Membership Information
 Table of Contents
 Editor's Page
 Sociopolitical Implication of Off-Shore...
 The Indianola Inn Shell Midden...
 Historic Preservation and Florida's...
 Ceramic Faces and A Pipe fragment...
 Cooperative Archaeology: The St....
 Book Review
 An Experiment with a Decomposition...
 Grave Robbing: Are the Guilty...
 Membership Information
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00023
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's Page
        Page 242
        Page 243
    Sociopolitical Implication of Off-Shore Fishing in Aboriginal Southeast Florida
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    The Indianola Inn Shell Midden Mound (80K6sm) Fort Walton Beach, Florida
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Historic Preservation and Florida's Local Government Comprehensive Planning Process
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
    Ceramic Faces and A Pipe fragment from South Florida, with Notes on the Pineland Site, Lee County
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    Cooperative Archaeology: The St. Augustine Example
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Book Review
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
    An Experiment with a Decomposition Cage
        Page 297
        Page 298
    Grave Robbing: Are the Guilty Innocent?
        Page 299
    Membership Information
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
    Back Cover
        Page 304
Full Text


2000 Florida Anthropological Society Inc.

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Contact the Florida Anthropological Society for additional
information and permissions.






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r FLila I yl M IIDMOIaT is published by the Florida Anthropological Society
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Taren Malesky
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Palmetto, FL 33561

Elizabeth Horvath
7404 12th Street I
Tampp, FL 33604

( brem lears):
Ralph Gozlin
7347 Hennessey Road
Jacksonville, FL

Harold Cardwell
1343 Woodbine Street
Daytona Beach, FL 32014

John F. Scarry
P.O. Box 1013
Tallahassee, FL 32302


(Tuo Tears):
Jeffrey Nitchem
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Louis D. Tesar Joan Deming
Rc. 1 Box 209F 306 6th St. HE
Quincy, FL Largo, FL 33540

Harlene Levy
Dept. of Anthropology
Florida Atlantic Univ.
Boca Racon, FL 33431

AC Lr: Wallace Spears
109 Blais Trail
Daytona Beach, FL 32018

(One Tear):
William Gosa
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 33611

George Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 33579


James J. Miller
Div. of Historical Resources
Department of State
The Capitol
Tallahassee. FL 32399-0250

John W. Griffin
louace Box 19
at. Augutine, FL 32084

William R. Marquardt
Florida Scate Museum
University of Florida
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Dept. of Anthropology
0-24 Bellamy
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aOnLB ZtlUiTraIOSI (FaoTf) UA-24 "-Te oeeu Dig," Sketch of exevatiaon
features at the lile of salvage aseavation project undertakel with the asslst-
aona of volunteers. Bee article on OeOsperteke Afroblas gyI hea It. Agguati
tmsple (pages 287-292, this llaue).(bSO k) t emi lat m as Ar iheleiedAl Bites
Imael pster (19/6 rv), Design and illuatration by Louis D. Test, Arahae-
alOieal site are historically significant, anoreondwble ouleural r1eu6mrea.
It Le important that site location information be recorded for use in prtper-
ing settleeflit patten models, preparing historic preetvnatlai pi as, and in
order to faeilitate their protection 1I the environmental review fprtess, tY
ean halp preset these sites by reporting site ladation. tISfoatiBon o Oi
Florida Depare E t eot ItaeC Divil0 of iteriteal aesOuresae a Tlllsleiseae
or ao your leasl fPAl hapteOr eprfeStnetive wh Can do sd,


The Florida Anthropological Society is a
non-profit organization founded in 1948.
By May of 1948, when the first issue of
The Florida Anthropologist (Volume I
Number 1-2) was published, the Society
had grown to over 70 members, represent-
ing every major section of the state
(Ehrmann 1948:16). The Society has
since grown to around 10x that size,
with individual and family members and
institutional subscribers in nearly
every state, as well as in Canada,
England, Australia and the Republic of
Panama. Membership in the Society,
which includes subscription to its
journal, The Florida Anthropologist,
is from January through December of
each year.

From its beginning the Society's member-
ship has been made up of professional
anthropologists, amateur arhcaeologists
and concerned citizens interested in
learning about and helping to preserve
Florida's, and surrounding area's, pre-
historic and historic heritage. Indeed,
the only real qualification for member-
ship in the Society is an avowed interest
in these matters. You do not have to be
a resident of Florida, or even the United
States of America, to join the Florida
Anthropological Society; although, there
is an additional $5.00 postage and han-
dling fee for out of country mail which
is not covered by our bulk mail permit
(See application form, last page this

The Goals of the Florida Anthropological
Society are:

1) To provide a formal means by which
individuals interested in archaeological
and anthropological studies in the State
of Florida and related areas may come
together for mutual benefits;

2) To promote the continuing study of
the peoples of Florida from ancient
times to the present;

3) To establish and promulgate to its
members and to the general public, rules
of conduct, a code of ethics, and stan-
dards of quality to govern anthropologi-
cal work;

4) To effect harmony and cooperation
between the amateur and the professional
anthropologists and archaeologists so
that the work of all will permanently
enrich our knowledge of human history;

5) To bring to the attention of the
general public and appropriate govern-
menal agencies the need for the preser-
vation of archaeological and historical
sites within the State of Florida (and
elsewhere) as well as for the recording
of the ways of life of extant groups in
Florida and related areas;

6) To disseminate information on anthro-
pology and archaeology and in particular
on the work of Society members through
periodic, regularly scheduled meetings
of the Society, through a program of
publications by the Society, and through
such special events and other activities
as the Society may consider proper to
further its objectives;

7) To assist in establishing archaeologi-
cal museums through contributions or
gifts of materials or money;

8) To encourage the scientific collection,
preservation, classification, study and
publication of ethnological materials and
archaeological remains; and,

9) To initiate and maintain appropriate
By-Laws, Rules, and Regulations in the
best interest of all its members.

Unquestionably, a major attraction to
prospective FAS members is the journal
of the Society, The Florida Anthropologist.
The jouranl, which is now entering its 39th
year of publication, is published quarterly
and contains articles primarily on anthro-

pological (particularly archaeological)
studies in Florida and in adjacent geo-
graphic areas of the Southeastern United
States and Cicum-Caribbean region; al-
though, efforts are being made to broaden
the breadth and scope of topics published.
A brief review of the nearly 600 articles,
etc. listed in the 1948-84 content-author-
geographical-general topical index pubish-
ed in FA 37(3):124-150, or the around 90
articles, etc. listed in the Table of
Contents of the FA 37-39 issues published
in 1984-86, will provide an understanding
of the wide range of topics published in
The Florida Anthropologist, and our oc-
cassional series, the Florida Anthropolo-
gical Society Publications. In addition,
the Society also periodically publishes a
Newsletter. Society members receive all
publications published during each year
of membership. A Style Guide for pro-
spective authors is contained in FA 37(1).
Donations, grants and back issues sales
are used to raise funds for our Monograph
Account to fund publication of Florida
Anthropological Society Publications

The Society membership meets annually to
hear formal presentations on scholarly
and general topics of interest to its
members, to exchange ideas, and to invest
newly elected officers in their posts. In
addition to elected positions, the appoint-
ed positions of Membership Secretary and
Editor are filled or renewed by the newly
elected President with the support of the
Board of Directors. All Officers in the
Society serve without compensation, as do
appointed positions. Such volunteer
service helps to minimize the Society's
administrative costs, and permits it to
devote most of its membership fees to
publishing and distributing its journal.
However, with increasing postal and
other costs we need to increase our mem-
bership in order to reduce the relative
cost of each issue to retain our current
fee schedule.

If you like what you have read in this
and other issues of The Florida Anthro-

pologist, then you should join the
Florida Anthropological Society. If
you are interested in helping to pro-
tect significant historic resources
and study aspects of our historic
heritage, then you should join the
Florida Anthropological Society. If
you wish to join with and meet others
interested in these topics, then you
should join the Florida Anthropological

If you are presently a member and have
not yet renewed your membership, then
please do so now. If you are a member
then help find new members and earn
back issues acquisition credits, or
consider giving gift subscriptions to
our Society (and earn back issues
acquisition credits for each such
gift subscription). If you are not
yet a member, we invite you to join
our Society. If you know anyone in
the Acquisition Department of your
local library, then encourage them
to subscribe so that students and
the general public may learn more
about historic resources and the
issue of historic preservation. If
you edit (or know someone who edits)
the newsletter or journal of an
organization whose membership may
be interested in joining our Society
and receiving The Florida Anthropolo-
gist, then please have the first and
last two pages in this issue reprinted
in that newsletter or journal. (Like-
wise, if you publish this notice for
your readers, we will publish your
similar notice to our readers).

Thank you for your time and efforts in
this matter. We look forward to your
receiving and enjoying The Florida
Anthropologist and participating in
other aspects of our Society for years
to come. Your comments are always

Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist





Editor's Page by Louis D. Tesar . . . . .

Sociopolitical Implications of Off-Shore Fishing in Aboriginal
Southeastern Florida by Randolph J. Widmer . . .

Computer Communications Network Information Request by William J. KE

From Big Game to Bingo: Native Peoples of the Southeastern United
States, A Retrospective Symposium (Meeting Announcement) .

The Indianola Inn Shell Midden Mound (80k6sm), Fort Walton Beach,
Florida by Yulee W. Lazarus . . . . .

Historic Preservation and Florida's Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Process by Louis D. Tesar . . . .

Ceramic Faces and a Pipe Fragment from South Florida, with notes on
the Pineland site, Lee County by George M. Luer . .

Introduction by Louis D. Tesar . . . . .
On The Importance of Volunteers ... . . . .
SA-23: A Summary of the Parking Lot North of Artillary Lane
by Valery Bell . . . . . .
Adventures in the Dirt by Corky Caraway . . . .
Burials Found on SA-23 by Valerie Bell . . . .
SA-24 Update by Bob Dow . . . . . .
Archaeological Volunteers: Concluding Remarks by Louis D. Tesar

BOOK REVIEW: The North American Indains (Cont. from last issue) .

An Experiment with a Decomposition Cage by William Gray
Johnson and Donald A. Matucci . . . .

Da 1058 by Judi Trimble . . . . .

Grave Robbing: Are the Guilty Innocent? by Louis D. Tesar .

Ownership Statement and Circulation Report . . .


. 242

. 244

ennedy 252

. 252

. 253

. 257

. 281

. 287
. 287
. 287

. 289
. 289
S. 290
S. 291










With this issue I have completed three
volumes of The Florida Anthropologist
(37-39), including two issues of the
Florida Anthropological Society Publi-
cations (11-12). By changing to a 12-
point, 3.5" column format with photo-
reduced references cited and selected
tables and figures, I have been able to
increase the amount of material provid-
ed within each issue without raising
dues. Through donations, grants and
other fund raising activities we have
been able to publish FASP Nos. 11 and
12, and plan to publish FASP No. 13 in
1987. I started my editorship with a
backlog of around 40 manuscripts to
review, and have received and reviewed
many more (indeed I have published over
90 submissions with this issue).
While the March 1987 issue (FA 40(1)/
FASP No. 13) is committed, I find my-
self with only two manuscripts currently
under review for the June 1987 issue.

The present lack of manuscript submis-
sions is surprising, and submissions are
encouraged. We publish articles on a
wide range of historic preservation
topics; although, we tend to focus on
anthropological/archaeological topics
(see Index, FA 37(3)). Our area of
coverage extends beyond the State of
Florida; although, most of the manu-
scripts which we have received have
dealt with Florida topics (see Index,
FA 37(3)). We are a refereed journal,
which adds to the manuscript review
time but results in a better product.
Submissions are accepted from profes-
sionals, students and individuals with
an avocational interest. Our style
guide was published in FA 37(1). We
publish quarterly in March, June,
September and December. The manuscript
review cycle (review-comment-revise and
resubmit-galley preparation and proofing)
is around three months; although, it has
occasionally taken longer and measures
are being taken to correct this problem.

With the publication of this issue I will
be making some minor adjustments to im-
prove our editorial efficiency and effec-
tiveness. The first relates to changes
in my own workload. Beginning in January
of 1987 I will no longer be in charge of
back issues sales and related issues so
that I can concentrate my efforts on
editorial tasks. Since my editorial
activities are a volunteer effort which
occurs during non-work hours this will
provide much needed relief. Our Member-
ship Secretary, John F. Scarry, has vol-
unteered to take over back issues sales.
In recognition of his increased respon-
sibility in this and other areas, I am
asking John to step down from our
Editorial Board; although, he will be
asked to review articles in his area of
special interest on an occasional basis.
I wish to thank John for his efforts on
my Editorial Board during the past three

In view of his present workload and ob-
ligations, Robert S. Carr, our previous
Editor, will also be stepping down from
our Editorial Board. As with John, Bob
will from time to time be asked to re-
view articles in his area of expertise.
With four years as our Editor followed
by three years on my Editorial Board,
Bob deserves our thanks for his contri-
bution to our Society.

Glen Doran from the Department of Anthro-
pology at Florida State University is
completing fieldwork at the Windover
archaeological site and has agreed to
serve on our Editorial Board beginning
in January 1987. He will be John's re-
placement. I have not yet made a selec-
tion to replace Bob and am open to sug-

Speaking of suggestions -- I would
to suggest to our readers that you
courage your friends and neighbors
join our Society; that you request



Dec., 1986

Vol. 39 No. 4

local libraries, including school librar-
ies and doctor's offices to subscribe to
our Journal; that you publish the mem-
bership application to our Society in
your local chapter or society's news-
letter; that you consider giving gift
memberships to our Society.

We are a non-profit, anthropological/
archaeological-historic preservation
oriented society. Around 80% of our
dues go to publishing and distributing
our journal. However, we cannot bene-
fit those who do not read our Journal
because they are not aware of its ex-
istence. We do not advertise. We
depend on our members and the quality
of our product to encourage new mem-
bers to join. To compensate, in part,
for your efforts we have a $2.50 back
issues credit offer for every new mem-
ber you or your Chapter get to join
(see offer on back page). If all of
you would get at least one other per-
son or organization to join ... Oh
well, enough said.

In the last issue, I failed to ac-
knowledge and extend my thanks to
Paul J. Kalisz and James J. Miller
for preparing the galleys for the
final draft text for their articles.
In future issues, for those of you
with letter quality printers and
wordprocessors I would request that
you be prepared to do likewise. It
does not make sense to review and
edit a wordprocessed text and then
have the authors) send a final text
to me to be retyped in the final
galey format for proofing and then
paste-up. By making the final cor-
rections and format changes on your
own equipment, you lessen the chance
of having new errors introduced,
which then have to be corrected. This
will not only make my life easier,
but will allow you to share in the
blame for any errors. I have "dis-
covered" that text errors are an
inevitable fact of life, regardless
of how much proofing by x-number of
individuals occurs.

In this issue, I wish to thank George
Luer for preparing the galleys on his
article, and Joan Deming for typing
Widmer's galley's on her wordprocessor
as well as for assisting me in the
proofing and wordprocessing of the
remaining articles in this issue. The
continuing support of both George and
Joan has made editing of the journal,
particularly production of the final
galeys easier.

For those of you without wordprocessors,
do not despair as Joan, George and I
will continue to type your accepted
manuscripts into final form, as long
as we are retained in our present
capacities by the Society. While there
may not be monetary rewards in the pro-
duction of The Florida Anthropologist,
there is a sense of satisfaction in be-
ing able to produce a quality product
which can help further understanding
and protection of historic resources --
the tangible, non-renewable remains of
our historic heritage. It this effort
we join with all of you through your
support of our Society.

In this issue we have a series of
articles, comments, book reviews, and
meeting announcements which I hope
will be of interest. I also hope to
increase the breadth and range of
articles in future issues.

As noted in previous issues, your com-
ments are appreciated as they help pro-
vide me with a sense of what I am doing
right and what I need to change, as well
as what types of material you would like
to see published in future issues. It
is noted, however, that while I will use
the latter information to encourage sub-
missions for editorial review and pos-
sible publication, cooperation of the
authors is necessary to see the product.

Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist
December 3, 1986



Randolph J. Widmer


Recent characterizations of the economic base of aboriginal societies in
southeastern Florida have downplayed the role of maritime fishing. However,
evidence exists which shows that offshore fishing was present in southwest
Florida but was highly specialized in that it took place at night. This
fishing was not only for subsistence purposes, since the species obtained were
very large, but also had an important economic role in supplying shark teeth
for cutting instruments in a region where stone is not available for such


There is little doubt of the importance
of estuarine, bay and near shore fishing
in the subsistence economy of the aborig-
inal societies in southeastern Florida.
In fact, it might be argued that the pri-
mary adaptation is focused on these re-
sources, supplemented by terrestrial
plant and animal resources. Larson
(1980) has presented fascinating ethno-
historic data documenting a lively
whaling industry in Biscayne Bay by the
Tequesta Indians of Southeast Florida.
Archaeological data also support this
pattern. Wing (1977), in her analysis
of subsistence systems in the Southeast,
classifies both the Jupiter Inlet and the
Boynton Inlet sites into her coastal con-
stellation based on the equitability and
species diversity of the faunal remains
from these sites. Recent excavations at
the Granada site at the confluence of the
Miami River and Biscayne Bay archaeologi-
cally confirm this bay, shallow reef, and
estuary fishing pattern (Grifffin 1983a;
Wing and Loucks 1983), as does the exca-
vation at Matecumba Key (Goggin and
Sommers 1949), and the relief project
excavations conducted in southeastern
Florida during the 1930s (Willey 1949).
Larson (1980:115), in his survey of
southeastern North American aboriginal
fishing techniques, notes that only
the Atlantic sailfish, Istiophorus
platypterus, represents an offshore,
deepwater species found in south Florida
archaeological sites. However, it should
be noted that although the Atlantic sail-
fish is primarily found in the Gulf

stream, it will frequently come into
shallow coastal waters of southeastern
Florida, particularly in the winter when
winds are from the northeast, to feed
(Jolly 1974; Voss 1953). Therefore, it
is more appropriate to consider the sail-
fish a reef habitat species.

It would appear then from much archaeo-
logical work that pelagic offshore spe-
cies were not extensively utilized by
groups in aboriginal south Florida. How-
ever, this conclusion is not accurate.
There are four species of fishes which
are restricted to deep water and are not
usually caught in shallow waters. Two of
these, the mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus,
and the great white shark, Carcharodon
carcharias, are listed by Larson (1980)
as primarily deep water pelagic fish that
may rarely be found in shallow waters.
While conceding the fact that great white
sharks might come into shallow water,
this situation would be so rare for mako
sharks that it would preclude their
occurrence in the archaeological record
if fishing were restricted to just shal-
low waters, a situation which is not
true. There are, however, two deep water
species of fish which were not mentioned
by Larson (1980) in his survey of abori-
ginal fishing in the southeastern United
States. One of these fish is the sword-
fish, Xiphias gladius; the other is the
thresher shark, Alopias sp. which has
been identified subsequent to his survey
(Wing and Loucks 1983). The distribution
of these pelagic deep water fish remains

Dec., 1986


Vol. 39 No. 4

in archaeological sites in South Florida
has been presented in Table 1. In addi-
tion, numerous other species of sharks
listed by Larson, although not restricted
to deep water, were probably more fre-
quent in the deep water habitat and were
more likely the predominant species taken
in this specialized offshore night fish-

Sharks were an important resource to
aboriginal groups in South Florida as can
be attested by the abundance of their
remains in coastal archaeological sites.
At the Wightman site on Sanibel Island,
shark and rays contributed some 82.02% of
the faunal meat biomass (Milanich et al.
1984:285), and at Granada, sharks and
rays contributed 53.6% of the faunal meat
biomass (Wing and Loucks 1983:324-327).
Milanich et al. (1984:287) even specu-
late that the sociopolitical complexity
in southwest Florida may have been par-
tially based on intensive shark and whelk
"sea farming." A discussion will now be
presented of the archaeological and eco-
logical data that indicate that an off-
shore shark fishing industry occurred in
aboriginal south Florida.


Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias

The remains of the great white shark are
known from three archaeological sites in
South Florida: Fort Center (Furey 1977,
Sears 1982), the Boca Weir site (Furey
1977), and the Granada site (Wing and
Loucks 1983). These data are presented
in Table 1. It is assumed that all of
these remains are extant specimens and
not fossils. However, in none of the
above cases is this distinction made.
This cautionary statement is necessary,
because Willey (1949:105) specifically
mentions the occurrence of 13 fossil
sharks teeth, including worked and un-
worked examples, from south Florida
sites. Furthermore, Furey (1977) notes
the presence of two fossil shark species,
Carcharodon megalodon, and Hemipristis
serra, at the Boca Weir site. However,
he makes no mention if other extant forms
might be fossilized as well. In lieu of
evidence to the contrary, and at least in

the case of the Granada site where these
teeth are specifically analyzed as faunal
remains (Wing and Loucks 1983), we will
assume that all identified remains dis-
cussed here are extant faunal remains.

The great white shark, like other members
of the Lamnidae family, including the
mako shark, are strong swimmers that
occupy a niche at the top of the oceanic
food chain, and hence are relatively rare
and wide-ranging (Castro 1983:88). The
white shark primarily inhabits cooler
waters of the continental shelf. Its
presence is always sporadic and it is
never considered common, in keeping with
its paramount trophic position. While
it is primarily a deep water species, it
does at times move into shallow water in
search of prey. Ironically, it seems
that this species may have been more com-
mon in prehistoric south Florida waters
than at present. This is projected on
the probable increased food prey avail-
able for this species, and no longer
present in the area today, sea mammals.

The principal foods of the great white
shark consist of whales, seals, and por-
poise, but they may also act as scaven-
gers when attracted to whale carcasses by
scent or chum lines extending over con-
siderable distances (Castro 1983:89-90,
Pratt et al. 1982). Today, only por-
poises and perhaps other sharks provide
a food source to attract these fish in
quantities other than casual strays
(Springer 1963, 1967). Yet, prehistori-
cally, the waters off of southeastern
Florida might have been favorable feeding
grounds for these rare sharks because of
the existence of whales and seal, two
resources not found in the area today but
which occurred in considerable quantities
prehistorically (Larson 1980). The car-
casses, oil and blood generated by abori-
ginal whaling activity, when combined
with the presence of these whales in
southeast Florida waters, was probably
adequate incentive for the presence of
white sharks. It might even be that
white sharks would enter Biscayne Bay in
search of these carcasses and at this
time be captured by aboriginal fishers.
Furthermore, the presence of the
Caribbean mink seal in south Florida
waters, as indicated by its presence in


numerous archaeological sites and ethno-
historic documents (Fonteneda 1944;
Widmer 1983; Wing and Loucks 1983), would
contribute to a more favorable feeding
ground for these sharks. If this is
true, then the occurrence of this taxon
in archaeological context would not be
surprising. However, it is not possible
to determine if such fish were taken ex-
clusively inshore or offshore.

Mako Shark, Isurus oxyrinchus

Mako shark teeth are known from four
archaeological sites in south Florida:
Fort Center (Furey 1977; Sears 1982), Key
Marco (Gilliland 1975), the Boca Weir
site (Furey 1977) and the Granada site
(Wing and Loucks 1983). The mako shark
is a fast-swimming, oceanic pelagic fish,
as is attested by its bright blue color
which mimics the Gulf stream. This spe-
cies feeds on tuna, swordfish and other
sharks, and although aggressive, is not
considered dangerous to humans because of
its open-ocean habit (Castro 1983:91).
Unlike the great white shark, this fish
is exclusively a deep water species which
can only be taken by technology focused
on open-ocean fishing. Therefore, abori-
ginal exploitation of this species had to
have occurred offshore in deep water.

Thresher Shark, Alopias sp.

One of the more surprising species of
shark recovered from the Granada site
was a thresher shark. They are a common,
open ocean pelagic species, often found
in cool inshore waters (Castro 1983:82),
a situation which does not normally per-
tain to south Florida. Most thresher
sharks are taken on longlines at depths
of 200 meters (Castro 1983:85). One
species of this shark, the bigeye
thresher, Alopias superciliousus, is
caught in depths of 40 to 250 meters.
This species has a feeding behavior iden-
tical to that of the swordfish. It as-
cends the water column at night to feed
on squid, small tunas, and other fish.
This shark is usually caught today on
longlines while fishing for swordfish
(Castro 1983:84; Stillway and Casey
1976). Although no species-level identi-
fication is given for the thresher shark
teeth from the Granada site, the fact

that these fish have similar habitats
with swordfish, which are known in arch-
aeological contexts in southeastern
Florida, suggest that it is this latter

Swordfish, Xiphias gladius

Willey (1949) listed two sites which
contain remains of Xiphias gladius.
These sites are the Surfside site, lo-
cated on the coastal strand of Miami
Beach on Biscayne Bay near the mouth of
Indian Creek, and at Opa Locka site 1,
located near Opa Locka in Dade county.
These faunal remains were identified to
the species level by Leonard P. Shultz,
curator of ichthyology at the Smithsonian
Institution (Willey 1949:83, 87). In
addition to the swordfish remains, sail-
fish, and possibly marlin, were also re-
covered from the Surfside site. Unfor-
tunately, quantitative data were not pre-
sented, so there is no knowledge of how
many MNI, fragments, or skeletal elements
there are from these sites. This makes
it impossible to determine the frequency
of these remains at these sites. How-
ever, the fact that the swordfish remains
were also found at the Opa Locka 1 site,
located several kilometers inland from
Surfside, indicates that this is not a
just a chance or rare occurrence.

Tropical swordfish have a very distinc-
tive ecology and feeding behavior which
is important for aboriginal capture.
In the Florida Straits, the habitat of
swordfish in the south Florida area,
squid are the predominant food (Toll and
Hess 1981). Squid exhibit daily vertical
migrations, moving to depths of up to
2600 meters during the day to around 90
meters at night. The significance of
this daily vertical migration pattern of
squid is that the swordfish also follow
to feed on these squid. This means that
only at night are swordfish at depths
shallow enough to be reached by fishing
gear, even with modern technology (Toll
and Hess 1981). As a consequence, abori-
ginal capture of these fish had to have
occurred at night in offshore waters.
More importantly, the ecology and feed-
ing behavior of the swordfish, Xiphias
gladius, necessitate that it can only be
caught through a concerted, specialized


fishing effort for it and similar prey.
This fishing effort required longline
fishing at night in deep water probably
over 90 meters deep.


There can be no question that sharks were
an important subsistence item of coastal
groups of south Florida and that these
fish were avidly taken. This is amply
supported by their high frequencies in
ubiquitous distribution in coastal sites
(Larson 1980; Milanich and Fairbanks
1980; Milanich et al. 1984; Widmer 1983;
Wing and Loucks 1983). However, how
these fish were caught is poorly

Borhegyi (1961), in his discussion of
Mayan shark fishing, is of the opinion
that sharks were taken with a line and
baited hook and then clubbed to death
when caught alongside a canoe. Larson
disagrees, noting that steel hooks and
leaders are necessary to avoid line
breakage by the shark's sharp teeth and
abrasive skin, technology which was not
available to the aboriginal fishermen.
Furthermore, he contends that this tech-
nique is not ethnographically supported.
Wing and Loucks (1983:324) agree with
this argument. Larson (1980:82) also
discounts the probability of harpooning
of sharks because of the danger this
would pose for fishermen in unstable
watercraft. Instead, Larson (1980:99)
believes that sharks were captured in
tidal weirs. While undoubtedly some
sharks were caught in this manner in
south Florida, ethnographic data and
habitat ranges of these species suggest
two other more probable techniques by
which sharks were taken in south Florida,
the use of a rope noose and baited wooden
hooks on long lines.

Gudger (1927) and Anell (1955) have as-
sembled an impressive body of fishing
data relating to the south Pacific and
have documented these two methods of
taking sharks. While geographically
distant from south Florida, the groups
which sharkfished in these waters are at
the same level of sociocultural integra-
tion and have a similar level of techno-
logy. The first technique involves the

use of a noose which is tightened
around either the shark's tail or mid-
section. The shark is lured through a
loop of heavy cordage with bait and then
the noose is quickly tightened as it pro-
ceeds through the loop to take the bait.
The shark is then subdued by dragging it

The second method of capture is with
baited hook and line. While the objec-
tions of Larson (1980) of this form of
fishing seem reasonable, Malinowski him-
self documents this technique among the
Trobriand Islanders:

2. Shark Fishing in Kaibuola. This
is done in the open sea, far beyond
the fringing reef, in special small
canoes. One fisherman mans each
canoe, and, equipped with a large
wooden shark-hook (now gradually
superseded by pieces of thick metal
wire), with a decoy-rattle and with
a short thick piece of wood, paddles
out into the open sea, as a rule out
of sight of land. Here, the ratttle,
which consists of coconut shell seg-
ments threaded on a bent stick, is
sounded under water. This gives a
very good imitiation of the noise
made by a shoal of fish jumping out
of water. The shark, attached by
this noise, approaches the boat and
snatches at the baited hook. It is
then drawn towards the boat, where
the man finishes it with a piece of
wood (1918:89).

This description counters three of the
objections raised by Larson (1980): (1)
that sharks cannot be taken on hook and
line, (2) the absence of steel hooks and
leaders, and (3) the safety of small
canoes in capturing sharks. All of these
are specifically mentioned by Malinowski.
This, in effect, supports the claim of
Borhegyi (1961) that this could have been
an aboriginal technique of shark fishing.
The use of wooden hooks would also indi-
cate why the apparent technology is ab-
sent in archaeological contexts.

Wooden shark hooks have been exhaustively
analyzed and described for the south
Pacific by Gudger (1927) and Anell
(1955). These shark hooks are up to 50


Boca Fort Opa Key
SITES Granada Weir Center Locka Surfside Marco


1 2 2
Great White Shark 2T 13T 15T
(Carcharadon carcharias)
Mako Shark 5T IT 6T P,1T
(Isurus sp.)

Thresher Shark 2T
(Alopias sp.)
3 3
Swordfish P P
(Xiphias gladius)

Table 1. Distribution of Deep Water Fish Species in South Florida Sites.
T=teeth, P=present. Sources: 1. Wing and Loucks (1983); 2. Furey (1977); 3.
Willey (1949); and 4. Gilliland (1975)



Requiem Sharks
Carcharinus sp.

Great White Shark
Carcharadon carcharias

Tiger Shark
Galeocardo cuvier

Mako Shark
Isurus oxyrinchus

Hammerhead Shark
sphyrna sp.

Blue Runner
Caranx cryos

Sphyrna barracuda

Mackerel and Tuna

Istiophorus platypterys

Xiphias gladius

G, BW, FC, W, UI, KM




G, W, UI


G, KM, S, O

G, S, O


S, O

G = Granada Site (Wing and Loucks 1983) BW = Boca Weir (Furey 1977)
KM = Key Marco (Gilliland 1975) FC = Fort Center (Furey 1977)
W = Wightman Site (Milanich et al. 1983) S = Surfside (Willey 1949)
UI = Useppa Island (Milanich et al. 1983) O = Opa Locka 1 (Willey 1949)
UMK = Upper Matecumbe Key (Goggin and Sommers 1949

Table 2. Distribution of Longline Species in South Florida Archaeological



centimeters long, often weigh 0.7 kilo-
grains, and are 12 centimeters across the
shaft. In the south Pacific, these are
invariably round bottomed, barbless hooks
made from a single piece of curved wood,
usually a root. In the eastern Carolines
they are made out of mangrove roots
(Anell 1955:225). The root sections are
then cut off and whittled into the barb-
less, rounded, sharp tipped hooks. These
are then attached to a thick leader about
one meter in length, which is made of
braided sennet fibers. The baited hooks
are attached to long twisted fiber lines.
If the lines are to be fished deep, stone
weights of up to two kilograms, usually
of coral, are weakly attached so that
they will break off when a fish is

The use of such weights is essential to
fish the longlines at depths sufficient
to catch deep water species such as
swordfish and thresher sharks, species
which can only be taken at night in
depths of over 90 meters. This deep
water longline fishing developed out
of increased activity and emphasis on
catching sharks in general. Both Gudger
(1927) and Anell (1955:236) believe
Ruvettus fishing, a prized south Pacific
species found only in water below 100
meters, developed out of shark fishing.
As shark fishermen extended the depth of
their lines to obtain more deep species
of sharks, they probably caught a few
Ruvettus. The taking of swordfish
probably evolved in an identical way out
of deep-line fishing for sharks.

Deep water pelagic species including
swordfish and sailfish were not sought as
specific prey items, but instead caught
through generalized offshore night long-
line fishing primarily focused on
sharks. Russo (1981) lists 43 taxa of
fish which are commonly or have the
potential to be commonly taken on long-
lines in the northwestern Atlantic. Of
these fish, 11 are known in archaeologi-
cal contexts in south Florida (Table 2).
These species were regularly taken
through longline activities utilizing the
technology discussed above.

Although ethnohistoric descriptions of
longline fishing for shark or swordfish

are absent for south Florida, this has
little meaning. Even in the south
Pacific where contact and ethnohistoric
documentation exist for nearly 300 years,
it wasn't until trained ethnographers
visited these islands that the techniques
of offshore fishing for sharks and
Ruvettus were described (Anell 1955).
This situation undoubtedly applied to
south Florida, particularly in light of
the general paucity of early ethnohis-
toric documentation and the complete
absence of description of the aborigi-
nal fishing patterns by trained ethno-

Unfortunately, the archaeological evi-
dence for this fishing technique, other
than the faunal remains, is also non-
existent. There are two chunks of lime-
stone from the Granada site which are
classified as anchor weights (Griffin
1983b:69). The larger of the two, 2.26
kilograms is similar to the size of
longline weights in the south Pacific.
However, it is impossible to determine
that these artifacts were used for this
purpose. As a result, it is impossible
to assess the feasibility of this fishing
technique relying exclusively on direct
archaeological evidence independent of
these faunal remains. However, all of
the material resources and technological
skills necessary for this specialized
fishing activity occur in aboriginal
archaeological contexts from south
Florida (Gilliland 1975; Widmer 1983).
Since these offshore species are found in
archaeological contexts there can be no
other conclusion than that they were
obtained by offshore fishing utilizing
some sort of longlines or in the case of
sharks, perhaps the noose technique.


The distinctive offshore fishing strategy,
particularly the night longline fishing,
represents an important technological
adaptation for southeastern Florida
groups. This is due to the limitations
of inshore fishing. This type of fishing
cannot be expanded since it is geographi-
cally bounded. Additional yields can
only be achieved through increasing the
intensity of fishing effort, i.e., time


and labor, and by more effective techno-
logy which can increase the capture
rate. Yet both of these are ultimately
limited by the biological carrying capa-
city of these spatially fixed ecosystems.
However, there are important advantages
to fishing offshore which overcome those
problems and limitations.

Unlike inshore fishing, resources are not
spatially bounded, particularly pelagic
species. Population growth pressures the
ability of the inshore fisheries to pro-
vide sufficient food. As a consequence
the unstressed offshore fisheries become
obvious alternative resource zones for
exploitation. The capture of offshore
fish requires greater input of time,
labor, bait, long lines, and canoes, and
is therefore a more intensive and costly
activity than inshore fishing. The spe-
cies sought, primarily sharks, are at the
pinnacle of the trophic structure and
hence are rare fish. Also the fishing
technique is largely stochastic and as a
result there is no way to predict or
determine good fishing territory. There-
fore, there is greater potential for
failure when compared with inshore. The
requirement of bait and calm seas also
mitigate against the efficacy of off-
shore fishing if either of these condi-
tions cannot be met. However, the prey
items sought are large food packages and
so the potential payoff is large.

Besides ecological advantages of this
type of fishing, there are also important
sociopolitical advantages. Since these
offshore resources have no fixed spatial
or temporal boundary, there would be lit-
tle corporate or political involvement
with this fishing activity. This would
allow individual fishermen to engage in
this activity independent of lineage or
chiefly influence and control, conditions
which would be expected for the use of
inshore resources (Widmer 1983). There-
fore, as populations grew, expansion
into this specialized offshore fishing
would complement rather than compete with
inshore fishing, particularly if the pop-
ulation threshold was high enough that
additional labor input into inshore
fishing would produce no increased net
capture. It is even possible that off-
shore fishing would occur before such

stress on the inshore fisheries if
coastal fishing were not practiced at
night, since then it would not interfere
or compete with offshore night fishing.
However, it is known that offshore deep
water shark fishing is seasonal and not
conducted on a continuous basis, at least
in the south Pacific (Anell 1955), and so
such advantages might not have real

Offshore night fishing, therefore, can be
considered an adaptive response to subsis-
tence pressures on per capital inshore
fishing yields, which are relatively
fixed. These stresses are brought about
by population growth or perhaps differen-
tial political control or access to in-
shore fishing grounds. Furthermore,
this fishing technique could be accom-
plished on an individual basis, since the
need for cooperative, corporate or group
labor, management, and resources would
not be necessary. The technology is
present to obtain these offshore fish
sources and no additional resources
beyond existing fishing gear would be
required, although the need for long
lines perhaps several hundred meters in
length might require corporate produc-

There is no doubt that the costs of off-
shore fishing are quite high compared
with inshore fishing, and over the long
run may not have as high net returns as
inshore fishing. Yet the large packages
of food, i.e., sharks and swordfish, the
expandability of the fishing effort be-
yond that of the spatially-limited
inshore zones, and the ability to exploit
these resources effectively by individual
fishermen makes this an attractive sub-
sistence complement to the near-shore
fishing economy. Furthermore, deep water
characteristic of this type of fishing is
not that far off shore. The 200 meter
depth contour is located only seven kilo-
meters offshore of the Surfside site,
still within sight of land, so no special
navigational skill is required.

Offshore fishing provides another impor-
tant economic resource other than food,
shark teeth. These teeth are important
in southern Florida since this area has
no stone outcrops suitable for producing


chipped stone tools. Acquisition of
these not only provides cutting and
engraving tools for local groups, but
these teeth also are important for ex-
change with interior groups (Furey 1977;
Milanich and Fairbanks 1980; Widmer
1983). Favorable political and economic
ties can be established and maintained
through the exchange of these economi-
cally valuable teeth. Therefore, this
fishing activity is stimulated not only
by a need for food but also because of
the need for suitable cutting tools which
these tool provide. The highly valued
packages that sharks represent encourage
their capture even if it is more costly
and has higher risks than inshore

The conditions from which this offshore
fishing should develop stress on in-
shore fishing resources and the desir-
ability of trade materials did not
appear to develop prior to A.D. 700 in
south Florida (Widmer 1983). This dating
is in line with the appearance of these
remains in the Boca Weir site, the Key
Marco site, and the Surfside site. Un-
fortunately, phase specific dating of
the shark teeth is not published for the
Fort Center site nor the Granada site.
However, it seems reasonable that this
offshore fishing pattern developed con-
currently or subsequent to the develop-
ment of chiefdom sociopolitical organi-
zation, which occurred shortly after
A.D. 700.


Anell, Bengt
1955 Contributions to the History of Fishing in
the Southern Seas. Almquist & Wiksells
Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden

Borhegyi, Stefan F.
1961 Shark Teeth, Stingray Spines, and Shark
Fishing in Ancient Mexico and Central
America. Southwestern Journal of
Anthropology 17:273-296.

Castro, Jose I.
1983 The sharks of North American Waters. Texas
A&M University Press, College Station.
Fontaneda, D d' Escalante
1944 Memoir of D d' Escalante Fontaneda,
written in Spin, about 157. Buckingham
Smith, translation and notes: David 0.
True, editor. The Glade House, Miami.

Furey, John F.
1977 An Analysis of Shark Tools from the Boca
Weir Site in South Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 30:89-102.

Gilliland, Marion S.
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco Florida.
The University Presses of Florida,
Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology
No. 41, New Haven.
Griffin, John W.
1983a Conclusion. In Excavations at the Granada
Site: Archaeology and History of the Granada
Se Volume I, edited by John W. Griffin,
pp. 365-391. Prepared by Florida Division
of Archives, History and Records Management,
1983b Lithic Artifacts from the Granada Site. In
Excavations at the Granada Site: Archaeology
and History f the Granada Site Volume I,
edited by John W. Griffin, pp. 65-70. Pre-
pared by Florida Division of Archives, His-
tory and Records Management, Tallahassee.

Grudger, E.W.
1927 Wooden Hooks used for catching sharks and
Ruvettus in the South Seas; a Study of their
Variation and Distribution. Anthropological
Papers of the American Museum of Natura
History 28T19-355.

Jolley, J.W., Jr.
1974 On the biology of Florida east coast
Atlantic Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus).
In Proceedings of the International Billfish
Symposium, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 9-12 August
1972, Part 2. Review and Contributed
Papers, edited by R.S. Shomura and F.
Williams, pp. 81-88. NOAA Technical Report
NMFS SSRF-675. U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
Washington, D.C.
Larson, Lewis H.
1980 Aboriginal Subsistence Technology on the
Southeastern Coastal Plain during e Late
Prehistoric Period. University Presses of
Florida, Gainesville.
Malinowski, Bronislaw
1918 Fishing in the Trobriand Islands. Man
Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New
Milanich, J.T., J. Chapman, A.S. Cordell, S. Hale, and
R.A. Marrinan
1984 Prehistoric Development of Calusa Society in
Southwest Florida: Excavations on Useppa
Island. In Perspectives on Gulf Coast Pre-
history, edited by Dave D. Daves, pp. 258-
314. University Presses of Florida,
Russo, Joseph L.
1981 Field Guide to Fishes Commonly Taken in
Longline Operations in the Western North
Atlantic Ocean. NOAA Technical Report NMFS
Circular 435, Dept. of Commerce, Washington,
Sjri iger, S.V.
1963 Field Observations on Large Sharks of the
Florida-Caribbean Region. In Sharks and
Survival, edited by P.W. Gilbert, pp. 95-
133. D.C. Heath and Co., Lexington,

1967 Social Organization of Shark Populations.
In Sharks, Skates and Rays, edited by P.W.
Gilbert, R.F. Mathewson, and D.P. Rall.
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Stillwell, C.E. and J.G. Casey
1976 Observations on the Bigeye Thresher Shark,


A suprciliosus, in the Western North
Atlantic. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Fishery Bulletin 74:221-225.
Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeolical Site in the
Lake Okeechobee Basin. University presses
ofFlorida, Gainesville.
Toll, R.B. and S.C. Hess
1981 Cephalopods in the diet of the Swordfish,
Xiphias gladius, from the Florida Straits.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fishery
Bulletin 79:765-774.
Voss, G.L.
1953 A Contribution to the Life History and
Biology of Sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus
cuv. and val., in Florida Waters. Bulletin
of Marine Science Gulf and Caribbean 3:206-
7TQ~.--- --

Widmer, Randolph J
1983 The Evolution of the Calusa, a Non-agricul-
tural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida
Coast. PhD Dissertation, Pennsylvania State
University, University Microfilms, Ann
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology No.
42, New Haven.
Wing, Elizabeth S.
1977 Subsistence Systems in the Southeast.
The Florida Anthropologist 30:81-87.

Wing, Elizabeth S. and _. Jill Loucks
1983 Granada SiLe Faunal Analysis. In Excava-
tions at the Granada Site: Archaeoogy and
History of the Granada Site Vol. I, edited
by John W. Griffin, PP. 259-327. Prepared
by Florida Division of Archives, History and
Records Management, Tallahassee.

Randolph J. Widmer
Department of Anthropology
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004


Computer Communications Network
Directory Information Request

I am presently compiling a Directory of
Archaeologists throughout the U.S. who
have access to BITNET or similar com-
puter communications networks. I be-
lieve that a listing of electronic ad-
dresses along with the associated in-
stitution and individual will contribute
to establishing an effective communica-
tions system. It would save a lot of
paper, postage and allow for dailey com-
munication as well as collaborative re-

If you have access to BITNET or similar
computer communications networks,
please contact me to be included in the
Directory. Write to:

William J. Kennedy
Associate Professor
Department of Anthropology
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida 33431-0991

From Big Game to Bingo

The departments of anthropology and history
at Florida State University are jointly
presenting a conference entitled, From
Big Game to Bingo: Native Peoples of the
Southeastern United States, A Retrospective
Symposium Occasioned by the Sesquicentennial
of the Great Removal, on March 5 through 7,
1987. This is a Florida Endowment for the
Humanities-sponsored program. Scheduled
speakers include Kathleen Deagan, Henry
Dobyns, Michael Green, Charles Hudson, Harry
Kersey, John Mahon, James Merrill, Thedue
Perdue, John Peterson, William Quinn, and
Robert Remini and a panel of contemporary
tribal leaders from Florida and Alabama.
Registration fee is $30 (students, $10).
For further information contact Carole
Lockridge (904-644-3801), Florida State
Conference Center, or J. Anthony Parades
(904-644-4281), Department of Anthropology,
Florida State University, Tallahassee,
Florida 32306.



Yulee W. Lazarus

On the shore of Santa Rosa Sound in
Fort Walton Beach, Florida there
exists the remnant of a shell midden
mound from early Native American oc-
cupation. The Indianola Inn Shell
Midden Mound site is designated in
the Florida Master Site File as site
80K6sm. This is to distinguish the
small mound at site 80K6 from the
large Fort Walton temple mound, 80K6m.

Although site 80K6sm was originally
considered to be an ordinary prehis-
toric shell midden mound, it has been
revealed by archaeological work to
have a more modern historical promi-
nence. For that reason, this paper
is submitted to show that some mound
appearances can be deceiving.

S.T. Walker (1885:860) reported to
the Smithsonian Institution that this
area of Northwest Florida has supported
a fairly large Native American popula-
tion. He stated that a large mound was
evident (at Fort Walton Beach) and that
a stream ran from the area east of the
large mound to Santa Rosa Sound. He
further stated that the largest stream
poured into the sound from the area of
the large shell heap on the bluff over-
looking the sound (Figure 1).

Describing site 80K6, C.B. Moore (1901:
435) reported a shell heap of consider-
able size near the shore. Two later
reports (Willey and Woodbury 1940:232-
254 and Willey 1949:72) also noted this
particular mound; although, the authors
only excavated smaller shell middens in
the vicinity. Comparison of these mid-
dens with the material from the shell
midden mound (80K6sm) will be dealt with
later in this paper. Finally, two his-
toric reports (McKinnon 1911:272 and
Reddick 1910:10) relate the use of the
shell mound (80K6sm) by the Walton Guards
as a mount for a cannon during the early
years of the Civil War.

In 1883 S.T. Walker figured the small
shell mound (80K6sm) to be about 3.5 m
high with a diameter of about 60 m. In
1961 it was measured by William C. Lazarus
(1961) to be about 4.5 m high with a dia-
meter of about 35 m. Considering the time
span and especially the point of origin
for measuring, the discrepancy can be con-
sidered acceptable. For example, differ-
ing measurements of the temple mound
(80K6m) are reported by Walker and Moore.
Today the small shell mound (80K6sm) is so
overgrown with bushes, trees, and thickets
as to preclude accurate measurement without
some clearance of vegetation.

In 1885 one of the Walton Guards, John
Thomas Brooks, homesteaded the area which
included the small shell mound (80K6sm)
where cannon used by the Walton Guards had
been in place. The area is still owned by
a descendent. The site is named the
Indianola Inn Shell Midden Mound after the
"Indianola Inn" hotel built in 1912 just
behind and almost on the shell mound
(Figure 2). Cement steps descended from
the hotel entrance down the south slope of
the mound to the water's edge. The Walton
Guards had buried their cannon before being
redeployed to Tennessee. It was located
and remounted on the shell mound in front
of the hotel.

The Indianola Inn was not in operation
nor was it occupied in 1962 when it was
destroyed by fire. The cannon was given
to the City of Fort Walton Beach in that
year. After its removal to the Temple
Mound (80K6m) it was identified as a
shipboard carronade of the period of the
War of 1812 (Peterson 1959, 1969, personal
communication). This time period is com-
patible with the other historic artifact
uncovered in 80K6sm and described in this

While informal digging for artifacts has
continued at the site for many years, the
only formal archaeological excavation of-


Vol. 39 No. 4

Dec., 1986

(_ 2 80k6sm
Santa Rosa Sound

Figure 1. 80k6sm shell heap on Santa
Rosa Sound.

Figure 2. The Inn, from Cory Langer sketch.



Figure 3.

Squares 1 & 2, east wall profile.

Figure 4.

Military button, sketch.

80k6sm a

Figure 5. Midden tests, 1940, by
Willey and Woodbury.



80K6sm was accomplished in 1966 by Don
Sharon and Jennings Bunn, at that time
volunteers with the Temple Mound Museum
(Lazarus 1970:40; Sharon 1966). Two
test units were excavated to culturally
sterile soil. Before more work could be
completed the owners withdrew the permis-
sion they had granted for the excavation.
Even so, the tests were very productive
and provided conclusive evidence for the
final evaluation of the shell mound's

A 1.5 m test square was begun at the base
of the mound on the south side at the
approximate center which would enter the
mound east of the concrete steps (which
are still in place). A second square was
an extension north toward the mound summit.
At the time work was halted the north wall
of the two squares was 134.6 cm at final
depth. Step elevation from Square 1 to
Square 2 was 30.4 cm. The slope of the
mound surface for the three excavated
meters was at an angle of 30' (Figure 3).
The wall profile of the mound slope clear-
ly shows in its lowest strata the midden
mound itself. Overlying the lower level
is a layer of humus with hardly any midden
shell. The final mantle is of heavy clam
shell deposit.

At a depth of 76.2 cm in Square 2 and just
south of the north wall in the humus layer
and below the shell mantle was a military
enlisted men's uniform button (Figure 4).
It has been identified as an Artillery
Corps button first used around 1814 to
1821 (Dailey et al. 1972). It is likely
that many of the Walton Guards had been
issued old uniforms along with the old
cannon, whatever was available. It is
also possible that the shoveling of out-
lying dirt by the Walton Guards to raise
the level of the mound caused sufficient
exertion by one of their members for a
button to pop off and drop into the fill
dirt. The time period for the button
coincides nicely with that of the cannon.

Sharon's field notes list the few other
noteworthy artifacts recovered. These
are from Test Square 1 and include a
worked clam shell at 68.6 cm, a bone awl

at 71.1 cm, a projectile point base of
white quartzite at the same level, and
a large deer toe bone at 66.0 cm. The
military button was in Test Square 2
at 76.3 cm depth. Sharon noted that the
upper mantle covered both areas of the
upper surface slope of the mound itself
and was composed of clam and oyster shell,
some pieces of conch shell, and fish
bones. Below the relatively sterile
central strata, the composition of the
lower midden zone was clearly of the same
type of midden as the top zone.

The report of the 1940 survey by Willey and
Woodbury (1942) and Willey (1949) clearly
states a major interest in the village
midden areas in an effort to establish some
chronology for the area's ceramic sequence.
Their excavations were made in the midden
deposits in the area immediately to the
east of the Indianola Inn property (Figure
5). Three midden areas were very shallow.
Four of the seven test areas were the most
productive and led to the analysis of a
late Deptford to early Weeden Island
cultures occupation. This is consistent
with evidence all along the north shore
of the sound. Of particular interest here
is the fact that the 1940 profiles included
in the report of midden tests do not ex-
hibit the central stratum of plain soil
found in the shell mound at the Indianola
Inn site.

With this limited excavation some important
information was obtained in regard to the
history of the largest shell heap on the
bluff overlooking the sound. Reports that
the Walton Guards used the mound as a base
for their cannon are accurate. However,
while there are no historic accounts that
the Walton Guards added elevation to the
mound before mounting the cannon -- it was
probably not considered an important detail
if it was considered at all, there is clear
evidence in the archaeological record that
they did so. The shell midden mound was
observed by Walker, Moore and others after
the Civil War years when the evidence of
the Guards' activities would not have been
apparent without excavation.

In conclusion, it is a valid assumption


that surrounding top soil had been shovel-
ed by the Walton Guards onto an existing
shell midden to provide a greater eleva-
tion and that this earthen mound was in
turn capped with surrounding midden shell
so that the completed work provided a
suitable mount for their cannon, and the
resultant appearance led to the site
being mistaken for a bona fide Indian
mound. The time period for the shell
mound site 80K6sm is thus late Deptford
to early Weeden Island with a subsequent
late nineteenth century reoccupation and
construction of the site to accommodate
inclusion of the military button and the
historic usage of the site as a cannon
mount. Thus, the evaluation of site use
and function on the basis of surface
features can be deceiving, and formal
archaeological testing is often neces-
sary to provide a proper interpretation
of site development and activities.


Dailey, Robert C., L. Ross Morrell and W. A. Cockrell
1972 The St. Marks Cemetery (8Wal08). Bureau of
Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin 2.
Florida Department of State, Tallahassee.

Lazarus, William C.
1961 The Shell Mound at the Indianola Inn. Field
notes on file, Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton
Beach, Florida.

Lazarus, Yulee W.
1970 Salvage Archaeology at Fort Walton Beach,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 23(1):29-42.

McKinnon, John L.
1911 History of Walton County. (1968 Reprint by)
Palmetto Books, Gainesville.

Moore, Clarence B.
1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest
Florida Coast. In Journal of the Academy of
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia XI Pt. 1.

Peterson, Harold L.
1959 Notes on Ordnance of the American Civil War
1861-1865. American Ordnance Association,

1969 Round Shot and Rammers. Stackpole Books,

Reddick, H. W.
1910 Seventy-seven Years in Dixie. Santa Rosa,
Washington County, Florida.

Sharon, Don
1966 Indianola Inn Shell Midden Mound Excavation
Field Notes. Temple Mound Museum files,
Fort Walton Beach, Florida.

Walker, S. T.
1885 Mounds and Shell Heaps on the West Coast of
Florida. Annual Report for 1883 Smithsonian
Institution, Washington.

Willey, Gordon R. and R. B. Woodbury
1942 A Chronological Outline for the Northwest
Florida Coast. American Antiquity 7

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast.
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol. 113,

Yulee W. Lazarus
P. O. Box 924
Ft. Walton Beach, FL



Historic Preservation
Florida's Local Government Comprehensive Planning Process

Louis D. Tesar

The term historic preservation is a con-
cept which includes, but is not limited
to, the identification, evaluation, recor-
dation, analysis, protection and interpre-
tation of significant elements of our
historic heritage as reflected in historic
resources, documents, folkways, and the

The focus of this paper is on historic
resources, which are defined in Chapter
267, Florida Statutes, as:

any prehistoric or historic
district, site, building, object, or
other real or personal property of
historical, architectural, or
archaeological value. These pro-
perties or resources may include,
but are not limited to, monuments,
memorials, Indian habitations,
ceremonial sites, abandoned settle-
ments, sunken or abandoned ships,
engineering works, treasure trove,
artifacts, or other objects with
intrinsic historical or archaeo-
logical value, or any part thereof,
relating to the history, government,
and culture of the state
(s.267.021(3), F.S. 1986)

Chapter 267, F.S., the Florida Historical
Resources Act, is Florida's primary
historic preservation legislation. It
will be discussed later in this paper.

Historic resources are the tangible, non-
renewable remains of our historic
heritage once they are lost they cannot
be replaced. We must all be stewards of
the past in the preservation, study and
sensitive use and reuse of our historic
resources. Historic resources are impor-
tant to the quality of life of Florida's
citizens. They provide a link to our
historic heritage. This link is gained

through the careful excavation, analysis
and interpretation of prehistoric and
historic archaeological sites, and through
the study and analysis of historic
structures. Furthermore, these resources
give our communities a sense of place, a
character and quality uniquely their own.

On November 7, 1985, in the Keynote
Address to the Florida Chapter, American
Planning Association, George W. Percy,
Florida's State Historic Preservation
Officer, discussed the issue of
"Preservation/Revitalization." Part of
that address is cited below, as it helps
set the stage for consideration of
historic preservation in local government
comprehensive planning:

Americans have become more aware of
their past in recent years, and I
suppose there is little argument
over the general need to preserve
what is left of our national and
local heritage. Preservation has
prospered as a movement, precisely
because it is not solely concerned
with the past. Rather, it puts an
emphasis on living communities. It
can point to many well-conceived
projects in which the restoration
of older buildings has transformed
depressed urban areas into thriving
places, creating many new businesses
and jobs in the process. Its bless-
ings, however, are not without costs.

It is very important for all of us to
understand that, for all of its vir-
tues, preservation is not an end in
itself, or always the right thing to
do. It must be part of a balanced
strategy that protects our historical
legacy and promotes the overall eco-
nomic well-being of our communities.
It must be considered in the formula-

Dec., 1986


Vol. 39 No. 4

tion of land use policy, not something
that is treated either in isolation or
as an afterthought.

... it doesn't take long to see that
preservation is happening everywhere
at a greater and greater rate and in-
volving all types of buildings: former
courthouses, railroad stations, banks,
theaters, hotels, office buildings,
estates of the wealthy, simple bunga-
lows, cigar workers cottages, bridges,
many adapted to different uses than
they originally had.

The benefits of preservation that re-
sult from all of this activity include
intangibles such as the sense of
variety, of identity, and of continu-
ity and permanence that many studies
have shown are attractive to residents,
shoppers, and tourists. Did you
know, for example, that one survey of
tourists in the South discovered that
visiting historic places -- including
just walking around historic downtown
-- was the most popular vacation
activity for trips of two nights or

There is also clear evidence that pre-
servation generally has a positive im-
pact on property values, and, that
rehabilitation frequently has a cost
advantage over new construction,
measured in construction costs per
square foot.

A key element of historic preservation is
the public. It is in large part for the
citizens of and visitors to our State that
historic resources are protected. It is
in response to this broad constituency's
demand to protect significant elements of
our historic heritage that various
federal, state and local historic preser-
vation laws and regulations have been pro-
mulgated. Therefore, public participation
is one of the most important elements in
historic preservation activities, whether
on a local, regional, statewide or
national level.

While a concern for historic resource
protection is essential, an awareness of
the applicable laws and regulations is
critical to effective public participa-
tion, and ultimately to the development of
an effective plan. The focus of this
paper is to provide background information
to facilitate public participation in the
historic preservation aspects of local
government comprehensive planning, which
in Florida is governed by the provisions
of Chapter 163, Florida Statutes.

In 1985 Florida took a major step toward
managing its growth and associated impacts
with the passage of substantial amendments
to Chapter 163, Florida Statutes, the
Local Government Comprehensive Planning
and Land Development Regulation Act. While
the original 1975 act as amended in 1977
was a step in the right direction, it con-
tained many deficiencies, including, 1)
the lack of minimum standards, 2) the
failure to consider impacts of one com-
munity's growth and development on another
and, 3) the lack of enforcement provisions
and sanctions.

The 1985 act with its clarification amend-
ments in 1986 took measures to correct
these deficiencies. Its declaration of
purpose states in s. 163.3161(5), F.S.
1986, that "... no public or private
development shall be permitted except in
conformity with comprehensive plans, or
elements or portions thereof, prepared and
adopted in conformity with this act."
Thus, if historic resources are to be pro-
tected, it is important that historic pre-
servation concerns be adequately addressed
in each local government's comprehensive

The original act contained provisions for
an optional "historical and scenic preser-
vation element setting out plans and pro-
grams for those structures or lands in the
area having historical, archaeological,
architectural, scenic, or similar signifi-
cance" (s. 163.3177(7)(j), F.S. 1975).
This option remains in the present statute
which, as will be discussed later in this
paper, has been strengthened considerably


with regard to the issue of historic pre-

The historic preservation provisions of
Chapter 163, F.S. 1986, along with those
of Chapters 187, 253, 267 and other
Florida Statutes and various federal laws,
have set the stage for Florida to lead the
Nation in historic preservation efforts.
However, for these efforts to be most
effective, it is important that the re-
sulting plans and implementing procedures
be consistent at all levels of government.
Thus, while local government comprehensive
plans must be consistent with the provi-
sions of the State Comprehensive Plan
(Chapter 187, F.S.) and Regional Policy
Plans (Chapter 186, F.S.), the historic
preservation aspects of such plans should
also be consistent with Florida's Compre-
hensive Historic Preservation Plan (s.
267.061(3)(b), F.S. 1986), as well as with
federal and state environmental laws with
which they might otherwise come into con-

In his article on New Directions in State
Legislation: The Florida Growth Manage-
ment Act and State Comprehensive Plan,
Daniel W. O'Connell (1986:24) writes:

Implementation of the state plan will
take place over the next several
years as state agency functional
plans, regional comprehensive policy
plans, and local government compre-
hensive plans are prepared and re-
viewed for their consistency with
the state plan. Eventually an in-
tegrated and coordinated set of
government plans will be in place so
that both the public and the private
sectors can cooperate in meeting the
state's goals and policies.

Examples of this process are already
available. The Comprehensive Plan-Update:
Historic Preservation Element (September
1986) of the City of Saint Augustine,
Florida can serve as a model for other
communities. In that plan's statement of
scope (p. 6), it is stated that:

Local government comprehensive plans
should be coordinated and consistent
with Florida's Comprehensive Historic
Preservation Plan, a draft of which
is under review in 1986. While that
document provides general guidance
and a framework for historic preser-
vation planning, programs, and activ-
ities in the state, the local govern-
ment's plan sets forth jurisdictional
details. The state's comprehensive
plan serves as a unifying introduc-
tion to historic preservation plan-
ning, while each local government
plan provides specific chapters.
Given the diverse nature of the
state's historic development, geo-
graphy, and political boundaries,
this appears to be an efficient and
effective approach to managing his-
toric resources in Florida. Historic
preservation activities in Florida
are conducted as a partnership be-
tween state, regional, county, and
local governments and citizens. As.
a result of this partnership, the
goals, objectives, and policies out-
lined in this element are consistent
with and further the goals, objectives
and policies of the State Comprehen-
sive Plan. Also, this element is in-
tended to be consistent with the pro-
posed Northeast Florida Regional
Policy Plan and the St. Johns County
Comprehensive Plan.

It is urged that all local governments
follow the lead of Saint Augustine in this
coordinated approach to comprehensive

Comprehensive historic preservation plan-
ning is the process by which we establish
goals, objectives, policies and priorities
for the identification, evaluation and
protection of archaeological and historic
sites. For such planning efforts to be
effective, a partnership must be formed of
federal, state, regional and local govern-
ments, academic institutions, organiza-
tions (such as the Florida Anthropolo-
gical Society and its various chapters,


the Florida Archaeological Council, the
Florida Trust for Historic Preservation,
and the Florida Historical Society), and
most importantly concerned individuals.
We must all work together to achieve our
mutual goal of protecting significant
archaeological and historic sites. These
resources, as already noted, represent the
tangible remains of our State's historic
heritage, and their loss diminishes our
State's legacy to present and future

To assist interested groups and
individuals in historic preservation
planning efforts, I have listed some of
the federal and state laws which I believe
should be considered in developing the
historic preservation aspects of local
government comprehensive plans. Consis-
tency of local plans with the provisions
of these laws can lead to a more effective
plan by permitting its use not only in
local decision making, but also in the
making of decisions on the state and
federal level. Such consistency can lead
to expedited state and federal reviews of
projects which also come under state or
federal jurisdiction, and will facilitate
state and federal planning activities.

For the local government this means that
by using the same standards and procedures
as state and federal agencies in historic
preservation matters that it will essen-
tially know in advance the kinds of pro-
ject information which should be provided
to such agencies and the kinds of
decisions which it can anticipate for a
given property or project activity, thus
removing the uncertainty which plagues the
present uncoordinated system or more
accurately systems.

Consistency with federal legislation is
essential since there are few, if any,
local governments which do not have
federally involved activities in their
jurisdiction. In the interest of brevity,
the following listing of federal legis-
lation is not comprehensive:

1) The National Historic Preservation Act

of 1966 (Public Law 89-665, as amended; 80
Stat. 915; 16 U.S.C.470) is the Nation's
primary historic preservation legislation,
at least with respect to activities
affecting state and local governments.
This act declares a national policy of
historic preservation, established the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation,
and in Section 106 directs federal agen-
cies to consider the effect of their
undertakings (i.e., licensing, permitting,
and grants and other funding) on proper-
ties listed or eligible for listing in the
National Register of Historic Places. The
implementing procedures for compliance
with Section 106 of the Act are presented
in detail in Title 36, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 800. Finally the Act
provides for an expanded National Register
program established in the office of the
State Historic Preservation Officer
(SHPO). In Florida, the position of the
SHPO is established within the Department
of State, Division of Historical Resources
(s.267.061(5), F.S. 1986), and is occupied
by the Chief of the Bureau of Historic

2) The Department of Transportation Act of
1966 (Public Law 89-670; 80 Stat. 931)
states in Section 4(f) that: "It is hereby
declared to be the national policy that
special effort should be made to preserve
... historic sites." And, that the
Secretary of Transportation "shall not
approve any program or project which
requires... the use of... any land from a
historic site (both archaeological sites
and historic structures) of national,
state or local significance... unless (1)
there is no feasible or prudent alterna-
tive to the use of such land, and (2) such
program includes all possible planning to
minimize harm to such... historic site
resulting from such use."

3) The National Environmental Policy Act
of 1969 (Public Law 91-190; 82 Stat. 852;
42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) established as
national policy the protection and en-
hancement of the environment, one aspect
of which is to "preserve important his-
toric, cultural, and natural aspects of


our national heritage" (s.101(b)(4)). The
policy of the act is carried out by the
preparation of interdisciplinary environ-
mental assessments or impact statements.

4) The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
(Public Law 92-583, as amended; 86 Stat.
1280; 16 U.S.C. 1454 et seq.) encourages
states to undertake comprehensive planning
and management "to achieve wise use of the
land and water resources of the coastal
zone giving full consideration to
ecological, cultural, historic and
aesthetic values as well as to needs for
economic development."

There are over 40 other federal laws with
historic preservation components. These
generally complement the National Historic
Preservation Act, and generally govern
direct federal actions or federally owned
lands management (Also see s.110 of the
National Historic Preservation Act).

There are also around 20 state statutes
and a number of special Laws of Florida
which affect historic preservation in
Florida. The latter generally address
specific scenic and historic roads desig-
nations. However, the following presen-
tation is limited to those laws which I
believe are of particular interest to
local government comprehensive planning
efforts in general. Chapter 163, F.S.,
and its implementing criteria rule, 9J-5,
Florida Administrative Code, will be
presented last, so that reference to these
laws may be made where appropriate.

1) The Florida State Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1972 (Chapter 186, F.S.)
directs the development of a State
Comprehensive Plan, and requires the
development of state agency functional
plans and comprehensive regional policy
plans consistent with the goals and
objectives of the state comprehensive
plan. The Act ties agency funding to
implementing the comprehensive plan. This
Act also creates Regional Planning
Councils and establishes the manner of
their operation. The importance of this

act is in its implementation of Chapter
187, F.S.

2) The State Comprehensive Plan (Chapter
187, F.S.) adopts specific goals and
policies in s.187.201. The historic
preservation aspects of the State Compre-
hensive Plan are contained primarily in

(a) Goal. -By 1995, Florida shall
increase access to its historical
and cultural resources and pro-
grams and encourage the develop-
ment of cultural programs of
national excellence.
(b) Policies. -
1. Promote and provide access
throughout the state to performing
arts, visual arts, and historic
preservation and appreciation pro-
grams at a level commensurate with
the state's economic development.
2. Develop a strategy for the con-
struction of arts facilities based
on an assessment which ranks re-
gional and statewide capabilities
and needs
3. Ensure the identification, evalua-
tion, and protection of archaeo-
logical folk heritage and historic
resources properties of the
state's diverse ethnic population.
4. Stimulate increased private-sector
participation and support for his-
torical and cultural programs.
5. Encourage the rehabilitation and
sensitive, adaptive use of his-
toric properties through techni-
cal assistance and economic incen-
tive programs.
6. Ensure that historic resources are
taken into consideration in the
planning of all capital programs
and projects at all levels of
government and that such programs
and projects are carried out in a
manner which recognizes the pre-
servation of historic resources.

Historic preservation is also reflected in
s.187.201(5) HOUSING "(b) Policies -...


3. Increase the supply of... housing...
by... recycling older houses and redevel-
oping residential neighborhoods..."; and,
in s.187.201(23) TOURISM "(b) Policies -
... 3. Promote awareness of historic
places and cultural and historic

3) Assessments; Part II Special Classes of
Property (ss.193.441-193.623, F.S.),
provides for a reduction in property taxes
through a deferred tax liability under the
provisions of sections 193.501 and
193.505, F.S. for the protection of
archaeological and historic sites through
development right transfers for periods of
not less then 10 years. Section 193.501,
F.S., may be used to protect
archaeological sites open to the general
public for outdoor recreation and parks
purposes (s.193.501(6)(f), F.S. 1986).
However, the provisions of s.193.505
(Assessment of historically significant
property when development rights have been
conveyed or historic preservation
restrictions have been conveyed) is much
more detailed in its focus on historic
resource protection. These two sections
in combination with the provisions for
conservation easements in s.704.06(3),
F.S. for "the preservation of buildings or
sites of historical or cultural signifi-
cance" provide economic incentives for
protecting significant historic resources
through less then fee acquisitions.

4) Section 253.034, F.S. (State-owned
lands; uses) is useful to local govern-
ments as an example of land management
provisions which could apply to lands
owned by local governments. Subsection
253.034(4), F.S., requires that: "All
(state land) management plans, whether for
single-use or multiple-use properties,
shall specifically describe how the manag-
ing agency plans to identify, locate,
protect and preserve, or otherwise use
fragile nonrenewable resources, such as
archaeological and historic sites..."

5) Chapter 266, F.S. establishes nine
historic preservation boards. These are

located in St. Augustine, Pensacola,
Tallahassee, the Florida Keys, Palm Beach
County, Tampa Hillsborough County,
Broward County, Volusia County and Flagler
County. They provide resource bases for
the local governments within their area,
and can serve as examples for local
governments wishing to establish local
preservation boards or commissions.
Such local government historic preserva-
tion boards or commissions are authorized
by Section 2(b), Article VIII, Florida
Constitution and Section 166.021, F.S.,
for municipalities and under Section l(f),
Article VIII, Florida Constitution and
Subsections 125.01(l)(f, g and j), F.S.
for counties. The Division of Historic
Preservation of the Metro-Dade Department
of Community and Economic Development,
along with Dade County Ordinance No. 81-13
(Chapter 16A, Dade County Code) and its
implementing procedures "Rules and
Regulations for Review of Historic Sites
Designations and Issuance of Certificates
of Appropriateness," are an excellent ex-
ample of how this process works.

6) The Historical Resources Act (Chapter
267, F.S. 1986), as noted, is Florida's
primary historic preservation law. The
State's policy relative to historic
resources is contained in s.267.061(1),
F.S. 1986, which states:

(a) The rich and unique heritage of
historic properties in this state,
representing more than 10,000
years of human presence, is an im-
portant legacy to be valued and
conserved for present and future
generations. The destruction of
these nonrenewable historical re-
sources will engender a signifi-
cant loss to the state's quality
of life, economy, and cultural
environment. It is therefore
declared to be state policy to:
1. Provide leadership in the preser-
vation of the state's historic
2. Administer state-owned or state-
controlled historic resources in


a spirit of stewardship and
3. Contribute to the preservation of
nonstate-owned historic resources
and to give encouragement to
organizations and individuals un-
dertaking preservation by private
4. Foster conditions, using measures
that include financial and techni-
cal assistance, for a harmonious
coexistence of society and state
historic resources;
5. Encourage the public and private
preservation, and utilization of
elements of the state's histori-
cally built environment; and
6. Assist local governments to expand
and accelerate their historic pre-
servation programs and activities.
(b) It is further declared to be the
public policy of the state that
all treasure trove, artifacts, and
such objects having intrinsic or
historical and archaeological
value which have been abandoned on
state-owned lands or state-owned
sovereignty submerged lands shall
belong to the state with the title
thereto vested in the Division of
Historical Resources of the
Department of State for the pur-
poses of administration and

With minor revisions this statement of
policy could be adjusted to become a local
government's historic preservation policy

Subsection 267.061(2), F.S. 1986, lists
the historic preservation responsibilities
for state agencies in the Executive
Branch. These responsibilities parallel
those of ss.106 and 110 of the National
Historic Preservation Act for federal
agencies, and help ensure the consistency
of state and federal historic preservation
efforts. The subsection is cited below to
provide local governments with an example
of historic preservation provisions which
could be adjusted to fit local government
agencies. It is also cited to provide

reader's with a better understanding of
Florida's historic preservation law.

(a) Each state agency of the executive
branch having direct or indirect
jurisdiction over a proposed state
or state-assisted undertaking
shall, in accordance with state
policy and prior to the approval
of expenditure of any state funds
on the undertaking, consider the
effect of the undertaking on any
historic property that is included
in, or eligible for inclusion in,
the National Register of Historic
Places. Each such agency shall
afford the division a reasonable
opportunity to comment with regard
to such an undertaking.
(b) Each state agency of the executive
branch shall initiate measures in
consultation with the division to
assure that where, as a result of
state action or assistance carried
out by such agency, a historic
property is to be demolished or
substantially altered in a way
which adversely affects the
character, form,integrity, or
other qualities which contribute
to historical, architectural, or
archaeological value of the pro-
perty, timely steps are taken to
determine that no feasible and
prudent alternative to the propos-
ed demolition or alteration
exists, and, where no such alter-
native is determined to exist, to
assure that timely steps are taken
either to avoid or mitigate the
adverse effects, or to undertake
an appropriate archaeological
salvage excavation or other recov-
ery action to document the proper-
ty as it existed prior to demoli-
tion or alteration.
(c) In consultation with the division,
each state agency of the executive
branch shall establish a program
to locate, inventory, and evaluate
all historic properties under the
agency's ownership or control that
appear to qualify for the National


Register. Each such agency shall
exercise caution to assure that
any such historic property is not
inadvertently transferred, sold,
demolished, substantially altered,
or allowed to deteriorate signi-
(d) Each state agency of the executive
branch shall assume responsibility
for the preservation of historic
resources which are owned or con-
trolled by such agency. Prior to
acquiring, constructing, or leas-
ing buildings for the purpose of
carrying out agency responsibili-
ties, the agency shall use, to the
maximum extent feasible, historic
properties available to the agency.
Each agency shall undertake, con-
sistent with the preservation of
such properties, the mission of
the agency, and the professional
standards established pursuant to
paragraph (3)(k), any preservation
actions necessary to carry out the
intent of this paragraph.
(e) Consistent with the agency's mis-
sion and authority, all state
agencies of the executive branch
shall carry out agency programs
and projects, including those
under which any state assistance
is provided, in a manner which is
generally sensitive to the preser-
vation of historic properties and
shall give consideration to pro-
grams and projects which will
further the purposes of this

Subsection 267.061(3), F.S. 1986,
establishes the Division of Historical
Resources of the Florida Department of
State as the agency responsible for
coordinating and overseeing the State's
historic preservation activities:

(a) Cooperate with federal and state
agencies, local governments and
private organizations and indi-
viduals to direct and conduct a
comprehensive statewide survey
of historic resources and to

maintain an inventory of such
(b) Develop a comprehensive state-
wide historic preservation plan.
(c) Identify and nominate eligible
properties to the National
Register of Historic Places and
otherwise administer applications
for listing historic properties in
the National Register
(d) Cooperate with federal and state
agencies, local governments, and
organizations and individuals to
ensure that historic resources
are taken into consideration at
all levels of planning and
(e) Advise and assist, as appropriate,
federal and state agencies and
local governments in carrying out
their historic preservation
responsibilities and programs.
(f) Provide public information, educa-
tion, and technical assistance re-
lating to historic preservation
(g) Cooperate with local governments
and organizations and individuals
in the development of local his-
torical preservation programs,
including the Main Street Program
of the National Trust for Historic
Preservation, or any similar pro-
grams that may be developed by the
(h) Carry out on behalf of the state
the programs of the National
Historic Preservation Act of 1966,
as amended, and to establish,
maintain, and administer a state
historic preservation program
meeting the requirements of an
approved program and fulfilling
the responsibilities of state
historic preservation programs as
provided in subsection 101(b) of
that act.
(i) Take such other actions necessary
or appropriate to locate, acquire,
protect, preserve, operate, inter-
pret, and promote the location,
acquisition, protection, preserva-
tion, operation, and interpreta-


tion of historic resources to
foster an appreciation of Florida
history and culture. Prior to the
acquisition, preservation, inter-
pretation or operation of a his-
toric property by a state agency,
the division shall be provided a
reasonable opportunity to review
and comment on the proposed under-
taking and shall determine that
there exists historical authentic-
ity and a feasible means of pro-
viding for the preservation,
interpretation, and operation of
such property.
(j) Cooperate and coordinate with the
Division of Recreation and Parks
of the Department of Natural
Resources in the operation and
management of historic properties
or resources subject to the
Division of Historical Resources.
(k) Establish professional standards
for the preservation, exclusive of
acquisition, of historic resources
in state ownership or control.
(1) Establish guidelines for state
agency responsibilities under
subsection (2).

Finally, subsections 267.061(4) and 267
.061(5), F.S. 1986, establish the posi-
tions of the State Archaeologist and the
State Historic Preservation Officer within
the Division of Historical Resources. The
latter position is responsible for main-
taining "an approved state historic
preservation program as provided in sub-
section 101(b) of the National Historic
Preservation Act of 1966, as amended," and
for fulfilling many of the provisions of
s.267.061(3), F.S. 1986. Other provisions
of Chapter 267, F.S. also affect the issue
of historic preservation; however, for
reasons of space, they are omitted from
this presentation.

7) The Florida Environmental Land And
Water Management Act of 1972 (Chapter 380,
Part I, F.S. 1986) affects historic
resources in three sections, ss. 380.05,
380.06 and 380.061. These pertain to
Areas of Critical State Concern, Develop-

ments of Regional Impact, and Florida's
Quality Development program respectively.
Since most readers are probably already
familiar with the first two programs,
especially with "Question 19 of the
Application for Development Approval"
which addresses the issue of project
impacts to archaeological and historic
sites, they will not be discussed here.
However, the last section will be pre-
sented as it is a relatively new program
created in 1985.

380.061 Florida Quality Development
(1) ... The intent of this program is
to encourage development which has
been thoroughly planned to take
into consideration protection of
Florida's natural amenities, the
cost to local government of pro-
viding services to a growing com-
munity, and the high quality of
life Floridians desire.

(3)(a) As a condition precedent for
designation under this program,
the developer shall comply with
each of the following requirements
which is applicable to the site of
a quality development:
1. Have donated or entered into a
binding commitment with the
(Governor and Cabinet sitting as
the) Board of Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Trust Fund,
or to the appropriate water
management district created pur-
suant to chapter 373, to donate
the fee or a lesser interest suf-
ficient to protect in perpetuity
the natural attributes of the
following types of lands: ...
c. Known archaeological sites
determined to be of significance
by the Division of Historical
Resources of the Department of

2. In lieu of the requirement in
subparagraph 1., the developer may
enter into a binding commitment


which runs with the land to set
aside such areas on the property
as open space to be retained in a
natural condition in perpetuity.

The positive growth management approach
embodied in s. 380.061, F.S. should serve
as a model to local governments consider-
ing the means of providing positive in-
centives in guiding the growth and devel-
opment of their area of jurisdiction. See
ss. 193.501, 193.505 and 704.06(3), F.S.
for information on the tax benefits of
preservation easements. However, please
remember that the sequence of events is
important. If you down-zone the property
before a deed restricting covenant can be
placed on the property by the owner, then
the owner may not be eligible to claim the
lost value of the property as a result of
the deed restriction as a donation.
Please have your local government's legal
counsel work out a correct procedure for
such less that fee property right acqui-
sitions so that the affected property
owners may receive the maximum benefit for
restricting the use of their property.

8) The Florida Coastal Management Act of
1978, as amended, (Chapter 380, Part II,
F.S. 1985) is tied to implementation of
the federal Coastal Zone Management Act of
1972. While historic resources are not
specifically mentioned in the state law,
they are addressed in the Florida Coastal
Management Program, Environmental Impact
Statement,which was developed to meet both
federal and state requirements, including
federal consistency review requirements.

9) The Florida Air and Water Pollution
Control Act (Chapter 403, F.S.) provides a
means of protecting historic resources
through the Department of Environmental
Regulation's industrial siting, power
plant and power line siting authorities.
However, it is the Department's wetlands
permitting authority with which local
governments should be familiar when
planning proposed future growth and
development in order to avoid regulatory
conflicts. Section 403.918, F.S. Criteria
for granting or denying permits is of

particular interest as it states that:

(2) A permit may not be issued under
ss.403.91-403.929 unless the
applicant provides the department
with reasonable assurance that the
project is not contrary to public
(a) In determining whether a project
is not contrary to the public
interest, or is clearly in the
public interest, the department
shall consider and balance the
following criteria:...
6. Whether the project will
adversely affect or will enhance
significant historical and
archaeological resources under the
provisions of s.267.061;...
(b) If the applicant is unable to
otherwise meet the criteria set
forth in this subsection, the
department, in deciding to grant
or deny a permit, shall consider
measures proposed by or acceptable
to the applicant to mitigate
adverse effects which may be
caused by the project.

The state statutory procedures cited above
parallel the requirements of s.106 of the
National Historic Preservation Act (P.L.
89-665, as amended) and used by the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers in its wetlands
permitting activities.

10) Offenses Concerning Dead Bodies and
Graves (Chapter 872, F.S. 1985) is not a
historic preservation law; however, the
provisions of s.872.02- injuring or
removing tomb or monument; disturbing
contents of grave or tomb; penalties have
been used to protect both prehistoric and
historic grave sites. This issue should
be kept in mind when designating
conservation and open space areas, and as
it relates to zoning and other land use
decisions. Indeed, such zoning should be
used to protect burial sites. (NOTE:
Proposed amendments to strengthen this act
were published in the last issue of The
Florida Anthropologist, Volume 39 Number 3
Part 2 (September 1986)).


With the preceding federal and state law
considerations in mind, it remains a
matter of clarifying which state agency is
responsible for what in Florida's local
government comprehensive planning process.
The Department of Community Affairs is
declared to be the State's lead planning
agency responsible for coordinating all
aspects of regional policy planning and
local government comprehensive planning
under the provisions of Chapters 186 and
163, F.S. respectively.

The Division of Resource Planning and
Management of the Department of Community
Affairs is the functional unit assigned to
oversee local government comprehensive
planning. Interested public may write to
that agency at 2571 Executive Center
Circle, East, Tallahassee, Florida 32301
to obtain further information on this
issue. Of particular interest are copies

1. Chapter 163, F.S. 1986;
2. Chapter 9J-5, F.A.C.- Minimum Criteria
for Review of Local Government
Comprehensive Plans and Determination
of Compliance; and,
3. Chapter 9J-12, F.A.C.- Schedule for
Submission of Revised Local Government
Comprehensive Plans and Procedures for
Early Submissions.

The historic preservation provisions of
Chapter 163, F.S. 1986 and Chapter 9J-5,
F.A.C., will be presented and discussed
below. However, Chapter 9J-12, F.A.C.,
which establishes the due dates for each
local government's comprehensive plan
submission by month beginning on July 1,
1988 and ending on July 1, 1990 will not
be discussed for reasons of space.

As already noted, Chapter 267.061, F.S.
1986 assigns the Division of Historical
Resources of the Florida Department of
State the responsibility to serve as the
lead agency in historic preservation
matters. There is, however, no conflict
or confusion between the responsibilities
of the Division of Historical Resources
and the Division of Resource Planning and

Management, since the former assists the
latter in fulfilling its historic preser-
vation responsibilities by reviewing local
government comprehensive plans to ensure
that historic preservation concerns are
met. In reviewing plans the Division of
Historical Resources uses the framework of
Florida's Comprehensive Historic Preserva-
tion Plan, the Department of State's
Agency Functional Plan, the Florida Master
Site File, and other pertainent historic
resources information in its files. (Other
agencies also review such plans to ensure
that their areas of special concern are

While it presently lacks adequate staff to
provide complete assistance to local
governments (since its staffing requests
were not approved for the current biennial
budget cycle), thereby increasing the need
for and role of concerned public in each
local government's jurisdiction, the
Division of Historical Resources provides
assistance to local governments in
developing the historic preservation
aspects of local government comprehensive
plans to meet the provisions of Chapter
163, F.S. 1986 and Chapter 9J-5, F.A.C.
In providing this assistance the Division
of Historical Resources relies on the same
base documentation it will use to review
completed plans. It further directs local
governments to contact known local
historic preservation groups. A key
element in all assistance responses is the
need to coordinate the historic
preservation aspects of local planning
with Florida's Comprehensive Historic
Preservation Plan (which is itself
undergoing extensive revisions, in part,
to facilitate such coordinated historic
preservation efforts). The Historic
Preservation Compliance Review Section of
the Bureau of Historic Preservation in the
Division of Historical Resources of the
Florida Department of State in
Tallahassee, is the agency functional unit
assigned to oversee and coordinate all of
these activities.

Both Chapters 163 and 186, F.S., contain
provisions requiring that the public is


afforded opportunities to actively and
meaningfully participate in the planning
process. These public participation
requirements are clearly stated in 9J-
5.004, F.A.C.:

(1) The local governing body and the
local planning agency shall adopt
procedures to provide for and
encourage public participation in
the planning process, including
consideration of amendments to the
comprehensive plan and evaluation
and appraisal reports.
(2) The procedures shall include the
(a) Provisions to assure that real
property owners are put on notice,
through advertisement in a news-
paper of general circulation in
the area or other method adopted
by the local government, of
official actions that will affect
the use of their property;
(b) Provisions for notice to keep the
general public informed;
(c) Provisions to assure that there
are opportunities for the public
to provide written comments;
(d) Provisions to assure that the
required public hearings are held;
(e) Provisions to assure the
consideration of and response to
public comments.

Planning is, however, one area where the
silent majority cannot be certain that its
wishes will be met. If you are concerned
with the preservation and study of the
historic resources within the jurisdiction
of your local government, both city and
county governments, or as this issue
relates to regional policy issues, YOU
PARTICIPANT. This means writing to your
local planning and other elected and
appointed officials, as well as attending
public hearings, to express your concerns
for the protection of the historic
resources in your area. Have your friends
and local organizations with which you are
affiliated do the same. Write to

newspapers, and radio and television
stations and let them know your feelings
on this newsworthy public issue. Try to
get them to present favorably this issue
to their readership and listenership,

The time to start is now and your partici-
pation during the next two years will be
the most important element in the preser-
vation of the historic resources in your
area for the next 10 to 20 years or more.
Indeed, in many respects your participa-
tion is more important than that of the
Division of Historical Resources. While
that agency can and will make recommenda-
tions to the Department of Community
Affairs on the content of local government
and regional comprehensive plans, without
evidence of strong public support from the
residents affected by the implementation
of such plans, it is certain that only the
bare minimum requirements of the laws and
their implementing rules will be met or
required. These plans affect you and the
resources in your area. You must be an
active participant if historic resources
are to be protected. You must come
forward to let the individuals preparing
these plans know your concern for historic
resource protection and your insistence
that this issue receive more than token
consideration in the plans being
developed, especially with regard to those
aspects of planning leading to their

It will be necessary, however, to do more
than simply insist that historic resources
be adequately addressed in a plan. Find
out who is assigned to prepare the various
elements of the plan and let them know
what kinds of historic resources are in
your area and why their protection is
important. Let them know specifically or
at least generally what areas should be
identified as archaeologically or histori-
cally sensitive and why. Provide them
with sufficient information to ensure that
those resources which need protection are
adequately addressed. If you have time,
volunteer to work with them in preparing
the historic preservation part of their

elements. Better still, try to get
appointed to the committee or committees
assigned to prepare elements affecting
historic resources. Try to get your local
government to consolidate its historic
preservation requirements into the option-
al historic preservation element. Also,
try to make sure that these local planning
efforts are consistent with Florida's
Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan,
and with the historic preservation
provisions of the federal and state laws
cited earlier. In all instances request
copies of draft text and maps as they are
prepared. Then review and comment on the
historic preservation aspects of those
documents to make sure that historic
resources are adequately addressed. (You
may have to go to their offices to view
the draft text and maps because of the
expense of their reproduction.)

While the Bureau of Historic Preservation
will provide historic preservation infor-
mation upon request to any of the 457
local governments and 11 regional planning
agencies, and will assist DCA in reviewing
all of the resulting comprehensive plans,
such efforts cannot be as thorough as they
might otherwise be in providing informa-
tion and reviewing these doucments because
of inadequate staffing. However, even if
an adequate staffing level could be
achieved, as you know, most of the State's
historic resources have not been located,
identified and evaluated. Furthermore,
many of the sites known to you in your
area have not been reported to the
Division of Historical Resources for
recording in its files. It is, therefore,
essential that you work with the Bureau
and local governments and agencies to
ensure that historic resources are
adequately addressed in the plans
affecting your area.

Please remember that a plan which says all
kinds of wonderful things about the
archaeological and historic sites which
are important to your area, but which then
does not provide for more then a minimal
implementation strategy and/or provides
exceptions or stipulations which negate

effective historic resource protection
provisions MUST BE AVOIDED. Likewise, a
plan which contains a well prepared
historic preservation element may have the
effect of that element weakened by inap-
propriate (from a historic preservation
perspective) provisions in other elements
of the plan. This could include identify-
ing on the future land use map(s) historic
districts or locales with the most signi-
ficant archaeological sites in your area
as the locales to focus new industrial
development, major road construction or
expansion, or some other kind of site
destructive development. Thus, you should
pay attention to the entire plan and how
it effects historic resources, not just
those portions in which historic resources
must be addressed. In addition, while in
rural areas it is possible to identify
archaeological sites without associated or
non-associated historic structures, please
remember that most of Florida's early
settlement occurred as a reoccupation of
previously occupied locales. Thus, in
urban settings, in addition to historic
structures and their associated archae-
ological components, it is possible
(indeed often likely) that prehistoric and
earlier historic archaeological features
also are present. Finally, if at all
possible get a friendly lawyer to help you
and your organization in these efforts.
You would be surprised how often a single
word (i.e. "may", "will", "can", "must",
"should", or "shall", for instance) or
definition or phrase can make all the
difference in the world in the effective-
ness of your efforts and the resulting
plan. Working together we can help assure
the protection of significant historic
resources for present and future genera-

This presentation finally turns to the
historic preservation provisions of
Chapter 163, F.S. 1986 and Chapter 9J-5,
F.A.C. Each will be presented in tandem
below as they are the key to historic
preservation efforts in local government
comprehensive planning.

The Local Government Comprehensive


Planning and Land Development Regulation
Act (Chapter 163, F.S. 1986) provides
historic preservationists with a major
opportunity to protect Florida's historic
resources. However, it is an opportunity
which will not be fully effective unless
interested residents participate in the
planning process.

The provisions of the first section of
this act establish its intent. Three of
these provisions are cited below:

1) s.163.3161(4) It is the intent of this
act to encourage and assure cooperation
between and among municipalities and
counties and to encourage and assure
coordination of planning and
development activities of units of
local government with the planning
activities of regional agencies and
state government in accord with
applicable provisions of law.

2) s.163.3161(5) It is the intent of this
act that adopted comprehensive plans
shall have the legal status set out in
this act and that no public or private
development shall be permitted execpt
in conformity with comprehensive plans,
or elements or portions thereof,
prepared and adopted in conformity with
this act. (and)

3. s.163.3161(7) The provisions of this
act in their interpretation and
application are declared to be the
minimum requirements necessary to
accomplish the stated intent, purposes,
and objectives of this act; to protect
human, environmental, social, and
economic resources; and to maintain,
through orderly growth and development,
the character and stability of present
and future land use and development in
the state.

The first, s.163.3161(4), F.S. 1986,
provides for consistency with Florida's
Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan
and other aspects of state law, including
the historic preservation provisions
cited earlier in this paper. The second,

s.163.3161(5), F.S. 1986, is the key to
why it is essential that historic
preservation concerns be adequately
addressed in each plan since all future
development affecting historic resources
must be in conformity with adopted plans
and their elements. Finally,
s.163.3161(7), F.S. 1986, declares that
the provisions of this act are the
"minimum requirements necessary to
accomplish the stated intent, purposes,
and objectives of this act" and, thus, you
should work to ensure that historic
resources receive more than minimal
consideration in plans.

It is noted that "historic preservation"
and "historic resources" are not included
in the s.163.3164, F.S. 1986 definitions.
You are therefore encouraged to work to
have your local government adopt the
definitions for those terms contained in
Chapter 267, F.S. 1986; rather then the
more limited definition adopted in the
final draft of Chapter 9J-5, F.A.C.

It should be noted that while the language
from Chapter 267, F.S., which parallels
that of the National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665, as
amended), was originally included in the
Draft Chapter 9J-5, Florida Administrative
Code (Rules of the Department of Community
Affairs establishing "Minimum Criteria for
Review of Local Government Comprehensive
Plans and Determination of Compliance"),
the definition was modified in the final
document to read:

"Historic Resources" means all areas,
districts or sites containing
properties listed on the Florida
Master Site File, the National
Register of Historic Places, or
designated by a local government as
historically, architecturally, or
archaeologically significant. (9J-
5.003(35), F.A.C.)

As E.L. Roy Hunt, Professor of Law at the
University of Florida, has stated:

While I do not understand the reason


for this change, I do know that the
practical impact is to deprive as
much as 85 percent of the historic
resources estimated to exist in
Florida of the protection they
deserve. Such a result flows from
the fact that no more than 15 percent
of Florida has been adequately sur-
veyed and inventoried, a process
encouraged by the Act and in the
absence of which there would likely
be no listing on the Florida Master
Site File or the National Register,
nor any designation by a local
government. Effectively, the
Department of Community Affairs,
through its unfortunate definition of
"historic resources", is directing
local government units to identify,
and then protect, only those historic
resources which already have been
identified! Surely this cannot have
been the Legislature's intent, and it
is my fervent hope that some
responsible member of that body will
oversee a return to the language of
the public hearing draft. (Hunt 1986:

When one reads the required historic
preservation provisions of Chapter 163,
F.S. (i.e., ss.163.3177 and 163.3178), one
cannot help but agree with Professor Hunt.

It should also be noted that 9J-5, F.A.C.
contains "minimum criteria" and that local
governments should be encouraged to use
the broader, more detailed definition of
chapter 267, F.S. After all, a site is no
less a site nor less important simply
because it has not yet been recorded.
Furthermore, the broader definition is
more in keeping with the State's historic
preservation policy; and, would help
ensure that information derived from plans
and the implementing procedures of such
plans would be consistent with other
federal and state laws, thus lessening the
potential for conflict and improving the
potential for expedited project review.

Section 163.3177, F.S. 1986, lists the
required and optional elements of local

government comprehensive plans and their
content. Subsections (1)-(5) provide
important background requirements, while
subsection (6) lists the required elements
of the plan. Subsection (5) is of parti-
cular interest since it requires that:
"The comprehensive plan and its elements
shall contain policy recommendations for
the implementation of the plan and its
elements." This is an important require-
ment as it shifts the focus from preparing
a plan simply to satisfy state planning
requirements to preparing a plan which
will be implemented and stating how it
will be implemented.

Subsection 163.3177(6)(a) requires the
preparation of a future land use plan
element designating "proposed future
general distribution, location, and extent
of the uses of land... The proposed dis-
tribution, location and extent of the
various categories of land use shall be
shown on a land use map or map series
which shall be supplemented by goals,
policies, and measurable objectives ...
The future land use plan shall be based
upon surveys, studies, and data regarding
the area... The future land use plan may
designate areas for future planned devel-
opment use involving combinations of types
of uses for which special regulations may
be necessary to ensure development in
accord with the principles and standards
of the comprehensive plan and this act.
The land use maps or map series shall
generally identify and depict historic
district boundaries and shall designate
historically significant properties
meriting protection."

Key provisions of the foregoing include
the designation of historic districts and
historically significant properties; the
need to base such designations on the
results of studies, surveys, and other
data; the need to develop goals, policies,
and measurable objectives for the mapped
resources; and, the suggestion to
designate areas requiring special zoning
requirements (such as historically
sensitive building codes in historic
districts or open space conservation


requirements in archaeologically sensitive
areas). The provisions of s.380.061, F.S.
1986, should be referred to in these
efforts as should the Secretary of the
Interior's Standards for rehabilitation of
historic structures and associated new
construction or ordinances for historic
districts under the jurisdiction of
Certified Local Governments. Finally,
consideration should be given also to the
historic preservation requirements of the
federal and state laws cited earlier as
they will affect land use decisions.

Section 9J-5.006, F.A.C. addresses the
minimum requirements for the evaluation of
the Future Land Use Element of each local
government comprehensive plan. Subsection
9J-5.006(1)(a) states that:

The following generalized land uses
shall be shown on the existing land
use map or map series: ... 11.
Historic resources.
(NOTE: see comments below following
9J-5.006(4)(a), F.A.C.).

In support of the preceding, subsection
9J-5.006(2) states that this element shall
be based on:

(b) An analysis of the character and
magnitude of existing vacant or
undeveloped land in order to
determine its suitability for use,
including where available: ...
5. Historic resources.
(d) An analysis of the need for rede-
velopment including:
1. Renewal of blighted areas,
2. Elimination or reduction of
uses inconsistent with the com-
munity's character and proposed
future land uses.

While the provisions of 9J-5.006(2)(b),
F.A.C. may be focused on identifying
historic resources conservation areas,
especially archaeological sites, on vacant
or undeveloped lands, those in 9J-5.006

(2)(d), F.A.C. may be used to identify
historic commercial areas suitable for re-
habilitation as Main Street projects, or
historic residential areas needing
rehabilitation (also see the housing
element), and should provide an analysis
of the means of eliminating non-sensitive
construction and reconstruction in his-
torically significant areas so as to re-
store or preserve unique features. This
analysis could include studies of local
zoning and construction permitting pro-
cedures and regulations to determine what
modifications may be needed. It could
also include an analysis of historic
resource potential in presently unevalu-
ated areas. Finally, provisions should be
made for plan revisions as new historic
resources survey and site evaluation data
becomes available.

Subsection 9J-5.006(3), F.A.C. addresses
the requirements for future land use
goals, objectives and policies. Following
the goals presentation, subsection 9J-
5.006(3)(b) states that:

The element shall contain one or more
specific objectives for each goal
statement... which: ...
2. Encourage the redevelopment and
renewal of blighted areas:
3. Encourage the elimination or
reduction of uses inconsistent
with the community's character and
future land uses;
4. Ensure the protection of natural
resources and historic resources;

All of these can be phrased as historic
preservation objectives. The first can
lead to an objective to rehabilitate
historically significant commercial and
residential areas. The second can lead to
objectives prohibiting historically
insensitive or intrusive construction or
uses in historically significant districts
or areas. Finally, the last may be used
to protect archaeological sites in
conservation or open space areas, and
otherwise to protect historic structures
and neighborhoods.


Subsection 9J-5.006(3)(c) states that:

The element shall contain one or more
policies for each objective which
address implementation activities for
1. Regulation of land use categories
included on the future land use
map or map series...(see 9J-
2. Provision for compatibility of
adjacent land uses (such as
historic districts); ...
7. Establishment of standards den-
sities or intensities of use for
each future land use category
(i.e., establish zoning
requirements in historic
districts); and
8. Identification, designation and
protection of historically
significant properties.

Finally, Subsection 9J-5.006(4)(a) states

The proposed distribution, extent,
and location of the following
generalized land uses shall be shown
on the future land use map or map
series: ...
10. Historic district boundaries and
designated historically significant
properties meriting protection.

If you want to protect your favorite sites
and site locales, you need to make sure
that archaeologically and historically
sensitive areas and properties are depict-
ed on the land use and future land use
maps and otherwise identified so that they
may be appropriately considered in the
above process to assure their inclusion in
historic resource preservation, rehabili-
tation, conservation and/or recreation and
open space areas and to avoid their inclu-
sion in lands identified for future devel-
opment(and possible site destruction)
because they were not identified and no
provision was made for their protection.

Section 163.3177(6)(b), F.S. 1986,

A traffic circulation element
consisting of the types, locations,
and extent of existing and proposed
major thoroughfares and
transportation routes, ...

While historic preservation is not a
required consideration of this element, it
should be noted that if the proposed
activities involve the Federal Highway
Administration then Section 4(f) of the
Department of Transportation Act of 1966
will apply for any affected historic
districts or National Register properties.
Furthermore, if these activities involve
any federal licensing, permitting or
funding, including Community Development
Block Grants, then s.106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act will apply.
Therefore, in order to avoid potential
conflicts which would preclude or make it
difficult to implement aspects of the
traffic element determined to adversely
affect significant historic resources, it
is urged that the traffic element include
historic preservation measures.

While the Conservation Element required by
subsection 163.3177(6)(d), F.S. 1986, does
not specifically address the issue of
historic preservation and is generally
considered as a means for the conserva-
tion, use, and protection of natural re-
sources, it is noted that archaeological
sites are frequently associated with
environmentally sensitive areas. Indeed
the fact that significant historic re-
sources clearly merit conservation and
protection has long been recognized in
state and federal land acquisition and
management programs. Therefore, historic
resources which are an important feature
of the State Land Acquisition Plan par-
ticularly as they relate to Florida's
Conservation and Recreation Lands
(C.A.R.L.) land acquisition program should
be considered in the Conservation Element
of local government comprehensive plans.
Remember that the law and its rule list
minimum criteria and the omission of
historic resources in either, does not
prohibit their inclusion in plan elements.


As with the conservation element, the
provisions of subsection 163.3177(6)(e),
F.S. 1986 for a recreation and open space
element also do not mention historic re-
sources although they do include natural
reservations. However, in conformity with
the recreation oriented historic preserva-
tion provisions of Chapters 187, 253, 258,
266, 267, and 375 F.S., and Florida's Out-
door Recreation Plan, (Outdoor Recreation
in Florida 1986), historic preservation
is recognized as a recreation and open
space consideration when the term natural
reservations is defined in 9J-5.003(54),
F.A.C. to mean:

areas designated for conservation
purposes, and operated by contractual
agreement with or managed by a
federal, state, regional or local
government or non-profit agency such
as: national parks, state parks,
lands purchased under the Save Our
Coast, Conservation and Recreation
Lands or Save Our Rivers programs,
sanctuaries, preserves, monuments,
archaeological sites, historic sites,
wildlife management areas, national
seashores, and Outstanding Florida
Waters. (emphasis mine)

The Recreation and Open Space Element is
addressed in section 9J-5.014, F.A.C.
Again, while historic resources are not
mentioned, you should work for their
inclusion in this aspect of the plan. For
instance, the passive recreational value
of sightseeing in a community's historic
district or relaxing at an archaeological
park should be addressed in local plans.
Indeed, many communities have recognized
the economic potential associated with
such activities and tourism. Make sure
that your plan identifies the non-
destructive aspects and positive educa-
tional, aesthetic and recreational value
of visiting a well interpreted archaeolo-
gical or historic site or district, while
discouraging souvenir collecting and
vandalism of such resources.

In contrast to the preceding, the Housing
Element required in s.163.3177(6)(f), F.S.

1986 contains historic preservation
stipulations. The act requires that this
element consist of "standards, plans, and
principles to be followed in: ... 5.
provisions for ... identification of
historically significant and other housing
for purposes of conservation,
rehabilitation, or replacement."

This issue is addressed in 9J-5.010,
F.A.C., which requires in s.9J-5.010(1)
that the housing element shall be based

(a) An inventory taken from the latest
decennial United States Census or
more recent estimates which shall
include the number of dwelling
units by type, tenure, age ...
(g) An inventory of historically sig-
nificant housing listed on the
Florida Master Site File, National
Register of Historic Places or
designated as historically signi-
ficant by or in accordance with a
local ordinance, and shall include
their generalized locations.

This last provision is important as it
means that you should, if you do not
already have one, have as a goal and
objective the development and implementa-
tion of a local ordinance establishing a
procedure for designating historically
significant sites.

S.9J-5.010(2), F.A.C. lists housing
analysis requirements which shall include:

(f) Means for accomplishment of each
of the following: ...
5. The identification of ...
historically significant housing
or neighborhoods.

Finally, s.9J-5.010(3), F.A.C. lists
requirements for housing goals, objectives
and policies, including:

(b) ... one or more specific
objectives for each goal statement
which ... provide for: ...
5. The conservation,


rehabilitation or demolition of
housing, including the
identification of historically
significant housing; (and)

(c) ... one or more policies for each
objective which address
implementation activities for the

3. Establishment of standards
addressing the quality of housing,
stabilization of neighborhoods and
identification and improvement of
historically significant housing;
4. Establishment of principles to
guide conservation, rehabilitation
and demolition program techinques
and strategies; ...

It is important to make sure that local
government comprehensive plans go beyond
simply listing what is already recorded in
State files, and establish a program to
actively inventory and evaluate the
historic resources, both archaeological
and historic sites, within their
jurisdiction. The completion of such an
historic resource survey is not expected
to occur prior to or as a condition of
plan approval. However, locating,
identifying and evaluating all sites
within a measurable time -- say 5-10
years -- and establishing a local historic
preservation impact review process along
with a local commitment to take measures
to protect and preserve significant
historic resources is important.
Unfortunately, it is unlikely that this
will happen in most plans without your
active encouragement and participation.

With regard to 9J-5.010(3)(c)3-4, it is
important to establish procedures which
parallel the data requirements of the
state and federal government in matters
concerning the rehabilitation or
demolition of historic housing. Such
procedures will facilitate the processing
of Community Development Block Grant
applications and state assistance

The coastal zone management element,

required by ss.163.3177(6)(q) and
163.3178, F.S. 1986, has very strong
historic preservation requirements.
Subsection 163.3177(6)(q), F.S., states

The coastal management element shall
set forth the policies that shall
guide the local government's
decisions and program implementation
with respect to the following
objectives: ...
10. Preservation, including sensitive
adaptive use, of historic and
archaeological resources.

This commitment is reinforced in
s.163.3178, F.S. which states that:

(2) Each coastal management element
required by s.163.3177(6)(q)
shall be based on studies,
surveys, and data; ... and
(a) A land use and inventory map of
... historic preservation areas,
and other areas of special
concern to local government.
(b) An analysis of the environmental,
socioeconomic, and fiscal impact
of development and redevelopment
proposed in the future land use
plan, with required infrastruc-
ture to support this development
and redevelopment, on the natural
and historical resources of the
coast and the plans and princi-
ples to be used to control
development and redevelopment to
eliminate or mitigate the adverse
impacts on ... historical and
archaeological sites; and other
fragile coastal resources ...
(j) An identification of regulatory
and management techniques that
the local government plans to
adopt or has adopted in order ...
to control proposed development
and redevelopment in order to
protect the coastal environment
and give consideration to
cumulative impacts. (emphasis


The coastal management element is address-
ed in 9J-5.012, F.A.C., which states that:

The purpose of this element is to plan
for and where appropriate restrict
development activities where such
activities would damage or destroy
coastal resources, ...
(2) ... The element shall be based
upon the following data and anal-
yses requirements...
(c) An inventory and analysis of the
impacts of development and rede-
velopment proposed in the future
land use element on historic
resources and sites in the coastal
area shall be included along with
a map of areas designated for
historic preservation.

(b) The element shall contain one or
more specific objectives for each
goal statement which address the
requirements of Paragraph 163.3177
(6)(g) and Section 163.3178,
Florida Statutes, and which: ...
10. Provide for protection,
preservation, or sensitive reuse
of historic resources; ...
(c) The element shall contain one or
more policies for each objective
and shall identify regulatory or
management techniques for: ...
10. Historic resource protection,
including historic site identifi-
cation and establishing perfor-
mance standards for development
and sensitive reuse of historic
resources; ...

The coastal management element provides an
excellent means of protecting significant
historic resources. However, because of
the latitude given in 9J-5.003(11), F.A.C.
to the local government in establishing
the boundaries of what it considers to be
the coastal area, it is very important
that we make sure that this area is
defined as broadly as possible in the
plans developed by local governments in

coastal areas. It is essential that such
boundaries extend far enough inland to
protect significant historic resources
associated with our present coastal areas.

To elaborate, a local government could
conceivably determine that any development
greater than say 10-20m/25'-50' from the
high tide line would not impact the
integrity or quality of adjacent waters
and, as such, would be excluded from the
area required to meet the coastal element
requirements. To repeat, it is important
that you help make sure that the defini-
tion of "coastal area" in your plan
includes all of the significant archaeolo-
gical and historic sites, including
coastal shell middens, historic house
sites and wharfs, and the like within the
area defined as representing the area
included within "all lands adjacent to
such occurrences tidallyy influenced water
bodies) where development activities would
impact the integrity or quality of the
above (water bodies)." This is obviously
a critical resource protection issue.

Finally, s. 163.3177(7), F.S. 1986, states
that the comprehensive plan may include
the following additional elements, or
portions or phases thereof: ...

(i) An historical and scenic preser-
vation element setting out plans
and programs for those structures
or lands in the area having
historical, archaeological,
architectural, scenic or similar

9J-5.018, F.A.C. states that:

(1) If the local government adopts
optional elements pursuant to
Paragraphs 163.3177(7)(a)-(k),
Florida Statutes, such elements
must be related to and consistent
with all other elements of the
comprehensive plan and meet the
requirements specified within
Section 9J-5.005.
(2) Optional elements must address
and be consistent with the rele-


vant goals and policies in the
State Comprehensive Plan and the
appropriate comprehensive
regional policy plan.

It is important to note that as long as
the plan directs the reader to the place
within the plan where a required component
may be found, that those items may be
addressed elsewhere. Thus, the historic
preservation requirements of the future
land use, housing and coastal elements, as
well as wherever it is addressed in other
elements such as the transportation,
conservation, and recreation and open
space elements, may be consolidated into a
single historic preservation element.

It is my recommendation that local govern-
ments with historic resources prepare a
historic preservation element. It is sug-
gested that the topical order of presenta-
tion be the same as the order in which it
would have been presented in the other
elements if this consolidated optional
element was not utilized. However, this
element should also provide historic
resources background information pertinent
to the area of the plan's jurisdiction.

An outline for the content of a historic
preservation element in a local government
comprehensive plan might be as follows:

1. Statement of purpose.

2. Statement of the relationship between
the element and other elements in the
plan; and, of the relationship to
Florida's Comprehensive Historic
Preservation Plan, and its consistency
with the State Comprehensive Plan,
Regional Policy Plan, and appropriate
other local plans.

3. Overview of the important themes and
events in local history and prehistory
(This should be keyed to the historic
contexts contained in Florida's Com-
prehensive Historic Preservation

4. Overview of the current historic pre-
servation program, if any, including
organizations, ordinances, and pro-

5. Description of relevant survey and
inventory results, the status of such
efforts, methodology, criteria for
significance, the manner in which the
local program is coordinated with the
statewide program.

6. A future land use map or map series
identifying known significant historic
resources (including detailed historic
district maps, both National Register
and locally designated areas), pre-
viously inventoried and evaluated
areas determined not to contain such
resources, and a tentative identifica-
tion of presently uninventoried areas
determined to be archaeologically
and/or historically sensitive because
of their likelihood to contain signi-
ficant historic resources

7. Description of local preservation
ordinance (if any, include as

8. A description of the roles and respon-
sibilities of different agencies in
the preservation program and measures
for coordination (i.e., how do your
historical commission, code enforce-
ment, building permits, zoning, and
community development block grant
programs coordinate?)

9. Presentation of element topics in the
same order in which they would occur
in the plan if this element was not
prepared, including cross-references
to the other elements and vice versa.
Relevant data and studies should be
cited. Formal statements of goals,
objectives, policies and implementing
measures should be presented for each
topic. If possible, some aspect of
historic preservation should be
addressed for every required element


of ss. 163.3177(6) and 163.3178, F.S.

10. Analysis of the local preservation
program and recommendations for
changes or actions to correct

11. A description of other public and
private resources for preservation
(Florida's Comprehensive Historic
Preservation Plan contains a list-
ing of such information).

12. Ancillary materials, including a
listing of references, a glossary
of terms, summaries of important
federal and state laws, copies of
local ordinances and associated
rules and procedures, etc.

Use your imagination and elaborate upon
or otherwise modify the above outline to
meet your community's needs. It is by
no means complete or comprehensive.

The cities of Saint Augustine and Sarasota
have both prepared Historic Preservation
Elements as part of their comprehensive
plans. Both can serve as model examples
for other local government planning
efforts, particularly with regard to
goals, objectives, policies, and imple-
menting procedures.

Again, please remember that all of the
above items are minimum criteria and that
a local government's comprehensive plan
may exceed them. It is also important to
note that once adopted all future develop-
ment must be in accordance with the provi-
sions contained in a plan for historic and
other resources. Finally, please note
that once a plan is adopted, amending it
is difficult, and that such plans are
effective for at least 5-10 years and are
to be designed to identify goals, objec-
tives and priorities for the next 20
years. Therefore, it is essential that
historic preservation concerns be
adequately addressed in a local
government's comprehensive plan and its
implementing ordinances, rules and pro-

Once a plan is developed, it needs to be
implemented. As Percy (1985:n.p.) notes:

The local preservation ordinance is
the principal method used by local
governments throughout the country
to protect historic properties.
Typically, historic preservation
commissions or architectural review
boards review requests for altera-
tions to designated properties and
have the authority to issue a Cer-
tificate of Appropriateness before
building permits are allowed to be

Approximately 30 communities in
Florida (including one county --
Dade County) have adopted such
ordinances. More are in prepara-

Preservation ordinances commonly do
several things: (1) establish criteria
and a process for designating historic
properties, including districts; (2)
establish standards and guidelines for
controlling alterations (usually just
to the exterior), demolitions, and
relocations as they affect individual-
ly designated properties, or new con-
struction within established district
boundaries; (3) establish procedures
for administering these controls,
typically through a local architec-
tural review board or historic dis-
trict commissionss; (4) establish
enforcement procedures; (5) establish
procedures for public and owner noti-
fication and public hearing of all
designation and alteration or demo-
lition reviews.

Other legal incentives for preserva-
tion might also be addressed in pre-
servation objectives. One example
would be modifications to building
codes tailored to the problems en-
countered in adaptively using older
buildings without destroying the
architectural details and spaces
that give them their historic


Remember it is also important to address
archaeological resources, including those
associated with significant historic
structures, in your ordinance. Dade
County, Saint Augustine, the City of
Sarasota, Gainesville, Pensacola and many
other Florida communities have historic
preservation ordinances, which could serve
as models for other communities.

Implementation of the historic preserva-
tion aspects of a local government compre-
hensive plan with a historic preservation
ordinance and associated implementing
procedures, as indicated, is an essential
feature of the comprehensive planning pro-
cess. While the number of ordinances has
increased, in their paper on The Planner
and the Preservationist, Birch and Roby
(1984:194-195) reported that:

By 1982, for example, 832 cities had
enacted preservation laws incorporat-
ing provisions for zoning protection,
districting, and transfer of develop-
ment rights -- areas of traditional
planning interest. Furthermore, a
growing body of federal and local
case law -- culminating in the land-
mark Grand Central decision, Penn
Central Transportation v. New York
City (438 U.S. 1978) -- strengthened
the legal basis for this use of the
police power, a factor not lost on
the planners.

The above cited court decision upheld the
local government's use of its police power
to implement historic preservation ordi-
nances to protect historic resources
through zoning and other regulations.

As a final note on the importance of his-
toric preservation ordinances, earlier
this year I had the privilege of reviewing
the DRAFT text of a Historic Preservation
Manual being prepared by the Center for
Government Responsibility at the
University of Florida under a historic
preservation grant administered through
the office of the Florida SHPO. This
document, which is being finalized for
publication, will be an important

reference document for historic preserva-
tionists, planners, and legal council for
them and local governments developing and
implementing historic preservation ordi-
nances. Its contributors include Caryl
Brinson (Chapter Four: Establishing a
Local Government Preservation Program; and
Chapter Five: Establishing a Citizen's
Historic Preservation Program), Professor
E. L. Roy Hunt (Chapter One: Florida's
Historic Preservation Structure; and,
Chapter Six: Financing Preservation and
Rehabilitation in Florida), and John K.
McPherson (Chapter Two: Constitutional
Issues; and, Chapter Three: Public and
Private Land Use Controls). This will be
a key document in Florida's comprehensive
historic preservation effort, as well as
containing information useful to other

In conclusion, historic preservation in
Florida, through 1985 and 1986 amendments
to state law, has been given an opportun-
ity to take actions which will help ensure
the preservation, interpretation and sen-
sitive adaptive reuse of our State's
historic resources through a comprehen-
sive, coordinated effort linking local and
state government planning. A key to this
planning effort is public participation.
The implemented plans will affect all of
us, both individually and as a group,
since they will control land use and
direct Florida's growth and development
for years to come. The preceding brief
presentation has been prepared to assist
you in efforts to ensure that historic
preservation issues are adequately
addressed in local government comprehen-
sive plans, as well as to ensure the
linkage of such efforts with Florida's
Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan
and consistency of plan elements with the
historic preservation requirements of
federal and state laws with which they
might otherwise come into conflict.

You can make a difference and affect the
outcome of these efforts. The position of
the State Archaeologist in Florida was
created as a direct result of efforts by
members of the Florida Anthropological


Society. Passage of the original Chapter
267, Florida Statutes, occurred in part as
a result of support from members of the
Florida Anthropological Society and
Florida Historical Society. More recent
amendments to Chapters 163 and 267, F.S.,
were spearheaded by the State's newest
statewide historic preservation organiza-
tion, the Florida Trust for Historic
Preservation, and supported by members of
the Florida Anthropological Society,
Florida Historical Sociaty, and numerous
local historic preservation organizations.
These efforts are the result of concern
for the loss of our State's historic
resources through past failures to con-
sider the impacts of planning, management,
and development actions on historic
resources. Comprehensive planning offers
the opportunity to have historic resource
impacts considered up-front, to shift from
a reactive to proactive approach to
historic resource identification,
evaluation, protection and preservation

If you have become concerned at the alarm-
ing rate at which historic resources are
being lost to accommodate development, you
must act now. You must work to show how
resource preservation and sensitive devel-
opment may be planned to occur in harmony
and complement each other. If you want to
help assure that significant historic re-
sources are protected for their enjoyment
and appreciation, and as a means to better
understand our historic heritage, you must
act now. Your participation is essential.
We must all be stewards of our historic
heritage. The future of the past depends
on you.

For further information on the historic
preservation aspects of local government
comprehensive planning and how you can
help, you should write to the:

You should also let your state and local
elected officials know your concern for
and appreciation of their efforts in the
protection of significant historic
resources and support for implementing
programs. By pooling our knowledge and
working together we can help assure the
protection of our historic resources, and
facilitate their study and interpretation
for the benefit of those who visit and
study them.

References Cited

Birch, Eugenie Ladner and Douglas Rohy
1984 The Planner and the Preservationist:
An Uneasy Alliance. In APA Journal
(Spring 1984:194-207).
Hunt, E. L. Roy
1986 Managing Growth's Impact on Florida's
Historic Resources (pp. 101-114). In
Perspectives on Florida's Growth
Management Act of 1985, Edited by John
M. DeGrove and Julian Conrad
Juergensmeyer. Lincoln Institute of
Land Policy, Monograph # 86-5.
Hunt, E. L. Roy, John K. McPherson, and
Caryl Brinson, Contributors
1986 DRAFT Historic Preservation Manual.
Prepared by the Center for Governmental
Responsibility, University of Florida,
230 Bruton-Gear Hall/HOL, Gainesville,
Florida 32611
O'Connell, Daniel W.
1986 New Directions in State Legislation:
The Florida Growth Management Act and
State Comprehensive Plan (pp. 15-40).
In Perspectives on Florida's Growth
Management Act of 1985, Edited by John
M. DeGrove and Julian Conrad
Juergensmeyer. Lincoln Institute of
Land Policy, Monograph # 86-5.
Percy, George W.
1985 Preservation/Revitalization. Keynote
Address to the Florida Chapter, American
Planning Association. Miami, Nov. 7, 1985.
Saint Augustine, City of
1986 Comprehensive Plan Update: Historic
Preservation Element. Prepared by Historic
Property Associates, Inc. and the Planning
and Building Department, City of Saint
Augustine, Florida.

Louis D. Tesar
Rt. 1 Box 209F
Quincy, FL 32351
November 22, 1986

Bureau of Historic Preservation
Division of Historical Resources
Department of State
The Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250



George M. Luer

In 1980 and 1981, the author was
shown four unusual aboriginal artifacts
from southwest Florida. Unfortunately,
they lack detailed provenience but are
worth reporting since artifacts like
them have not been recorded from that
area before. One is a fragment of a
ceramic pipe; the other three are ceram-
ic facial effigies of a kind previously
unreported from Florida. The spacial
distribution of the ceramic faces sug-
gests interaction among late prehistoric
Indians throughout south Florida's
Caloosahatchee region. Their similarity
to ceramic faces in Georgia and else-
where in the Southeast, and the apparent
association with other Mississippian
materials, indicate contact with pre-
historic influences from the "mainland"

The ceramic pipe fragment (Figure
1:a) is the broken stem of a smoking
pipe. Its paste resembles but is
sandier than that of Belle Glade Plain
pottery. It has a buff exterior and a
black core. The stem is decorated with
a recessed circular area and part of a
triangular one on its top, and with an
incised line running along either side.
In form and paste, it resembles the stem
on a pipe from a black dirt midden in
Dade County, southeast Florida (McLellan
1984:83, Fig. 1), as well as some of the
pipe stems from Mound A and the basal
midden deposit in the charnal pond at
Fort Center (Sears 1982:32-36,167,171).
Its decoration closely resembles that on
the top of a spur from an equal-armed
platform pipe from Fort Center (Sears
1982:Fig. 3.1:C). Moore also found
small ceramic platform or "monitor"
pipes near the mouth of the Apalachicola
River and at Crystal River (1902:234-
238, 1903a:394; Willey 1949:277, P1.
24,e). The close similarities among
the south Florida pipes indicate con-
tact among Indians of the Pine Island

Sound, Lake Okeechobee, and Dade County

The pipe stem reported here was
found in material dug out to create a
pond in 1970 or 1971 on the property of
Don and Pat Randell of Pineland in Lee
County. The sandy material was "loaded"
with the bones of deer, turtle, and fish
(Don Randell, pers. comm. 1980). The
pond was dug to help drain and fill a
boggy area in the middle of a pasture
located among important components of
the Pineland Site, one of the largest
prehistoric sites on the Gulf coast of
south Florida.

Although today converted to a grassy
pasture, a description of this same area
written almost a century ago by Frank
Cushing (1897) shows that it encompassed
important features of the Pineland Site,
including the boggy area from which the
pipe stem came. The pasture's low-lying
west half was, in Cushing's day, a nar-
row and grassy part of the tidal sand
flat which then separated the mainland
of Pine Island from the insular shell-
works of Battey's Landing (8LL33), also
called Battey's Place (see Figure 2).
This mainland lay closeby in what is
today the east portion of the pasture
(cleared and planted as a grove in the
1940s -- see Figure 3). The Pine Island
Canal (8LL34) left the mainland here,
crossed the tidal flat, and ran through
Battey's Place where it entered Pine
Island Sound. Today, only a drainage
ditch traces this former section of the
canal. It was near the middle of
today's pasture and from the south side
>f the canal that Cushing (1897:14)

... a little outlet ... which
led straight to what had been
an enormous artificial pond
or oval lake, that was still



Vol. 39 No. 4

Dec., 1986

Ceramic Pipe Stem Fragment and Faces from Southwestern Florida.

Figure 1.


. 9


benches, *
terraces, high'.
4. leve

courts, shell\ *: **
paths eleva-\
l t



encircling lake
double- /
crested clake
mound cur

canal i

landward or great canal

Little outlet

enclo- L lu boggy,
sures, midmost -' artificial pond
" channel- court ." burial
-ways high '. *.
S -- shell ':lesser '.
canal eleva- .
"" cana.l'.
t t -.. ..on .
.._ \ lesser *
BATTEY'S less er' ast-west.
SLANDIN benches, .. artificial.lake.
.n LANDING ourtshapely. .
S-* .extensive. *. .. .* un
-' -.' "m undl .
S- tidal. .' "

." *
-... .. .. .. ,, ., ..flats.. *, . ,*,
'^~' y*.' *.* **

Figure 2.


150 m
------- --- i

The Pineland Site in 1895 as Described by Gushing (1897). In 1895 the site had not yet been altered
by road building, shell borrowing, and extensive clearing, filling, and drainage. Some of the shell
mounds and courts near Battey's Landing, however, had already been cleared and drained. In 1895 they
were being farmed by two men who lived in two "huts" accompanied by "a small colony of hounds and
other dogs." A few years later, a sizeable house was built on top of the "double-crested mound" (the
Adams Mound, 8LL38), and this historically significant structure still stands today. In this diagram
Cushing's descriptions are applied to the site as it probably appeared based on the interpretation
of more recent aerial photographs and on ground reconnaissance.


... t.*. .'.,
*... ..* ;

*. mangrove .
** w" ##
. :area'-:.

S* Brown
"seawall:. I. .

100 m .. .. -

S' .


5 wetland



S dredge
* po nd

PUV, 0 1 000000
00o 00Goo 0000oooo
o00 0000 0000oooooo

00 00 000 0000000000
0 0000000 000 000000
0 0o0 000 ooooo 0o0000
00 000 00o0000
000 00oOV
000 000000
00 Vh>rM--

0o 00 00000
0 00 00000
000 0 0





The Western Portion of the Pineland Site in the 1940s. Roads, grove, and land forms are based on a
1940s aerial photograph; not shown are several houses near the shore and the grove's packing house,
work sheds, and laborers' quarters. The asterisk on Brown's Mound locates U.S.C.G.S. reference mark.
The north half of the Randell Mound was bulldozed eastward in 1960s by owner prior to the Randells.
Lying off the map are the Adams Mound (8LL38) to the east and the Pineland Post Office component to
the south. Contours are approximate, in feet above mean sea level, and based on 1979-80 observations.

Figure 3.

so boggy I could not traverse
it. From the opposite end of
this lake, in turn, led ...
another and lesser canal.
It terminated in another
artificial lake, ... and in
the middle of this stood ...
a gigantic and shapely mound.

Today, a remnant of this "shapely" mound
(8LL36) sits aside Pineland Road, its
north half mostly removed and its ad-
joining pond filled in. There is no
visible trace of the "lesser" canal but,
in the 1940s, there was a low-lying area
which would probably correspond to it
(Figures 2 and 3). As for the boggy
area, it was still clearly identifiable
in the 1940s, and the pond dug in the
early 1970s would have been on its
southeast edge. Perhaps this boggy
area was a charnal pond (numerous pipe
fragments and midden debris were in the
one at Fort Center). A burial mound
(8LL35) lies about 200 meters east of
this boggy area (Figure 3).

The three other artifacts reported
herein are all very similar, highly
stylized ceramic representations of the
human face (see Figure 1). Old breakage
along their edges and on their backs in-
dicates that each had been been chipped
out of a larger ceramic object. Their
curvature and the smooth central portion
of their backs suggest that each might
have been situated originally on the
curved shoulder of a ceramic vessel.
On viewing slides of these ceramic faces
in 1982, archaeologists Gail and Frank
Schnell spoke of very similar ceramic
faces on Mississippian period vessels
from Georgia as well as the Cumberland
area and the middle Mississippi valley
(see Fundaburk and Foreman 1957:P1. 118,
"medallion heads"]; also see Griffin
1952 and Hathcock 1976). Such vessels
have not been recorded for Florida, but
neither have such ceramic faces until
now. Ceramic facial forms occur on the
peninsular Gulf coast in Weeden Island
times (see Moore 1903a; Fewkes 1924) and
in north Florida in Fort Walton times
(Moore 1903b; Lazurus and Hawkins 1976),
but all of these lack the "almond eye"
of the faces reported here. It should

be mentioned that small wooden human
faces were carved on human images in
south Florida (Fewkes 1928; Gilliland
1975:P1. 71,A). These images resemble
others of religious significance in the
prehistoric Southeast (see Fundaburk and
Foreman 1957:P1. 141).

One of the faces (Figure l:b) was
found in spoil next to a vandal's pot-
hole in 8LL35 at the Pineland Site. It
is made of a hard and compact, sand-
tempered, brownish gray ware with smooth
surfaces. Another (Figure l:d) report-
edly was dug from 8Chl. A reddish brown
plaster cast of it was shown to the
author, the original having been found
by a third party some years before. Yet
another face (Figure l:c) was dug, ap-
parently in very early 1981, from deep
in a large sand mound matching the
description of 8Cr80 (Goggin 1949).
This third face was of a fairly hard,
sandy, light brown ware with slightly
rough surfaces. Both ears were pierced,
and the left one (probably broken by a
shovel blow) revealed a very narrow
perforation from front to back made be-
fore firing. This face was found with
a large, hard, polished, brownish rim
sherd having an effigy bird head lip
adorno of Mississippian style. The bird
had a large, heavy, curved beak and pro-
jecting eyes. The paste of this rim
sherd/adorno and that of the face resem-
ble pastes of some other Mississippian
ceramics from the lower Gulf coast of
Florida and suggest local manufacture.
Indications including this adorno, much
Mississippian pottery from 8Chl, and a
"late" assemblage of sherds (ca. 800-
1200) from Brown's Mound and the Randell
Mound at 8LL33 (see Luer and Almy 1980:
220), all suggest a date of about A.D.
1000-1300 for these faces. Those faces
from 8Chl and 8LL35 could date slightly
later since early historic contact
period materials also have been found
at each site (Allerton, Luer, and Carr
1984: see catalog entries for MT#33,
MT#34). A fourth face was found near
Naples in the 1960s. It has been seen
by John Beriault (pers. comm. 1982).

The faces and pipe stem are tangible
reminders that cultural influences often
extend over broad areas. They also-pose


some interesting questions: was tobacco
smoked in prehistoric south Florida and
was it grown there? was a tobacco sub-
stitute smoked? did smoking pipes have
ritual uses? why were the faces neatly
chipped out and what function did they
have as small, masklike objects?

Additional Comments: the Pineland Site

Patricia and Donald H. Randell of
the hamlet of Pineland on Pine Island,
Lee County, graciously showed two of the
artifacts described above. The Randells
believe deeply in conservation and
through their private generosity have
helped greatly to preserve the unspoiled
rural charm of Pineland. Their concern
applies to prehistory as well. They
have helped to put Battey's Place on the
National Register of Historic Places and
they have purchased large portions of
the rest of the site, downzoning parcels
to agricultural land use to prevent

The Pineland Site deserves such
attention because it is more than an
island shellworks site. The mounds,
canals, and boggy area spreading inland
from Pine Island Sound make it unusual,
possibly unique, in southwest Florida.
Mounds scattered over such a large area
resemble some of the largest sites in
the Lake Okeechobee region. A close
relationship between that region and
the Pineland Site/Pine Island Sound area
is suggested by the Pine Island Canal.
From Battey's Place, the Pine Island
Canal ran eastward across Pine Island
to Indian Old Field (8LL39), another
aboriginal shell key (Luer 1982). If
continued eastward across Matlacha Pass,
this route might have led to a possible
former canal across Cape Coral to the
Caloosahatchee River (Luer n.d.), a
major river flowing directly from the
Lake Okeechobee region. Much more
archaeological work is needed to inves-
tigate relationships between the coast
and the interior of prehistoric south


Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1897 A Preliminary Report on the Explorations of Ancient
Key-Dweller Remains of the Gulf Coast of Florida.
American Philosophical Society, Proceedings 35(153).
Fewkes, J. Walter
1924 Preliminary Archaeological Excavations at Weeden
Island, Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections 76. Washington.
1928 Aboriginal Wooden Objects from Southern Florida.
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 80. Washington.
Fundaburk, Emma L., and Mary D. Fundaburk-Foreman
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands. Kingsport Press, Inc.
Kingsport, Tennessee.
Gilliland, Marion S.
1975 The Material Culture of Ke Marco, Florida.
University Presses o r Flondi aiine-sviHe.
Goggin, John M.
1949 The Archaeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida.
Unfinished MS on file at Yale Pabody Museum.
Griffin, James B.
1952 Archaeology of Eastern United States. University of
Chicago Press. Chicago.
Hathcock, Ray
1976 Ancient Indian Pottery of the Mississipi River
Valley. Hurleyress, TnicCamden, Arkansas.
Lazarus, Yulee W., and Carolyn B. Hawkins
1976 Pottery of the Fort Walton Period. Temple Mound
Museum. Fort Walton Beach, Florida.
Luer, George M.
1982 Investigations in the Caloosahatchee Region. Slide
presentation given to The Florida Anthropological
Society 34th Annual Meeting, Tampa.
n.d. The Pine Island Canal, with notes on Indian Old
Field, Lee County, Florida. MS in preparation.
Luer, George M., and Marion M. Almy
1980 The Development of Some Aboriginal Pottery of the
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 34:207-225.
Moore, Clarence B.
1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadel~piTaI'. -
1903a Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Central Florida
West-Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of PiTTladelpiTa-T1.
1903b Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadel piiia-2 .
McLellan, James
1984 Two Platform Pipes from Southern Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 37:83.
Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center, An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee BasTn. The University Presses of
Florida. Gainesville.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 113.

George M. Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 33579




Louis D. Tesar

One of the categories of activities which
has characterized the Florida Anthropolo-
gical Society over the years has been co-
operation between professional and avoca-
tional archaeologists. While all of us
can think of numerous examples of such
activities, we tend to lose sight of their
importance and focus on the professionally
authored reports which become the lasting
end product to which we refer.

The purpose of the following mix of brief
presentations is intended to refocus our
awareness on the most important aspect of
these undertakings -- cooperation and shar-
ing of experiences and efforts by profes-
sional archaeologists and volunteer avoca-
tional archaeologists working together for
a common goal of preserving information on
a historic resource, a portion of our heri-
tage which might otherwise be lost. The
following example may be extended from
archaeological salvage work to archaeologi-
cal and/or historic site surveys to arti-
fact or documents analysis to museum exhib-
its to report preparation to working on
planning committees to ensure that historic
resources are adequately considered in land
development and property management actions.

Work at two sites in St. Augustine, Florida
was selected as an example because aspects
of these projects were presented from both
professional and avocational viewpoints.
These activities were supervised by profes-
sional archaeologists with volunteers being
given as active a role as possible. They
involve what could be termed as emergency
salvage archaeology with limited resources.

While the projects started earlier in the
year, only two reporting periods are repre-
sented in the following presentations. The
laboratory processing and analysis of the
recovered materials is ongoing. The pro-
perty owners' cooperation is acknowledged.
So, without further preamble ...


Kate Hoffman
May 13, 1986

There is not much time left. Fiesta Asso-
ciates, the developer of the property, has
graciously allowed archaeologists to exca-
vate this site while they finish plans and
await permits to begin construction some-
time this summer. Volunteers are desper-
ately needed to help with one of the most
important archaeological sites in St.
Augustine. Without the volunteers, evi-
dence of Elixio de la Puente and 16th and
17th century St. Augustine will be lost

All types of jobs are available. People
are needed to screen for beads, pipes,
pieces of bowls, plates, olive jars and
bottles (and lots of other artifacts) used
by the Spanish and British who originally
settled in St. Augustine. Others can dig
to uncover the foundations of houses that
were occupied during the 1600s and 1700s,
or, excavate old wells used by the Spanish.
Perhaps you would prefer to help in the lab
washing, sorting and labeling pottery,
literally helping to put together pieces of
the puzzle. If your interests are a little
more artistic, you can help draw maps to
record the clues of Old St. Augustine, or,
photograph the digging progress.

All levels of experience are welcome. In-
formal training sessions will be held on
how to dig and what to look for in the dirt.
You will also learn how to identify Spanish
and British pottery, and what the pottery,
glass, metal, bone and shell can tell us
about the people who lived in St. Augustine.
On-site sessions will also show you how to
recognize trash pits, footings, barrel wells
and other features that have been buried for

Now we are excavating in Capt. Jack's park-
ing lot, located between Artillery Lane and
Cadiz and designated as SA-24. The most
interesting feature on the site is the Juan
Joseph Elixio de la Puente house, built in
the mid-1700s.



Vol. 39 No. 4

Dec. 1986

Elixio de la Puente was a native of St.
Augustine who became very influential both
here and in Cuba. He served in the Royal
Treasury and was responsible for the draw-
ing of the map used for property transfers
when the British took possession in 1763.
He also acted as a land agent for Spanish
owners. (He was the first real estate agent
to sell swamp-land to the Northerners!)

Besides recovering information about Elixio
de la Puente, it is hoped that material
will be uncovered to help us understand the
earlier, less well documented, period of
St. Augustine history.

Already we have uncovered the remains of
Elixio de la Puente's 18th century house,
a massive structure about 3200 sq. ft. in
size. A coquina block well dating to the
1800s has also been discovered, along with
at least one barrel well and several trash
pits from the 1600s and 1700s. We expect
to uncover more wells and trashpits, as
well as the remnants of some of the earli-
est houses built in St. Augustine.


1788 Map. Second Spanish Period showing
existing buildings. Puente structure in
bold lines.

Site map of Fiesta Excavation. Shaded
areas represent Test Units currently

The above sketches made during the 19th
century show the Elixio de la Puente
building as a two-story coquina structure
(with additions). Immediately north
(right) is the two-story porched Worth
House in its original location.



Valerie Bell
May 13, 1986

The site directly behind Potter's Wax
Museum and just north of Artillery Lane
was the first site to be excavated by
volunteers of the St. Augustine Archae-
ological Association (SAAA) in the fall
of 1985. Here is a summary of that
site, designated as SA-23.

The site is divided into two parts. The
east end of the site has suffered from
heavy erosion prior to construction of
the sea wall. The entire front half was
filled-in during the 19th century as
evidenced by the artifacts recovered. Two
parallel walls were uncovered beneath the
modern sidewalk that also date from the
late 19th century. One of the walls may
be the remains of a wharf that appears on
a late 1800s map. The front wall is pos-
sibly a retaining wall seen on some early
1900s photos.

The west end of the site appears to be
much more intact (undisturbed). The most
visible feature was a 19th century coquina
lined wall. This was dug with the aid of
well-points (to lower the water table)
supplied by the City. One very nice jug
was recovered and has since been glued
together. Some early St. Augustine medi-
cine bottles were also found.

On this half of the site, several daub
pits were recorded. Daub was in use as
a caulking-like material in the 1700s.
Usually daub pits are found close to
the walls of houses, although the evi-
dence of the houses on this site has
been lost.

Some of the artifacts from SA-23 are now
on display in the lobby of Government


Corky Caraway
September 13, 1986

A few short weeks ago, being blessed with
some time off from work this summer, I
undertook to realize a childhood dream --
that of trying my hand at archaeology.

When young, I believe that I read every
book in the Hollywood, Florida Public
Library dealing with the subject. Most of
those books, if I recall, dealt with the
Central American cultures -- Aztecs,
Toltecs, and Mayans. It stimulated an in-
terest that I have retained over the inter-
vening years.

When I showed up at the Fiesta Dig, Kate
arranged for Daryl to show me around the
site and explain what was happening at the
screens, my home for the next two weeks. I
soon learned to recognize the different
types of material that showed up in the
screens after the dirt was washed away:

Bone: parts of vertebrae; fish spines; big
chunks of cattle bones, almost always
broken (to get the marrow?); and many
slender bones of who-knows-what small
animals. We also learned to recognize
fish scales and fish ear drums!

Pottery: the whole constellation from
Indian pottery to Chinese porcelain to the
cheap applique stuff made around the turn
of the century. Valerie seemed to be most
excited about the Majolica or Spanish

Metal: all the iron indistinguishable under
layers of rust, an occasional brass pin,
and a very occasional coin. One week, I
found a U.S. silver half-dime dated 1839
(guess that helps to date the fill in the
area where I was working).

Construction Material: tabby, coquina,


plaster, and, probably, tons of oyster
shell. (The biological mascot of St.
Augustine has GOT to be the oyster.)

We have also turned up some out of the
ordinary and sometimes very beautiful
objects. Among the beautiful are beads
and pieces of pierced bone fans. Also
found are clay marbles and at least one
Indian projectile point. Last week, my
pit produced some percussion caps and a
.60 caliber musket ball.

What do I remember most about the screens?
Wellll... wet feet and getting a chilling
spray in the back when least expected when
someone (Tina, was that you?) got really
carried away with the hosing operation...
the initially complex process of identi-
fying the plastic bags and vials ... and
trying to get a wet magic marker to work
... and, yes, the excitement when some-
thing unusual showed up in the screens. I
guess that I should also mention that big,
beautiful parachute rigged up by Fred that
provided blessed shade and some respite
from the sometimes unbearable heat.

HEY, but what about the diggers?? Well,
I have already gone on longer then planned,
so that will have to be another story.


Valerie Bell
September 18, 1986

It is an unwritten rule of urban salvage
archaeology that all exciting finds are
made by construction crews. Our dig has
proved no exception. In the middle of
July, workmen started to dig the footings
for the new building behind Potter's. As
if planned, they came directly down on a

Now, bodies are never the most convenient
things to uncover, especially if you have
a tight schedule to keep. The first thing
we had to do was notify the County Medical
Examiner. Because the burial occurred well
over 75 years ago, it did not fall into his
jurisdiction. Since this area was a known

Catholic cemetery during the late 16th cen-
tury, the next step was to advise the
Catholic Church that we had found a burial.
Brother Juniper came to the site and per-
formed the funeral rites before we started
to excavate.

As we began to brush away the dirt, we dis-
covered a third femur or leg bone and a
second skull. So, with time running short,
we expanded our trench to uncover this
second burial. While doing this, we found
a third body.

With all three burials exposed, it was time
to actually remove them. So, with great
care and as much speed as possible, we took
out burial one.

For all of you who helped or watched, it was
soon obvious that removal was not something
done in a hurry. The bones were quite de-
composed and would crumble when touched or
moved, so, to help stablize them, a solution
of white school glue and water was spread
on each bone. When this dried, they were
then wrapped in toilet paper and placed in
a box.

Burial one, an adult male, was buried in a
traditional Catholic manner. Since the
Spanish generally did not use coffins, he
was probably wrapped in a sheet and placed
directly in the ground.

Unlike burial one, the other two burials
looked like they had beed dumped in a hole
in a rather cavalier manner. After sorting
out the jumble of bones, we found that an
adult female had been "buried" with an
adult male directly on top of her. No
evidence of clothing, such as buttons,
pins, or buckles, was seen and the bodies
probably were wrapped in a burial sheet.

All bones are now in the basement where
they are being stablized and analysed.
(Another plea for volunteers).

Special thanks to all of you who helped
excavate the burials, provided needed
shade and refreshments, offered moral
support, and helped with traffic control.


Thanks also to the Fiesta developers and
crew for their patience with the delay in
construction schedules.


Bob Dow
September 18, 1986

A mountain of information has been obtain-
ed from the excavations on SA-24. The
flood of material that has been found has
been almost overwhelming, with artifacts
from the 16th through 18th century turning
up almost immediately where ever the earth
was turned.

Without doubt, the highlight of this dig
was the quick (and almost easy) uncovering
of the oyster shell footings of the de la
Puente house that had stood on the site for
over 100 years. This find will produce
lasting results for many years to come
since the developers, upon learning of the
discovery, changed the plans for the struc-
ture to be built on the site. Using the
footings we found and several sketches of
the house discovered in the archives, they
will reconstruct the de la Puente house.
They were also intrigued with the unique
scallop-shaped coquina well uncovered in
the courtyard and plan to restore it for
use in the courtyard of the new building.

Excavations on SA-24 uncovered more than
the de la Puente house. Several barrel
wells and trashpits from the 16th and 17th
centuries were also uncovered. We also
think we found a privy from the British
Period. Indian. Mexican, Spanish, and
English pottery poured out of these fea-
tures. We dug up plates, cups, saucers,
"thunderjugs" (chamber pots to the un-
initiated), household glass, beads, metal
trinkets, and piles of animal bones.
Some of the nicer artifacts are shown

Although the digging is coming to an end,
now we come to the hard part -- we have
to figure out what it all means!

Dr. Kathleen Deagan, of the Florida State
Museum, has graciously arranged to have
one of her students spend the Fall Semester

identifying and analyzing a portion of the
recovered artifacts, but we still need help
with the cleaning and sorting.

The story of the Fiesta Dig is far from
over, so come lend your talents to help
us learn about life in Old St. Augustine!






, .i

(;; *



i\ TOP wceuj




Louis D. Tesar

The preceding series of brief remarks by
members of the St. Augustine Archaeological
Association demonstrates the kind of pro-
ductive and meaningful activities which
professional archaeologists and their
avocational counterparts, as well as
interested citizens, can undertake to help
preserve aspects of a community's historic
heritage, which would be otherwise lost
without such volunteer efforts. Further-
more, such hands-on efforts make the pro-
tection and study of these resources for
the broader public good more meaningful to
both participants and other members of a

The foundation of historic preservation
efforts is at the community level. The
historic resources affected are first and
foremost important to understanding the
historic heritage of the community and
locality in which they are located, and
secondarily to understanding the braoder
regional, state-wide or national heritage.

Coopertive efforts, such as in the above
examples, should be publicised. In addi-
tion to the personal experience and aware-
ness gained by the active participants, to
the greatest extent possible, efforts
should be made to provide a passive ex-
perience to the broader public of a com-
munity. By this I mean that communities
should establish within their school
system a process for notifying appropriate
teachers of projects so that opportunities
to see an archaeological excavation first-
hand will not be lost. Brief summaries
of an area's history and prehistory and
the nature and importance of studying and
preserving archaeological sites and his-
toric structures should be taught in
schools and otherwise conveyed to a com-
munities residents. Likewise, the pro-
cess of analysis should be explained and
short, easily understood reports on the
results of archaeological and/or historic
surveys, or archaeological excavation

projects, in a community should be pre-
pared for public distribution and use in
area schools. Finally, exhibits (both
travelling and permanent) of area historic
resources and associated remains should
be prepared and made available to the

These are all potential community involve-
ment projects. If historic preservation
efforts are to be successful, then historic
preservationists must reach out to involve
as many members of their community as pos-
sible. To this end, I hope that the ex-
ample of volunteer efforts in St. Augustine
Florida may stimulate similar efforts in
other communities.


I wish to extend my thanks to Stan Bond for
providing me with the information presented
in the preceding presentations by members of
the St. Augustine Archaeological Association.
Stan is a professional archaeologist employed
by the Historic St. Augustine Preservation
Board and coordinated the volunteer effort
reported above.



set reproducing "in facsimile over 370
of the most important articles on a num-
ber of topics in Indian studies." Each
Volume Editor provides an introduction
to the articles in the volume and a bibli-
ography for further reading. Many of the
reproduced articles are extremely rare.
The volumes in this series are printed on
acid-free, 250-year-life paper. David
Hurst Thomas is the General Editor for
this series, which is published by Garland
Publishing, Inc., 136 Madison Avenue, New
York, NY 10016. (202) 686-7492.

This is an important series which will be
an asset to any reference library, and will
be of interest to many of our readers.
Reviews of the individual volumes will be
presented in clusters over the next several
issues of The Florida Anthropologist. The
first five volumes were reviewed in the
last issue. Their review continues in this

Volume 6. The Early Prehistoric Southeast:
A Sourcebook, edited with an introduction by
Jeralt T. Milanich.

1. Wauchope, Robert. Preface. In Archaeological Survey of Northern
Georgia. MSAA (1966).
2. Griffin, James B. A Commentary of Some Archaeological Activities in the
Mid-continent 1925-1975. MJA (1976).
3. Dragoo, Don W. Some Aspects of Eastern North American Prehistory: A
Review 1975. AmA (1976).
4. Walthall, John A., and Ned J Jenkins. The Gulf Formational Stage in
Southeastern Prehistory. SACB (1976).
5. Webb, Clarence H The Extent and Content of Poverty Point Culture.
AmA (1968).
6. Struever, Stuart, and Kent V Vickery. The Beginnings of Cultivation in
the Midwest-Riverine Area of the United States. AA (1973).
7. Fairbanks, Charles H. The Taxonomic Position of Stalling's Island,
Georgia. AmA (1942).
8. Dragoo, Don W. Adena and the Eastern Burial Cul A: NA (1976).
9. Caldwell, Joseph R. Interaction Spheres in Prehistor% ISMSP (1964).
10 Goggin, John M. Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The Florida
Indian and His Neiihbors. Ed. John W. Griffin (Winter Park, Florida, 1949)
11. Milanich, Jerald T. The Southeastern Deptford Culture A Preliminary
Definition. BHSPB (1973).
12. Sears, William H. Archaeological Perspectives on Prehistoric Environment
in the Okeechobee Basin Savannah In iEnirimnents of South Florrda.
Present and Past. Ed. bv Patrick J. Gleason (Miami, Florida, 1974)
13. Faulkner, Charles IH. Adena and Copena A Case of Mistaken Identity. In
Adena: The Seeking of an Identity Ed. B.K" Swartz, Jr (Muncie, Indiana,
14. Jenkins, Ned J. Prehistoric Chronology of the Lower Chattahoochee
Valley, a Preliminary Statement. JAA (1978). Permission pending
15. Jenkins, Ned J., and Cailup B. Current Jr. Ariihanoht ial qIistgltionis i,
lth" Cental Tiinlisbcc Rivc, Aalabama. COm n io/h', Suibsistcnce oad settlcent
Patterns: A Preliminary Report (Daphne, Alabama, 1976). Permission
16. Lewis, TM.N., and Madeline Kneberg The Camp Creek Site TA (1957)
17 Morse, Dan F Introduction to Northeastern Arkansas Prehistor\ ArkA
18. Haag, William G. Louisiana in North American Prehistory. LS (1%65)
Permission pending
19. Williams, Stephen. Settlement Patterns in the Lower Mississippi Valley.
VFPA (1956).
448 pages LC 83-47628 ISBN- 0-8240-5880-1 55:


Dr. Milanich collects in this volume a num-
ber of important articles dealing with the
early prehistoric Formative Period (ca.
2000 B.C. A.D. 1000) of the Southeast.
The articles are both topical (e.g., Adena,
Deptford, origins of horticulture, etc.)
and georgrapical. In addition to the many
important scholarly studies on the archaeo-
logical cultures of this period, Milanich
has included articles, such as Wauchope's
"Preface in Archaeological Survey of
Northern Georgia, which give readers an
insight into the behind the scenes feelings
and events associated with the research
leading to the preparation of these works.
I found the articles in this volume to be
particularly interesting to me, undoubtedly
because of my own area of research interest,
and recommend its acquisition.

Volume 7. The Late Prehistoric Southeast:
A Sourcebook, edited with and Introduction
by Chester B. DePratter.


Speculative Period (Early Explorations to 1840)
i. Webster, Noah. Letter to the Reverend Dr Stiles, President o( iale
College, on the Remains of the Fortifications in the Western Country. AM
2. Barton, Benjamin Smith. Observations and Conjectures Concerning
Some Articles Which Were Taken Out of an Ancient Tumulus or Grave,
at Cincinnati in the County of Hamilton, and Territory of the Lnited
States, Northwest of the Ohio River. TAPS (1799).
3. Brackenridge, Henry M. On the Population and Tumuli of the Aborigines
of North America. TAPS (1818).
4. Fiske, Moses. Conjectures Respecting the Ancient Inhabitants of North
America. ArchAm (1820).
Classificatory-Descriptive Period (1840-1914).
5. Squier, E.G. Observations on the Uses of the Mounds of the West with
an Attempt at Their Classification. AJSA (1847).
6. Jones, C.C., Jr. Ancient Tumuli in Georgia. PAAS (1869)
7. Lyon, Sidney S. Report of an Exploration of Ancient Mounds in Union
County, Kentucky. ARSI 1870 (1872)
8. Thomas, Cyrus. Grave Mounds in North Carolina and East Tennessee.
AN (1872).
9. Moore, Clarence B. Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Black IVarrior
River. ANSPj (1905).
Classificatory-Historical Period (1914-1940)-Chronology
10. Bushnell, David 1., Jr. The Origin and Various Types of Mounds in
Eastern United States. Proc. 19th ICA (1917).
11. Swanton, John R. The Interpretation of Aboriginal Mounds by Means of
Creek Indian Customs. ARSI 1927 (1928).
12. Deuel, Thorne. The Application of a Classificatory Method to Mississippi
Valley Archaeology. Appendix I, in Rediscovering Illinois,, ed. Fay-Cooper
Cote and Thoe Deuel (Chicago, 1937)
13. Ford, James A. A Chronological Method Applicable to the Southeast.
AmA (1938).
14. McKern, W.C. The Midwestern Taxonomic Method as an Aid to
Archaeological Study. AmA (1939).
15. Jennings, Jesse D. Chickasaw and Earlier Cultures of Northern
Mississippi. JMH (1941).
16 Webb, William S., and David L. DeJarnette. An Archaeological Survey
of Pickwick Basin in the Adjacent Portions of the States of Alabama,
Mississippi and Tennessee. BAEB (1942).
Classificatory-Historical Period (1940-1960)-Context and Function
17. Orr, Kenneth G. The Archaeological Situation at Spiro, Oklahoma: A
Preliminary Report AmA (1946). Permission pending.
18. Sears, William H. Excavations at Kolomoki: Season 1 1950 UGSA
19. Sears, William H. The Sociopolitical Organization of Pre-Columbian
Cultures of the Gulf Coastal Plain. AA (1954)


Dec., 1986

Vol. 39 No. 4

20. Bennett, W. Middle American Influences upon the Culture of the
Southeastern United States AAm (1944).
Explanatory Period (1960- )
21 Ward trawick, Correlation of Mississippian Sites and Soil Types. SAGB
22 ar n. I.e ls H,, Jr. Settlement Distribution During the Mississippi
Period SACB (1971).
23. Smith Bruce ). Middle Mississippi Exploitation of Animal Populations
AA (1974)
548 pages LC 83-47624 ISBN 0-8240-5881-X $70

The focus of this volume is the sequel to
the previous volume; although, DePratter
takes a different approach to selecting
the articles which he includes. He empha-
sizes the nature of both archaeology and
the archaeologist. The articles are ar-
ranged chronologically to provide a per-
spective on the changing perceptions of
researchers as our data base increased.
These chronological groupings include the
Speculative Period (Early Explorations to
1840), Classificatory-Descriptive Period
(1840-1914), Classificatory-Historial
Period (1914-1940)-Chronology, Classifi-
catory-Historical Period(1940-1960)-
Context and Functions, and Explanatory
Period (1960- ). Through these studies
one can also see the increasing shift
from broad, general overview studies to
increasingly more narrow, focused studies.
DePratter has assembled a series of arti-
cles which will be of interest to many of
our readers.

Volume 8. Ethnology of
Indians: A Sourcebook.
Introduction by Charles

the Southeastern
Edited with an

classification of Southeastern Cultures
1. Swanton, John R. Aboriginal Culture of the Southeast ARBAE-42 (1928)
2. Speck, Frank G. The Ethnic Position of the Southeastern Algonkian AA
3. Swanton, John R. Early History of the Eastern Siouan Tribes. In Essays in
Anthropology Presented to A.L Krocber Ed. Robert Lowie (Berkeley, 1936).
The Belief System
4. Swanton, John R. Sun Worship in the Southeast. AA (1928)
5. Mooney, James. The Cherokee River Cult. JAF (1900).
6. Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokees. JAF (1888).
7 Swanton, John R. Animal Stories from the Indians of the Muskhogean
Stock. JAF (1913)
8. Campbell, Thomas N. Choctaw Subsistence Ethnographic Notes from
the Lincecum Manuscript. FA (1957).
9. Wright, Muriel H. American Indian Corn Dishes. CO (1958).
Social Organization
10. Egan, Fred. Historical Changes in the Choctaw Kinship System. AA
11. Josselin de Jong, J.P.B. The Natchez Social System. PICA-23 (1930).
12 Reid, John Phillip. The Cherokee Thought: An Apparatus of Primitive
Law. NYULR (1971).
13. Swanton, John R. The Social Sig ificance of the Creek Confederacy.
PICA-19 (1915).
14. Mooney, James. Cherokee Theory and Practice of Medicine. JAF (1890).
15. Olbrechts, Frans M. Some Cherokee Methods of Divination. PICA-23
16. Witthoft, John Green Corn Ceremonialism .(1949)
17 Swanton, John R. The Green Corn Dance. CO (1932).
18. Mooney, James. The Cherokee Ball Play AA (1890).
19. Fogelson, Raymond. The Cherokee Balgame Cycle An Ethnographer's
View. Eth (1971).
20. Herndon, Marcia. The Cherokee Ballgame Cycle: An Ethnomusicologist's
View. Eth (1971)
456 pages LC 83-47627 ISBN 0-8240-5882-8 $50

In this volume Hudson has assembled a
series of ethnographic article from the
late 19th and early 20th centuries, the
period in which Southeastern Indian eth-
nology attained scientific status with
the work of James Mooney, Frank G. Speck,
and John R. Swanton. The work of this
period focused largely on classifying the
diversity of Native American culture in
the Southeastern United States. This
volume features a representative collec-
tion of essays illustrating the range of
classificatory systems employed by such
researchers as Swanton and Speck. Hudson's
introductory essay provides an important
overview the biases and motivations of the
researchers of this period.

Volume 9. A Creek Sourcebook. Edited with
an Introduction by William C. Sturtevant.


1. Fairbanks, Charles C. Creek and Pre-Creek I, -h-i. -2\-.: of Eastern
United States Ed. James B Griffin (Chicago, '), I i. ion Pending.
2. Bartram, William. Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians,
1798. TAES (1853).
3 Han kins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the Years 1798
and 1799 CGHS (1848).
4 Nunez, Theron A. Jr land George Stigginsi GCreek Nativism and the
Creek War of 1813-1814 land A Historical Narration of the Genealogy
Traditions and Downfall of the lspocaga or Creek Tribe of Indians,
Written bv One of the Tribe]. Ethnohistorv (1958). Permission Pending.
5 Fairbanks, Charles H. Excavations at Horsehoe Bend, Alabama FA
(1962). Permission pending.
6. Waring, Antonio J., ed. Iaws of the Creek Nation UGLMP (1960)
7 Gatschet, Albert S Towns and Villages of the Creek Confederacy in the
XVIII. and XIX Centuries. AHSP (1901)
8. iHe\ itt, N B., ed Join R. Swanon. Note on the Creek Indians. BAEB
9. Haas, Mar' R. Dialects of the Muskogee Linguage. IJAL. (1945).
10 Haas, Marv R Tonal Accent in Creek SCOPL (1977). Permission
11. Speck, rank G. The Creek Indians of Taskigi Town. AAAM (1907)
12 Speck, Frank G. Ceremonial Songs of the Creek and Yuchi Indians
APMUP (1911).
13. Douglas, Frederic H. Three Creek Baskets. MCN (1941).
14. Swanton, John R. Modern Square Grounds of the Creek Indians. SMC
15. Haas, Mary R. Creek Inter-town Relations AA (1940) Permission
16. Spoehr, Alexander Creek Inter-town Relations. AA (1941)
17. Opler, Morris E. Report on the History and Contemporary State of
Aspects of Creek Social Organization and Government. PA (1937).
18. Speck, Frank G. Notes on Social and Economic Conditions among the
Creek Indians of Alabama in 1941. America Indigena (1947).
19. Speck, Frank G. The Road to Disappearance: Creek Indians Surviving in
Alabama, A Mixed Culture Community. AA (1949).
20. Paredes, I Anthony. The Emergence of Contemporary Eastern Creek
Identity In Social and Cultural Identity. Problems of Persistence and Change.
Ed. Thomas K. Fitzgerald Southern Anthropological Society
Proceedings, 8. (Athens, 1974).
21. Paredes, J. Anthony. The Folk Culture of the Eastern Creek Indians:
Synthesis and Change. In Indians of the wLoer South: Past and Present. Ed.
John K. Mahon. Proceedings, 5th Gulf Coast Historical and Humanistic
Conferr ce. (Pensacola, 1975)
22. Paredes, J. Anthony. Back from Disappearance The Alabama Creek
Indian Community. In Southeastern Indians since the Removal Era. Ed.
Walter L Williams (Athens, 1979).
23 Paredes, J. Anthony. Kinship and Descent in the Ethnic Reassessment of
the Eastern Creek Indians. In The Versatility of Kinship: Essays Presented to
Harry S. Basehart. Ed. L. S. Cordell and S. Beckerman. (New York, 1980).
780 pages LC 83-47631 ISBN-0-8240-5883-6 S100

This volume contains virtually every pubish-
ed article in the anthropological literature
that presents primary data on the culture of
the Creeks of Oklahoma and of the 20th cen-
tury Creeks of Alabama. Sturtevant has in-


cluded several short but important 19th cen-
tury papers on Creek culture, and the most
useful articles on the archaeology of the
pre-Removal Creeks. Original publication
dates range from 1848 to 1980. The material
in this volume provides a necessary substi-
tute to and commentary on the lengthy volumes
of John R. Swanton, which remain the basic
accounts of Creek culture as it existed up
to about 1920. This is an important volume
on Creek Indians.

Volume 10. A Choctaw Sourcebook. Edited
with an Introduction by John H. Peterson.


s. u.iuis, nenry 0., Jr Archaeological and Anthropometrical Work in
Mississippi. SMC (1925). Permission pending.
2. Swanton, John R. An Early Account of the hoctaw Indians. AAAM
3. Young, EB. Notices of the Chactaw or Choktah Tribe of North American
Indians. EJNGS (1830).
4. Wright, Alfred. Choctaws, Religious Opinions. Traditions, etc. MH (1828).
5. Halbert, Henry S. Courtship and Marriage Among the Choctaws of
Mississippi. AN (1882).
6. Halbert, Henry S. The Choctaw Achahpih (Chungkee) Game. AAOJ
7. Halbert, Henry S Pyramid and Old Road in Mississippi. AAOJ (1891).
8. Halbert, Henry S. Okla Hannah: Or, the Six Towns District of the
Choctaws. AAOJ (1891)
9. Halbert, Henry S. A Choctaw Migration Legend AAOJ (1894).
10. Halbert, Henry S. A Choctaw Robin Goodfellow. AAOJ (1895).
11. Halbert, Henry S. The Indians in Mississippi and Their Schools Treaty
of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Biennial Report...(1896).
12. Halbert, Henry S. Choctaw Schools in Mississippi. Biennial Report...
13. Halbert, Henry S. Nanih Waiya, the Sacred Mound of the Choctaws
MHSP (1899).
14. Halbert, Henry S. The Mississippi Choctaws. Bicinial Report 1897-1898 and
1898-1899 (1900).
15. Halbert, Henry S Funeral Customs of the Mississippi Choctaws. MHSP
16. Halbert, Henry S District Divisions of the Choctaw Nation. AHSP (1901)
17. Halbert, Henr' S. The Choctaw Creation Legend. MHSP (1901).
18. Watkins, John'A. The Choctaws in Mississippi AAOJ (1894)
19. Wade, John W The Removal of the Mississippi Choctaws. MHSP (1904).
20. Hudson, Peter J. Choctaw Indian Dishes CO (1939) Permission pending.
21. Bushnell, David I., Jr. The Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, St. Tammany
Parish, Louisiana BAEB (1909).
22. Bushnell, Daid I Jr. Mths of the Luisiana ChictawA AA (1910).
23. Bremer, C The Chata Indians of the Pearl River (New Orleans, 1907).
24. Campbell, Thomas N The Choctaw Afterworld. JAF (1959).
25. Holmes, Jack D.L. The Chocta\s in 1795. AHQ (1968).
320 pages I-C 83-47629 ISBIN 0 8240-5884-4 S35

This volume provides a significant exten-
sion and up-dating of Swanton's classic
work on the Choctaws. The 25 articles
selected by Peterson for this volume in-
clude early observations on the Choctaws,
observations and research on the more
traditional Mississippi and Louisiana
Choctaws around 1900, and a few recent
papers based on newly discovered documen-
tation. Most of the articles in this
volume originally appeared in early (now
discontinued) journals and obscure govern-
ment or private publications, and many were
not available to Swanton and other early
researchers. Peterson's Introduction pro-
vides an excellent overview to this im-
portant area of study.

Volume 11. A Seminole Sourcebook. Edited
with an Introduction by William C. Sturtevant.


1. Sturtevant, William C Creek into Seminole. In North American Indians in
Hislorical Perspective. Ed. Eleanor Burke Leacock and Nancy Oestreich
Lurie (New York, 1971). Permission Pending.
2. Fairbanks, Charles H. The Ethno-archaeology of the Florida Seminole.
In Tacachale Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia during
the Historic Period. Ed. Jerald Milanich and Samuel Proctor (Gainesville,
1978). Permission pending.
3. Cory, Charles B. Preface to the Second Edition and The Seminole
Indians. In his Hinting and Fishlin it Florida, Including a Key to the Water
Birds Known to Occur rin the State, 2nd ed (Boston, 1896).
4 Skinner, Alanson. Notes on the Florida Seminole. AA (1913)
5. Skinner, Alanson. The Florida Seminoles., SW (1911).
6 Skinner, Alanson. Through Unknown Florida. HIM (1911).
7 Skinner, Alanson. Across the Florida Everglades. ASN (1915).
8 Skinner, Alanson. Ingraham Charlie, My Friend All'e Time. AIM (1918)
9 Nash, Rov. Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida. 71st Congress,
3rd session, Senate Document No. 314 (1931). Permission Pending.
10. Sterling, Gene. Report on the Seminole Indians of Florida. Office of
Indian Affairs (1936).
11. Polliter, William S et al. The Seminole Indians of Florida:
Morphology and Serology. APA (1970). Permission Pending.
12. Goggin, John M. Seminole Pottery. In Prehistoric Pottery E.U.S. Ed.
James B. Griffin (Ann Arbor, 1958).
13 Capron, Louis. The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the
Green Corn Dance. BAEB (1953). 1
14. Sturtevant William C. The Medicine Bundles and Busks of the Florida
Seminole. FA (1954).
15 Spoehr, Alexander. Camp, Clan, and I Seminole of Florida. FMNHAS (1941).
16. Sturtevant, William C. Seminole Men's Clothing. PAES (1967).
17 Sturtevant, William C. A Seminole Personal Document. Tequesta (1956).
18 Hadley, J.N. Notes on the Socio-Economic Status of the Oklahoma
Seminoles. CISPR (1935). Permission pending.
19. Work Susan. The "Terminated" Five Tribes of Oklahoma: The Effect of
Federal Legislation and Administrative Treatment on the Government of
the Seminole Nation AILP (1978). Permission Pending.
856 pages LC 83-47632 ISBN 0-8240-5885-2 $100

In this volume Sturtevant has assembled a
collection of the most important published
material on Seminole culture. Most of the
articles deal with the social organization,
material culture, religion, oral history,
social conditions in the 1930s, archaeology,
and physical anthropology of the Florida
Seminole. The selection focuses on diffi-
cult to find, generally accurate sources
of primary data. Sturetvant makes an ef-
fort to omit all unreliable journalistic

Volume 12. The Southern Caddo: An Anthology
Edited with an Introduction by H. F. Gregory.

1 Bolton, Herbert Eugene. The Native Tribes about the East Texas Missions.
TSH]AQ (1908).
2 Dorsey, George Ames. Traditions of the Caddo. CIW (1905).
3 Dorsev, George Ames. Caddo Customs of Childhood. JAF (1905)
4 Fletcher Alice C. Caddo. BAEB (1907).
5 Fletcher, Alice C Kadohadacho. BAEB (1907).
6 Glover, William B. A History of the Caddo Indians. LHQ (1935).
7 Sibley, John R. Historical Sketches of the Several Indian Tribes in
Louisiana ASP-IA (1832).
8. Tanner Helen H. The Territory of the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma. In
Caddo Indians IV (New York, 1974).
9. Wedel, Mildred Mott. LaHarpe's 1719 Post on Red River and Nearby
Caddo Settlements. BTMM (1978).
10. Williams, Stephen. The Aboriginal Location of the Kadohadacho and
Related Tribes. In Explorations in Cultural Anthropology Ed. Ward
Goodenough (New York, 1964).
11. Lesser, Alexander Caddo Kinship Systems. NH (1979).
12. Mooney, James The Caddo and Associated Tribes. ARBAE-14 (1892-1893)


13 Spier, Leslie Wichita and Caddo Relationship Terms AA (1924).
14. Chafe, Wallace. Caddoan Texts. IJAL-NATS (1977) Permission pending.
15 Lesser, Alexander, and Gene Weltfish Composition of the Caddoan
Linguistic Stock. SMC (1932)
16. Sibley, John. Vocabulary of the Caddo Language. AN (1879)
17 Taylor, Alan The Classification of the Caddoan Languages PAPS (1963).
lPermission pending.
i h ical Anthropology
iS..;ray Margery, and William S. Laughlin. Blood Groups of Caddo Indian,
n Oklahoma' AJG (1960) Permission pending
19. Webb, Clarence H. Changmg A t .. .1 ,_. .1 Methods and Theori in the
Trans-Mississippi South i1 Tex.', '-i
Material Culture & Arts
20 ..,, I.. EH. The Grass House of the Wichita and Caddo DAMIL
21 Heflin, E The Oashuns or Dances of the Caddo BOAS (1953)
22 Webb, Clarence H House Types Among the Caddo Indians BTAPS
23 Story, Dee Ann Anthropological Studies Concerning the Caddo. TexA
24 Wyckoff, Don G and Timothy G Baugh. Early Historic Hasnai A
NModel for the Material Culture of Governing Elites MIA (1980)
550 pages LC 83-47626 ISBN 0-82405886-0 $75

This volume assembles the widespread liter-
ature documenting both prehistoric and con-
temporary Caddoan culture. Several of the
papers attempt to trace Caddoan origins by
an examination of the archaeological record,
while others investigate relationships
through physical anthropology and linguis-
tics. Change in Caddoan society is also
addressed in several other papers included
in this volume. The papers in this volume
are arranged topically. It is an important
reference work.

This ends the second in a series of
reviews of the issues in the 2-volume

This is an important series whose acqui-
sition is recommended. It is noted that
the cost of these permanent volumes is
about what it would cost to photocopy
the individual articles.

To order any of the above
please write or call:

Individual volumes may be purchased. A
4% shipping cost should be added to the
volume list price. The entire set may
be purchased for $1200. If the complete
set is purchased prepaid, then purchasers
will receive a 10% discount and the ship-
ping charges will be waived. Thus the
complete set may be purchased for $1080

Reviewed by: Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist

cited volumes,

Garland Publishing, Inc.
136 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016
(212) 686-7492

European Representives Office:
Garland Publishing
15 Bolton Street
London W1Y 7PA
Tel: 10 493-7642



In order to facilitate the analysis of
midden materials in South Florida, a com-
parative faunal collection is being esta-
blished at the Historical Museum of
Southern Florida by Sue Goldman, Asso-
ciate Professor Life Lab at Miami Dade
Community College. This collection con-
sists of the bones of animals which have
been approved as collectable by the
Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commis-
sion. Permits, in accordance with Rules
39-27.02 and 39-9.02 of the Wildlife Code
of the State of Florida (Chapter 39, F.A.C.)
have been obtained by the researchers estab-
lishing this collection.

The specimens are collected from road sides
where animals are frequently killed by
passing motor vehicles. Data recorded on
the collection site include the location
and habitat. Data collected on the speci-
mens include:(1) the name of the animal
(common and Latin), (2) its length, (3)
the girth of its head, (4) its sex, rela-
tive age and weight, if possible, (5) the
length of its tail and whether or not it
had a coat, if applicable, and finally,
(6) photograph of the specimen.

At present, the collection is sparse. It
consists of one grey fox, one possum and
miscellaneous parts of deer, turtles and
a few other small animals. SOme of these
specimens were placed in wire cages of
0.625 cm (i") hardware mesh and buried for
a year. This method resulted in the loss
of small bones and damage to the larger
bones in the form of pitting (Sue Goldman,
personal communication 1986). Therefore,
the authors experimented with a decomposi-
tion cage designed to speed up the decay
process, protect against the loss of
small bones and prevent damage to the
larger bones.

Briefly, the decomposition cage holds
specimens under water during the decay
process. It consists of an immersable
container (e.g. a milk crate or crab trap)
wrapped with 0.625 cm hardware mesh. A
window screen tray is wired to the bottom
to prevent the loss of small bones.


The specimen is placed in the tray and se-
cured with heavy guage wire. The cage is
then immersed in a body of saltwater (e.g.
a bay, lagoon or canal). Once the decay
process has removed all of the fleshy
parts, the bones are retrieved, dried and

The initial experiment utilized a turkey
vulture, Cathartes aura, found alongside
the Tamiami Trail. This specimen was
placed in the decomposition cage on March
8, 1986. Three weeks later, the specimen
showed signs of rapid deterioration. The
skin covering the talons was loose and
peeling. The large feathers were disinte-
grating. However, the main portion of the
body was still intact. Thus, the authors
returned the specimen to the sea.

Another eight weeks passed before check-
ing the specimen again. During this time,
vandals stole the cage. However, they did
not steal its contents.

Left on the bank were the skull and highly
deteriorated feathers. (Apparently the
rest of the skeleton was lost in the act
of vandalism.) The skull was examined
for any remaining fleshy parts and for
damage such as pitting. No damage was
observed, nor were any fleshy parts found
attached to the bones. Thus, the cage ap-
pears to have promoted decomposition with-
out damaging the bone. However, the
length of time the specimen lay upon the
bank is uncertain. Deterioration of
fleshy parts could have been affected by
a variety of factors such as sunlight,
insects and/or other natural elements.
Therefore, more experiments will need to
be conducted to control for such factors.
Hopefully, the authors will be able to
locate an area safe from vandals.
The authors would like to thank Brad
William Burger for providing the original
idea for the decomposition cage.
William Gray Johnson
Donald A. Mattucci
The Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy, Inc.
P.O. Box 450283
Miami, FL 33145

Dec., 1986



Da 1058

They've trenched my heart
to reveal the truth
Before the quarry takes it.

They've found the tools of the Forgotten
Ones; so they can say what was.
They'll tell it by the tools they've found,
of shell and rock and bone.
And of the pendants left behind,
their stories shall be told.

Ages passed since they've been here.
Ages passed since I've heard them laugh,
And felt their cooking fires burn.

They used to cook up turtle,
for food so long ago.
They hunted deer.
They netted fish.
They made their pottery
And left their marks.
Ages passed since they've been here.

Now they cook their burgers,
and pass their cornbread around,
They drink their Cokes
and sip their beer
They pass the wine around.

They laugh and talk,
and show concern
by research they have done.
They sit in a circle,
talking of how it used to be.
Ages passed since they've sat here,
upon my blessed mound.

They're speaking of the bones they found,
of the Ancient Ones.
They left them with me years ago,
Buried in this ground.

They are the bones of men and women
and of their children, too.
They used to laugh.
They sang their songs
and danced upon my ground.
They worked and wept,
They slept and dreamt;
And looked into the skies.
They lived and died upon me.

They left their marks
on bone and pottery.
I never have forgotten.

I'll hold onto them while I can,
Take heart,
I'm crying to you!
Please leave them here where
they were left,
It's their rightful place to be.

The water's edge has come and gone,
and now I am in danger .

So the sun will shine
and plants will grow.
The trees shade above me.
Please leave me here,
protect me now,
So you can sit upon me
And read the stories
that have been told,
That will be written about me.

Judi Trimble
P.O. Box 570833
Miami, FL 33257



Vol. 39 No. 4

Dec., 1986


Louis D. Tesar

For decades archaeological sites, espe-
cially those containing Native American
Indian and other historically significant
burials, have been the target of indivi-
duals commonly referred to as "pot hunters"
or "treasure hunters." These individuals
would be called "grave robbers" under other

We all have decried this situation as an
unfortunate and terrible tragedy which
should be stopped and one in which the
ghoulish perpetrators should be promptly
and severely punished. Yet, to date, our
actions have generally not gone beyond

In the last issue of The Florida Anthro-
pologist 39(3 pt. 2):226-230, James J.
Miller reported on efforts to correct
this problem in Florida, and included
a copy of a draft bill for which your
support is requested.

If you are a legislator, your support,
sponsorship or cosponsorship is needed.
If you are a resident concerned with
historic preservation issues and the
fair and equal treatment of all of our
citizens, including a respect for the
sanctity of their deceased ancestors,
then you should contact your Represen-
tative, Senator, and the Governor and
urge their support of this bill. Ask
your friends and neighbors to join in
this effort.

The bill proposes changes to Chapter
872, Florida Statutes ("Offenses Con-
cerning Dead Bodies and Graves").
These changes are designed to make the
law clearly applicable to Native
American Indian burials and other
similar burials, and not just to marked
formal church cemeteries. (It should
be noted that while the former wooden
markers have decayed and the sometimes
characteristic earthen mounds at Native
American burial sites have weathered,

their intent is no less sacred to their
makers then a formal christian church

Perhaps the most important change in-
volves changing the illegal violation
of human remains from a "wanton and
malicious" action to a "willful and
knowing" action. Did you know that
it is almost impossible to demonstrate
that individuals seeking artifacts
interred with human remains or a "real
skull" for display on their mantel or
bookshelf did so with a "wanton and
malicious" attitude. Lawyers consist-
ently make it look like there was "no
evil intent," only one of curiosity
and a desire to find a neat object for

In most cases they are correct. The
individuals in question could care less
about such human remains, whether or
not they are in a formal church cemetery.
They are after artifacts and objects, and
may indeed view the burials as little
more than curiosities. But does such
ignorance or callousness make it right?
The answer is a resounding NO! Unfortu-
nately, the manner in which the law is
now written has resulted in those guilty
of such grave robbing being declared in-
nocent of any violation of the law.

Alternative language changing the word-
ing from "wantonly and maliciously" to
"willfully and knowingly" is proposed
as it can be demonstrated that a pot-
hunter willfully and knowingly dug a
site. The "and knowingly" qualifier is
added to make the intent clear that any-
one accidentally encountering human re-
mains is not guilty of a violation of
the law.

Support the proposed amendments to Chapter
872, F.S. Help protect Florida's historic
heritage. Help stop grave robbing by
treasure hunting vandals of our heritage.



Vol. 39 No. 4

Dec., 1986


In accordance with U.S. Postal Regulation No. 132.622, the following statement
of OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION for The Florida Anthropologist is in-
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Dec. 1986 issue
Vol. 39 No. 4






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Q __~e aff 5



gr f


formation to:

Florida Master Site File Coordinator
Bureau of Archaeological Research
Division of Historical Resources
Department of State
The Capitol, Tallahassee, FL 32399

and to your local FAS Chapter Representative. This information
will assist in better understanding our historic and prehistoric
heritage. It is essential if significant sites are to be protect-
ed in land management and comprehensive planning activities. Your
contribution is important. Site forms for recording archaeological
or historic sites may be obtained by writing to the above address.



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