1985b). Consequently
Chinaberry, whose fruit is known to be
toxic, probably would not have been
among the preferred or intentionally
transported plants. If it accidentally
arrived in the New World [as the Old
World plant Eleusine indica-goosefoot
did (Scarry 1985b:78)], its spread to
Fort Center during early contact would
have been quite extreme as few
excursions into south central Florida
occurred initially. Consequently,
Melia azedarach L. probably was a later
arrival/introduction into the local
flora. Exactly when in the historic
period items in this study were
deposited is not really known.
However, based on the other historic
materials from the mound (e.g.,
ceremonial tablets, perforated discs,
and especially glass beads), they could
date from the Sixteenth to possibly
early Seventeenth century. Scarry
(1984) has identified Chinaberry from a
nineteenth century landscape in St.
Augustine (Fatio Site). Apparently
these were carbonized seeds "from trees
growing on or near the site" (Scarry
1984:189). Seeds typically need to be
carbonized to survive any extended
period of time in the ground, unless
the climate is arid or the habitat is
wet continuously (see e.g., Ford 1979;
Lopinot and Brussell 1982; Yarnell

1982). Given the nature of the savanna
environment [generally warm regions
with an average rainfall between
1.0-1.5m (Odum 1971:391); the mean
average precipitation for the Lake
Okeechobee region is approximately 1.3m
(Carr 1975)], lack of carbonization,
and their suspected locale in the top
of Mound B, these seeds and their woody
coccus probably would not have survived
three to four centuries underground.
Based upon analysis of the seeds, their
preservation along with the
archaeological, botanical, and
historical literature, it is my opinion
that these seeds are part of a more
contemporary flora and are not part of
the original mound construction.
Consequently, they are not artifacts
but ecofacts, which are probably the
result of floralturbation or human
disturbance (pothunters) at the site.


Amber-like in appearance, copal is a
general term used for a wide variety of
resinous exudation from tropical trees
in various parts of the world. Two
basic types of copal exist; a raw or
"recent copal" and a semi-fossil
variety (Allen 1976a:15). Thus, it can
be collected from extant trees or mined
from the ground in its fossil form.
The raw or solidified form (heating in
alcohol renders it soluble) has been
used to make varnishes and printing
inks. Color varies from yellow to red
to brown. It is semitransparent with a
hard brittle composition, and in some
varieties (e.g. Zanibar) has a red
crust (Allen 1976a:15; Gary, McAfee
Jr., and Wolff 1974:156). Allen
(1976a) states that the term "copal,"
is applied to many resins of similar
appearance, although they may be of
different age, constitution, and
source. Copals of one type or another
are found in Southwest Africa, Malagasy
Republic (formerly Madagascar), British
Guiana, Brazil and other parts of South
America, the Congo, Malaysia (a
substance called gatta-perche), and
elsewhere (Allen 1976a:15).

Exactly when the term copal was first
applied to resinous exudates from


various tropical trees in different
geographical locales is not known
(Allen 1976a). Apparently, the word is
derived from the Central American
Nahuatl word copalli meaning resin, and
was adopted by the Spanish to refer to
this substance (Allen 1976b:14).
Although copal in the Maya lowland area
presumably comes from the tree Protium
copal, Lundell reported that three
other trees besides Protium copal are
valued for their resin today, "and may
have been exploited by the ancients for
the same product" (1937:11). The other
three species are Bursera simaruba
(gumbo limbo, a species known in
Florida), Cedrela mexicana (the cedro),
and Swietenia macrophylla (the caoba, a
hardwood tree belonging to the Mahogany

The "Wooden" Beads

The basically spherical "wooden" bead
(Figure 4) is actually a resinous
artifact whose composition resembles
copal. The bead has a kind of patina
encrusting an exterior that is
reminiscent of wood. The natural
glossy appearance disguised by this
coating can only be seen under a
stereomicroscope in the region around
the intentionally made hole in the
bead, which has been damaged through
time exposing a small amber-colored
section. Using xylene, a small
fraction of this bead tested positive
for resinous materials (Terry W.
Lucansky, June 1986, personal
communication). Although generally
spherical in shape, it possesses a
small flattened area (see Figure 4).
The bead is approximately 11 mm in
height and 13.5 mm in diameter.

Another dark amber, oval-shaped bead
was found in the Fort Center
collection. This bead is possibly the
wooden, melon-shaped bead referred to
by Sears (1982:66-67). It is
approximately 27 mm in length, 20 mm at
its widest point, and 14 mm in
thickness. It also has a hollow
cylindrical shaft running
longitudinally through its center. A
patina-like coating occurs in certain
areas on this bead. These areas may

be natural or the result of
manufacture. However, in the
unpatinated areas there are markings
that have a reticulate or net-like
pattern. Apparently, the latter
characteristic is not true for amber
(see Figure 4). Allen, however, in an
article discussing amber and its
substitutes states that copal is
covered by a red crust, which can be
"scraped off to reveal a goose-skinned
mass of amber-like gum" (1976b:15).
Chemical analysis showed that a small
section of the bead was dissolved in
xylene. Although anatomical analysis
was considered, it was rejected because
it was not feasible to remove a section
without the risk of irreversible damage
or possible destruction to the
artifact. It also was not certain that
thin section analysis would provide any
useful data. Consequently, based upon
morphological and chemical analysis it
is suggested that the melon- and
sperical-shaped beads are a type of
resinous material that is amber-like in
nature and, possibly, a form of copal.
Whether this material is a local or
non-local item is not known at this
time. However, in a letter from a
Franciscan priest dated St. Augustine,
17 January, 1617, mention is made of
amber occurring along the coast of
Carlos (southwest Florida) (Franciscan
priest 1617). This region has been
suggested to have significant
relationships (e.g., political,
religious, economic, social) with
interior sites such as Ft. Center (see
e.g., Dobyns 1983; Fontaneda 1945;
Goggin and Sturtevant 1964; Lewis 1978;
Milanich and Fairbanks 1980; Widmer
1983). What role these beads might
have played in the interrelationships
between the Calusa of Southwest Florida
and the peoples of Lake Okeechobee is
unknown presently. Although it would
be interesting to know more about these
possibly locally manufactured beads, it
is also of some merit to point out that
there may be a possible source of amber
or more likely an amber-like substance
along the southwest coast of Florida
that could have been procured,
processed, and utilized by aboriginal
populations (see Allen 1976a for a
discussion on "true amber").

A second suggestion for the
preservation of these beads may be due
to their resinous nature. Bead(s) made
of the solidified resinous material
could have been preserved from their
time of deposition (presumably
historic) with minimum alterations
(even without the aid of copper salts)
since it appears to be a
semi-fossilized substance.


The metal bead (brass or bronze;
Jonathan Leader, 1986, personal
communication) has been drilled
intentionally. Surrounding the bead
are five ridges and grooves that vary
in size, thickness, and depth. The
symmetrical hole appears to be drilled
part way from both surfaces, being
biconical as it is narrower toward its
center then at its ends. Dimensions of
the bead are between 9 and 11 mm in
diameter and 6 to 7 mm thick (see
Figure 4). Although the majority of
sixteenth-century metalwork found at
Fort Center and other Florida sites
appears to be of Indian manufacture and
use, this particular bead is suggested
to be of European manufacture (Jonathan
Leader, 1985, 1986, personal
communication). Unfortunately, this
particular bead was not described
specifically in the Fort Center report,
but is probably one of the beads that
Sears (1982:66) was referring to when
he commented that "Other beads of
shell, metal, or wood were found."
Although this bead resembles the
chinaberry aril, this morphological
similarity, nevertheless, appears to be
a coincidence in this context. This
similarity, however, may explain why
this bead was placed incorrectly with
the similar-looking "wooden" beads in
the collection and was overlooked when
a subsequent study of the metalwork
from the site was undertaken (see
Leader 1985, Appendix A). As noted
earlier, chinaberry arils were used to
make rosaries in the Old World.
Whether this particular metal bead
might have been fashioned after the
arils from this plant is unknown.
What functions) the metal bead may
have held is also unknown. Apparently,
no other beads of this chemical

composition and shape have been found
at other Florida sites (Jonathan
Leader, 1986, personal communication;
Jeffrey Mitchem, 1986, personal
communication; Marvin Smith, October 3,
1986, personal communication).
Although the lobing on this bead is
somewhat different in shape and number
of lobes, glass beads that resemble
this general floral design occasionally
have been reported from southeastern
United States sites, as well as Peru
(Benson 1967:120,123; Smith and Good
1982:Figures 116, 117, 129; Smith 1987,
Figure 3.3; Marvin Smith, 1986,
personal communication).

The preservation of this "wooden" bead
is due to the metal comprising the
bead, and not to the organic material
wood. Consequently, such a metal bead
had a reasonable chance to survive due
to its chemical composition and lack of
direct association with other metals.


Reanalysis of some apparently "wooden
beads" from the Fort Center collection
has shown that these beads are composed
of materials other than wood. Three
"wooden beads" are found to be
chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) arils
that were intrusive into the
provenience from which they were
recovered. A fourth spherical bead is
composed of a resinous material
reminiscent of copal, an amber-like
material. Further observation of the
beads in the collection revealed a
melon- or oval-shaped bead that is
composed of a resinous material. The
sixth bead is metal and resembles the
morphology of the chinaberry aril.

Reanalysis suggests three possible
explanations for the preservation of
these beads: (1) three of the wooden
beads are really arils that were
probably modern contaminants, which
were intrusive into the site (possibly
interred when artifact collectors were
permitted to dig at this site) and not
preserved for three or four centuries;
(2) two beads are of a hard resinous
material that could have withstood
extended periods underground because
they are probably semi-fossilized; and

(3) one "wooden" bead is actually metal
and would survive due to its chemical

As a final comment, incorrect
identification and decay of the beads,
whether wooden or not, points out the
need for palaeoethnobotanical analysis
to assist in the proper identification
and subsequent preservation and
conservation of such artifacts.
Within the past decade or so
palaeoethnobotanical studies have
become an integral part of
archaeological projects and their
importance is being recognized by


The author wishes to thank Jane
Robinson, Florida State Museum
registrar, for her assistance and
access to the materials studied.
Special acknowledgment for their kind
assistance in providing information
concerning the beads are extended to
Dr. T. Lucansky (Department of Botany,
University of Florida), Dr. Marvin
Smith (Garrow and Associates), and
Jonathan Leader and Jeffrey Mitchem
(University of Florida). Finally, the
editorial advice and comments of Dr.
Milanich (Florida State Museum), Dr.
Lucansky, Michael Russo (University of
Florida) and the Florida Anthropologist
reviewers on an earlier draft was
appreciated greatly.

References Cited

Allen, J.
1976a Amber and its Substitutes. Pt. I:
Historical Aspects. The Bead Journal

1976b Amber and its Substitutes. Part II:
Mineral Analysis. The Bead Journal

Allerton, D., G. M. Luer, and R. S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial tablets and related objects from
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Benson, Carl
1967 The Philip Mound: A Historic Site. The
Florida Anthropologist 20(3-4):118-132.

Burkill, I.
1966 A Dictionary of the Economic Products of
the Malay Peninsula,2 vols. Ministry of
Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala
Lumpar, Malasia.

Carr, R.
1975 Archaeological and Historical Survey of
Lake Okeechobee. Division of Archives,
Hsitory, and Records Management, No. 22
Tallahassee, Florida.

Clewell, A.
1985 Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida
Panhandle. University Presses of Florida,

Corner, E.
1976 The Seeds of Dicotyledons, volume 1.
Cambridge University Press, London.

Dobyns, H.
1983 Their Number Become Thinned. University of
Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Fontaneda, Do. d'Escalante
1945 Memoir of Do. d'Escalante Fontaneada
Respecting Florida, Written in Spain, about
the year 1575. Buckingham Smith,
Translator, with editorial comments by
David 0. True. Glade House, Coral Gables,

Ford, Richard I.
1979 Paleoethnobotany in American Archaeology.
In Advances in Archaeological Method and
Theory, Vol. 2 edited by M. Schiffer, pp.
285-336. Academic Press, New York.-

Franciscan Priest
1617_ Letter from a Franciscan priest dated St.
Augustine, 17 January 1617. A.G.I. Santo
Domingo 235, Archivo General de Indias,
Seville. Translation by Victoria Stapells
Johnson, on file, Florida State Museum,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Gary, M., R. McAfee Jr., and C. Wolff, editors
1974 Glossary of Geology. American Geological
Institute, Washington, D.C.

Goggin, J. M. and W. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa: A Stratified Non-agricultural
Society (with notes on sibling marriage).
In Explorations in Cultural Anthropology:
Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock,
edited by W. Goodenough, pp. 179-219.
McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kunkel, G.
1978 Flowering Trees in Subtropical Gardens. W.
Junk, G.V. Publishers, The Hague, Boston.

Leader, J.
1985 Metal Artifacts from Fort Center:
Aboriginal metal working in the
Southeastern United States. M.A. Thesis,
Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

1986 Metalwork among Florida Indians in the
early Contact Period. Paper presented at
the symposium, "Spanish and Native American
Encounters in 16th-century Florida",
Gainesville Society of the Archaeological
Institute for Early Contact Period Studies,
Gainesville, Florida. (Ms. in the
possession of the author.)

Lewis, C.

The Calusa. In Tachachale: Essays on the
Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia
During the Historic Period, edited by J.T.
Milanich and S. Proctor, pp. 19-49.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Lopinot, N. and D. Brussell
1982 Assessing uncarbonized seeds from Open-air


sites in Mesic environments: An example
from Southern Illinois. Journal of
Archaeological Sciences 9(1):95-108.

Lundell, C. L.
1937 The Vegetation of Peten. Carnegie
Institute of Washington, Washington, D.C.

Lyon, E.

The Enterprise of Florida. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

1977 St. Augustine 1580: The Living Community.
El Escribano 14:20-33. St. Augustine
Historical Society.

1981 Spain's Sixteenth-Century North American
Settlement Attempts: A Neglected Aspect.
Florida Historical Quarterly 59(3):275-291.

1984 Santa Elena: A Brief History of the
Colony, 1566-1587. Institute of
Archaeology and Anthropology Research
Manuscript Series 193. University of South
Carolina, Columbia.

Milanich, J. and C. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New

Morison, S. E.
1963 Journals and Other Documents on the Life
and Voyages of Christopher Columbus.
Heritage Press, New York.

Morton, J.
1981 Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America
Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles C. Thomas
Publishing Co., Springfield.

1982 Plants Poisonous to People in Florida and
Other Warm Areas. Morton Collectanea,
University of Miami, Southeastern Printing
Company Inc., Stuart, Florida.

Neal, C.

Odum, E.

In Gardens of Hawaii. B. P. Bishop Museum
Special Publication No. 50. Honolulu,

Fundamentals of Ecology. W. B. Saunders
Company, Philadelphia.

Reitz, E. and C. M. Scarry
1985 Reconstructing Historic Subsistence with an
Example from Sixteenth-Century Spanish
Florida. Special Publication Series, No.
3, Society for Historical Archaeology.

Scarry, C. M.
1983 Analysis of Floral Remains from the 1982
Santa Elena Excavations. In Revealing Santa
Elena 1982, by S. South, pp. 113-143.
Institute of Archeology and Anthropology
Research Manuscript Series 188. University
of South Carolina, Columbia.

1984 Appendix 2: Analysis of the Plant Remains
from the 1983 Excavations at the
Ximenez-Fatio Site, St. Augustine. In
Final report on the 1982 Excavations at the
Ximenez-Fatio House, St. Augustine,
Florida, by C. Ewan, pp. 178-241. Report
submitted to the Florida Chapter of the
Colonial Dames of America. Ms. on file,
Florida State Museum, Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida,

1985a Paleoethnobotany of the Granada site. In
Excavations at the Granada Site, vol. 1:
181-248. Florida Division of Archives,
History, and Records Management. Submitted
to the city of Miami, Florida.

1985b The Use of Plant Foods in Sixteenth Century
St. Augustine. The Florida Anthropologist

Sears, W. H.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the
Lake Okeechobee Basin. University Presses
of Florida, Gainesville.

Small, J.
1972 Manual of Southeastern Flora. Part 1.
Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

Smith, M. T.
1987 Archaeology of Aboriginal Culture Change in
the Interior Southeast. University Presses
of Florida, Gainesville. IN PRESS.

Smith, M. and M. E. Good
1982 Early Sixteenth Century Glass Beads in the
Spanish Colonial Trade. Cottonlandia
Museum Publications, Greenwood, Mississippi.

Widmer, R.
1983 The Evolution of the Calusa, a
Non-agricultural Chiefdom on the southwest
Florida Coast. Ph.D. dissertation,
University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Wunderlin, R.
1982 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central
Florida. University Presses of Florida,

Yarnell, R.
1982 Problems of Interpretation of
Archaeological Plant Remains of the eastern
Woodlands. Southeastern Archaeology

Donna L. Ruhl
Department of Anthropology
Florida State Museum
Museum Road
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Traditional Culture in the Twentieth Century:
The Historical Archaeology of a
Rural Blacksmith's Shop

David S. Rotenstein


During an archaeological survey for the
proposed widening of State Road 120 in
Cobb County, Georgia a structure was
encountered and identified as a
blacksmith's shop dating to the early 20th
century. Consultation between Georgia
Department of Transportation (GDOT)
cultural resource management personnel and
the State Historic Preservation Office
resulted in the finding that the structure
was potentially eligible for listing in
the National Register of Historic Places.
During the consultation process it was
learned that the parcel of land upon which
the shop was situated was scheduled for
immediate clearing by a private developer
to build a shopping center. The developer
had arranged for the shop to be relocated
by another individual for use as a storage
shed. Because of these developments the
site was determined to be outside of the
GDOT project area. Furthermore, the
proposed shopping center did not come
under the jurisdiction of any federal
historic preservation legislation.
However, in order to salvage data from
this threatened site, the author obtained
the kind permission of the developer to
conduct limited archaeological
investigations at the site prior to
removal of the structure.

The shop, designated site 9Co246, was
investigated to record the standing
architectural features of the building and
to answer specific questions concerning
the archaeological expression of the
site's function. The archaeological
research design was based on the premise
that the structure represented a folk
artifact that had a specific function that
may be analyzed in terms of its form,
construction, and use (Glassie 1968:8-9).
After completing the field investigations,

it became obvious that the shop
represented much more than a traditional
blacksmith's shop. Within the use of the
shop there was material evidence of the
culture change that occurred within
traditional society following the
introduction of the internal combustion
engine and its effects on transportation
and agricultural practices. This paper
presents results of the work performed at
the shop between October 13 and October
17, 1986, and presents only the field
results and their archaeological and
historical significance; site-specific
historical research is in progress and
will be reported at a later date.

The Shop: Location and Methodology

The shop was located just west of the
intersection of Dallas Road (S.R. 120) and
Due West Road (Old Sandtown Road) in Cobb
County, approximately 10km. (6mi.) west of
Marietta (Figure 1). At the time of its
discovery, the land adjacent to the shop
had been cleared and grubbed within 1.25m
(4ft.) of the shop. Prior to the clearing
the shop had been completely overgrown by
secondary vegetation in a mixed
pine-hardwoods thicket.

Approximately 20 meters west of the
shop, on Due West Road, a frame farm house
had been removed to another part of Cobb
County at the beginning of the developer's
clearing activities (Figure 2). This
house, apparently part of the farmstead of
which the shop was a component, was
probably constructed some time around the
turn of the century (Jayne Maxwell,
personal communication). Associated with
the house was a well-house in the back
(south); no other information concerning
the farmstead is available at this time.

June, 1987


Vnlume 40 Number 2



Figure 1. Location of Blacksmith's Shop (9C0246) in Cobb County, Georgia.

The architectural features of the shop
were recorded by preparing a horizontal
plan showing all internal features. Also,
the shop was completely photographed to
record both the standing architectural
features and certain aspects that would be
of use in interpreting the shop from an
archaeological perpsective. The structure
and individual elements were measured for
the preparation of the archaeological
model. The shop was measured for
horizontal dimensions at the sill and all
internal features were mapped.

The archaeological component of the
study consisted of shovel scraping the
interior to reveal features obscured by
the extensive detritus which covered the
floor. A single test unit was excavated
to expose a profile of the single pit
feature that was identified, and the pit
was subsequently excavated. The
distribution of residues and artifacts
inside and outside the structure were not
mapped because of extensive
post-abandonment salvage and
"disturbance." The study was not oriented
towards the recovery of artifacts, however
the few that were encountered have been
cleaned and stabilized and will be curated
at the GDOT Office of Environment/Location
in Atlanta.


The shop was a balloon-frame structure
with a pillar and sill base (Figures 3 and
4). The floorplan was nearly square. The
dimensions measuring 4.45m (14.6ft) on the
north-south walls and 4.87m (16.0ft) on
the east-west walls (Figure 5). The walls
were constructed of vertical weatherboards
extending to the roof. The roof was
gabled, the ridge running along the
east-west axis of the shop. The roof was
constructed of corrugated tin roofing with
an intentional opening, ca. 15.24cm
(6in), along the length of the ridge
(Figure 6).

There was one entrance to the shop, a
pair of outward opening doors on the south
wall. There were two windows, one in the
north wall and the other in the west
wall. Both windows had glass panes and
were hinged to fold up, into the shop.

The exterior of the windows were shuttered
and the shutters folded up, outside of the
shop. Beneath the window in the west wall
was a square opening in the wall; the
function of that opening is unknown.

The floor of the shop was the naturally
hard-packed clay surface zone of the
Madison-Pacolet soil series (Cobb County
Soil Survey 1973). The pillar and sill to
ground articulation left an approximately
12.7cm (5in) space between the ground
surface and the sills on all the walls but
the west. The west sill rested on two
corner piers and ran along the surface of
the ground. There were four piers beneath
the south wall, one at each corner and one
at the hinge side of each door. The east
and west walls shared two corner piers
with the north and south walls, and there
was one pier in the mid-point of the north
wall (see Figure 19).

The shop had been constructed with
mill-cut boards showing circular saw marks
(Figure 7). The siding was attached to the
framing by drawn wire nails, while the
hand-forged hinges which attached the
shutters, windows, and doors to the
superstructure were held in place by
hand-forged nails (Figure 8).

There were three intact above-ground
features associated with the function of
the shop: the anvil base-block, the forge
(Figure 9), and a wood shelf on the west
wall, beneath the window. Between the
time of the discovery of the shop and the
field work the base block had been toppled
from its vertical position revealing a pit
in which it had rested.

The anvil base-block was an oak log
upon which the anvil had been placed. It
was located roughly in the center of the
shop, about 1.06m (3.5ft) from the edge of
the forge. The anvil was not present.
Prior to the removal of the base-block
from the pit, it had stood about 0.4m
(1.30ft) above the ground. On its upper
surface there were eight large nails that
had anchored the base of the anvil to the
block (Figure 10). Much of the upper
surface of the base-block exhibited
considerable compaction.

The forge was located in the northwest
portion of the shop. It was composed of

. 7: ... ,

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

Farm house during removal.

Figure 4. Detail of pillar and sill articu-
lation, SW corner of blacksmith's

Blacksmith's shop viewed frno
the south.

0 1' 2 3



Figure 5. Schematic of blacksmith's shop on
Dallas Road.

Figure 7. Detail of
saw marks

door. Note the circular
and drawn wire nails.

Interior view of open
roof ridge and rafters.

Figure 8. Hand forged door hinge. Note both
hand forged and wire nails.

Figure 6.

Figure 10. Upper surface of base-block.

Figure 9. Forge, before cleaning.

Figure 11.
side) .
to the

Forge construction detail (north
Note the reinforced concrete block
right of range pole.

multiple media: fieldstone, cut marble,
and cut reinforced concrete (Figure 11).
The forge had a height of 0.76m (30in) and
horizontal dimensions of 1.01m X 1.27m
(40in X 50in). The components of the forge
were dry-bonded and the exterior was clad
by mud-clay. Prior to cleaning the hearth
there had been a number of artifacts on a
bed of ash and coal. These included a
chain and a plow handle. Beneath the
artifacts was a 14cm (5.5in) thick bed of
ashes and coal, which was excavated to
reveal a clay hearth bed (Figure 12).

The clay hearth was in two parts on the
forge: a smaller flat portion on one side
and a larger concave, basin-shaped portion
on the other (Figure 13). These were
separated by a crescent shaped crevice
which probably served as a "tuer": a flue
from the blower or bellows to the coals
(Figure 14).

All of the above-ground architectural
features were relocated to another part of
Cobb County. The building was dismantled
and reconstructed. The forge was
disassembled and its whereabouts are


The archaeological component of the
study included work inside the shop and
probing the exterior. The exterior was
investigated to identify any possible
refuse pits and piles, coal piles, scrap
piles, and ash. None were located, save
for a single refuse pile adjacent the east
wall. This pile included nails, bolts,
nuts, an automobile water pump, an iron
stove grate, spark plugs, and a plastic
electric radio (AC). The absence of other
features outside the shop may be
attributed to the extensive grubbing done
by the developer. The refuse pile on the
east wall appeared to have been recently
deposited, possibly from other
accumulations associated with the shop or
the house. The artifact content of the
pile suggests that at least some of the
materials in the pile were at one time
associated with the operation of the

The interior floor was shovel scraped

beneath the roof ridge to expose any
potential drip lines but none were
evident. The area adjacent to the forge
was also shovel scraped to expose any
associated features. This too resulted in
a negative finding. About 30 men's shoes
were on the floor of the shop. Also,
distributed across the floor were three
types of artifacts: traditional farm
implements, car and tractor parts, and
tools used by the blacksmith. Many of the
blacksmith's tools had been salvaged by
workmen (Joe Mador, personal
communication) and others (including the
anvil) were probably salvaged by the

The traditional farm implements in the
shop were a plow handle, a scythe blade, a
draw-knife, iron rakes, plowshares,
horseshoes, and part of a wagon axle. The
farm tools were both traditionally
manufactured (rakes and scythe) and

The artifacts related to automobiles
and tractors consisted of oil cans, spark
plugs, part of a jack, hay mower blades,
and other unidentifiable machine parts.
These artifacts were concentrated towards
the western part of the shop, on or under
the wood shelf.

The blacksmith-related artifacts were
by far the fewest. These included the
anvil base-block, a pair of iron
needle-nose pliers, nails, nuts, bolts,
screws, the forge, a punch (or chisel),
and a home-made file. Most of the
artifacts were recovered during the shovel
scraping of the floor. A few nails and
the punch were recovered from the anvil
base pit.

A single test unit was excavated that
bisected the anvil base pit. The unit was
0.91m X 0.60m (3ft X 2ft), oriented west
to east. The portion of the pit within
the unit (Figure 16) along with the
slumped surface of the pit showed that the
stone wedges that had anchored the
base-block in place had fallen into the
pit following the removal of the
base-block. Following the excavation of
this portion of the pit, the test unit was
excavated to a depth of 33.02cm (13in),
7.62cm (3in) below the base of the pit
feature. The spoil from the test was not

Figure 12. Hearth during cleaning; note plow handle.

Figure 15. Excavated portion of anvil base pit
within test unit. Test unit is set-off to
the left of the pit.

Figure 14.

Detail of hearth; note "tuer."


Figure 16. Excavated portion of anvil base pit
within test unit (See Fiqures 15 and 171_

0 12.5 25

0 5 10

surface soil zone,
shop floor
sandy fill
decayed base block,
slumped stone wedges
sterile red clay

cut marble block

Figure 17. North wall of test unit
showing profile of pit feature.


, -

-nd $4J.
P. i,/A ^tc'o
Y^-' o0".- 54-.,


j p,.I

I ,

Figure 18. Fully excavated anvil base pit,
viewed from the north.

Figure 19: Hypothetical archaeological context
of the blacksmith's shop.


L-I a



sorted for artifacts since it was
primarily sterile clay.

The exposed profile of the pit feature
was drawn and photographed (Figure 16).
The profile exposed four soil zones: the
floor and topsoil, part of the pit filled
with sandy clay and rubble, decayed
organic matter and stone wedges, and the
sterile clay subsoil (Figure 17). The pit
feature was a straight-sided, flat-based
pit 27.94cm (llin) deep and 71.12cm (28in)
in diameter. On the base of the pit,
below the organic matter and wedges, was a
cut marble block. The decayed portion of
the base-block rested directly on top of
the marble block which in turn rested
directly on the floor of the pit.

After the profile was cleaned and
recorded, the pit feature was fully
excavated (Figure 18). The fill from the
pit was trowel sorted and a number of
nails and other oxidized iron objects were
recovered. In the north wall of the pit
there was a punch (chisel) which was
driven into the clay subsoil,
approximately three inches below the
surface. The punch had been placed in the
wall of the pit prior to the placement of
the base-block in the pit.


The detailed analysis of the
blacksmith's shop raised a number of
interesting questions concerning the
material remains present in the shop and
how they related to the traditional
function of the shop. In form, the shop
was a traditional single-pen square
outbuilding in the northern English barn
tradition, which employed vertical siding
over a wood frame (Kniffen 1985:21). In
construction, the shop was a mixture of
traditional modes and mass-produced
modes. The style, gable roofed with entry
along the long axis of the roof was
traditional. The roof, with its
distinctive open ridge and mass-produced
corrugated tin, was not traditional. In
use, the shop was traditional, although
the artifacts worked-on in the shop were a
mixture of traditional and mass-produced
types which came about as a result of the
introduction of gas-powered farm machinery
and the automobile to rural America.

One of the more interesting parts of
the shop was the roof. The most logical
reason for leaving the ridge open would
have been to facilitate the escape of
smoke from the forge. Traditionally,
small "country" blacksmith's shops were
constructed so that smoke could escape
through spaces between roof shingles
(Bealer 1969:48; Queen and Webb 1977:85).
Construction of the metal roof would have
been less labor intensive and more
cost-effective (see McAlester and
McAlester 1984:45). Also, the space along
the roof ridge would have allowed for more
light to enter the non-electric building,
something necessary for the performance of
the blacksmith's work (Queen and Webb
1977:85; Meilach 1984:24). Light was able
to enter from all angles, the north and
west walls through the windows, the south
wall through the doors, and the roof
through the open ridge. The only wall
that was completely sealed was the east:
had this wall possessed an opening, smoke
would have been blown back into the shop
from the forge.

The arrangement of the shop, i.e., the
spatial relationships between the forge
and anvil relative to the overall
interior, is folk in form. The earliest
forge excavated at Fort Frederica (Manucy
1963:45-51) possessed the same layout as
9Co246. The forge was situated in a
rectangular building, located closer to
one of the shorter walls than the other,
with a post-mold approximately 0.76m
(2.5ft) away from the edge of the forge.
Meilach (1984:24) described the typical
layout of the blacksmith's shop:

Placement of the anvil and
tools in relation to the forge
is important. Usually the
anvil is placed in front of
the forge and slightly to one
side so that as you move from
forge to anvil, you will have
a free, unobstructed path, yet
be close enough so that you do
not lose too much heat from
the iron before you begin to
work it.

The Griswold shop in Barton,
Mississippi (McBride 1986), dating to the
mid-1800's, and the Fort St. Joseph
blacksmith's shop in Ontario, Canada
(Light and Unglik 1984), dating to the

late 1700's early 1800's, possessed the
same physical layout as 9Co246 and the
Fort Frederica shop. The consistency
through time of the artifact's (shop) form
supports the truly traditional nature of
this particular folk object (Glassie

The placement of the anvil base-block
within a pit is also a folk
characteristic. Typically, anvil
base-blocks were sunk into pits anywhere
from 0.3m (1ft) to 0.6m (2ft) deep when a
solid (concrete or tile) floor was absent
(Bealer 1969:71; Queen and Webb 1977:88).
This was necessary to prevent the anvil
base from "'walking' under the influence
of hammer blows" (Meilach 1984:33).
Unusual about the pit in which the
base-block was set was the
disproportionate size of the base-block
compared to the size of the pit.
Excavating a pit larger than what was
needed to effectively sink the base-block
would have been time consuming and
difficult work in the hard clay subsoil.
Most likely, the pit was excavated larger
than necessary for the base-block in order
to retrieve clay for use in the hearth.
The cut marble block which was beneath the
base-block may have been placed as a
"shock absorber" to prevent the base-block
from dislodging itself in the clay (Kerry
White, personal communication). Other
blacksmith's shops that have been
investigated archaeologically also possess
comparable postmolds, although no mention
has been made of the proportions of
postmolds to construction pits (cf.
McBride 1986; Light and Unglik 1984).

The forge, although composed of
non-traditional media (reinforced concrete
blocks) in addition to stone, fit Bealer's
(1969:47) average forge dimensions of
76.2cm (30in) high and 61cm (24in) to
1.01m (40in) square. The reinforced
concrete blocks as a primary building
material provide a terminus post quem of
ca. 1890 for the forge (Hudson 1963:140;
Cossons 1975:223).

The most important aspect of the shop
was its role within traditional society.
Prior to the introduction of the internal
combustion engine and the widespread
availability of inexpensive mass-produced
tools the role of the blacksmith was many

fold. The blacksmith made and repaired
"work related items" such as tools and
transportation-related items such as
wagons, was the farrier, worked in wood,
and even pulled teeth (Bealer 1969; Queen
and Webb 1977; Meilach 1984; Seymour

The blacksmith's most
important function, originally
and until mass production
brought with it his demise as
a craftsman, was supplying the
tools of civilization and
war. In a large city or a
small backwoods settlement he
would make, according to his
own design or that of his
patrons, the hammers, axes,
adzes, plane bits, knives,
sickles, scythes, auger bits,
files, chisels, carving tools,
and all the other necessities
of the various farmers and
craftsmen found in a
community. [Bealer 1969:19]

With the introduction of tractors and
automobiles the need for the blacksmith to
work on mule-drawn plows, wagons, and
horse furniture diminished. To meet the
demands of a changing technology, the
blacksmith began to shift his energies to
the repair of such things as automobiles,
mowers, and tractors, and the production
of ornamental items such as mobiles and
gates (Bealer 1969:27; Queen and Webb

The technological shift from
traditional artifact types to
mass-produced (and more specifically
automotive) types is reflected in the
material remains of 9Co246. The
combination of traditional farm implements
and those related to automotive repair was
clearly evident, as it was at 38Ab21, a
farmstead blacksmith's shop recorded
during the mitigation phase of the Richard
B. Russell reservoir project in South
Carolina. At 38Ab21 there was an
assemblage of:

a broken hoe blade and
handle, nails, tacks, rivets,
staples, screws, bolts, cotter
pins, washers, nuts, a
fragment of a band saw blade,

a pointed valve, and numerous
pieces of metal, clinker,
slag, and charcoal. [Gray

Mixed with the artifacts that would be
expected at a blacksmith's shop were:

spark plugs, a porcelain
cylinder, a tire valve, a
broken pair of scissors,
sections of chain, generator
brushes, battery caps...[Gray

The assemblage clearly contained the
materials that would be expected in a
blacksmith's shop related to traditional
harness repair, in addition to "evidence
of automotive and/or small engine repair"
(Gray 1983:128).

Both the shop in South Carolina and
9Co246 possessed the material remains of
the culture change that occurred in rural
America with the advent of the internal
combustion engine. The South Carolina
shop was similar in many ways to 9Co246 in
that they both may have been
contemporaneous (38Ab21 was dated to ca.
1920-1925 [Gray 1983:128]) and they both
served small farmsteads, and possibly
neighboring farms. The blacksmith's shop
as a component of the farmstead reflects
the "community-like" nature of the
farmstead, consisting of "separate,
specialized, interdependent parts"
(McDaniel 1982:208). At 9Co246, it is
unlikely that the shop served a great many
people or persisted for any great length
of time. There were not the accumulations
of waste and work-related residues that
may be expected at commercial blacksmith's
shops (see Coleman, et al. 1986) present
at 9Co246. The historical research of the
site should bear-out this observation.


The architectural and archaeological
investigations at 9Co246 provide an
interesting insight into the persistence
of traditional culture well into the
twentieth century. The shop was viewed
from the perspective that it was a folk
artifact, one that was compound,

containing many traditional and
mass-produced attributes. Within the
form, construction, and use of the shop
were the material residues of the
technological change that occurred with
the introduction of gas-powered
transportation and agricultural

The shop should be of particular value
in that in addition to archaeological
remains there were standing architectural
features. Based on the analyses of the
site a hypothetical archaeological model
of the shop was prepared (Figure 19). The
function of the shop was clearly evident
archaeologically, although it may have
been difficult to interpret because of the
incidence of automotive-related

The absence of the anvil and the tools
that might have been salvaged by the
blacksmith may reflect a common pattern in
the conservative behavior of the "plain
folk of the American South" (Otto and
Gilbert 1982) to remove usable artifacts
from a building following its abandonment
(Otto and Gilbert 1982:68) or razing
(White and Kardulias 1985:70). The great
number of shoes present might have been
the result of use of the shop for storage
after it no longer served its primary
purpose, or may represent the use of the
building by transient alcoholic indigents
as shelter. The shoes might have been
discarded because of swelled feet caused
by excessive alcohol consumption (John R.
Morgan, personal communication); there
were three liquor bottles present on the
floor of the shop. In any event, in
addition to the salvage of the tools, the
building apparently underwent some
secondary use (Schiffer 1976: 38-39). The
overall significance of the remains of
9Co246 and other similar sites is that
within them lie the material clues to
America's transition from a horse-drawn
society to an automotive society.


The work at the blacksmith's shop would
not have been possible without the
cooperation of the developer, Mr. Cliff
Rosen of Rosen and Associates, and the

individual who relocated the shop
structure, Mr. Joe Mador. Dr. John
Burrison provided many leads concerning
the role of the blacksmith in traditional
society, and it is to him that I owe much
of my interest in the folk culture of the
American South.

References Cited

Bealer, Alex W.
1969 The Art of Blacksmithing. New York: Funk and
Wagnall s.

Coleman, Ellis C., Kevin Cunningham, Wade P. Catts, and Jay F. Custer
1986 Archaeological Investigations at the Wilson-Slack
Site. Bulletin of the Delaware Archaeological
Society Nunter 21, New Series, Fall 1986, pp. 102-148.

Cossons, Neil
1975 The BP Book of Industrial Archaeology. London:
David and Charles.

Glassie, Henry
1968 Pattern in the Material Culture of the Eastern
United States. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press.

Gray, Marlesa
1983 The Old Home Place: An Archaeological and
Historical Investigation of Five Farm Sites
Along the Savannah River, Georgia and South
Carolina. Russell Papers, National Park
Service, Atlanta.

Hudson, Kenneth
1963 Industrial Archaeology. Philadelphia: Dufour

Kniffen, Fred
1985 Folk Housing: Key to Diffusion. In, Common
Places: Readings in American Vernacular
Architecture, edited by Dell Upton and John
Michael Vlach, pp. 2-26. Athens: University
of Georgia Press.

Light, John D. and Henry Unglik
1984 A Frontier Fur Trade Blacksmith Shop:
1796-1812. Studies in Archaeology, Architecture,
and History. Ontario: National Historic Parks and Sites
Branch, Parks Canada.

McBride, W. Stephen
1986 The Village Blacksmith in the Antebellum South:
Archaeological Investigations at the Griswold
Shop, Barton Mississippi (1851-1860). Paper
presented at the 43rd Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Nashville, Tennessee.

Mador, Joe
n.d. Personal Communication.

Manucy, Albert C.
1963 The Fort at Frederica. Notes in Anthropology,
Vol. 5. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Maxwell, Jayne
n.d. Personal Communication, GDOT Staff Historian.

McAlester, Virginia and Lee McAlester
1984 A Field Guide to American Houses. New York:

McDaniel, George W.
1982 Hearth and Home: Preserving a People's Culture.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Meilach, Dona
1984 Decorative and Sculptural Ironwork: Tools,
Techniques, Inspiration. New York: Crown.

Morgan, John R.
n.d. Personal Communication, Archaeologist, Georgia
Department of Natural Resources.

Otto, John S. and G.D. Gilbert
1982 The Plain Folk of the American South: An
Archaeological Perspective. Pioneer America
14(2): 67-80.

Queen, Myra and Terri Webb
1977 Blacksmithing. Foxfire 11(2): 83-118.

Schiffer, Michael B.
1976 Behavioral Archeology. New York: Academic.

Seymour, John
1984 The Forgotten Crafts. New York: Knopf.

White, John R. and P. Nick Kardulias
1985 The Dynamics of Razing: lessons from the
Barnhisel House. Historical Archaeology
19(1): 65-75.

White, Kerry
n.d. Personal Coluaunication.

David S. Rotenstein
1420 N. Atlantic Ave. Apt. 903
Daytona Beach, Florida 32018


George Luer,
Dana Ste. Claire,


The Myakkahatchee Site (8So397) is lo-
cated in the interior of southeastern
Sarasota County, Florida, approximately
27 km due east from the City of Venice
in an unpopulated area within the
northern portion of the City of North
Port (Figures 1 and 2). Prior to recent
drainage, road construction, and sub-
division into lots, this area was part
of a vast, rich wetland encompassing the
lower Myakka River valley and stretching
southeastward to Charlotte Harbor.

In early 1982, the Myakkahatchee Site
was severely impacted when its owner,
the General Development Corporation
(GDC), borrowed earth, bulldozed vege-
tation, and built roads on and through
the site (Figure 3). In the face of
this destruction, a number of people,
including collectors and archaeologists,
voluntarily worked together to rescue
some information from the site.

This article presents a brief history
of destruction and research at the site.
It describes the site's varied compo-
nents and some of the artifacts and
faunal material from them, and it in-
cludes an analysis of lithic debitage
from disturbed areas.

The Myakkahatchee Site is significant.
It is a major site located inland from
the shore in a wetland setting. Very
little is known about such sites. It
has a burial mound accompanied by a
curved embankment which may be the last
of several such earthworks that once
existed in south-central Florida. It
has one of the longest histories of use,
approximately 10,000 years, reported in
Florida. It was used by Paleo-Indian,
Archaic, Florida Transitional, Manasota,
prehistoric Safety Harbor, and Seminole

Marion Almy,
and Robert Austin

Indians and by rural Anglo-Americans
early in this century. The site has
a prehistoric midden with abundant,
well-preserved faunal material. This
material needs to be studied to help
understand prehistoric utilization of,
and adaptation to, southern Florida's
vanishing interior wetlands.

History and Research

In November 1981, two avocational pale-
ontologists, Phil Whisler and Sonny
Hazeltine, went up Myakkahatchee Creek
into isolated, unimproved cattle lands
to collect fossils from Big Slough
Canal. When they found the canal's
water too high, they investigated a
nearby ditch that GDC had recently dug
and discovered abundant faunal material
and pottery sherds indicative of a pre-
historic aboriginal midden. Hazeltine
returned with Frank Goode in January
1982, and they found lithics and human
bones. The men then contacted archaeol-
ogists Marion Almy and Skip Wood and
took them to see the site.

On their visit, Almy and Wood inspected
two flexed human burials associated with
plain sand-tempered sherds, and observed
a nearby, freshly dug test pit (Figure
3) where Sonny Hazeltine had found
Archaic lithic material in situ. These
finds showed that the site was important
because: 1) it had evidence of long
usage; 2) it seemed to be an Archaic
period base camp (the only other known
for Sarasota County, the Gory Site
[8So24], was destroyed in the 1960s by
construction of the Gulf Intracoastal
Waterway near Venice [Almy 1985]); and,
3) it appeared to be a major "inland
from the shore" site for later post-
Archaic Indians (Luer and Almy 1982:51).


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987

I- -
a- ~~b

Figure 1. Myakkahatchee Site Environs. Upper left: slough and hammock margin.
Upper right: fresh ditch and road along dense cabbage palm hammock.
Lower: Reistertown Road and ditch curving northward in the middle
of the Myakkahatchee Site; note water and cattail plants in ditch.

139 x

. .88
*-_' -

. ".8. 88 L.8.

88 88
88. -=l

-1 888 8888
.8. ~

. 8

.u .Ir


1 km

Figure 2. Location and Former Wetland Environment of the Myakkahatchee Site.

The ponds and portions of the slough have been drastically altered

or destroyed by land development. Inset, lower right: stars show

location of Myakkahatchee Site in southeastern Sarasota County.

.. 888 "_ 8,8.,
-8. ... ... .. L *
~.8 .8, .8.' r
+ ~ r "I ,"', ," L.

'- .8" 7. .- "" i "- ... -_ -

|= -.... "' ,,, T, ... ""* ..".. '* ** ," ** ". ,* ,-
a a .. .... ,,. 8, ,. ',

... >>^ ^ I .- + ., ,,,
.8 .8 *l
", \" ". .- .8 --. --
-' ,,. -, a..

.- \ -,- .. -- .

.'*8 .'.'" h a c h e , 8,,, 88 .8 8- "

| ":: ... S it : ,,- ., "' "" ",. r .'* *"-
S, 8, ~. .8 "8 ,-
--I .... .8- .-
88. -- .8 ..~ ~, ~ J .~
*888 8 *8. .8.I ~

.. ., .
.8. ..8 +-

"::" ::". ","" "" "" -," 8" ._ -
.:... .. ....8... ,_ .

.:.:::: '- -- ,,, *** *** *" ,".
.888. .8+

, My k a_ h "tche, ,.. 8 .. ...

Site...8 ..*..*".: ..8"' %8.
.. .. ., -. r ,.,. 8 .8 .... ..r-8

... 8. .,. ,-. 8 .
.- I 8-- 8, ,' .-. ,. -.

.- ... .' ,* .- -- +,

,- "''" o" -"
.. .". ,.- -, 8 Co nt

S + ,., _, ,,, ,, 8- ,.. ... 8.
.8.. .. 4.*_ .8. C

.88 ,. .... ** 4 -

...k .8 .,i.. *8.8 .' 8* 8**^^ ^
88 .8. .8 ..8. 4 .8. 8 .-' .

88. .8 *8 .8.
.88. ... .88 8. 8 .8. S r o .

"8 -. .A8 I. *

.8.. 8 8888 <

8. .8 .88./ -
.8. 8 480
--. ,8.. .. 88.

88. -Y l .4.r .,. 84.~ .8.L .8.
.8..~ .88. 4. 8 .88
.88 8L 8 8 8
__ .8, .8. .8 .8.~
.88, ~ ~ .8. -1 .8. .8. r
.888 .. c.4 x 8- - - -
.88. .88 .8
.8..c .88 I 1 flhilr
.8. .8., .8 .8, .
.8.. .8'= .8.L

.88L .888 .88. .8. .4

.88. 8' 88 .. 8

-" -r



tru k .. slough

., -.i ,/

sa -l bu l ozzed soi

filldoeded lake
Ci rcle e. -
Mound "

.. piled palm trun s

sand ;, -
m d ,, orme rslough/hammock
,, .. ... ny "" ", inte r
dit ch* testpit.

-bbulldozed "lbe ... .
._ l .. "b oed.;, ,

"""I '1" :." :"cabbage ,
I ~'. '. palm *.. .
1. ., ."'hammock .
\- ..-*

piled ..'t ..~ ,, i ,, .
palm rS .i ,. .
trunks N
ru ...remnants" of .-- N

.- palm hammock 50 m
W. .,,!* 1 g l

ditch Tropicaire Boulevard ditch

ditch ditch
.. ....... .i .. i I ...ii.. I.. A-. A A A I A- A-:A I ii a L a. i*

Figure 3. The Myakkahatchee Site in 1982 after Major Destruction. The X's show
the location of human burials uncovered by GDC ditching. The stars
indicate where in situ midden was exposed in road cuts.

When Almy and Wood departed from the
site in January 1982, it was still in an
isolated area. They believed that the
site was not in any immediate danger
from either looting or development.
However, within a month GDC destroyed
much of the site by building roads
through it and by borrowing earth from
it, spreading and piling the earth over
adjacent wetland areas (Figure 3). The
site is located in a "vested" develop-
ment which had been platted and "grand-
fathered in" prior to implementation of
current, more stringent state environ-
mental regulations which would have
given a measure of protection. Further,
it was apparently not the subject of any
federal wetlands permitting or other
regulations. Thus, there were no con-
straints on the developer's actions.

In February 1982, Travis Gray, an
archaeologist then at the nearby Little
Salt Spring site, learned of this de-
struction and reported it to Bob Carr,
Metro-Dade County Archaeologist in
Miami. Gray hoped that Carr, who was
then President of the Florida Archae-
ological Council (FAC -- an association
of professional archaeologists), could
persuade Miami-based GDC to initiate
mitigative archaeological work at the
site. At the same time, several people
from North Port and Venice began to
drive out to the site on the newly built
roads to collect aboriginal artifacts
from the bulldozed earth and road cuts.
One of these persons, Dan Hazeltine,
went out on March 29th and discovered
GDC's bulldozers knocking over extensive
areas of the site's cabbage palm hammock
(Figure 1). He immediately reported
this to Gray who telephoned Carr. Carr
then contacted GDC in Miami about its
clearing activities. The bulldozing
stopped on March 30th.

Carr's efforts for mitigative work
intensified. He brought the case of the
"Myakkahatchee Site," as many people now
called it, before the annual meeting of
the FAC. The FAC voted on April 2, 1982
to send a mailgram to GDC requesting the
immediate cessation of earthmoving at

the site and that steps be taken to
mitigate the adverse impacts of devel-
opment (Carr to Pancoast, letter of
April 22). GDC responded by requesting
Carl Clausen of CCC Enterprises, Inc.
(1982), a private archaeological con-
sulting firm which had previously worked
for them, to look over the situation.

Travis Gray also continued to encourage
archaeological work at the Myakkahatchee
Site. In March 1982, he showed the site
to archaeologist John Beriault and, in
April, to archaeologists Carl Clausen
and George Luer. Gray was also instru-
mental in bringing the site to the
attention of the local press (Leskosky
1982; Wason 1982) and in establishing
communication with several collectors
who visited the site. Gray facilitated
Luer's recording of collections made by
Bary Warner and Dan Hazeltine, and Luer
and Almy recorded the site for inclusion
in the Florida Master Site File main-
tained by the Florida Department of
State, (then) Division of Archives,
History and Records Management (reor-
ganized in 1986 as the Division of
Historical Resources). In June, Almy
contacted Dana Ste. Claire and Robert
Austin at the University of South
Florida in Tampa who generously ana-
lyzed lithic debitage collected by Dan
Hazeltine and Jack Zuraw. The results
of this and other salvage work are
presented below.


Before extensive drainage by GDC, the
Myakkahatchee Site lay in the midst of
a wetland. Small, shallow seasonally-
filled ponds dotted the surrounding
landscape. The area's run-off of fresh
water, considerable in the summer rainy
season, flowed southward in a broad,
open slough which gave rise to Myakka-
hatchee Creek. By the late 1940s, this
slough and the creek's upper reaches
had been channelized by a long, narrow
ditch, the Big Slough Canal, which was
dug "... to facilitate the removal of
excessive surface water" (U.S.D.A.

1959:2). Originally, the creek began
a short distance south of the Myakka-
hatchee Site and flowed southward in a
narrow, deep channel which contrasted
with the wide, marshy slough to the
north. This was due to the terrain
which drops more steeply south of the
Myakkahatchee Site, about two meters
over a distance of two kilometers, than
it does to the north where it drops
about two meters over a distance of four
kilometers (U.S.G.S. Murdock; U.S.G.S.
Murdock NW). The more level terrain
to the north had many more shallow,
seasonally-filled ponds than the land
to the south. The slough also con-
tained many such ponds.

Where the slough bordered the Myakka-
hatchee Site (Figures 2 and 3), there
was an especially large pond which was
the lowest spot in the area. Situated
in a pocket at the edge of the slough,
this pond lay in an enormous basinlike
feature which would have received and
retained much water from the slough.
Indeed, prior to drainage, this feature
probably held a lake. Before GDC filled
much of it in 1982, the feature's black,
muck bottom measured more than 300
meters north-south and more than 200
meters east-west. To the west and
south, this basin sloped rapidly up-
ward to higher ground on the slough's
west edge (Figure 3).

The juxtaposition of such a sizeable
water-filled basin and adjoining higher
ground made this an ideal location for
human occupation. Indeed, during drier
episodes of the past, especially in the
Archaic and Paleo-Indian periods, this
wet basin might have been an important
water source. In later times, the high
ground might have been more important.
For example, despite recent drainage,
the slough flooded after the "No Name
Storm" of June 1982 and this high
ground, although wet, was one of the
few areas above water along the slough.

Although the ground at the Myakkahatchee
Site is slightly elevated, it is not
well-drained. The soil types at the

site, consisting of Parkwood fine, deep
phase, Pompano fine, and some Immokalee
fine sand, reflect this. Prehistoric
archaeological sites seldom occur on
these soil types in Sarasota County
(Almy 1978). However, Almy's soil study
notes that several sites in Sarasota
County do occur on Immokalee fine sand
where "... the soil type adjoined a
creek, bayou, or spring, and no better
drained soils were in the vicinity"
(Almy 1978:87). This is the case of all
three soils at the Myakkahatchee Site.

The high ground at the Site supports
remnants of a dense cabbage palm hammock
(Figure 1). The slough supports "wet
prairie" vegetation that is unusual in
Sarasota County both for its large
extent and for its marshlike character.
Much of the slough has been severely
impacted by GDC's ditching, filling,
dredging, and road construction. Slash
pine/saw palmetto woods now cover much
of the adjoining land. Before drainage,
this land was more open, having season-
ally wet saw palmetto prairie and ponds
interspersed with higher areas of pine.

Deer and sandhill cranes, which still
frequented the slough and adjoining
wetlands in 1982, have disappeared as
people have gained access to the area.
Today, the many miles of still-vacant
roads around the Myakkahatchee Site are
policed to curtail rabbit-hunting, drug-
smuggling, drag-racing and trail-biking
(Overholtzer 1986).

The Site

The Myakkahatchee Site stretches some
400 meters north-south and some 200
meters east-west, occupying about 80,000
square meters (Figure 3). Within this
area, seven site components have been
identified: 1) an extensive area of
lithic debris; 2) an extensive midden
area; 3) a burial area; 4) a curved
earthwork of sand; 5) a sand burial
mound; 6) a possible borrow area; and
7) a small sand mound. Each of these
will be discussed below. In addition,

there may be other as yet unidentified
components. For example, the muck
bottom of the basinlike feature could
contain Archaic period burials. The
basin and adjoining higher ground fit
the predictive site model for Archaic
period cemeteries proposed by Beriault
et al. (1981:55).

Area of lithic debris. This component
extends under aTllofthe Myakkahatchee
Site from Tropicaire Boulevard at the
south to a short distance north of the
intersection of Cold Spring Lane and
Reistertown Road (Figure 3). Lithic
material was most common on high ground
toward the rim of the pond feature,
especially under the midden area. In
Sonny Hazeltine's test pit, lithic
material was most prevalent below a
depth of one meter and was found at
least as deep as the hardpan which was
encountered at 1.3 1.5 meters (Frank
Goode, pers. comm.).

The topography of the site varied
considerably as well as the depths
at which lithics were found. Some
artifacts, including Pinellas points,
were found in topsoil high up in the
most elevated portion of the cabbage
palm hammock just north of Cold Spring
Lane. At a lower elevation to the south
along Tropicaire Blvd. where palmettos
and pines grew, several small stemmed
Archaic points or knives were recovered
in the road cut at a depth of about 0.5
meters between overlying gray sand and
underlying white sand (John Beriault,
pers. comm.; Dan Hazeltine, pers.
comm.). Other lithics were found about
two meters below the surface in reddish
brown ferrous material exposed by the
road cut of Reistertown Road between the
Circle Mound and the pond feature. One
specimen was the base of a large Newnan
point encrusted with ferrous material.
Midden area. Located in the eastern
half of the site, this component covered
at least 20,000 square meters before
construction of Reistertown Road removed
much of it. The midden supported cab-
bage palm hammock, most of which was

removed when the road was built and
bulldozers cleared adjoining land.
Sherds, lithics, and faunal bone from
the midden are described below and
indicate an Archaic through prehistoric
Safety Harbor occupation.

After Reistertown Road was built, an
intensive ceramic-bearing portion of
the midden was visible in situ along
the road's east side where it lay ex-
posed in the uppermost meter of the road
cut. Here the midden was in gray sand
that became dark brown about a meter
below the surface. The midden also was
encountered in Sonny Hazeltine's test
pit where sherds were found above a
depth of one meter with faunal material
and lithics continuing deeper.

Additional midden was exposed at about
one meter below the surface by the road
cut at the northwest corner of Cold
Spring Lane and Reistertown Road as well
as along the west side of Reistertown
Road between the Circle Mound and the
pond feature. In both places the midden
consisted of patches of gray concreted
material lacking sherds but containing
faunal remains and lithics, including
Archaic Stemmed points or knives. In
one patch approximately 30 centimeters
thick, Phil Whisler found four box tor-
toise shells embedded together. When a
section containing the tortoise shells
was chipped out, a stemmed point or
knife was embedded in the bottom of
it (Phil Whisler, pers. comm.).

Burial area. Human bones were uncovered
in a north-south ditch dug just before
the building of Reistertown Road. At
least two individuals had been interred
in the midden's southern portion near
the eastern edge of the road (Figure 3).
Both individuals were adults, probably
of young age since the teeth showed very
little wear. The skeletons were tightly
flexed and in extremely close proximity,
the skulls almost in contact, suggesting
they represented a single burial. A few
plain sand-tempered sherds and several
pieces of lithic debitage were found in
the fill surrounding the skeletons, the


former indicating a post-Archaic origin.
Some of the skeletal material is curated
by Phil Whisler of Venice and some by
Archaeological Consultants, Inc. of
Sarasota (ACI). Photographs of in situ
skeletal material are on file at ACI,
courtesy of Mitchell Hope of Englewood.

Circle Mound. This is an oval-shaped
earthwork of sand located high in the
cabbage palm hammock in the northwest
portion of the site (Figure 3). Its
longest axis runs north-east south-west,
and it consists of a U-shaped embankment
closed at the northeast end by a sand
burial mound (Figure 4) discussed below.
Besides numerous tall cabbage palms, a
few sizeable live oaks grow on its 5 to
6 meter wide embankment that is 10 to
50 centimeters in height above the
surrounding ground. Its central area
between the U-shaped embankment is
lower than the ground outside and,
during the rainy season and especially
after heavy rains, holds standing water.

The road cut for Reistertown Road re-
moved some of the embankment's southeast
side and, while clearing, GDC's heavy
equipment damaged more (Figure 4). Also
while clearing, a bulldozer pushed palm
trunks across the Circle Mound, slicing
through its northwest side where the
embankment was composed of gray sand
to a depth of at least 40 centimeters.
The bulldozer that cut across the Circle
Mound apparently followed an old trail.
In the 1940s through the early 1960s,
a trail ran along the west side of the
slough and crossed through the hammock
at the Myakkahatchee Site from where the
trail then ran northwestward (U.S.G.S.
Murdock; U.S.D.A. 1959:sheet 41; Bob
Pelham, pers. comm.).

The Circle Mound, with its U-shaped
embankment and accompanying burial
mound, may be the last remaining example
of an unusual site arrangement that
occurred in interior areas of west-
central Florida. Other examples, all
of which are now destroyed and rather
poorly described, include: the Jones
Mound in Hillsborough County (Bullen

1952:42-43); the Parrish Mound 3 (Willey
1949:152) and the Stanley Mound (Atwood,
pers. comm.; Bushnell, pers. comm.;
Deming 1975; Allerton, Luer, and Carr
1984: see entry for MT#24) in Manatee
County; the Keen Mound in Hardee County
(Mitchell Hope, pers. comm.) and the
Philip Mound in Polk County (Benson
1967:118). Willey (1949:152) called
attention to the similarity between the
curved embankment at Parrish Mound 3 and
some of the "... semicircular earthworks
found in Glades area sites ...." There
are also similarities to some sites
along the Kissimmee River to the east
(see Conklin 1875).

Sand Burial Mound. Comprising the
northeast portion of the Circle Mound,
this burial mound reaches an elevation
of slightly more than 0.5 meter above
the curved embankment joining it on the
south (Figure 4). The mound was damaged
by the road cut, and its northeast por-
tion was damaged by clearing. In 1982,
three pot holes were dug in the mound's
south slope and extremely fragmentary
human bone was found in some of the
spoil. These holes revealed gray sand
to at least 70 centimeters below the
surface. It was hoped that this mound
would be properly investigated and
preserved, but much of the mound was
lost to uncontrolled digging in 1985.

Live oak and cabbage palm cover the
mound. Also, there is evidence that
the mound was used as a homesite some-
time during the last 100 years. A few
orange and guava trees grow there, and
fragments of historic ceramics and glass
dating to circa 1910 (slides on file,
ACI) were collected from the mound's
surface in 1982. This material, as
well as some Seminole and Safety Harbor
artifacts found here, are described
below in the "Collections" section.

Interestingly the Sand Burial Mound may
be shown on a map of the Second Seminole
War. The "Map of the Peninsula of
Florida" (1845) clearly shows a mound
between the Myakka and Peace Rivers in
the same area where the Myakkahatchee

10 m
I ,


, 4 I ,.

bulldozed spoil .


S 4 -




* 4

a *

. '
road cut'
'. e

Figure 4. The Circle Mound. The curved embankment is to the left and the sand burial mound is to the right.
Contours are approximate and in centimeters. Dark squares represent 1982 pot holes; dark stipple
shows areas lost to uncontrolled digging in late 1985.

V .



Site is located; it is labelled "Fannee-
okko-pokee (bone heap)."

Possible borrow area. This large hollow
is a short distance southwest of the
Circle Mound's embankment (Figure 4).
It measures 15 by 37 meters and might
have provided sand for the Circle Mound.

Small sand mound. This small mound of
gray sand measures approximately 11
meters in diameter and reaches a height
of about 30 centimeters. It was not
damaged by clearing, but a large hole
later appeared in its center.


The tragic destruction leading to the
recovery of artifacts from the Myakka-
hatchee Site unfortunately left many of
them unprovenienced. Thus, much of what
follows is an inventory only, but the
collected artifacts and faunal material
do reveal significant information.
Since the long, multi-period usage of
the Site is one of its most important
aspects, artifacts are roughly grouped
below by a temporal framework, beginning
with Paleo-Indian and ending with early
20th century historic.

Paleo-Indian/Early Archaic. The base of
a broken Simpson point and an unbroken
Tallahassee point were found in bull-
dozed spoil. One Bolen point was
reported. Also a Florida Spike and
three Florida Morrow Mountain knives
were recovered from spoil.

Middle Archaic. At least 50 Florida
Archaic Stemmed projectile points or
knives were found, mainly of the Putnam,
Levy, and Marion subtypes. Some were
almost identical to specimens from
several C-14 dated Middle Archaic period
sites in southwest and west-central
Florida such as Little Salt Spring
(Clausen et al. 1979), Bay West
(Beriault et al. 1981), and Republic
Groves (Wharton et al. 1981).

Still other stone tools were recovered
which had been extensively reworked into
small, steep-edged knives by retouching
the blade edges, apparently one edge at
a time in order to conserve material.
This left a small, thick blade on a
large, thick stem with the blade's tip
lying off-center from the midline of the
stem. If such a specimen was repeatedly
resharpened one edge at a time, the
blade tip would have shifted from side
to side of the stem's midline. Similar
reworked small knives were excavated
from the Archaic period midden adjoining
the slough and Archaic cemetery at
Little Salt Spring (Almy, pers. comm.).

Several Newnan points were also found.
One sizeable specimen, recovered in
pieces from bulldozed spoil, was
exceptionally long and thin and had
incurvate edges. Its delicate, unusual
lancelike form led local collectors to
speculate that it was a ceremonial or
burial item.

Ceramic Archaic Florida Transitional.
Two Culbreath points and a Clay point
were found. Also collected were 17
sand- and fiber-tempered sherds (15
body, 2 rim). A total of 14 sherds
(13 body, 1 rim) of very thick-walled
(14 mm) St. Johns Plain pottery was
recovered, many of which were clearly
from the same vessel and were found in
the road cut on the north side of Cold
Spring Lane near the intersection with
Reistertown Road (Figure 3). From a
different vessel was a single rim sherd
of thick, St. Johns Incised pottery.
The spoil also yielded a sizeable shell
celt, fashioned from the heavy shell lip
of a queen conch. The celt, like most
other marine shell recovered from the
site, was heavily encrusted with a dark
material which had formed in the soil
while it was buried. Queen conch celts
were obtained from southeast Florida and
the Florida Keys where queen conchs are
native. These celts seem to have been
typical of the local Ceramic Archaic-
Florida Transitional periods and have
been found in the Hill Cottage Midden
(Bullen and Bullen 1976) and at Canton

Street (Bullen et al. 1978). However,
examples have also been found in later
contexts such as on the Cape Haze
Peninsula (Bullen and Bullen 1956).

Early Manasota. Four Hernando points
were recovered from graded spoil on the
south side of Cold Spring Lane. Among
the many undecorated, sand-tempered
sherds that were found (see below),
a few pertain to this period. These
include inward-curving, thick rim
sherds with chamfered lips.

Late Manasota Weeden Island Safety
Harbor. Assignable to this continuum
are most of the 528 undecorated, sand-
tempered sherds (469 body, 59 rim) that
were collected. This is based on body
wall thickness, rim profiles, and lip
treatments (see Luer and Almy 1980).
Most of these, and some other sherds
mentioned below, came from the midden
exposed by the road cut along the east
side of Reistertown Road. The other
sherds include 3 sand- and grog-tempered
plain sherds (1 body, 2 rim) which are
assignable to late Manasota times.
Probably post-dating this are 6 thin
St. Johns Plain body sherds and 13 Belle
Glade Plain sherds (10 body, 3 rim).

The midden also produced several
columellae and heavy pieces of left-
handed whelk shell body whorl, as well
as pieces of large quahog shell. Some
perforated (drilled) charcharhinid shark
teeth were found. All of these items
were brought to the site from the coast,
apparently for use as tools. Two deer
antler tine points were recovered from
midden material. Also, two pieces of
cut deer antler were found, one showing
a considerable amount of scraping
(Whisler # 3MW), possibly from a shark
tooth tool. Fragments of bone points
and several complete small bone points
or gorges (5-7 cm in length) were
recovered from the road cut near the
southern end of the midden. The lat-
ter were sharpened on one end only.

Probably of the Safety Harbor period are
several Pinellas points that were found

in disturbed topsoil north of Cold
Spring Lane very near the intersection
with Reistertown Road. This same area
also produced a large scraper made from
the left valve of a quahog.

Prehistoric Safety Harbor. Spoil from
the three pot holes in the south side of
the sand burial mound contained badly
weathered fragments of left-handed whelk
shell drinking cups and human bone as
well as pot sherds. Sixty-two undecor-
ated, sand-tempered sherds (54 body, 8
rim) were collected, most having come
from medium- and thin-walled vessels.
Outward-curving rim sherds indicated
that these were simple bowls (see Luer
and Almy 1980). The spoil also con-
tained two rim sherds of Sarasota
Incised pottery, each from the same
vessel, that have punctations below
the lip apparently forming the char-
acteristic triangular pattern.

In the summer of 1982, a man who re-
quested anonymity dug in the side of
the small easternmost pot hole (Figure
4). He found a stack of five nested
sherds accompanied by two weathered
left-handed whelk columella barrel
beads. The pottery, which reportedly
was about 30 centimeters below the
surface, consisted of four Safety Harbor
Incised sherds, all from a cylindrical
beaker, and an undecorated, buff-
colored, almost temperless sherd of an
undetermined ware. The Safety Harbor
Incised sherds were of a hard, compact,
brown-surfaced ware with a gray core
having black and light brown granular
inclusions. This ware was identical
to that of some Safety Harbor Incised
pottery from Tierra Verde (FSM collec-
tions) and Aqui Esta (Luer 1980). This
man kindly showed these finds to the
authors and gave them a 1:1 sketch of
the vessel (ACI files, 1982).

The cylindrical beaker had open ends,
and both narrowed slightly. Narrowing
was greater toward the bottom where a
heavy lip bordered a large hole inten-
tionally made before firing in the flat
base. This hole had a diameter of 4 cm

in a base that was 6 cm in diameter.
The beaker's maximum diameter was 7 cm,
its height was 10.5 cm, and the average
thickness of its walls was about 0.8 cm.

Three sets of parallel lines ran around
the outside surface of the cylindrical
beaker (three on its rim, three around
its middle, and two near its bottom) and
created two bands between them which
displayed different motifs. The motifs
were filled with circular punctations
that had raised centers which indicated
that the punctations had been made with
a hollow tubelike implement, possibly a
small reed or broken long bone of a
bird. The lower encircling band dis-
played a series of pendant triangles,
each triangle bordered and separated by
pairs of incised lines. This design is
very similar to that found on Sarasota
Incised pottery (Willey 1949:P1. 46,c;
Griffin and Bullen 1950:P1. I: V,W;
Karklins 1974:Fig.2:e). The design is
also very similar to that found on some
Andrews Decorated beakers in Georgia
(Schnell, Knight, and Schnell 1982: P1.

A different design was displayed by the
upper band of the cylindrical beaker.
This band showed two kinds of incised,
punctation-filled motifs: rounded
crescent-shaped figures and small
rounded V-shaped figures. The latter
were pendant at the top of the band.

One additional sherd of Safety Harbor
Incised pottery was also found in the
side of the small, easternmost pot hole.
Due to the circumstances of its recov-
ery, there is no further contextual in-
formation. The sizeable, curved sherd
appeared to be from the neck of a
bottle. It narrowed at one end where
it had a straight rim with an unmodified
lip. The sherd was light brown in color
and tempered with sand. An incised and
punctated design on its exterior surface
was very similar to that on an Andrews
Decorated beaker from Georgia (Schnell,
Knight, and Schnell 1982:P1. 4.9:d).

Early Seminole. In late 1985, most of
the sand burial mound was destroyed by
pot-hunting. Unearthed was an intact
pottery vessel, containing lead shot,
which was capped by an inverted metal
kettle. In form, the vessel was almost
identical to a vessel of Chattahoochee
Brushed found by Clarence B. Moore at
the Kissimmee River (Goggin 1964:Fig.
18:E, P1. 9:A). However, the surface
treatment of the Myakkahatchee vessel
was different. The exterior surface of
its body had been stamped with linear
marks and then roughly smoothed before
firing (producing an effect resembling
that pictured by Willey [1949:P1. 46:
g]). The Myakkahatchee vessel was about
30 to 35 cm in height, of a very dark
brown color and appeared to be tempered
with a small amount of fine sand.

Within the vessel, nested in the rounded
bottom, were approximately 100 lead
balls of two or three sizes. Some of
the lead balls were still joined to one
another as they would have been on
leaving the mold in which they were
made. The kettle, probably brass, which
covered the vessel's orifice appeared to
resemble one from an early Seminole bur-
ial in Alachua County (Goggin et al.
1949). However, this resemblance is
uncertain since the kettle was not
available for study.

It is not known if the Myakkahatchee
vessel might have been associated with
a burial, but it does seem likely that
it and the kettle had comprised an
intrusive feature in the mound. The
reported lack of beads with the vessel
and kettle suggest that they had not
been part of a burial since beads are
typically associated with Seminole
interments. It is tempting to speculate
that the Myakkahatchee find represents
a hoard of valued shot buried by Indians
with the intent of protecting it for
later use. The sand mound at the site
was an easily identifiable feature along
the easily travelled slough. It would
have provided a good vantage point over
a large area and would have been an
attractive camping spot.

Early 20th Century Historic. This
material, recovered on the surface
of the sand burial mound's northern
portion, consisted of several pieces
of glass and ironstone and a piece of
green, transfer-printed ware. These
artifacts date to circa 1910 (Bob Carr,
pers. comm.). Several fragments of
brick were recovered from the spoil
of pot holes.

Faunal Remains. Phil Whisler carefully
collected, by hand, thousands of bones
from the midden along Reistertown Road
(see Table 1). Most bones are from the
ceramic-bearing zone. Some are from
apparent preceramic midden deposit, such
as the deer and box tortoise bones from
the gray concreted material. The faunal
bone from the midden is "permineralized"
in that it is partially mineralized by

Whisler found many deer carpels and
inner ear sections, but he found very
few deer metapodials; even pieces of
metapodials were scarce. He attributed
this to the Indians having selected and
removed metapodials for tool manufacture
whereas they discarded carpels and ear
sections since they apparently were not
fashioned into tools.

Whisler also observed that none of the
thousands of bones he collected showed
any evidence of having been gnawed by
rodents. He felt that this was unusual
since gnaw marks often appear on fresh
bones even after a short period of ex-
posure. Whisler has hypothesized that
the unchewed condition of the bones is
due to "swamp deposition," the bones
having been tossed into wet, muddy
ground along the edge of the slough.

Rodent bones were among the most common
at the Myakkahatchee Site, with turtle
and snake bones also being very numer-
ous. Whisler felt that while rabbit
and round-tailed muskrat bones were
abundant, those of the hispid rat were
especially abundant. Bones of opossum,
raccoon, and deer were very common. A

1) bowfin or mudfish (Amia calva)
2) alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula)
3) bass (Micropterus sp.)
4) cf. speckled perch (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)
5) shell cracker (Lepomis microlophus)
6) sunfish (Centrarchidae)
7) catfish (Ictaluridae)
1) requiem shark (Charcharhinus sp.)
2) tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvieri)
3) lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)
4) jack (Caranx sp.)
5) spadefish Chaetodipterus faber)
1) mud eel (Siren lacertina)
2) salamanderTAiiphiuma means)
3) bullfrog (Rana sp.)
4) alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)
5) box turtle (Terrapene carolina)
6) slider (Chrysemys sp.)
7) snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)
8) soft shell turtle (Trionyx ferox)
9) mud turtle (Kinosternon sp.)
10) mud snake (Farancia abacura)
11) water snake (Nerodia sp
12) cottonmouth ? (Agistrodon piscivorus)
13) rattlesnake (Crotalus adamantheus)
1) comorant (Phalacrocorax sp.)
2) great blue heron (Ardea cf. herodias)
3) pied-billed grebe (Podilyumbus podiceps)
4) American widgeon (Anas americaBa)
5) clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris)
6) sandhill crane ? cf. Crus canadensis)
7) sora (Porzana carolina)
8) limpkin -cf. Aramus)
9) bob white (Colinus sp.)
IT)) red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
1) opossum (Didelphis virginana)
2) rabbit (Sylvilagus sp.)
3) marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)
4) cotton mouse (Peromyscus polionotus)
5) hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)
6) round-tailed water rat (Neofiber alleni)
7) raccoon (Procyon lotor)
8) otter (Lontra canadensis)
9) bobcat -Lynx rufus)
10) deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
11) dog (Canis familiaris)
12) man (Homo sapiens)
Table 1. A List of Species Represented by Faunal Remains
from the Midden at the Myakkahatchee Site. Faunal material
collected and curated by Philip M. WhisTer of Venice,
Florida. Identifi-ations made by Whisler and by Erika Simons
of the Zooarchaeological Range, Florida State Museum (FSM)
and by Gary Morgan, Collecti-ns Manager, Vertebrate
Paleontology, FSM. Steven Hale and Karen Jo Walker of FSM
also assisted.

few human bones were found, suggesting
there might have been burials additional
to the one observed by Almy and Wood.

The assemblage of midden bone from the
Myakkahatchee Site reveals intensive
utilization of the area's once diverse
wetland fauna. The abundance of rodent,
turtle, and snake material may reflect
a specialized hunting adaptation to the
interior wetland. This would have been
for an economic, that is subsistence,
purpose. In a pioneering paper, Fradkin
(1978) highlighted the importance of
snakes as a dietary supplement for south
Florida Indians. Judging by the remains
from the Myakkahatchee Site, it appears
that rats, like snakes, comprised an
important part of the aboriginal diet.

Evidence that south Florida Indians did
eat such animals during the 16th century
is provided by the Spaniard, Fontaneda
(1944). He wrote: "The Indians also eat
... snakes, and animals like rats, ...
fresh-water tortoises, and many more
disgusting reptiles which, if we were to
continue enumerating, we should never be

Also intriguing are remains of saltwater
fish at the Myakkahatchee Site (Table
1). The nearest source for spadefish,
shark, and jack would have been about
14 kilometers downstream where Myakka-
hatchee Creek flows into the mouth of
the Myakka River near the Brothers Site
(8So31) (Goodwin et al. 1978) and the
Wrecked Site (8Ch75). Presumably, salt-
water fish were caught there and carried
upstream as "food grubsteaks" (see Almy
1980) by Indians moving inland from the
shore. How much saltwater fish was
brought to the Myakkahatchee Site is an
important question. It, like the die-
tary contribution of snakes and rats,
awaits further archaeological work,
including in depth faunal analyses,
before answers become available.

Debitage Analysis. Ste.
Austin (1982) analyzed a
pieces of stone debitage
the Myakkahatchee Site.

Claire and
sample of 384
obtained at
The sample,

collected from spoil piles and road
cuts, consisted of 319 flakes of chert
and 65 flakes of silicified coral.
Goals of the analysis were to isolate
use-wear patterns for determining tool
use, to categorize the debitage by
specific production attributes, and
to identify stone tool manufacturing
processes at the site.

Through microscopic and macroscopic
examination, 21 flake tools were re-
cognized by wear patterns found along
the margins of flakes. Further, the 21
flake tools could be divided into four
functional tool classes: five knives,
14 scrapers, one multi-purpose tool,
and one perforator.

Additional use-wear analysis indicated
that these flake tools were used to
process a wide range of materials. All
but one of the flake knives were used
predominantly on soft materials perhaps
including skin, flesh, and plant fibers.
Intensive step and scalar scarring on
the fifth knife indicates it was used
on harder substances such as bone or
hardwoods. The 14 flake scrapers were
used on soft, medium, and hard mate-
rials, indicating their utilization in
a variety of tasks, possibly ranging
from scraping hides to working soft and
hard woods, bone, or antler. The multi-
purpose flake tool shows use-wear which
is indicative of cutting and scraping
activities on medium materials such as
a soft wood like pine. The perforator
was used on hard substances.

Almost 50% of the chert flakes and about
90% of the coral flakes showed evidence
of thermal alteration. Part of the abo-
riginal stone tool manufacturing tech-
nology often included subjecting stone
to controlled heat in order to improve
its quality and to increase its ability
to flake easily. The high percentage
of heat-treated coral may indicate that
the alteration of this material was
preferred for technological and/or
aesthetic reasons. Coral is much easier
to flake after heat treatment -- its
color changes, and its surface luster

is increased by.the heat alteration
process. Furthermore, a recent study
by Ste. Clair (1985) has shown that
thermal-alteration techniques reached
their peak during the Archaic period
(ca. 6500-1000 B.C.). The large amounts
of heat treated debitage at the Myakka-
hatchee Site may possibly be indicative
of an Archaic period assemblage.

The lithic reduction manufacturing
process is subtractive. Flakes tend
to become smaller as the product nears
completion, although small flakes may
be produced at any given stage of the
lithic reduction process (Henry et al.
1976; Patterson and Sollberger 19787,
therefore, the debitage sample was sep-
arated into categories based on size.
Over 75% of the flakes were small or
medium in size (less than two square
centimeters in size). This, coupled
with the virtual absence of primary and
secondary decortication flakes generally
produced during early stages of lithic
reduction, indicates that core prepa-
ration and early stage blank reduction
did not take place on-site. Evidently,
blanks or worked reforms were brought
to the site for further reduction into
functional tools. Other indications
of late stage reduction are the acute
platform angles of the flakes, and that
a majority of flakes exhibit multiple
faceting on their dorsal surfaces indi-
cating many flakes were previously
removed from several directions.

Interpretations which can be derived
from this debitage analysis are consis-
tent with other evidence of prehistoric
activity at the Myakkahatchee Site. The
large percentage of heat treated debi-
tage and its possible Archaic period
origin is consistent with the numerous
Archaic period points and knives found
at the site, most of which are made from
heat-altered material. The virtual lack
of decortication flakes is consistent
with the site's location far from any
local source of lithic material (the
closest sources being near the Peace
River to the east and around Tampa Bay
to the northwest). Thus, lithic mate-

rial had to have been brought to the
Myakkahatchee Site, and when it was, it
was already in some prepared form. The
late stage debitage would thus reflect
tool finishing, maintenance, and use for
local and on-site tasks. The wide range
of tasks evidenced by use-wear is in
keeping with the hunting/gathering
activities which took place at the Site.

Neighboring Sites

Other archaeological sites in the vicin-
ity of the Myakkahatchee Site include
lithic scatters, middens, mounds, and
burial areas. Immediately across the
slough to the southeast of the Myakka-
hatchee Site is another midden in the
cabbage palm hammock which, besides
faunal bone, has yielded sand-tempered
plain sherds and lithics. In early
1982, GDC's road construction destroyed
part of the site and uncovered a few
burials in what appeared to be pit-like
features (Travis Gray, pers. comm.).
In Myakkahatchee Creek just 2 to 4 km
south of the Myakkahatchee Site, Phil
Whisler and others found, in 1979-1981,
sand-tempered plain sherds and Archaic
stemmed points or knives as well as a
stone plummet. Just upstream in neigh-
boring southeastern Manatee County, Ray
Willis (1979) located lithic scatters
and investigated a sand mound near
Myakkahatchee Slough (or "Big Slough")
while performing a cultural resource
survey of AMAX phosphate property.

Still other nearby sites show that the
neighboring sloughs were utilized. For
example, on the next slough to the east
of the Myakkahatchee Site is the Little
Jaws Site, an intensive bone midden
exposed about one meter below the
surface by one of GDC's canals (Bill
and Lelia Brayfield, pers. comm.).
The Little Jaws Site is undergoing
investigation by Kevin Seymour of the
Royal Ontario Museum. The site has
yielded bone points but lacks pottery
and appears to be of the Archaic period.
On still another slough a short distance
farther eastward is a large, ceramic-

bearing midden. Steve Hale, who has
obtained faunal material from this site
and from the midden at Little Salt
Spring, is performing zooarchaeological
analyses of the remains. These nearby
middens, all composed primarily of
faunal bone, show that the sloughs
around the Myakkahatchee Site were
utilized extensively.

Preservation Needs

Archaeological site destruction has been
rampant and widespread in the upper
Charlotte Harbor/lower Myakka River area
and is still ongoing. The remaining
cultural resources urgently need to be
identified, inventoried, and studied
before they too are lost.

The area's development is accelerating!
The only way cultural resources will be
adequately addressed and protected is by
local legislation. The State of Florida
has taken the first step by enacting the
Local Government Comprehensive Planning
and Land Development Reulation Act
(Chapter 163, F.S. 1986). This Act
provides historic preservationists with
a major opportunity to protect Florida's
historic resources (Tesar 1986). Local
municipalities and counties are required
to include historic preservation in a
number of elements in their comprehen-
sive plans, such as future land use,
housing, coastal and intergovernmental
coordination elements. The Act also
provides for the preparation of an
optional historic preservation element.
Once adopted, comprehensive plans and
their implementing procedures have legal
standing and govern local decision
making processes with respect to actions
affecting historic and other resources.


The Myakkahatchee Site is a major pre-
historic resource located inland from
the shore in a wetland setting. It has
one of the longest histories of use,
approximately 10,000 years, reported
in Florida. It was used by Paleo-
Indian, Archaic, Florida Transitional,
Manasota, prehistoric Safety Harbor,
rd Semiole Indians as well as by rural

Anglo-Americans early in this century.
The site was an ideal location for
humans, situated on high ground next
to a sizeable water-filled basin.

Covering 80,000 square meters, the
Myakkahatchee Site is composed of at
least seven discrete spacial components.
Particularly significant is a burial
mound and accompanying curved embank-
ment, perhaps the last existing such
earthwork in south-central Florida.
Additionally, the prehistoric midden
contains abundant, well-preserved faunal
evidence of the area's once diverse
wetland fauna. Indeed, the abundance
of rodent, turtle, and snake material
probably reflects a specialized hunting
adaptation to the interior wetland where
rats, turtles, and snakes comprised an
important part of the aboriginal diet.


The authors wish to acknowledge the
following individuals who contributed
their time and expertise in an effort to
save information about the Myakkahatchee
Site: Travis Gray, Phil Whisler, John
Beriault, David Allerton, Mitchell Hope,
Frank Goode, Bill and Lelia Brayfield,
Dan Hazeltine, Bary Warner, Bill Steele,
Bob Pelham, Gary Morgan, Erika Simons,
Steve Hale, and Karen Jo Walker.

Special acknowledgement is due Bob Carr,
Metropolitan Dade County Archaeologist
and former President of the Florida
Archaeological Council. Through Bob
Carr's leadership, in April 1982 the
Florida Archaeological Council made one
of its rare decisions to intervene and
try to stop the wholesale destruction of
a valuable resource. As a result, some
of the Myakkahatchee Site was spared
from destruction.

Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.
Almy, Marion M.
1978 The Archaeological Potential of Soil Survey Reports.
The Florida Anthropologist 31:75-91.
1980 Salvage Excavations at Curiosity Creek: An Inland,
Short-term, Multi-period, Aboriginal Occupation in
Southern Hillsborough County, Florida. MS on file,
Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records
Management, Tallahassee.

1985 Archaeological Surve of Selected Portions of the
City of Venice, Florida. Venice His toricalSurvey
Committee, Venice, Florida.

Benson, Carl
1967 The Philip Mound: A Historic Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 20:118-132.

Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson,
and Jack Meeder
1981 The Archeological Salvage of the Bay West Site,
Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County,
Florida. Florida Geological Survy, Report of
Investigations, No. 8. Taahassee.

Bullen, Ripley P., Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and Richard L.
1978 The Canton Street Site, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publication No. 9.

Bullen-, Ripley P., and Adelaide K. Bullen
1956 Excavations on the Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida.
Florida State Museum Social Sciences Publication
No. 1. Gainesville.

1976 The Palmer Site. Florida Anthropological Society
Publication No. 8.

Carr, Robert S.
1982 Letter to John Pancoast dated April 22. On file with
florida Archaeological Council, Inc.

CCC Enterprises, -Inc.
1982 Evaluation of Archaeological Site Paralleling
Reistertown Road in the Cold Spring Lane Vicinity,
North Port. Copy on file, Archaeological
ConsuJtants, Inc. Sarasota.

Clausen, C.J., A.D. Cohen, Cesare Emiliani, J.A. Holman, and
J.J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater
Site. Science 203:609-614.

Conklin, A. W.
1875 Ancient Mounds of Interior Florida. Forest and
Stream 6:329-331.

Deming, Joan
1975 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of Beker
Phosphate Corporation Property in Eastern Manatee
County. Bureau of Historic Sites and Poperties
Miscellaneous Project Reports Series No. 33.

Fontaneda, Hernando d'Escalante
1944 Memoir of Do. d'Escalante Fontaneda res etin
Florida, written in Spain about the year 1575.
[translated by Buckingham Smith and edited by David
0. True.] Coral Gables.

Fradkin, Arlene
1978 Archeological Evidence of Snake Consumption Among the
Aborigines of Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Goggin, John M.
1964 Indian and Spanish Selected Writings. University of
Miami Press. Coral Gables.

Goggin, John M., Mary E. Godwin, Earl Hester, David Prange,
and Robert Spangenberg
1949 A Historic Indian Burial, Alachua County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 2:10-24.

Goodwin, Larry, Jolee Pearson, and John Fiorini
1978 Salvage Excavations at the Brothers Site, Sarasota
County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 31:

Griffin, John W., and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publication No. 2.

Henry, Don 0., C. Vance Haynes and Bruce Bradley
1976 Quantitative Variations in Flaked Stone Debitage.
Plains Anthropologist 21:57-61.

Karklins, Karlis
1974 Additional Notes on the Philip Mound,
Polk County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 27:1-8

Leskosky, Linda
1982 Workers Uncover Ancient Village Site. The North Port
News, May 27, p. 1.

Luer, George M.
1980 The Aqui Esta Site at Charlotte Harbor: A Safety
Harbor-Influenced Prehistoric Site. Paper presented
to The Florida Anthropological Society 32nd Annual
Meeting, Winter Park.

Luer, George M., and Marion M. Almy
1980 The Development of Some Aboriginal Pottery of the
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 33:207-225.

1982 A Definition of the Manasota Culture. The Florida
Anthropologist 35:34-58.

National Archives
1845 Record Group 77. Map of the Peninsula of Florida.
Compiled by Capt. McClellan and Lieut. Humphrey,
U.S.T.E. Drawn by J..T. Bruff. Map Number L52-B.

Overholtzer, Jeff
1986 North Port Gets Wild. Sarasota Herald Tribune,
August 10, 1A and 6A.

Patterson, L. W., and J. B. Sollberger
1978 Replication and Classificaton of Small Size Lithic
Debitage. Plains Anthropologist 23:103-112.

Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, and Gail S. Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee: Archaeology of a Mississippian
Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River.
University Presses of Florida. Gainesvile.

Ste. Claire, Dana
1985 Thermal Alteration as a Cultural/Temporal Marker in
Florida. Paper presented at the 37th Annual Meeting
of the Florida Anthropological Society, Daytona

Ste. Claire, Dana, and Robert Austin-
1982 8-So-397 Debitage Analysis. Manuscript on file,
Archaeological Consultants, Inc. Sarasota.

Tesar, Louis D.
1986 Historic Preservation and Florida's Local Government
Comprehensive Planning Process. The Florida
Anthropologist 39:257-280.
United States Department of Agriculture
1959 Soil Survey, Sarasota County, Florida. U.S.
Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.

United States Geological Survey
1956 Murdock Quadrangle, Florida. 7.5 Minute Series,
Topographic. Photo revised 1970.

1956 Murdock NW Quadrangle, Florida 7.5 Minute Series.

Wason, Tom
1982 Historical Indian Village Located Near North Port.
Sarasota Herald Tribune, May 31, 48.

Wharton, Barry R., George R. Ballo, and Mitchell E. Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 34:59-80.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collection 113.

Willis, Raymond F.
1979 Amax Pine Level Survey An Archaeological and
Historical Survey of Amax Properties in Manatee and
DeSoto Counties, Florida. Environmental Science and
Engineering, Inc. Gainesville.

George M. Luer
Marion M. Almy
Dana Ste. Claire
Robert Austin

P.O. Box 5103
Sarasota, Fl 33579


Jeffrey M. Mitchem and Brent R. Weisman


In 1985 and 1986, an archaeological site
survey was undertaken in the Withlacoochee
Cove region of Florida, with the purpose of
locating sites attributable to the proto-
historic Safety Harbor period and historic
Seminole Indian occupations of the area.
The 1985-1986 survey (Withlacoochee River
Archaeological Survey Project) was the
second season of fieldwork partially funded
by the Florida Department of State, Divi-
sion of Archives, History and Records
Management (reorganized in July 1986 as the
Division of Historical Resources), and the
third season of joint Florida State Museum,
University of Florida, and Withlacoochee
River Archaeology Council investigations in
the approximately 100 square mile (25,200
ha) wetland tract east of Inverness,

In this report we describe thirteen sites
located in the recent survey. It is sug-
gested that the reader consult Weisman
(1985, 1986) for descriptions of sites
located in the previous two seasons (Figure
1). On the basis of site distribution data
collected in all three seasons of work, we
conclude the present report with some
testable hypotheses regarding aboriginal
settlement and subsistence patterns and
pottery types in the Withlacoochee Cove,
from the Deptford period (ca. 500 B.C.),
through the historic Seminole occupation
of the nineteenth century (Milanich and
Fairbanks 1980:23). While site distri-
butions in the area are now known with
reasonable certainty, issues of their tem-
poral placement and cultural affiliation
should form the foundation for future
research. Therefore, testable hypotheses
rather than concrete conclusions are

Our primary intent in the survey was to
identify additional sites associated with
the Safety Harbor and Seminole cultures. A
significant Safety Harbor burial mound, now

known as the Tatham Mound, was discovered
in the 1984-1985 fieldwork (Weisman 1986:
15). Based on artifacts recovered in three
subsequent University of Florida excava-
tions, the mound now is known to date from
the early Safety Harbor period (ca. A.D.
1000) and from the period of sixteenth
century Spanish exploration of the Florida
mainland, specifically the expedition of
Hernando de Soto in 1539 (Mitchem and
Hutchinson 1986).

The type site for the Safety Harbor
archaeological culture is a complex of
middens and two mounds located at the north
end of Tampa Bay (Willey 1949:135; Griffin
and Bullen 1950). This site is apparently
associated with the protohistoric Tocobaga
Indians, with whom both the expeditions of
Hernando de Soto and Panfilo de Narvaez may
have made contact (Milanich and Fairbanks
1980:204). The Safety Harbor culture is
best known from archaeology in the vicinity
of Tampa Bay (Bullen 1952), although possi-
ble components have been identified in
sites as far north as Cedar Key in coastal
Levy County (Willey 1949:315) and south in
Collier County (George M. Luer, personal
communication, 1987).

In the Tampa Bay area, most Safety Harbor
village sites contain midden, burial mound,
and truncated platform ("temple") mound
features grouped in close association,
usually near marine or fresh water sources.
Inland and north of the Tampa Bay area,
Safety Harbor archaeological complexes are
less well known, and our work has added
substantially to knowledge of Safety Harbor
manifestations in the Withlacoochee Cove.
The present survey was prompted in part by
the discovery of two apparently isolated
Safety Harbor burial mounds (Ruth Smith and
Tatham). Spanish glass beads from these
mounds indicate they were in use during the
early sixteenth century (Mitchem and
Weisman 1984; Mitchem, Weisman et al.
1985). A major objective of our survey was
to locate habitation sites which might be

June, 1987


Volume 40 Number 2

Cove of the Withlacoochee

Archaeology Site Survey Project

ator Dagger

River Platform Mound

Spooner Island

Rr 4


Deer's Foot

rKettle Island
Bi Cypress

hell Island
1Board Island
Trail's End Bear Island


Figure 1. Recorded archaeological sites in the Withlacoochee Cove.


associated with these or other Safety
Harbor mounds in the area.

In our earlier seasons of work we had met
with a great deal of success in the dis-
covery and identification of sites pertain-
ing to the historic Seminole Indian occupa-
tion of the Withlacoochee Cove (Weisman
1985, 1986:12-18). Four significant
Seminole domestic sites dating to the
period of the Second Seminole War (1835-
1842) were located using a direct historic
approach based on sketch maps and site
descriptions contained in the Prince diary,
a primary document produced by Lt. Henry
Prince in the military campaign against the
Seminole in 1836 and 1837. Because the
diary had proved to be a reliable instru-
ment in locating sites, we hoped through
its continued use additional sites would be
discovered, especially the one known to
Prince as "Boggy Island" and said by him to
be a haven for runaway blacks in times of
war (Prince 1837:entry for April 25).

With the above objectives in mind, areas in
the vicinity of the two Safety Harbor
burial mounds were included in the survey
bounds, as were locations that we thought
were correlated with the Prince diary. In
addition, a tract east of the Withlacoochee
River, between Rt. 200 and Gum Slough
(Figure 2), was explored with the goal of
locating Safety Harbor or Alachua Tradition
(Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:23, 169) sites
that may pertain to the aboriginal province
of Cale, as described in the chronicles of
the Soto expedition (Smith 1968:37). The
crossing place of this famous entrada over
the Withlacoochee River is generally
presumed to have been in the vicinity of
Stokes Ferry, near the present Rt. 200
bridge (Swanton 1985:142, 150).

Site Description
The sites located in the 1985-1986 survey
appear in Figure 2, and their descriptions
are reported below.

Site Name: Duval Island (8Ci5)
Description: A site on Duval Island was
briefly noted by Willey (1949:324) with

mention only of a Deptford component.
Apparently this is the same site that is
recorded in the Florida Master Site File,
with a collection supplied by Edward St.
John of Floral City. The site is in an
orange grove near Floral City. Our revisit
of the site was prompted by our examination
of recent collections made by local resi-
dents, with quantities of St. Johns Check
Stamped sherds, whole Busycon shells and
fragments, shell celts, and Pinellas pro-
jectile points, indicating the strong
possibility that a late prehistoric or
protohistoric component was present. The
identification of such a component would be
of particular interest because the Soto
chronicles place the village of Tocaste in
this general vicinity (Swanton 1985:142).
The site is more extensive and complex than
one might suppose from the earlier reports.
At least three spatially distinct compo-
nents are present, in all encompassing
perhaps 20 acres (ca. 8 ha). Collections
from the three areas yielded Pasco Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain,
sand tempered plain, and occasional Dunn's
Creek Red sherds. A nearly complete
Busycon shell, a shell celt, and a Pinellas
point were also recovered. The site was
located at one of the highest elevations in
the entire Tsala Apopka/Withlacoochee area,
on sandy, well drained soil.
Aboriginal pottery types identified in the
St. John collection curated at the Florida
State Museum (FSM) and during our recent
work include Pasco Plain, St. Johns Check
Stamped, St. Johns Plain, Pasco Check
Stamped, Pasco Cord Marked, and Dunn's
Creek Red. There is also in the FSM
collection a portion of a base of a sand
tempered vessel with two legs, probably
from a tetrapod container and possibly the
sherd from which Willey (1949:324) assigned
a Deptford component to the site. European
or American ceramics are present in small
amounts, and probably relate to late nine-
teenth and early twentieth century occupa-
tions in the area. The same can be said of
the occasional bottle fragments that occur
at the site (Figure 3). Other aboriginal
artifacts include modified and unmodified

Figure 2. Archaeological sites recorded in the
1985-1986 survey.

Figure 3. Artifacts from Duval Island. Top left to right: Cord
marked sherd, St. Johns Check Stamped sherd, Euro-American
sherd. Bottom left to right: Two Pinellas points, worked
Busycon celt, historic bottle neck.

Busycon shells, and Pinellas projectile
Culture Period: The presence of the
alleged Deptford sherd implies some
occupation during that period. Dunn's
Creek Red and Pasco Check Stamped sherds
suggest occupation during the early and
late years of the Weeden Island period,
respectively. Safety Harbor period
occupation is indicated by the common
occurrence of St. Johns Check Stamped
sherds and Pinellas projectile points.
We think it is likely, based on the Soto
narratives and the archaeological evidence,
that this site was occupied as late as
1539, and may be the village of Tocaste
where the entrada encamped for a brief
period before pressing on to the province
of Cale. Fieldwork is planned to test this
hypothesis in the future.

Site Name: Rock and Roots midden (8Ci211)
Description: The Rock and Roots midden was
first located in April 1985 by Mr. Paul
Anderson of Inverness, who directed us to
the site. The midden is located in thick
cypress swamp. Deposits measure approxi-
mately 35 m north-south, 27 m east-west,
and vary from 25 cm to 40 cm in thickness.
Posthole testing was conducted at 5 m
intervals on a north-south axis, sampling a
total of six locations. The site name was
suggested by the difficulty we encountered
in excavating our subsurface tests.
Collections: Aboriginal pottery includes
sherds of Pasco Plain and sand tempered
plain. Faunal remains are concentrated and
include garfish and bowfin, softshell tur-
tle, snake, unidentified mammal, and quan-
tities of freshwater Unio mussel and
Viviparus snail shells.
Culture Period:
Undetermined based on collections avail-
able, but a Weeden Island affiliation is
suggested when collections are compared to
those from Weeden Island middens on the
nearby Flying Eagle Ranch (8Cil92) (Weisman

Site Name: Big Cypress (8Ci212)
Description: Big Cypress is a midden site
deeply secluded in a mixed hardwood and
cypress stand just west of the Withlacoochee
River. We were guided to the site by Paul

Anderson, who had obtained directions from
Doyle Tindale and Jack Sanford, local
woodsmen and turkey hunters of some esteem.
Dimensions of the midden are approximately
46 m north-south, 40 m east-west, with
deposits from 30 cm to 80 cm in thickness.
The site is largely undisturbed, with the
exception of several small potholes and a
collection of glass bottles deposited by
Collections: Limited shovel testing and
surface collection yielded Pasco Plain,
Pasco Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain, sand
tempered plain, and several curious rims of
a limestone tempered paste, with a set of
three incisions encircling the rim. Faunal
remains were plentiful throughout, and
include softshell turtle, bowfin, catfish,
alligator, bird, snake, deer, and both
freshwater mussels and snails. Other items
include a worked deer bone, a Busycon
shell, and a Pecten shell. The latter two
shells represent marine species from the
Florida Gulf coast.
Culture Period: The absence of Deptford or
Perico series sherds on the one hand, and
St. Johns Check Stamped on the other, and
the presence of Pasco Check Stamped (Goggin
1948b:9) suggests an occupation late in the
Weeden Island period, with tentative dates
of ca. A.D. 700-900.

Site Name: Shetrone (8Ci217)
Description: The Shetrone site is named
after a prodigious local collector who
directed us to the location after allowing
us to examine artifacts in his possession.
The site was evidently once a low sand
burial mound although at the present time
no traces of this construction remain. The
most evident form of site destruction is
use of the area for borrow fill, and site
looting has also been quite extensive.
Collections: The Shetrone collection,
currently on loan to the Citrus County
Historical Museum in Inverness, contains
copper beads, flat pieces of copper, and
greenstone pendants from the site. Mr.
Shetrone also described a near complete
pottery vessel he extracted from the
location that resembled a tripod-based,
complicated stamped form close to that
pictured in Willey (1949:Plate 22e). Our


surface collections yielded several sherds
of Deptford Check-Stamped pottery.
Culture Period: Deptford Period, based on
the above described collections. Some
affiliation with Crystal River (8Cil) is
suggested. More immediate cultural connec-
tions rest with the Van Fossen midden
(8Cil94) (Weisman 1986:10).

Site Name: Graveyard Island midden
Description: Graveyard Island is a small
midden located in a thick hardwood and
cypress swamp, west of the Withlacoochee
River. Montague Tallant located a similarly
named site in the vicinity, but we are not
certain if his site and ours are in fact
the same. The deposit measures approxi-
mately 8 m north-south, 10 m east-west, and
from 10 cm to 30 cm in thickness. The
cultural strata are underlain by a moist,
silty marl, as might be expected in gener-
ally inundated conditions. Two shovel
tests were placed in the midden, and both
revealed considerable lensing of the de-
posits. In one test, an apparently buried
feature, including a concentrated pocket of
midden deposit, was encountered between 30
and 35 cm below the ground surface.
Collections: Pottery sherds are not nu-
merous, and are confined to the types Pasco
Plain, and sand tempered plain. Fauna in-
cludes turtle, fish, and Viviparus snail.
Culture Period: Uncertain, based on the
lack of diagnostic pottery or other arti-

Site Name: Canoe Base (8Ci221)
Description: This site gets its name from
a canoe base located nearby. The site is
known from a single St. Johns Plain sherd
found during construction of a shower fa-
cility. Other surface finds are reported
in the area. A possible cord marked sherd
was reportedly recovered from the site in
the past, as well as chert projectile
points. Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria) grows
in abundance to the east of the site.
Collections: A single sherd of St. Johns
Plain was collected by Mr. Paul Anderson
from approximately 75 cm below surface
while putting in a shower facility. He
stated that projectile points and sherds
(including one possible cord marked spe-
cimen) had been found on the surface in the
area in the past. Occasional chert flakes
were noted on the surface.
Culture Period: The presence of St. Johns

Check Stamped and possibly Prairie Cord
Marked pottery would suggest a late pre-
historic occupation, possibly Safety Harbor
period (ca. A.D. 900-1560), but the evi-
dence is presently inadequate. More recent
test excavations at the site yielded no
pottery or diagnostic artifacts (Kenneth W.
Johnson, personal communication, 1987).

Site Name: Jake's Fort (8Ci222)
Description: Jake's Fort site is the
remains of what we suspect to have been a
small sand mound, in an oak scrub bordering
a prairie. The site was located with
information provided by Skeeter Whitten,
former ranchhand, who remembered the site
as a mound. Because the site is no longer
intact, or immediately visible, consider-
able effort was expended in our attempt to
relocate it, with success finally coming
via the assistance of Withlacoochee River
Archaeology Council volunteers. The site
is located at the margin of the scrub, in
the prairie, and at the time of its dis-
covery consisted of a thin scatter of pot-
tery sherds within an area less than 10 m
in diameter. Our suggestion is that the
mound had perhaps unwittingly been levelled
in the process of clearing land for addi-
tional pasture.
Collections: Eleven small sherds were
collected: nine sand tempered plain and
four Pasco Plain. The sand tempered sherds
evidently represent at least three vessels,
the Pasco sherds one, making a total of at
least four vessels accounted for by these
few sherds. A possible chert scraper or
chopping tool was found nearby, as were
several small chert flakes.
Culture Period: Uncertain based on the
information at hand. However, it is sug-
gested that the site was once a low sand
mound, possibly a burial mound.

Site Name: Mark's Cabin (8Mr852)
Description: A sparse lithic scatter
identified from spoil excavated during

are unknown, but the site is apparently
beneath present ground surface.
Collections: No collections made. Chert
flakes, sand tempered plain sherds, and one
cord-marked sherd were observed in an adja-
cent landing strip which was smoothed with
soil from the reservoir. Local informants
stated that Florida Archaic Stemmed pro-
jectile points were recovered during soil
moving activities.
Culture Period: At least two periods of

occupation are suggested by the artifacts.
An Archaic component (ca. 5000-1000 B.C.)
is indicated by the stemmed points (Bullen
1975:32). A possible Alachua Tradition
component is suggested by the cord marked
sherd, which is assumed to be Prairie Cord
Marked (Milanich 1971:33). The date of
this component would most probably fall
within the Hickory Pond period of A.D. 700-
1250 (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:170).

Site Name: Drake Ranch #1 (8Mr853)
Description: A shell and dirt midden,
roughly rectangular in shape. Measures
approximately 35 m (northeast-southwest) x
28 m (northwest-southeast), with a height
of about one meter above the surrounding
ground surface at its highest point.
Several potholes were noted in the top.
The site is located in the Withlacoochee
River swamp.

This site could correspond to the Drake 1
site investigated by Goggin (1947, 1948a).
His field notes indicate that the site was
a shell midden on the edge of a hammock
near the Withlacoochee. He gave the fol-
lowing measurements: 125 ft (38 m) x 70 ft
(21 m) and four feet (1.2 m) high. He also
indicated that two burials were removed
from the site. Goggin also recorded
another shell midden (which he called Drake
2) about 200 yards west of this site, which
he dated to the early Weeden Island period
(Willey 1949:324). This second site mea-
sured 150 ft (46 m) x 100 ft (30 m) and six
feet (1.8 m) high. He noted Pasco pottery
and oyster and conch shells in this midden.
Apparently, only his Drake 2 was recorded
in the Florida Master Site File. It was
assigned site number 8Mr56. Both are
located in the same township, range, and
section as our Drake Ranch #1 and #2.
Collections: No collections made, but a
Hernando projectile point, several sherds
of Pasco Plain and sand tempered plain
pottery, miscellaneous chert flakes, and a
Busycon shell were noted on the surface.
Faunal remains included deer, turtle, fish,
freshwater mussel, Viviparus sp., Pomacea
sp., and Turritella sp.
Culture Period: The presence of a Hernando
point suggests an occupation during Deptford
to Weeden Island times (Bullen 1975:24;
Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:129), from ca.
200 B.C. to A.D. 1000. The pottery types
and Busycon shell are undiagnostic.

Site Name: Drake Ranch #2 (8Mr854)
Description: A large, flat-topped shell and
dirt midden, roughly square in shape, each
side measuring about 48 m long. It is
approximately 2.5 m high along the steep
north side, which borders the river swamp.
The other sides slope down much less
steeply. Some looting was evident on the
top and the east side. Located in the
Withlacoochee River swamp.
Collections: No collections made, but Pasco
Plain, Prairie Cord Marked, and sand tem-
pered plain pottery were noted, along with
chert flakes. Faunal remains included
deer, turtle, snake, fish, freshwater mus-
sel, Viviparus sp., and Mercenaria sp.
Culture Period: Lack of diagnostic
artifacts makes dating the site difficult,
but the Prairie Cord Marked sherd strongly
suggests Alachua Tradition affinities, most
probably the Hickory Pond period of A.D.
700-1250 (Milanich 1971:33; Milanich and
Fairbanks 1980:170).

Site Name: Boggy Island (Kettle Island)
Description: Kettle Island was targeted
in our survey because it is clearly the
site referred to in the Henry Prince diary
(1837:entry for April 25, and sketch map)
as "Boggy Island", the home of a band of
Seminole blacks who were associated with
Osceola and the Seminole resistance during
the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). Other
accounts of the period that locate blacks
in the vicinity include Cohen (1836:191,
192), Potter (1836:10), and a fairly vivid
description in the Florida Herald on
October 21, 1836. All accounts suggest
that the blacks lived on Boggy Island in
a state of virtual independence, and that
they were successful horticulturists.
Potter asserts that without them the
Seminoles would have starved. The earliest
account of the Boggy Island settlement of
which we are aware is that of Dexter, who
in 1823 described the settlement as

The only land cleared on the banks of
this valuable stream [the Withlacoochee]
is Sitarkey's place, which is now
planted with corn and rice, and I am
satisfied that no planter in Florida
can boast of so good a crop in
proportion to the quantity of land
planted. I am confident that there

is no land in Florida better suited
for Sugar Cane, I gave some plants to
Sitarky's (sic) Negroes in March last
which were not planted until April and
now measure ten feet to the top, altho
(sic) it has not attained half its
growth (Boyd 1958:89).

Sitarkey was affiliated with the Alachua
band of Seminoles. He or his negroes
(Sitarkey himself does not appear to be
consistently associated with this location)
probably settled in the inaccessible
reaches of the Boggy Island hammock after
the fission of the Alachua group (ca. 1813)
following the hostile incursions of whites
from Georgia. This settlement represents
perhaps the first Seminole occupation in
the area of their eventual stronghold
during the early years of the Second
Seminole War.

Boggy, or Kettle (we have not been able to
determine the origin of this name) Island
can today be approached by jeep trail, but
in Prince's time the access was from the
river, via the high ground at the north end
of the island. However, it took an experi-
enced eye to properly locate the landing
from the river, and we suspect that the
island was not completely reconnoitered
until the end of the war in 1842 (Prince
1842:entry for April 14).

Our survey focused on four areas of the
island (Figure 4), designated as follows:

Area A: just south of the standing remains
of a cattle pen, in a high, open oak ham-
mock. Eight shovel tests were performed at
10 m intervals in Area A each to a depth of
30 cm, and no artifacts were recovered.
Surface survey in the vicinity also failed
to discover any cultural materials.

Area B: the clearing in the vicinity of the
cattle pen. Three shovel tests were placed
in this area without result, and no arti-
facts were recovered in a surface recon-
naissance of the cattle pen area.

Area C: the area known as Indian Field, to
the north of Kettle Island and separated
from it by a slough. Five shovel tests
were excavated on a 10 m grid extending
north across the crest of the hill. All
tests encountered either limestone rock or
very dense clayey silt from 19 cm to 36 cm
below the ground surface. Several uniden-

tified fragments of mammal bone were re-
covered within 21 cm of the surface in the
first unit excavated, but no artifacts were
encountered here or in any other units.

Area D: in the vicinity of what we presume
to be an old orange grove, located at the
southern extremity of Kettle Island. A
grid system was established with a compass,
and five test units were excavated at 10 m
intervals. Combined materials recovered
from all proveniences include four abori-
ginal sherds, two of a limestone tempered
paste (Pasco Plain) and two sand tempered;
and fauna, including remains of soft shell
turtle (Trionyx ferox), a fish vertebra,
and an unidentified cranial element from a
bowfin (Amia calva). A 6 x 9 cm brick
fragment was also recovered in the same
unit as a sand tempered sherd. There is
no apparent midden deposit, yet materials
appear to be thinly distributed below the
surface over an area perhaps 20 m in

Collections: Aboriginal sherds, faunal
remains, and a brick fragment, from Area D,
described above.
Culture Period: Historical documents re-
lating to American territorial activities
strongly suggest that Kettle Island was the
site of a black enclave dating ca. 1813-
1836, though artifactual evidence at hand
does not serve to strengthen this associ-
ation. It is noteworthy that materials
recovered thus far from Kettle Island do
not strictly conform to what is known of
aboriginal patterns of resource utilization
in this area: that is, there are scattered
food remains and a few pottery sherds, but
not the expected dense midden. The brick
cannot presently be explained. Bricks are
known from the eighteenth century site of
Spalding's Lower Store on the St. Johns
River (Lewis 1969) and may have become a
standard architectural feature on the
budding plantations and farmsteads as far
west as the vicinity of present Ocala by
the early 1800s (Fairbanks 1974:217; see
also Prince [1836: entry of February 24]
for description of an abandoned house on
the outskirts of Fort King). Comparative
material from other black domestic sites of
the period is lacking, therefore more
complete interpretations of the Kettle
Island finds await further investigation.

Site Name: Gum Springs (8Sm63)
Description: An aboriginal habitation site

Figure 4. Surveyed areas in the vicinity of Kettle Island, as described
in text.

Pasco Plain 22/3
Pasco Check Stamped (very faint decoration) 2/0
Sand tempered plain 4/0
Prairie Cord Marked 3/0
Alachua Cob Marked 2/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 2/0
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Misc. St. Johns-like decorated (cord marked?) 1/1

Table 1. Pottery from the Gum Springs site.

located near Gum Springs. The water from
these springs forms'Gum Slough. The site
covers an area of approximately 100 m east-
west by 75 m north-south. Depth of deposit
is unknown, as collections were limited to
spring bottom, ground surface, and fire
Collections: The basal portion of a
Columbia projectile point (Bullen 1975:19)
was surface collected from a livestock
corral. Chert debitage was noted, but not
collected. Aboriginal pottery sherds were
collected from the ground surface and the
spring bottom. These are listed in Table
1, with the counts expressed as total
number of sherds/number of these which are
Culture Period: The artifacts collected
from this site allow us to propose a period
of occupation. Though the Pasco types are
very poor time markers, the Prairie Cord
Marked and Alachua Cob Marked sherds indi-
cate that the site was occupied by Alachua
Tradition people sometime during the period
of A.D. 700-1700 (Milanich 1971:28, 47).
The earlier part of this time span is
suggested by the Columbia projectile point
fragment, which should date to the time
period A.D. 200-1250 (Bullen 1975:19).
The St. Johns Check Stamped pottery is the
only other artifact type which provides any
dating information, being found most com-
monly in this area after about A.D. 900-
1000 (Weisman 1986:18). Though the arti-
fact sample is small, it most strongly
indicates an Alachua Tradition occupation
during the time period A.D. 900-1200.

Site Name: Indian Mound Springs (8Sm64)
Description: A series of at least three
small (6-8 m diameter) dirt and shell
middens located near Indian Mound Spring,
which is in the swamp a short distance
north of Gum Slough.
Collections: No collections made, but
noted turtle, snake and fish bones in de-
posit. Shells of Pomacea sp. and other
freshwater snails were abundant. No
artifacts observed.
Culture Period: Unknown.


The most striking events in the ceramic
history of the Withlacoochee Cove region
are: 1) the disappearance of Perico Incised
and Punctated pottery; 2) the long persis-
tence of Pasco Series pottery; 3) the
appearance of an assemblage that has come

1 63
to be associated with Safety Harbor period
occupation, including Englewood types, St.
Johns Check Stamped and Safety Harbor
types; and 4) the appearance of the type
Chattahoochee Brushed in historic Seminole
sites. The identification of these types
at Withlacoochee sites is useful, because
(with the exception of Pasco Series wares)
they can be correlated with cultural hori-
zons and can act as markers for patterns of
changing aboriginal settlement distribu-

The case illustrated by Perico pottery in
the Withlacoochee Cove is relatively clear
cut: it is found only in riverine shell
middens and, based on carbon dating from
the Board Island site, not much later than
a median date of A.D. 380 (Weisman 1986:
:10). It appears that several of the
Withlacoochee middens were abandoned at
approximately this time, while others
stayed in use. Presumably the Deptford
period Shetrone site was a burial ground,
or possibly a grave, associated with
riverine peoples manufacturing Perico
pottery, yet Perico pottery is not known
from the Shetrone site, nor is Deptford
pottery (simple stamped or check stamped
varieties) common in the riverine middens.
The lakeshore and hammock areas some dis-
tance from the river do not appear to have
been heavily occupied at this time.
Community patterning, such as it was, is
still difficult to reconstruct based on
archaeological materials, but prior to A.D.
400, there does not appear to be any formal
arrangement of sites or features within
sites like at Crystal River.

What has been termed the Weeden Island-
related culture period (Milanich and
Fairbanks 1980:25) in this area appears to
be marked only by the dominance of Pasco
Plain pottery in site assemblages. Pasco
Plain, or limestone tempered, pottery is
not confined to the Weeden Island era, but
is also in abundance in sites of the earl-
ier Deptford period and in the subsequent
Safety Harbor period. Sites containing
exclusively Pasco Plain pottery are found
in hammocks at some distance beyond the
river plain. One such site known as the
Flying Eagle Ranch (8Cil92) yielded a mean
radiocarbon date of A.D. 530 (Weisman
1986:7) from its deepest cultural stratum.
A primary reliance on riverine resources is
still indicated.

The stylistically sophisticated Weeden
Island wares that have been described from
the central and northern Gulf coasts
(Milanich et al. 1984) and inland as far
north as the Kolomoki site in Georgia
(Sears 1956) do not make an appearance in
the Withlacoochee region. It is interest-
ing to note that archaeology at the Crystal
River site 20 miles to the west of the
Withlacoochee suggests something of a cul-
tural hiatus at about this time. In any
event, burial mounds that date from the
Weeden Island period are not at present
known in the Withlacoochee. It is possible
that some of the destroyed mounds we have
been told about over the years may have
related to this era.

An elaboration of aboriginal settlement
patterns occurs with the opening of the
Safety Harbor period, which we suspect was
underway by ca. A.D. 1000, on the basis of
radiocarbon dates obtained from the Tatham
Mound and Bayonet Field sites (Mitchem
1985; Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:40-43).
Extensive lakeshore settlement is now
indicated, and is most evident around the
south end of Lake Tsala Apopka, in the
vicinity of Duval Island and to the east.
We have previously suggested that this area
may have been known to members of the Soto
expedition as the village and province of
Tocaste. These sites do not form discrete
middens, but occur as scatters, or at times
concentrations, of artifacts. Snail and
mussel shells and other evidences of
riverine exploitation are still present,
though somewhat less prominent. These
activities may have been conducted on a
seasonal basis by families or extended kin
who made the temporary move to the river
and perhaps reoccupied earlier sites. We
suggest that sites related in this way
include Duval Island, Alligator Ford
(Weisman 1986:12), and Bayonet Field
(Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985). Several
of the middens located in the river swamp
(e.g., Big Cypress, Rock and Roots, and
Graveyard Island) could represent habita-
tion sites with Safety Harbor components.
More extensive testing is required to
determine this.

The mound/plaza complex and other features
of formal village life described for con-
temporary Safety Harbor and Fort Walton
cultures of the central and north Gulf
coasts, respectively, do not appear to have
been a feature of Safety Harbor culture in

the Withlacoochee Cove. The two burial
mounds that certainly date to this period,
the Ruth Smith (Mitchem and Weisman 1984)
and Tatham (Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985;
Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986) mounds are not
in clear and close association with any
village site. With the exception of the
Duval Island site, the populations repre-
sented in these mounds appear to have
resided in scattered small midden sites
rather than in large nucleated settlements.

Hypotheses To Be Tested

As a result of the data gathered during
this and previous surveys, we are able to
propose a number of specific hypotheses
which can be tested by future archaeo-
logical research in the Withlacoochee Cove.

1) Perico pottery types will be found only
in riverine shell midden contexts (as
opposed to lakeshore or inland hammock
areas), no more recent than about A.D. 400.
We believe this reflects a settlement shift
away from the river around A.D. 350-400,
possibly even a temporary trend of de-
clining population density in the Cove.

2) Typical Deptford pottery types, such as
Deptford Simple Stamped and Deptford Check
Stamped (Waring and Holder 1977) will be
generally absent or exceedingly rare in
sites in the Cove, replaced by Perico
wares. We feel that this is part of a
general trend in the Cove of cultural con-
nections to the south (especially circum
Tampa Bay) rather than to northern culture

3) Pasco pottery types will be found in
contexts beginning during Deptford/Perico
Island times and continuing through
Seminole times. At present, we can offer
no explanation for this phenomenon, other
than the possibility that it is related to
naturally occurring limestone fragments in
the local clays. Much more study of local
clay sources needs to be done to investi-
gate this.

4) The general pattern of elaboration of
Weeden Island-related culture seen else-
where in the Southeast will not be found in
the Cove. Based on presently available
data, the best explanation for this is that
the pre-Weeden Island period cultures were
so well adapted to life in the Cove that
they did not accept the cultural changes

associated with adoption of Weeden Island
culture. Our work seems to indicate that
the Cove was definitely occupied during
this time, and it is doubtful that the
inhabitants did not come in contact with
Weeden Island influences.

5) The beginning of the Safety Harbor
period (around A.D. 900-1000) saw a
broadening of settlement patterns, from
mainly riverine settlements to also include
lakeshore and inland hammock occupations.
This shift is probably related to changes
in subsistence practices, most notably some
intensification of horticulture in single
family farmsteads. Some nucleation of
settlements may have occurred (such as at
Duval Island), but this was apparently the
exception rather than the rule.


Funding for this project was provided by a
Historic Preservation Grant-in-Aid admin-
istered by the Bureau of Historic Preserva-
tion, Division of Archives, History and
Records Management (reorganized as the
Division of Historical Resources during the
grant cycle), Florida Department of State.
The authors would like to thank the various
landowners who graciously allowed us to
investigate sites and to survey on their
land during this project. We also thank
the many members of the Withlacoochee River
Archaeology Council who volunteered many
hours of their time helping with various
survey activities. Figures 1, 2, and 4
were prepared by Guy Prentice. We are
grateful to Claudine Payne, who shared
pertinent unpublished information from John
Goggin's field notes. Dr. Jerald T.
Milanich, who served as Project Supervisor,
read and commented on an earlier version of
this paper, as did Bonnie G. McEwan. We
are thankful for their helpful comments.
As always, we are grateful for the support
provided by the Anthropology Department of
the Florida State Museum.

Boyd, Mark F.
1958 Horatio S. Dexter and Events Leading to the
Treaty of Moultrie Creek with the Seminole
Indians. The Florida Anthropologist 11:65-95.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough
County, Florida. Report of Investigations No. 8.
Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee.

1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida
Projectile Points. Revised ed. Kendall Books,
Cohen, M. M.
1836 Notices of Florida and the Campaigns. Burges and
Honour, Charleston.

Fairbanks, Charles H.
1974 Ethnohistorical Report of the Florida Indians.
Garland, New York.

Florida Herald
1836 [Accounts of the Second Seminole War]. October
21, 1836. Microfilm copy on file, P. K. Yonge
Library of Florida History, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1947 Unpublished field notes. Box 15. On file, P. K.
Yonge Library of Florida History, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

1948a Culture and Geography in Florida Prehistory.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven.

1948b Some Pottery Types from Central Florida.
Gainesville Anthropological Association Bulletin
No. 1.

Griffin, John W. and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publications No.
2. Gainesville.

Lewis, Kenneth E., Jr.
1969 History and Archeology of Spaldings Lower Store
(Pu-23), Putnam County, Florida. Unpublished
Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1971 The Alachua Tradition of-North-Central Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum,
Anthropology & History, Number 17. Gainesville.

Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight,
Jr., Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-Lavelle
1984 McKeithen Weeden Island: The Culture of Northern
Florida, A.D. 200-900. Academic Press, Orlando.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1985 New Dates from Eastern Citrus County. The
Florida Anthropologist 38:247-248.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Dale L. Hutchinson
1986 Interim Report on Excavations at the Tatham
Mound, Citrus County, Florida: Season II.
Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 28.
Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum,

Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Marvin T. Smith, Albert C. Goodyear,
and Robert R. Allen
1985 Early Spanish Contact on the Florida Gulf Coast:
The Weeki Wachee and Ruth Smith Mounds. In
Indians, Colonists, and Slaves: Essays in Memory
of Charles H. Fairbanks, edited by K. W.
Johnson, J. M. Leader, & R. C. Wilson, pp. 179-
219. Florida Journal of Anthropology Special
Publication No. 4. Florida Anthropology
Student Association, University of Florida,
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Brent R. Weisman
1984 Excavations at the Ruth Smith Mound (8Ci200). The
Florida Anthropologist 37:100-112.

Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Brent R. Weisman, Donna L. Ruhl,
Jenette Savell, Laura Sellers, and Lisa Sharik
1985 Preliminary Report on Excavations at the Tatham
Mound (8-CI-203), Citrus County, Florida: Season
I. Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 23.
Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum,

Potter, Woodburne
1836 The War in Florida, Being an Exposition of its
Causes and an Accurate History of the Campaigns
of Generals Clinch, Gaines, and Scott.

Prince, Henry
1836-1842 The Diary of Henry Prince. Ms. on file, P.
K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University
of Florida, Gainesville.

Sears, William H.
1956 Excavations at Kolomoki, Final Report.
University of Georgia Series in Anthropology 5.
University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Smith, Buckingham (translator)
1968 Narratives of De Soto in the Conquest of Florida
as Told by a Gentleman of Elvas and in a Relation
by Luys Hernandez de Biedma. Reprinted. Palmetto
Books, Gainesville, Florida. Originally
published 1866, Bradford Club, New York.

Swanton, John R.
1985 Final Report of the United States De Soto
Expedition Commission. Reprinted. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Originally
published 1939, U. S. House of Representatives
Document No. 71, 76th Congress, 1st Session,
Washington, D.C.

Waring, Antonio J., Jr. and Preston Holder
1977 The Deptford Ceramic Complex. In The Waring
Papers: The Collected Works of Antonio J. Waring,
Jr., edited by Stephen Williams, pp. 135-151.
Peabody Museum Papers, vol. 58. Harvard
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Weisman, Brent
1985 The Cove of the Withlacoochee Archaeology
Project, Final Compliance Report. Miscellaneous
Project Report Series No. 24. Department of
Anthropology, Florida State Museum, Gainesville.

1986 The Cove of the Withlacoochee: A First Look at
the Archaeology of an Interior Florida Wetland.
The Florida Anthropologist 39:4-23.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast.
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 113.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Jeffrey M. Mitchem
Brent R. Weisman
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611



Arthur R. Lee

The relationship between developers and
archaeologists is of increasing interest
as more and more of Florida is built over.
When I learned of the British effort to
improve this relationship I sent for copies
of pertinent documents. While much of what
I received is strictly British, it appeared
to me that there were certain concepts that
could be adapted to the needs of Florida
and other states. The bulk of this article
is a digest of the British Archaeologists
and Developers Liaison Group's Code of
Practice and its Guidelines for the Prepar-
ation of Contracts for Archaeological Exca-

Cooperation between developers and archae-
ologists is furthered in Great Britain by
a permanent body established by organiza-
tions representing the two groups. Called
the British Archaeologists and Developers
Liaison Group, it was established by the
British Property Federation and the Stand-
ing Conference of Archaeological Unit
Managers. It is endorsed by the English
Heritage/Historic Buildings and Monuments
Commission, the Council for British Archae-
ology, the Institute of Field Archaeolo-
gists, the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors, the Royal Institute of British
Architects and acknowledged by the Retail
Consortium. In practice, the Liaison
Group fulfills two basic functions: 1) to
foster long-term understanding and goodwill
and cooperation between archaeologists and
those concerned with development; and, 2)
to serve as a forum for resolution of dif-
ferences which are not covered by standard
contract conditions.

There is a legal framework for archaeologi-
cal preservation in Great Britain: the
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas
Act of 1979. Among other things, this Act
provides for a statutory delay of 4 months
in areas designated under the Act, during
which archaeological investigations may be
carried out without compensation to owners

or developers. However, those founding
the Liaison Group believe, as expressed
in their Code of Practice, that: "It is
in the best interests of both developers
and archaeologists ... if a greater mu-
tual understanding of their respective
objectives and problems can be establish-
ed, leading to an agreed approach to the
archaeological investigation of sites ...
Voluntary agreements entered into freely
will be generally accepted as more flex-
ible and of greater mutual benefit to all
parties than rigid statutory procedures."

The basic tool of the Group is a model
contract for use in establishing working
arrangements. The document, Guidelines
for the Preparation of Contracts for
Archaeological Excavation 1982 is made
available by the British Property Federa-
tion and the Council of British Archae-
ology. It is based upon principles laid
down in the Group's Code of Practice.
That code does not affect statutory obli-
gations, except that agreements made under
it may be accepted officially as fulfill-
ing part of the requirements of the
governing legislation.

The Code of Practice is made up of two
parts: one for archaeologists and one for

The archaeologists' code, among other
things, urges them to:

1) Give developers earliest possible
notice of the need for site investiga-
tions, when development is before planning

2) Start negotiations with developers
early, recognizing the need for clearly
defined objectives which can be achieved
in the shortest possible time;

3) Ensure that archaeological investiga-
tion is carried out under written agree-


June, 1987

Vnlume 40 Number 2

ment as indicated in the Guidelines re-
ferred to above;

4) Draw the attention of developers to the
sites' potential and structures worthy of
preservation; in cooperation with the de-
veloper seek guidance from those concerned
with preservation of historic sites. Value
of time is recognized;

5) Inform developers promptly of discov-
eries and be aware of media potential and
implications, including benefit of publi-
city to the development;

6) Avoid public inter-party criticism and
where necessary arbitrate through the
Liaison Group;

7) Ensure that the contractors' program is
not adversely affected by archaeological
work and that no instructions are given to
the contractor by the archaeologist;

8) Ensure full reporting to developers and
cooperate with exhibitions and promotions,
including those for the sale or lease of
the development;

9) Ensure that the developers' support is
fully acknowledged in reports;

10) Assist with displays reflecting archae-
ological discoveries and histories of the

11) Inform developers of tax benefits that
may be available for voluntary contribu-

12) Recognize the legal rights of owner-
ship of materials found, while encourag-
ing developers to deposit finds in appro-
priate museums.

As for developers, the Code, in part,
urges them to:

1) Be aware of community and political
benefits of cooperation with archaeolo-
gists so the nation's heritage can be re-
corded, understood and appreciated;

2) Seek early professional archaeological
assessment of sites;

3) Negotiate early with approved archae-
ologists and allow time and financial sup-
port to permit a worthwhile investigation,
recognizing the need to rescue information;

4) Be aware of the desirability of preserv-
ing and displaying important remains in
place, understanding that they can become
interesting features making for a product
both more attractive visually and valuable;

5) Seek the advice of the Liaison Group
should there be a difference of opinion
about the historic value of deposits and

6) Ensure that instructions to consultants
and contractors reflect the approved status
of the archaeologists and that provision is
made for them to attend relevant meetings;

7) Ensure good lines of communication among
site staff, developers' senior personnel
and principal archaeologists;

8) While recognizing that artefacts dis-
covered, other than those officially de-
termined to be treasure trove, are the
property of the owner of the site, the
developer shall arrange for as many as
possible to be donated to an approved

9) Support joint media coverage of dis-
coveries; consider its archaeological and
historical context when naming the devel-
opment, and the display of discoveries
within or near the site;

10) If making a grant towards the site
investigation, consider the need for publi-
cation as an essential part of excavation
costs and also as a means by which infor-
mation derived may be made available to
the public.

Copies of the complete Code of Practice
may be obtained from the Department of
Urban Archaeology, Museum of London, London

Wall, London EC2V 5HN, England, upon payment
of postage. One will be enough for air
mail. Most banks have V. notes on hand.
The is currently selling for about $1.60.

The Guidelines for the Preparation of Con-
tracts for Archaeological Excavation cover
in detail such matters as the status of the
parties to the contract, site definition,
excavation program, indemnification of the
property owner through insurance, safety,
minimizing nuisances, construction of tem-
porary structures, access and egress, com-
pliance with official requirements, public
access and publicity and provision for ar-
bitration. Copies of the Guidelines may
be obtained from the British Property Fed-
eration, 35 Catherine Place, London SW1E6DY,
England, upon payment of postage. Again,
one pound will suffice.

Arthur R. Lee
1250 9th Avenue North
Naples, Florida 33940s


Adelaid Kendall Bullen died Sunday, May 17,
1987, at her home in Gainesville, Florida.
She was 79.

She was a native of Massachusetts, and came
to Florida in 1948 with her husband, Ripley
P. Bullen, who died in 1976. Trained as a
physical and cultural anthropologist at Rad-
cliffe College and Harvard. Mrs. Bullen
worked at Harvard University and for the War
Department before coming to Florida. She
was appointed a Research Associate (in 1954)
and later an Adjunct Curator of Anthropology
at the Florida State Museum.

During her anthropological career, she
published many scholarly articles in journ-
als, including 31 coauthored with Ripley.
Most of these dealt with the archaeology
and physical anthropology of Florida, Mas-
sachusetts, New Mexico, and the Caribbean.
She also published works on human fatigue,
speech, and human variation, as well as
writing poetry, inspirational essays, and
children's fiction. She was the President
of Kendall Books, a company in Gainesville
which published and reprinted several anth-
ropological works by her and Ripley.

She was a fellow of the American Anthropo-
logical Association, the Royal Anthropo-
logical Institute (London), and the Ameri-
can Association for the Advancement of
Science. Mrs. Bullen was a member of Sigma
Xi, the Florida Academy of Sciences, and
many other professional organizations. She
served the Florida Anthropological Society
as Secretary (1949), Editor (1954-1956),
and Director (1978-1980).

She is survived by her husband, Kenneth S.
Bullen; one sister, Harriet K. Brown of Ft.
Worth, Texas; two sons, Dana Ripley Bullen
II of Washington, D.C. and Pierce Kendall
Bullen of Caracas, Venezuela; and four
grandchildren. Mrs. Bullen will long be
remembered for her contributions to the
anthropology of Florida and the Caribbean.

Jeffrey M. Mitchem
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987


Nancy Marie White

Paper presented at the Florida
Clearwater, 9 May 1987

This is a summary research report
on investigations to date of pre-
historic shell mounds in the lower
Apalachicola Valley delta region of
northwest Florida. Most of the
shell mounds have only recently
been recorded. They have enormous
potential for investigation of long
term cultural chronology and change
or stability of subsistence and
settlement patterns. They may also
produce data pertinent to questions
concerning the origins of food
production and different social
systems in this valley.

The Apalachicola River origi nates
at the confluence of the Chatta-
hoochee and Flint Rivers, today
just above the Jim Woodruff Dam
that creates Lake Seminole, on the
Georgia-Alabama-Florida border.
Flowing about 107 river miles (171
km) south to the Gulf of Mexico,
the Apalachicola is the largest
river on the eastern Gulf Coast. It
is formed by the Flint, whose clear
spring-fed waters originate just
below the Atlanta airport, and the
great, muddy Chattahoochee, which
begins up in the Blue Ridge moun-
tains of north Georgia. This origin
gives the Apalachicola many unique
characteristics, such as a snow
melt component in its waters. The
entire river system doubtless
served as a major avenue for pre-
historic cultural interaction over
long distances.

For the past few years Univer sity
of South Florida archaeological
field crews have been investigating
the prehistory of the Apalachicola

Anthropological Society meeting,

Valley. Last year we completed sur-
veys of the lower portion of the
valley, the vast delta/estuarine
area, fed by distributaries and
characterized by deep river swamp
and marsh zones. In this heavily
vegetated, heavily alluviated re-
gion we were unable to locate many
archaeological sites in the tradi-
tional fashion. There were few
agricultural fields to walk, and
not many roads or developed areas
in which to search exposed ground
for prehistoric cultural remains.

We frequently located sites by
using informants' knowledge and
field guidance. The easiest kind of
prehistoric site to see is a shell
mound. Especially in the fall
during hunting season, when people
are out walking any ground higher
than the waterline searching for
animal signs, it is difficult not
to notice the bright white shells
piled in sometimes enormous heaps.

At the turn of the century C.B.
Moore recorded many earthen mounds,
especially in or near the city of
Apalachicola, where residential
development, the railroad, and
other disturbances connected with
small scale urbanization had un-
covered early cultural remains
(Moore 1902). Some of these mounds
are now gone, but the Pierce mound
group, including the cemetery
mound, with Early Woodland through
Mississippian Fort Walton period
remains, still exists in various
stages of destruction, as documen-
ted by Willey's (1949) synthesis
and Carr's (1975; see also Archi-

June, 1987


Volume 40 Number 2

tect Willoughby Marshall, Inc.
1975) later work surveying in the

Some of these mounds were for
burials and were made of sand,
often of many colors, sometimes
with layers or lenses of oyster or
clam shell. Exotic artifacts, in-
cluding many unusually shaped pots,
were in some graves. A couple
mounds have been called simply
middens because they were mostly
composed of shell and apparently
not for burials, but full of domes-
tic debris. These midden mounds
could be quite high, though dimen-
sions are not often recorded well.

Outside the inhabited area and
unrecorded by professional archae-
ologists, were many more large
midden-mounds of shell, well known
by hikers and hunters for their
high and dry conditions. They began
to be threatened when the county
and other agencies, having utilized
much of the shell from sites in
town, sought more shell fill for
road and other construction
projects. Possibly the only thing
saving them is their remoteness and
inaccessibility, though that may
not be a barrier for long.

Beginning in 1983 local residents
have been taking me to these shell
mounds; about a dozen are now known
(Henefield and White 1986). The
figure is approximate since it has
been difficult logistically to
check out every suggested location,
and some informants are considered
more reliable than others. There
are undoubtedly many more to record
and many yet unknown. These sites
are thought to have enormous poten-
tial for investigating many aspects
of prehistoric adaptations. The
following summarizes the data col-
lected so far and the kinds of
research questions we are investi-

As reported last year (White 1986),
one of the methods of verifying
reports of shell mounds deep in the
swamps is locating them on aerial

photos. Some of them show up clear-
ly because they have been cleared
for use as apiaries. The Apalachi-
cola estuary has the largest stands
of tupelo trees in the world, ac-
cording to Woody Miley, manager of
the Apalachicola National Estuarine
Reserve. Beekeepers put their hives
into their boats and trek them into
the forest atop the shell mounds
during the time that the tupelos
are blooming. It is all apparently
worth it since tupelo honey is a
highly valued variety. They have
cleared many trees over the years
and even built various structures,
such as wooden docks or storage
buildings, now mostly collapsed.
Aerial infrared photos from the
Reserve office clearly show such
shell mounds as white patches
amidst the dense red trees.

Other shell mounds are known simply
as good hunting stand areas for
their elevation. Still others were
known by hunters who were led there
by animals knowing even better
where the high ground is. Many
sites have suffered some amount of
pothunting for their popularity,
especially when the white shells
clearly show through the forest
floor and indicate the possibility
of items left by the ancients. How-
ever, at least one site was com-
pletely covered with black soil and
vegetation, unknown except to one
informant who had followed his dogs
chasing wild hogs there. He noticed
he was standing on slightly higher
ground, and the hogs started
rooting deep in the muck and coming
up with shells. Our guides valiant-
ly led us to these sites in the
thick of the early summer heat,
maximum insect density, and high
water levels that often meant
wading waist deep. Normally they
would not venture to such areas
until these conditions abated in
the fall.

The shell mounds are distributed on
LtLi ast and west sides of the
Apalachicola delta, along large and
small streams, mostly distribu-
taries of the Apalachicola, and

also along Lake Wimico. They are
always long and narrow, ranging
from 5-30 m wide, 50-200 m long,
and 1-8 m high. They all appear to
be composed of solid shell with
little or no soil matrix, based on
the few shovel or trowel tests we
have excavated at the time of

Some mounds have so far produced a
large number of cultural materials
and others none at all except the
collected shells, obviously food

remains. Some are right along
stream banks and others deep inland
from the stream, requiring a heavy
duty hike through snaky grasses or
thick jungle. Some are composed
primarily of clam, others of
oyster. Much work needs to be done.
We are not even sure at this stage
if the clams are freshwater or

The table below lists the shell
midden-mounds visited at least once
and the summary data for each.


Site t Site Iane


Shell Te Length Width

It action Components materials Recovered

8Fr744 Van Born Creek

bank of tiny clam, snail

50 ? 15 ? 1.5 I-S

Woodland plain sherds, some
Ft. V ? limestone (?) tempered

8Fr754 Sam's Creek 300 a inland oyster,
Cutoff from creek bank clam

few 80 a 30 a

8Fr755 Thank-You- on larger oyster, few 200 a
la'ai Creek stream bank near clam
mouth of smaller

30 a 4-8 a

Woodland plain sherds, steatite,
worked whelk, fish i
mammal bone, seeds

8Gu54 Six Palis

8Gu55 Yellow House-

I. shore Lake clam

IN shore Lake clam
liiico near creek

100 a 5 a 3 a E-R L. Arch, fiber-tempered, sand-,
Weeden I grit-, grog-teap, plain,
incised & punct sherds

50 a 10 a? 3 a

Dept? sand-, grit-, and grog-
Woodland temp plain, check-st
incl poss linear, hist
(recent) artifacts

8Gu56 Depot Creek 50 a from creek clam
bank 400 a below

8Gu57 Lake liaico SE SE bank of lake clam

8Gu60 Clark Creek 40 a from tiny clam,oyster
creek bank

Ft. I = Fort Walton, ca. i.D. 1000-1500
Woodland = general stage ca. 1000 B.C.-i.D. 1000
feeden I = leeden Island, ca. A.D. 200-1000
Sw Cr = Swift Creek, ca. A.D. 0-600
Dept = Deptford, ca. 1000 B.C.
L. Irch = Late Archaic, ca. 2500-1000 B.C.

200 a 30 a 4-6a E-8

200 a 20 a? 1-2 a E-1

140 a

20 a 3-4 a EIg-

Sw Cr

plain, check-st, coap-
st sherds, worked
whelk, maual & turtle
bone, hist (recent)

Woodland plain, check-st sherds,
maumal bone

Dept plain, check-st, simple-
st sherds, quartzite,
worked whelk, bird,
mammal bone, recent
historic sherds

2-3 a I-S


All the mounds noted have been
visited by our survey teams and
surface collected. Most have had
one or two small shovel or trowel
tests excavated. Even this is hard
work, of course, with thickly
packed shells.

During July of 1986 we were fortu-
nate to have the assistance of the
Apalachicola Reserve personnel to
conduct a small formal test exca-
vation of the Thank-You-Ma'am Creek
shell mound. The work was under-
taken with an Archaeological
Research permit from the Division
of Historical Resources, Florida
Department of State. This site is a
long, actually banana-shaped midden
curving from just east of north
gently around to just east of
south. It is on the north bank of a
meandering distributary cutoff just
east of the mouth of a small creek.
It rises up to 8 m at the north end
above the surrounding mucky ground
surface. The area is covered with
large old palms and loblolly pines
as well as some hardwoods and wet-
land vegetation.

The week of work included making a
preliminary map and excavating 3
units. Mapping was done with as
little destruction as possible,
which meant trying to use the
machete less and simply bend back
vegetation to open sight lines.
Since the hurricanes of the pre-
vious autumn had toppled immense
trees and hurled branches every-
where, our task was difficult. At
least some of the tree falls pro-
duced artifacts in the unearthed

Two one by one meter units were
excavated on top the north end and
the north center portion of the
mound, to depths of 110 and 101 cm,
respectively, before it was time to
leave, a mere dent into the mound's
surface. The third unit was a pro-
file cut into the high north end of
the mound, which did not hit water
until a depth of 2.52 meters. We
took column samples from this pro-
file and are now processing them

through flotation. So far the
materials recovered include several
types of seeds, small charcoal
fragments, and fish and mammal

Materials recovered in the 1/4"
(.0635cm) dry screen from these
units are less exciting. They in-
clude a couple tiny chert flakes,
amorphous clay lumps whose identi-
fication is unknown, and an
occasional plain sand-tempered pot-
sherd. From tree falls closer to
the south end of the mound have
come more plain pottery and a
steatite sherd.

Obviously this is a very prelimi-
nary report; our analyses of exca-
vated materials are just beginning.
The National Oceanic and Atmo-
spheric Administration Estuarine
Research Reserve program and the
USF President's Council have just
awarded grants for further analyses
of these materials and test excava-
tions into at least two more shell
mounds this summer. We hope to
gather comparative data to address
some interesting kinds of research

The settlement patterns and site
types in the lower Apalachicola are
very different from those in the
riverine interior. No large late
prehistoric agricultural villages
have yet been found on the river-
banks in the lower valley. Fort
Walton sites are low shell middens
on the Gulf, but none are yet known
in the estuary. The estuarine shell
midden mounds probably represent
millenia of occupation on ever
higher, more favorable ground.
Clearly this environment provided
an abundance of wild resources
easily procured. Probably the shell-
fish themselves, resulting in large
refuse piles as they do, are not
representative of enough food, in
terms of meat volume to have been
the primary staple food. The other
faunal remains suggest more of the
diet came from other species. It
would be interesting to see if the
basic estuarine adaptation con-

tinued into later prehistoric times
when people upriver were becoming
horticulturalists and then inten-
sive agriculturalists. A comparison
with these adaptations upriver is
of course one of the ultimate
goals. There follows, then, the
question of whether differences in
subsistence economy are associated
with any different sociopolitical

The work being done at the south
end of the state by the University
of Florida is dealing with similar
kinds of questions and demonstra-
ting the evolution of truly complex
chiefdoms dependent not on inten-
sive agriculture but on harvesting
the wealth of wild resources in
rich estuarine areas (e.g.,
Milanich et al. 1984, Marquardt
1986). This project in the lower
Apalachicola becomes interesting
for both similar and different
reasons. The absence of food pro-
duction here must be contrasted
with the mainstream Mississippian
systems just a short distance up
the river, a major communication/
transportation route. Ecological
and geomorphological studies of the
bay-delta-river swamp system and
its changing configuration since
the Pleistocene may help determine
the patterns of original placement
for these shell mounds and why they
are so oriented in near cardinal
directions, and why so linear.

We hope to attack these ques-
tions beginning in June 1987, and
report further next year.

References Cited

Architect Willoughby Marshall, Inc.
1975 Economic Development Through Historic Preservation:
Apalachicola Planning Study, Phase One. Report to
the City of Apalachicola, Florida.

Carr, Robert S.
1975 An Archaeological Survey of the City of
Apalachicola. Report to the Division of Archives,
History and Records Manageient, Tallahassee.

Henefield, Susan K. and lancy Marie White
1986 Archaeological Survey in the Middle and Lower Apa-
lachicola Valley. Report to the Florida Division of
Historic Resources, Tallahassee. University of
South Florida, Department of Anthropology.

Marquardt, Willian H.
198 Environment and Production in Prehistoric Southwest
Florida. Paper presented at the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, lashville.

Milanich, Jerald T., J. Chapman, A.S. Cordell, S. Hale and
R. A. Marrinan
1984 Prehistoric Development of Calusa Society in
Southwest Florida: Excavations on Useppa Island.
In Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory, edited
by D. Davis. University of Florida Press,

Moore, Clarence B.
1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Coast. Journal of the Acadeny of natural Sciences,
Philadelphia, Vol. 12, Pt. 2.

White, lancy Marie
1986 Archaeological Survey in the Middle and Lower Apa-
lachicola River Valley, northwest Florida. Paper
presented at the Florida Anthropological Society
meeting, Gainesville.

lilley, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol 113. Washington, D.C.

Nancy Marie White
Department of Anthropology
University of South Florida
Tampa 33620

i 7 A



Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.

Dendroarchaeology, the art and science of
archaeological dating using a tree's annual
growth rings, is a very useful but decep-
tively simple concept. In usually dry,
cold or otherwise difficult years, trees'
annual growth rings are narrow, while in
better years they are wider. By comparing
the wide-and-narrow patterns of core sam-
ples taken from living trees to establish
known growing conditions and ring dates,
the archaeologist has a comparative base
to determine in what year woods found in
historical contexts were cut. With such
information an archaeologist is just a
step away from knowing when a structure
using whole timber was built, a fire laid,
or possibly a canoe manufactured. How-
ever, as with many magnificently simple
ideas, the practice is more complex than
the theory.

The first step in accurate dating of a
current growth ring pattern is to take
cores bored from living trees in the area
of the archaeological site to establish a
comparative sample. Trees up to several
hundred miles away may be used, if they
are still within the same climatic region.
There are good examples in the Southwestern
United States where climatic conditions are
relatively unvaried over a large area. But,
the nearer they are to a site, the more
closely the patterns will conform, especi-
ally in areas with localized climatic and
associated drainage conditions. For ex-
ample, in Volusia County, Florida, only
those trees within a quarter mile (0.4km)
radius of a site will conform because of
localized rainfall differences. Further-
more, the tree dater cannot simply count
rings from the outside of the tree inward.

Since an annual ring is not a constant
width throughout the full height of a tree
trunk, it may be missing in the tiny 3/16"
diameter core sample (Stokes and Smiley
1968:8). Furthermore, isolated damage
from lightening or disease can also result
in an apparently absent ring, although

other trees in the area will not be missing
the ring in question. The researcher also
must consider half rings and false rings of
trees that only grow on one side in certain
years, the Bald Cypress for example (Fritts
1969:38) Thus, the patterns of several
trees must be assembled and compared to
establish an arcurate record of past clima-
tic conditions and ring patterns.

When current samples have been established,
they are matched to slightly older but
"overlapping" samples, and those to even
older ones, transferring from live wood to
dead wood (U.S. Department of Interior
1973:11-12), working backward in time
until the patterns in the wood from his-
toric structures or in prehistoric contexts
are reached. By this technique, accurate
dates for an archaeological or historic
site may be established.

Great care is needed when taking wood sam-
ples from an archaeological site, both in
handling the often-fragile samples and in
keeping meticulous records. Each sample
must be tagged with the site name or num-
ber, date, sample number and location.
Notes must be kept on where each item was
lying in relation to others at the site
(Stokes and Smiley 1968:26).

Wood samples to be used for dating should
be of the appropriate species, whether
living or in an archaeological setting.
They must be from a tree which adds only
one growth ring per year and which shows
a noticeable response to good and poor
growth years. In some ways, solid logs
are ideal, since the dendroarchaeologist
can be sure that the last ring in the
sample is the year the tree was cut and
several full cross-sections (rather than
slender cores) allow the most accurate
ring-counting. However, sawing out cross-
sections is both arduous and destructive.
Less complete samples are useable and even
chunks of charcoal, though very delicate,
can be dated.


June, 1987

Volume 40 Number 2

Whether from a burned structure or from a
campfire, charcoal must be well protected,
usually by wrapping it in cotton. When
possible in the field, it should be soaked
in a preservative mixture of paraffin and
gasoline, or in a less volatile polyethy-
lene-glycol solution (Stokes and Smiley

If a tree ring core is used, it must be
handled very delicately in the field.
Then in the lab it must be air-dried a few
days, glued in a slotted mount and tied
tightly until the glue dries. It is then
sliced flat with a razor blade and sanded
with progressively finer sand-papers to
clearly expose the growth rings. Cross-
sections of trees are similarly sanded.
The samples are then ready for study
(Stokes and Smiley 1968:30).

A system of graphing the ring patterns is
used at the University of Arizona's Lab-
oratory for Tree-Ring Research in its
studies of Navajo archaeological sites in
Arizona. The narrow rings only -- those
indicating years of poor growing condi-
tions -- are charted for each sample, then
the chart patterns cross-dated with each
other and with master chronology or date
charts (Stokes and Smiley 1968:47-61). In
this way, a continuous tree-ring chrono-
logy covering more than 8,000 years has
been developed for the American Southwest.

The same methods can be used as the basis
for similar chronologies in other areas.
Thus, while Florida does not have the dry
conditions of the Southwestern United
States which favor wood preservation, we
do have wetsite preservation and charred
wood in archaeological contexts. We
should establish a centralized comparative
wood sample laboratory to add this valu-
able dating tool to our research efforts.
When the researcher uses tools at hand,
methods of dendrochronology, enhanced
with radio-carbon dating and computer
science, will allow the accurate dating
of both prehistoric and historic sites
(Watkins 1975).

References Cited

Fritts, Harold C.
1969 Bristlecone Pine in the White Mountains o.
California Growth and Ring-Width Charac-
teristics. Papers of the Laboratory of
Tree-Ring Research No 4. The University
of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Stokes, Marvin A. and Terah L. Smiley
1968 An Introduction to Tree-Ring Dating.
University of Chicago Press.

U.S. Department ofthe Interior
1973 Tree Rings: Time Keepers of the Past.
Geological Survey Report No. 2401-00329.

Watkins, Trevor, Editor
1975 Radiocarbon: Calibration and Pre-History.
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
1343 Woodbine Street
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014

a 21-volume set reproducing "in facsimile
over 370 of the most important articles on
a number of topics in Indian studies." Each
Volume Editor provides an introduction to
the articles in the volume and a biblio-
graphy for further reading. Many of the
reproduced articles are extremely rare. The
volumes in this series are printed on acid-
free, 250-year-life paper. David Hurst
Thomas is the General Editor for this ser-
ies, which is published by Garland Publish-
ing, Inc., 136 Madison Avenue, New York,
NY 10016. (212) 686-7492.

David Hurst Thomas, in his Introduction to
this series, writes:

This collection is intended to fill a significant gap in the
contemporary scholarly literature. Investigators research-
ing traditional Native American lifewavs have faced com-
pound difficulties, not the least of which is locating the
key sources.
The selection of the twenty-one volumes dealing with
the North American Indian was guided by two criteria.
We first chose a number of major yet hard-to-get refer-
ence works, touchstones in our contemporary knowl-
edge of traditional North American culture. We then at-
tempted to locate significant, lesser-known works, publi-
cations that have been overlooked by many North Amer-
ican Indian scholars. This combination of the classic and
the classically obscure makes this collection well-balanced
and pragmatic in approach.

This is an important series which will be
an asset to any reference library, and will
be of interest to many of our readers. Re-
views of the first 17 volumes have been pre-
sented in clusters in the last three issues
of this journal. This completes our review
of this series.

Volume 18. The Prehistoric Southwest: A
Sourcebook. History, Chronology, Ecology,
and Technology. Edited with an Introduc-
tion by Richard I. Ford.

1 Amsden. Charles Avery. An Analysts of Hohokam Pottery Design MP
2. Bryan. Kirk. Pre-Columbian Agnculture in the Southwest as Conditioned
by Penods of Alluviation AAGA (1941)
3. Colton. Harold S. Sunset Crater, the Effect of a Wolcanic Eruption on an
Ancient Pueblo People GR (1932)
4 Colton, H.S. Prehistonc Trade in the Southwest SM (1941)
5 Cushing. Frank H. A Study of Pueblo Pottery as Illustrative ol Zuni
Culture Growth. ARBAE (1886.
6 Guernsey, Samuel James. and Alfred Vincent Kidder Basket-Maker
Caves of Northeastern Anzona. PPMAAE (1921)
7. Halseth. Odd S Prehistoric Irrigation in the Salt River Valdle UNMB
(1936). Permission pending

8 Haurv. Emil W. Tree-Rings-The ArchaeologisFs Time Piece AmA (1935)
9 Haurn. Emil W The Problems of Contacts Between the Southwestern
United States and Mexico. SIA (1945)
10 Keur, Dorothy L. A Chapter in Navaho-Pueblo Relations AmA (1944)
Permission pending
11 Kidder. Alfred Vincent Conclusions In An Introduction to the Study of
Southwestern Archaeology PADA (1924)
12 Kidder, Alfred V Southwestern Archaeoloical Conference S-irncr (1927)
13 Kroeber. Alfred 1. Zuni Potsherds AMNH AP (1916)
14 McGregor, )ohn C. Bunal of an Earlv American Magician. PAPS (1943)
15 Morns. Earl H. An Abonginal Salt Mine at Camp Vrde. Anrona
AMNHAP (1928)
1t Nelson, Nels C Chronology of the lano Ruins. New Mexico AA (1916)
17 Roberts. Frank H.H.. r. A Survey f Southwestern Archaeology AA
18 Sales. E.B Archaeologv of the Cochise Culture. In E B Savles and Ernst
Anteus. The Cochise Culture MP (1941)
19 Shepard. Anna O Rio Grande Glaze Paint Hare. A Study Illustrating the
Place of Ceramic Technological Anal\sis in Archaeological Research
CIW-CAAP (1942)
2) Steward lulian H. Ecological Aspects of Southwestern Socieo\
Anthropos (1937)
27 pages LC 83-47641 ISBN 0-8240-5892-5 B85

Ford's Introduction to this volume provides
an excellent historical overview of culture
history, chronological, ecological, and
technological studies of the prehistoric
Southwest. The articles reprinted in this
volume form the foundation of Southwestern
archaeology. Many of these studies also
have contributed to further archaeological
research in the rest of the United States.
Studies of cliff-dwellings, painted pueblo
ceramics, basketry, trade, responses to
environment and the like are presented.
This is an important publication whose
acquisition is recommended.

Volume 19. The Ethnographic American
Southwest: A Sourcebook. Southwestern
Society on Myth, Clan, and Kinship. Edited
with an Introduction by Richard I. Ford.


1 Cushing. Frank Hamilton Outlines of Zuni Creation Myths. ARBAE
2 Voth, H.R. The Traditions of the Hopi. FMNHAS (1905)
3 Fenkes, lesse Waller Tusavan Migration Traditions ARBAE (1900)
4 Lowie, R H Notes on Hopi Clans AMNHAP (1929).
Hacberlin. H.K The Idea of Fertilization in the Culture of the Pueblo
Indians. AAAM (1916).
6. Stirling M.W Orign Myth of Acoma and Other Records. BAEB (1942)
7 White. Leslie A The World of the Keresan Pueblo Indians In Primitive
\Vifs of the World. Ed. Stanley Diamond (New York. 1964)
8 White, L.A. A Comparative Study of Keresan Medicine Societies. PICA
9 Parsons. Elsie Clews. The Laguna Migration to Isleta. AA (1928)
10 Parsons, Elsie Clews The Social Organization of the Tewa of New
Mexico AAM (1929).
11 Harrngton, John P Southern Peripheral Athapaskawan Origins.
Divisions, and Migrations. SMC (1940)
12 Matthews, Washington. Navaho Legends. MAFS (1897).
13 Hale. Berard Father Part II. Enemy Way Legend In Origin Legend of the
Navaho Enemy Wav YUPA (1938).
14 Moonev, James The Jicarilla Genesis. AA (1898).
15 Opler, i.E. The Creative Role of Shamanism in Mescalero Apache
\Mythologv. JAF (1946) Permission pending.
16 Russell. Frank Sophiologv In The Pima Indians ARBAE (1908)
17 Mason. J Alden. The Papago Migration Legend JAF (1921)
18 Harrngton, John Peabody A Yuma Account of Origins. IAF (1908)
19. Bourke, lohn G. Notes on the Cosmogony and Theogony of the Mohave
Indians of the Rio Colorado. Arizona JAF (1889)
832 pages LC 83-47640 ISBN 0-8240-5893-3 S85


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987

In his Introduction to this volume, Ford
The native peoples of the Southwest speak many languages, have
contrasting social organizations, and have solved the challenge ofan
arid landscape in numerous ways. Despite their distinctive cultures,
they share a common destiny: for the most part they have been
situated in the same place since the time of Spanish contact-in the
case of the riverine groups in southern Arizona, the Pueblos north of
the Mogollon Rim and Rio Grande drainage-or shortly thereafter
for the Navaho and Apache tribes. The long tradition of attachment
to the land is recorded in traditional myths of cultural genesis. These
texts culturally define the world and are the charter for subsequent
social institutions. The greatest body of origin legends in North
America is recorded for the ethnographic groups of the Southwest,
and it is the basis for understanding cultural process and divergence.
This source book has reproduced a representative sample of these
creation myths. It has also included original analyses of the salient
social institutions that were established in mythological time.

This volume presents key works on the
Pueblos (Zuni and Hopi), Navaho, Apache,
Pima, Papago, Yuma and Mohave. Ford con-

Origin legends are cultural charters. While the details of their
content may change in the light of historical circumstances, their
basic structure remains distinctive for each group. These accounts of
cultural beginnings can guide archaeologists to the interpretation of
prehistoric sites, can help ethnologists to unravel historical influences,
and can instruct applied anthropologists to appreciate which cultural
changes will be accepted and how they will be integrated. Just as
these myths have enabled each generation of Indians to learn who
they are, they are anthropologists' best guide to cultural

I recommend acquisition of this volume.

Volume 20. An Ethnobiology Sourcebook.
The Uses of Plants and Animals by American
Indians. Edited with an Introduction by
Richard I. Ford.

1. Anderson. I P Plants Used by the Eskimo of the Northern Bering Sea
and Arctic Regions of Alaska AIB (1939) Permission pending
2 Blankinship. i W Native Economic Plants ot Montana MACESB (1905).
3 Broi n. Robert. On the Vegetable Products. Used by the Northwiest
American Indians as Food and Medicine. in the Arts, and in
Superstitious Rites BSET (188)
4 Carr, Lucien The Food of Certain American Indians and Their Methods
it Preparing It PAAS (Il89)
i rastetter. Edward F The Domain Mo Ithnobiologv AN (1944)
h Coslle. Frederick V Note, on the Plants Used by the Klamath Indians
ot Oregon CUSNI 11897)
7 Gilmore, Melvin R. Some Chippewa Uses of Plants. PMASAL (1932).
8 Harshberger, J.W. The Purposes of Ethno-Botany AmAnt (18%).
9. Havard. V Drink Plants of the North American Indians BTBC (18%h)
10. Hough, Walter. Environmental Interrelations in Ari7ona AA (184H)
11. Jones, Volnev H. The Nature and S'tat.us l Ethno, tiian\ ( B 11l41)
12 McGee. \ J The Beginning ol Zoocullure AA (1897)
13 Moonev, lames The 'acred Formnulas of the Cherokees ARBAl -7
(1885 8) (1891)
14 Murdoch. John The Animals Known to the Eskimos oi NorthIesttern
Alaska AN (1898)
15 NeNhberr~. ) Food and Fiber Plants of the North Amenrian Indians
PSM (1887).
16 Palmer. Edward Food Proiducts of the North American Indians. R(-
USDA 1870 (1871)
17. Powers. Stephen. Aboriginal Botany. PCAS (1873 74)
18 Ross, B.R An Account ot the Animals Useful in an Economic Point of
View\ to the Various Chipewvan Tribes CNG (1861)
19 Speck. Frank G Bird-lore of the Northern Indians UPPL 1919-1920

20 \White. Leslie A Notes on the Ethno/oology of the Keresan Pueblo
Indians PMASAL (1945)
21 Yanovsky. Ellas Food Plants of the North American Indians USDAMI
237 (1936).
510 pages LC 83-47625 ISBN 0-8240-5894-1 S65

Ethnobiology is the study of the direct
interrelationship between human population
and the plants and animals in their envi-
ronment. While its subdisciplines, ethno-
botany and ethnozoology, are commonly dis-
tinguished, this separation can hinder a
full appreciation of the relationships be-
tween people and other living organisms.

The traditional uses of plants and animals
by Native Americans are better documented
than for other groups of peoples. This
recording began with the early European
explorers and missionaries, was later
formalized as part of the territorial
expansion of the United States, and
finally evolved into a formalized aca-
demic discipline incorporating ecological
and linguistic approaches. However, as
Ford notes, the collection in this volume
"serves as a reminder of the astute ob-
servations and generous sharing of know-
ledge by Native Americans that led both
to expansion of this country and to the
growth of ethnobiology as a science."

Indeed, this collection will be of in-
terest to herbalists, individuals gen-
erally interested in the possible uses
of the plants and animals in their
area, and, of course, as a base work
for scholars in this field. I recom-
mend its acquisition.

Volume 21. Native Shell
America: Early Studies.
Introduction by Bruce G.

Mounds of North
Edited with an


1. Vanuxem. Lardner. On the Ancient Ovster Shell Deposites Observed
near the Atlantic Coast of the United States Proceedings ot the
Association of American Geologists and Naturalists (1843)
2. Chadbourne. Paul Ansel. Ovster Shell Deposit in Damariscotta
Collections ot the Maine Historical Societv (1859),
3. von Morlot. A. General Vieis on Archaeology. ARS I860 (1861).
The Northeast
4. Jones, I.M. Kitchen Middens at St. Marart s Bay. Nova Scotia ARSI
5 Gossip. W On the Occurrence of Kjoekkenmoedding on the Shores of
Nova Scotia. PTNSIS (1864)
6 Rau, Charles. Artificial Shell-Deposits n New jersey ARSI (1865)
7 Wyman, Jeffnes. An Account ot Some K;oekken-Moeddings, or
Shellheaps, in Maine and Massachusetts AN (1188)
8. Baird. S F Notes on Certain Aboriginal Shell Mounds on the Coast of
New Brunswick and New England. PUSNM. vol. 4.
9 Matthew, G.F. Discovery of a Village ot the Stone Age at Bobabec.
BNHSNB (1884).
The Southeast
10 Brinton. DG. Artificial Shell Deposits of the United States. ARSI (1867)

11. Wyman. leffries. Fresh-water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida. MPAS (1875).
12. Walker, ST The Aborigines of Florida. ARSI (1883).
13 Moore, Clarence B. Certain Shell Heaps ot the St. John's River. Florida.
Hitherto Unexplored. AN (1892).
14. Moore, Clarence B. Certain Shell leaps of the St. John's River. Florida.
Hitherto Unexplored. AN (1894).
15 Dal, William H. On Succes, ion in the Shell-heaps ot the Aleutian
Islands USDI-CNAE (1877)
Ih L'hle, Max. The Emervville Shellmound L'C\'AA. (19W17)
17 Nelson. N.C. The Flls Lnding Shellmound L IC.l'AAE (11l))
18 Gifford. E.W. Composition ot Calitfornia Shellmounds UC I'AAE, vol 12
544 pages LC-83-47636 IBN 0-8240-589I5-X 71)

In his Introduction, Trigger writes:

Beginning in the 1860s, coastal shell-
middens, which archaeologists hitherto
had regarded as unworthy of study, be-
gan to play an important role in the
investigation of native American pre-
history. This collection brings to-
gether some of the most innovative and
influential reports on these middens
published over the next fifty years

The reports are grouped geographically to
cover early studies in the Northeast,
Southeast and Pacific Coast areas. While
all of these studies are of interest,
those on the Southeast were of particular
interest to me. All of these studies
provide an historical insight into the
development of our concepts on this
cultural resource type. I recommend the
acquisition of this volume.

In conclusion, while because of my own re-
search focus, I was particularly pleased
with the Southeastern volumes (Nos. 6-11),
all 21 volumes are of interest and worthy
of acquisition. It is noted that the cost
of these permanent volumes is about what it
would cost to photocopy the individual
articles -- provided that you were able to
obtain the articles to permit them to be

For your information, all 21 volume titles
are reprinted below:

The:Antiquity and Origin of Native North Americans
A Northern Algonquian Source Book: Papers by Frank G. Speck
An Iroquois Source Book
Volume 1: Political and Social Organization
Volume 2: Calendric Rituals
Volume 3: Medicine Society Rituals
The Early Prehistoric Southeast: A Source Book

The Late Prehistoric Southeast: A Source Book
Ethnology of the Southeastern Indians: A Source Book
A Creek Source Book, WILLIAM C. STURTEVANT, editor
A Choctaw Source Book, JOHN H. PETERSON, editor
A Seminole Source Book, WILLIAM C. STURTEVANT, editor
The Southern Caddo: An Anthology, H. F. GREGORY, editor
A Plains Archaeology Source Book: Selected Papers of the Nebraska State
Historical Society
WALDO R. WEDEL, editor
A Blackfoot Source Book: Papers by Clark Wissler
The Dunbar-Allis Letters on the Pawnee, WALDO R. WEDEL, editor
A Jean Delanglez, S. J., Anthology: Selections Useful for Mississippi
Valley and Trans-Mississippi American Indian Studies
A Great Basin Shoshonean Source Book, DAVID HURST THOMAS, editor
The Prehistoric American Southwest: A Source Book
History, Chronology, Ecology, and Technology
The Ethnographic American Southwest: A Source Book
Southwestern Society in Myth, Clan, and Kinship
An Ethnobiology Source Book: The Uses of Plants and Animals by
American Indians
Native Shell Mounds of North America: Early Studies

To order any of the above cited volumes in
The North American Indian series, please
write or call:

Garland Publishing, Inc.
136 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016
(212) 686-7492

European Representatives Office:
Garland Publishing
15 Bolton Street
London W1Y 7PA
Tel: 10 493-7642

Individual volumes may be purchased. A 4%
shipping cost should be added to the vol-
ume list price. The entire set may be
purchased for $1200. If the complete set
is purchased prepaid, then purchasers will
receive a 10% discount and the shipping
charges will be waived. Thus, the com-
plete set may be purchased for $1080

Reviewed by: Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist



Alabama and the Borderlands: From
Prehistory to Statehood. R. Reid
Badger and Lawrence A. Clayton, edi-
tors. The University of Alabama
Press, University, 1985. x + 250
pages, illustrations, notes, bib-
liography, contributors, index.
$27.50 (cloth).

The "Borderlands" of the title of
this multidisciplinary volume are
the borderlands of the Spanish em-
pire in the New World: the South-
west and "Old Florida". Here the
term is applied more specifically to
the Southeast in the sixteenth, sev-
enteenth, and eighteenth centuries.
The focus of the book, therefore, is
the early history of the Southeast,
viewed especially from Alabama, but
Florida readers will find much of
interest here. Indeed, several
articles focus more on Florida than
on Alabama.

The first section sets the stage by
dealing with prehistory. Krause ar-
gues that, regardless of European
intervention, Mississippian chief-
doms would never have developed into
states similar to those in Meso-
america, and that, in fact, the
social and political organization
was breaking down before the Euro-
peans arrived. The other two arti-
cles in the prehistory section are
summary articles, in which the
authors present their concepts of
Mississippian. Griffin provides a
framework for us with a review of
the history of the concept, while
Smith looks at subsistence and set-
tlement. Griffin's definition of
Mississippian is broad and flexible,
balancing Smith's limitation of Mis-
sissippian societies to those with
riverine adaptations.

The second section concerns the ini-
tial contact between European and
Indian. Brain and DePratter, Hudson
and Smith approach the same subject
(DeSoto's expedition) slightly dif-
ferently. DePratter, Hudson, and

Smith examine documents and archaeo-
logical evidence to reconstruct a
segment of DeSoto's route. Brain
looks at the archaeology of the ex-
pedition as a whole and the kinds of
evidence we should look for, justi-
fying his and others' researches
into the DeSoto route for their
value in reconstructing Indian soci-
eties of the sixteenth century.

Completing this section on early
history are Parry's essay on the
Spaniards' view of the New World as
a stepping stone to Asia and Fair-
banks's discussion of the changes in
interactions between Spaniards and
Indians from first contacts to the
settlements of Menendez.

The articles in the last section of
the book are historical; some (e.g.,
Coker and Coker on the 1780 siege of
Mobile and Lyon on Menendez's plan
for the settlement and exploitation
of Florida) are very specific.
Washburn's historiographic and Scar-
daville's programmatic articles are
more general, however, and are use-
ful for their emphasis on the lack
of attention to Southeastern colo-
nial history. Scardaville's arti-
cle, particularly, sets the tone and
scope of the entire volume with its
call for full consideration of the
history of the Southeast before the
advent of the English.

The editors of Alabama and the
Borderlands have put together a col-
lection of readable and informative
articles that accurately reflect
several major directions of archaeo-
logical and historical research in
the Southeast today: the time
period just before the advent of the
Europeans; the contact period and
the effects of the interaction of
two cultures; and the period of col-
onization with the decline of native

Claudine Payne
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987


The Tombigbee Watershed in South-
eastern Prehistory. Ned J. Jenkins
and Richard A. Krause. The Univer-
sity of Alabama Press, University,
1986. xii + 156 pages, figures,
tables, bibliography, index. $18.95

The Tombigbee River watershed is
rich in prehistoric cultural re-
mains. The pace of investigating
them has accelerated with construc-
tion of the massive Tennessee-
Tombigbee Waterway, which required
millions of dollars of archaeologi-
cal investigations. This attractive
hardbound book is one of the first
data syntheses, a good summary of
some CRM reports, the "gray litera-
ture" of limited availability. Its
focus is later prehistory of the
Gainesville Lake area. There is
little discussion of work done after
about 1980, or by institutions other
than Alabama. The manuscript was
done in the early 1980's but delayed
in publication.

The book is a sandwich of three cul-
tural chronology chapters between
two chapters on taxonomy and inter-
pretation. The former are descrip-
tive, presenting site data in a
straightforward style. The latter
are densely written, detailing
philosophies and definitions, but
leaving unclear what are the practi-
cal differences in artifact assem-
blages and inferred social patterns
distinguishing "periods,"
"subphases," "trajectories," or
"metastable" vs. "dynamic" equilib-

The authors should be commended for
addressing culture process and big
questions in the Southeast: were
true states evolving, as in
Mesoamerica, but interrupted by
European contact? Or did cultural
evolution produce something differ-
ent, less complex, but an end
product in itself? The authors con-

clude the latter, but do not show
specifically how the Tombigbee data
can evaluate these models.

Furthermore, evolution does not pro-
ceed teleologically, toward a preor-
dained end product. To see
"classic" civilizations as climaxes
or "formative" cultures as working
toward something better is to judge
societies as superior or inferior.
Use of the terms Archaic, Woodland,
and Mississippian avoids this ethno-
centrism. However, the authors use
a new classificatory term, "Gulf
Formational," for a stage contempo-
raneous with the Late Archaic and
Early Woodland occurring elsewhere
in the Southeast. Many do not agree
that the fiber- and sand-tempered
pottery of this region differ enough
to justify new terminology. The
Classification is really ceramic;
little of the rest of the material
culture, from stone tools to subsis-
tence/settlement data, is truly un-
usual. Fiber-tempered Wheeler pot-
tery is similar to Orange and
Stallings Island wares. Even the
more uncommon pinched, incised
Alexander pots, with their rim
bosses, have many similarities with
Woodland pottery, including tetra-
podal bases and rocker stamping.
Though there are certainly problems
with the concepts of Late Archaic
and Early Woodland, everything sub-
sumed under Gulf Formational may not
represent cultural adaptations ex-
traordinary enough to need another
major category. Similarly, that
both Middle Woodland and Mississip-
pian result from population move-
ments into the area instead of in-
place evolution has not been demon-

Cultural ecology studies might help
explore these questions. Botanical
remains from the sites are described
to show seasonality and economy.
But there should be more environ-
mental background, and a map of the
valley showing major items such as
the fall line, ecological zones and
site distributions. Other minor


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987

flaws are some sexist language and
assumptions about social roles, too-
dark or too-light photos of pot-
sherds, and figures reduced too much
to be readable.

In general, however, this a worth-
while book, a landmark in the Tenn-
Tom archaeological program. May it
be followed by many others, on not
only the many surveys and excava-
tions done but also the great col-
lections stored at Moundville and

Nancy Marie White
Department of Anthropology
University of South Florida


The 44th Southeastern Archaeological Conference will be held jointly with the

Eastern States Archaeological Federation meeting on November 11-14, 1987 at the Omni

Hotel at Charleston Place in Charleston, South Carolina. The conference is being

sponsored by the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of

South Carolina. For conference information contact Albert C. Goodyear, SEAC Local

Arrangements, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of

South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (Telephone 803-799-1963). Planned sessions

include contributed papers (20 minutes), research reports (10 minutes), and symposia

(composed of 20 minute papers). Both prehistoric and historic topics are welcomed.

Given the joint nature of the conference, symposia which have pan-eastern emphases are

encouraged. The SEAC film festival will be continued this year for the exposition of non-

contemporary documentary and contemporary humorous films. The festival will be held in

conjunction with the Wines of SEAC event, which returns by popular demand. The

deadline for symposia proposals and abstracts is July 1, 1987; contributed paper and

research report abstracts are due August 15, 1987. All proposals and abstracts for

symposia, and abstracts for papers should be sent to Glen T. Hanson, SEAC Program,

South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina,

Columbia, SC 29208 (Telephone (803) 725-3724). Film titles and abstracts should be sent

by August 15, 1987 to C. Wesley Cowan, Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 1720

Gilbert Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (Telephone hone 513-621-3889). Any special

requests for logistical, space or equipment needs for presentations should be submitted in

writing with the abstracts. Slide projectors (35mm carousels) will be provided in each

meeting room. Those planning poster sessions or other displays and book sales are

requested to notify and submit space needs or other requirements to Albert C. Goodyear by

July 1, 1987.

June, 1987


Volume 40 Number 2



Back issues of The Florida Anthropologist
may be ordered by copying and completing
this form, or by simply writing a letter
to the Editor and including the necessary
information along with a check or money
order for the correct amount made payable
to the Florida Anthropological Society.
Do not forget to include the $2.00 postage
and handling charge (for the entire order,
NOT for each issue purchased). Also do not
forget to subtract any applicable discounts.

ONLY ONE OF EACH may be ordered for issues
with a ** or (10 or less, and 20 or less
copies respectively in stock) since so few
copies remain before they become OUT OF
PRINT. Out of print issues may be ordered
from Johnson Reprint Corp. (See inside back

Please allow four to six weeks for delivery.
Questions should be addressed to the
Editor (See address on form below).

FA 1(1-2) 1(3-4) OUT OF PRINT
FA 2(1-2)** $9 x 1=
FA 3(1-2)** $9 x 1=
FA 3(3-4)* $4.50 x 1=
FA 4(1-2)* $9 x 1=
FA 4(3-4)* $9 x 1=
FA 5(1-2)-6(1) OUT OF PRINT
FA 6(2)** $ 4.50 x 1=
FA 6(3)** $ 4.50 x 1=
FA 6(4) 9(3-4) OUT OF PRINT
FA 10(1-2)-11(4) OUT OF PRINT
FA 12(1) 13(2-3) OUT OF PRINT
FA 13(4)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 14(1-2)**$9 x 1=
FA 14(3-4)**$9 x 1=
FA 15(1)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 15(2)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 15(3)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 15(4) 16(1) OUT OF PRINT
FA 16(2)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 16(4)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 17(1)- 18(4) OUT OF PRINT
FA 19(1)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 19(2-3)**$9 x 1=
FA 19(4)** $4.50 x 1=
FA 20(1-2)- 21(4) OUT OF PRINT
FA 22(1-4)**$10 x 1=
FA 23(1)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 23(3)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 23(4) 24(2) OUT OF PRINT
FA 24(3)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 24(4)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 25(1)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 25(2 Pt 1)**$5x1=_
FASP No. 6/FA 25 (2 Pt2)

FA 25(3) -
FA 26(2)**
FA 26(3)**
FA 26(4) -
FA 27(2)**
FA 27(3)
FA 27(4)**
FA 28(1)**

$ 7 x =
$ 5 x 1=
$ 5 x 1=
$ 5 x 1=
$ 5 x 1=
$ 5 x 1=

FA 28(2)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 28(3 Pt 1)**$5x1=
FASP No. 7/FA 28(3 Pt 2) OUT OF PRINT
FA 28(4)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 29(1)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 29(2 Pt 1)**$5x1=
FASP No. 8/FA 29(2 Pt 2) OUT OF PRINT
FA 29(3)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 29(4)** $ 5 x 1=
FA 30(2)* $ 5 x 1=
FA 30(3)* $ 5 x 1=
FA 30(4)* $ 5 x 1=
FA 31(1)* $ 5 x 1=
FA 31(2 Pt 1)*$5x 1=
FASP No. 9/FA 31(2 Pt 2)*
$ 7 x 1=
FA 31(3) $ 5 x 1=
FA 31(4 Pt 1)*$5x 1=
FASP No. 10/FA 31(4 Pt 2)

FA 32(1)
FA 32(2)
FA 32(3)
FA 32(4)
FA 33(1)
FA 33(2)
FA 33(3)
FA 33(4)
FA 34(1)
FA 34(2)
FA 34(3)
FA 34(4)
FA 35(1)
FA 35(2)
FA 35(3)
FA 35(4)

7 x =
5x =
5x =
5x =
5 x =
5 x =
5 x =
5x =
5x =

5 x =
5 x =

5 x
5 x =

FA 3ol-2) -1U x
FA 36(3-4) $10 x =
FA 37(1) $ 5 x =
FA 37(2) $ 5 x =
FA 37(3) $ 5 x=
FA 37(4) $ 5 x =
FA 38(1-2 Pt 1)$10 x =
FASP No. 11/FA 38(1-2 Pt 2)
$ 7 x =
FA 38(3) $ 5 x =
FA 38(4) $ 5 x =
FA 39(1-2) $10 x =
FASP No. 12/FA 39(3 Pt.1)
$ 7 x =
FA 39(3 Pt 2)$5 x =

FA 39(4)

FA 40(2)

$ 5 x =
13/FA 40(1)
$10 x =
$ 5 x-


(less 10% discount for
orders over $100)

(less 10% member's discount)

(less 101 author's discount)

(less new members finder's

PLUS Postage and Handling= $ 2.00


Please make check or money order payable
to Florida Anthropological Society.

Please enter the name and address to
which the order should be sent.

City State Zip

Send order to:

Florida Anthropological Society
Post Office Box 1013
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


Volume 40 Number 2

June, 1987


Non.Profit Orl*,zation
Tll3hassee, Florida

He's Stealing From You!
The remains of prehistoric
and historic cultures belong to all of us.
When artifacts are stolen and archaeological sites are
destroyed, we lose important clues about the past forever.
Strict laws protect artifacts and sites on
State and Federal lands.


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST publishes original papers in all subfields of
anthropology and related historic preservation matters. Contributions from
allied disciplines are acceptable when concerned with anthropological
problems. The journal's primary geographical scope is Florida and adjacent
regions. While authors are not paid for their articles, 25 reprints (without
covers) of each published article are provided. However, authors receive a
10% discount (in addition to any other applicable discounts) on the purchase
of issues in which their articles are printed (see Back Issues Order Form).
Preference is given to submissions by Society members.

Manuscripts should be double-spaced and typed on one side only of 8a x 11 inch
paper. Authors should refer to the Editorial Policy and Style Guide published
in Volume 37(1). Manuscripts submitted in styles other than that presented in
the Style Guide will be returned to their authors. Authors should submit the
original and four copies of their manuscripts for review.

Receipt of manuscripts submitted for review for publication will be
acknowledged by the Editor, who will then distribute copies for peer review.
The Editor will generally notify authors of the Editorial Staff's decision
within three months of receipt. A manuscript may be accepted as is or with
minor revisions; rejected provisionally with the request that the authors)
rework the text and resubmit it for reconsideration; or, rejected outright.
In the latter instance the original copy ot the manuscript will be returned to
the authorss. Authors of accepted manuscripts will be asked to acknowledge
receipt of the edited manuscript and prepare any needed changes. If they have
prepared their text on a wordprocessor with a letter quality printer, they
will be asked to reformat the final text into 12 point, couriert-like) letter
quality type in 3" column galleys to save processing time and avoid
introducing new errors as a result of retyping. Alternatively, if they have
their manuscripts on programs available on wordprocessors accessible to the
Editor or Editorial Staff, authors may submit their diskets which will
subsequently be returned to them following printing of their text. Please
contact the Editor for details. If authors do not have this capability, then
their corrected manuscript should be returned to the Editor for galley
preparation, and they will be provided with an opportunity to review galleys
of their articles prior to publication.


In accordance. willt U.S. Postal Regulation No. 132.b22, the following
Anthropologist is included in this issue.


Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. Officers and Executive Commnittee
c/o Wallace Spears, Resident Agent (See inside front cover for nims
422 Brentuood Drive and addresses).
Dayrona Beich, Florida 32017


Total no. copies printed Average no. copies Mar. 1987 is'u-
varies from 1000 to 1200 each issue Vol. 40 No. I
1140 1200

Sold, U of F Library -
Foreign Exchanges 220 220

Hail Subscriptions 645 632

Total Paid Circulation 8n5 85?

Author Reprints 2? 25

Free Distribution 0 0

Total Distribution 890 877

Office Use, Left Over 250 323

Total 1140 1200

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs