Membership Information
 Table of Contents
 Editor's Page
 British Influences on Creek and...
 Strombus Celt Caches in Southeast...
 Book Review: Koster: Americans...
 Membership Information
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00013
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Editor's Page
        Page 45
    British Influences on Creek and Seminole Men's Clothing 1733-1858
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Strombus Celt Caches in Southeast Florida
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Book Review: Koster: Americans in Search of their Preshitoric Past
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Membership Information
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
Full Text


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~~ri L

w -
t mr' d


JUNE 1980


/' *'


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March, June,
September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.,
Geoarcheological Research Center, Department of Geology, University
of Miami, Coral Gables, Fl 33124. Subscription is by membership
in the Society for individuals and institutions interested in the
aims of the Society. Annual dues are $8.00; student members $5.00.
Requests for membership and general inquiries should be addressed to
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for publication to the Editor; orders for back issues to the Assistant
Editor; and newsletter items to the President. Address changes should
be made at least 30 days prior to the mailing of the next issue.
Second class postage paid at Miami, Florida 33124.


President: Thomas Watson
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Panama City, FL 32407

1st Vice President: Irving Eyster
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Islamorada, FL 33036

2nd Vice President: Stephen C. Atkins
P. O. Box 660
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Secretary: Marion M. Almy
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Membership Secretary: Jeane Eyster
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Treasurer and Resident
Agent: Larry Hochen
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Three years: Karen Malesky
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Two years: Norcott Henriquez
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One year: Adelaide Bullen
Florida State Museum
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Editor: Robert S. Carr
Geoarcheological Research Center
Department of Geology
University of Miami
Coral Gables, FL 33124

Newsletter Editor: Wilma Williams
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Editorial Board:
Kathleen A. Deagan
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University

John W. Griffin
St. Augustine, Florida

(USPS 200880)

Assistant Editor: Irving Eystej
Route 1, Box 96
Islamorada, FL 33036

George M. Luer
Sarasota, Florida

James J. Miller
Tallahassee, Florida

George Percy
Div. of Archives, History and
Records Management, Tallahassee

COVER: "Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles". Painted by George Catlin, 1I
Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History.

sV- a;'- 4
. y r~
*! ;c'- ;:*

:W '1 ~7'.
1~ *' ... :' t

,'&.1: V.


Dorothv Downs

n' c' .a h a c e'' b -- n r i: i i f t
..-mL. ai. c .rr ...y ...ec ar S ..i e .. ..., 7.. i c c .. ab..
e- 'de -e p ,pr rt '-h vp he s o' u 'v e -hf_ -n- '
t t. s: e t .1.. a t. n .g:. .n i
GCnrqi, and Floriona. Althourrh FSver?] imrpor an+ elrmen+" of th.- dr'-'ss
c : d r t t i I -
c !- d c : i. .
ance of the costumiesreiveal the inspiration ot Scottish Hgilqanc"er styles.

aii sLUai ji, wvi.ch lucatL s:X .uittai eJOruIw:-.Jl .id j I, tc Lore..
IT t r S' '.-. i "e F ir .-n' c' :3i < ,
S 3:- .nL d .n:. r -C J- t s : .Jh C .. Ee. nn r. ar:
w r-,r hnfo -.-- crt -t 'i.th L -he rc- i sh -' -We*e n '-hac- w -'A thr- n- a irr of
t t 6 v, I f_ .1 s : r r. .. t
Final! v, what clothing styles resulted from the coombiination of Brirish
S "a e i : I- i i

9 I. a -.e -r. c i- r- .e .r it t e ,
f.....th.... s ;uz 0... .- .' -. '.. t ;. w, .. .: c....L 1- i...t. .I :.. -h .-. ac. .t
.' .r '-o 4n- t t' Ja' s '- le -or .- ic st- C sc- 't_
S a. .n .3 A i-. t .e g. ,-e ir / t .i -rd e 1. ..
pol.icv of dis+ribtin j i t s ntf l.othin-c and cloth t-o winr the frien-dsh3!r
c ir r t d :. < : -E -r. i. :
settled in Florida adopted a clothing style Dased o,-i Ernliasn tLade shirts
v : w :a r s O c 1 fP 'C tr
t;..- r..ii trl..j O C .,. -;.., r ,., sr, of La dj.... i ..A i ., Af., r .. ti. c.... h.. ..
t' f i "r e e" i 1 i d -.- i n t -S

Ste'- s 'e" r ra ur'tc a"c ss "l ~:tteron7;tt -. t .ett- 1 eirmjrnt n "fr-l"r f>arrr-.st
e 3: a .h t it r t -r n f .
in America incorporated in London in i73z, The corporattiion cifsp-Ituineci
C E at r. a. a "c c Tr i i .c r r /
Si -3. A ettcr :tom u gliuinoi pce kto t-a )imsces uatL-L r.ccr. i L.at
' i a -s a e : 'or i -h f t' "a'' .;
s. a o- x ., ce 3, i. .:a. : : a. t
s-.m. of '.-h 'r.. nc'" a-l- .- '- h'-". Sr'-t 6 183 8' ft.---
V. J t. p -r. t 1 t p- .y .- .It Ti a f !
of clothing. Tomochichi and Oglethorne became close friernas and the oldi
I 3 f i f C t r; .e 'r y- t :
T-.- I I: r C .0 c ;' -

1 ? 1 i a e r w: o -e '
n,.....rl or... h ... r... I...i.a ... .. t.. i h. -- re .., .. : ..
t:'- be of -h 'o -ee' -a 'or a? r1- 'J -.- "'. :i -- ,
c s.i L ti ..r :.n 1 i t. .s -a E LSt _.. t. h. .c
ir+ernreters nr.d jork-'d .,t' t rt -trn+-ty -f roon-rat or. and 1anrf us -re
S .3 -.- r y .s r i e Ic e .s
presented witn eight oundies of SKins, one rrom eacnr ot the tries
r : n -r e i d w c V r < t i. d -
l e, h a r .i ft i u ,.ar ti. : i ,
1' en g '- -r u'" -- r o s (P n :

..:: '' '
r- i:


; ~
;' ''i







he- i no jue -:ic t~ t l. e : .goh -nd .:s rE tht r : .ti -' d isE
in the American wilderness, which must have delighted the Indians who
w-re -re:e a,-'mirc -"s t c lor ul os' mre T.. ier Lac'.lar Car be' a .1 3
followers came to America in 173;, tney inspected land for settlement
in th Saratona region c1 Ne',' York. The Indian- of the are- wr-e -":
C ligcj.te:- wit.. Cz.Inpb 1l', unusua. appeaianc, in liciilar:u c!otuimie, Lnat
they urged him and his friends to settle among them. (rraham 1956:108)
L . admired by the Creek Indians in the region.

Highlanders who moved into Florida from Georgia after the American
R-vol'-tio' pr-ud' w -:e '.iei tc tar n "'77 or. 30or p1 li da
Rury -cInLosh, Colonel McArthur and a Major Small were said to have
paraded the streets of St-. A'qut-ine in full Hi-'la'.i c-sti--a '-te' -ed
b th.ir _ipe.s. (Wi.te 5 4.47.

'gh i nc J --s ns to of a E irt- b .te. pl.i a 'a ccc...t,
jacket, bonnet, stockings and garters, sporran or pouch, and shoes.
Er'-ler-a c cr stE of il- r, 'a1r :ie be ri- s" r '.ra lic Je' c.e:
which indicated the individual's clan membership, were worn on the bonnet,
belt and -oorran.

The belted plaid camr t- knepr l'icngt- or shc-te T w"a oie '
w, .1 ,-pr. ir_... el 16 fet. l.on-g .aid L-ve feeL wwe. The wearer placed che
plaid on the ground with his belt underneath it. He pleated thp material
o' r e ..lt and VoL i. t o. It 4it tiL b .to, at .xne ie el.
He belted and buckled the material around his waist and stood up,
I vir t' u "ile .cc tai t' fa'. b .in an ut n ..s o
coat and sporran. The tail was looped over the shoulder and held with
a brooch, f-ucl-.d -', r t.-e -"'olc 0 co' 'd ae ead s cl- .k. Ir ric tE
pl..id jesigns 4eri eventually woven in patterns and colors wnicn often
signified the clan or reiament of the owner. It is not k-no"n,- e--tctc'
w!. h at rn. we. ? w rn n c,. er .a, ,ut man un,.:no0.,.. p.-...tel.is .Zere soi"
at the Trustees store in Savannah. (Ivers 1974:101)

Highlanders did not wear knitted hose until the middle of the nine-
te-nth cer'ur.- '"ei- st-- kj gs 'er cu' ou. of ta:. an lo' w' .ch ias
shapeo ana stitched. Gar-ers were cloth a yard in length which was
wrapped around and knrtter on the out-ido of eac- leI" ar. s"'-ck"-,g.
(C.an'- 6:. ) -he- c E..oe c e le. mo .jas.... i. Ga lic wet.e one
piece soft hide brogue which were excellent for running mobility.
(r ibe If 2:: 4)

O'let'orr. w"-,te to -ie "'ru ese- th. t': jh r. id- s-s re .nt I -
mot manly appearance with their belted plaids, broadswords, targets
and firearms." (Collections '873>15) Ir 17'F, 'lher 3q2 thc"ope --is-ed
th. Hi ,l- i.de., i, w...-e .-ghL ano dreos L coclplxTmenL to thii. kBritt

Oglethorpe, English and Highlander soldiers recruited from Darien
fo 7ht -id -b' si' w: h :ee. Ir. ia f- m ch'. :o-o ;3 C( at an
Oconee against the Spanish at St. Augustine in 1740 and on punitive raids
into the Florida t.rri.or'" after '740 gr. 1p C .ret 3 cc:
pa..iec Jglithcpe ,orL..ed Lne rroto-Seii:inoLes of Lne western or Apalachee
area of Florida. The Oconees who fought 'Tith Og1e-thnrpe and the-.r

3. ,. >"- :Al

i *rY a w rr -. 1 of hL r- *- i iE
.r.i ...e. 7 i ..nu i: .. a re -on f ..e io a r.

The reeks who T.inpd Oc]lethorpo on a punitive raid aqpinct St.
/ J- n n 4 :.e :: a y :w i h n .a ,i t
figures. (Kimber 19/b:lb; Their hair was plucked out or snavea around
t 3: i e- t. > O .i.. c tC r 1a r ac
Titeir are-. ws W -.S sk.i o blK.nkie-., t.ed ur -L.osC-iy Last ov*E t.zir
s.' '11 r a a a -i i.. or n' -ie d ti t t- I- a a '-
r e. ri e f p, o. ..rt --nC je. .n cc .o .. c i. t 3,
of reA or 'blu.I Be"s, '-anc4nc-a -y g--lie of 'he =-amI The cloTh
c .I 3- f .e :C e zt e -1- = e .. y -r b _s
probably leggings, also of "Bays", and "what they call morgissons or
F ? e. r f c : : i 'e t I
Inuiaiis who went -to Londoni which oglechnore coula be diiscinguisind roi';
t' c e n-:' n y 6 i sE

"'te-= thb Hi.'-lr' 1 -. rgi'' nt- we r'sbi de.r mr;y "- t'- ..Tn
S "t.. It a.: r. r. 0 h .in -.z I. t: C. k .At .1
was virtually mnononolized by members of -he rlan Chattam. Although
t -r aF -t. 1 -. o 1 r. ::.- at. S t -
as McQueen, McGillivray, Mclntosn, Campbell and MacDonaid. Tartans
a 1- s h .e 'r. li 3: -h-- a F "el 0 .n '4 tr
tii- Satta.h -.izg. Ln:I iad Leen jaraLerd uy wL.e i:Litl h arl ...neiL- a er
t,. .'i. '. g :s -'r- h "'ar H e:- f' r *. '' r- th
c I eca tL -s _r .a. a or o _h -- s ec ae .d, ..

Many of the traders married or lived with Indian women because the
f- i* :. er e 1 .. :. r x : i 'h
In;ian women were usually froui tie more Impoi-tanic clans, anr genieracLiy
d r -..is at a iv .ir -r g'. -n' 4 ac -n4 e' -; "
b- a..n -rt- s, ....e i c c r .. n. fc tr.. e ...d n-.:. ct
bi'::in .s "-, ~ -lie' i;- U .. .'?. It 'as ?" .at- or' "il'-te -- b-:'re -'
I .- a e n v. -- a .. et a; S r. 3 ..n t f, d .e :: -a :
desirable because they provided aopealina goods for their families.
W .i r ,. e i b .i : .
charmer" wno rained most of ner trauer husband s goods, which sne dis-
t i f ..1 a ar .9 1. -3 1

ns..n 'er i .'ule r-' e' .'ha: -e a w 1 s r;.'.y hi' re" w.i'
S : t -.I :--nE rr 1 -i e .E .0. r .r e .-s .is
wh-n a connle vplt-. u or the man left, +he mother and children re-
in. .E 4 : : I i .a :1 r L i s 1
white man who had children by an Indian wife leave the ree. nation,
h i t 1 f s :c t Vi 1 -r r hr p-
( ariy i 0:.) it ,as -st.i.atcdi tLat neCi. w.e 00 .hliar.. s,.
b- )t-' -" "re B3 -ir -I- a ur- -ns 'n t 'e o'. .a 'or. ar.
"L in. le a... L *c h. _r _tt, s t / ok DC : ..
anr Er' -lir- 'MIr er-on '96?'271 27 T

There were many chiefs of Creek and Seminole towns witn Enalisn
o .c i e h .e c r e. a a a; i. e


T c" t- bc t 'am' -es ler WJ 11i M .nt :h id iej nd.t M sil vr ..
Both men had Scottish fathers and ascended to chiefship because their
mrthe-s v -re .em rs.rs -f -po-tan' r 'iar cl -- Mc' tc h v' s r Cr- k
c,.lef who fei. in disfav.r with uiis peopLe ior signing away laige tracts
of Indian land in Georgia and sidina with Andrew.' Jarkson ac' inri R-1
S,. ick r .ks ...n ..,e .itt- c. He ses..oe -,en... an-4. i,. iat-.r ,- mp.LS.gnj
against the Seminoles. (Cotterill 1954:188-189) Alexander Mc(illivrav
w- t n L. hi M il i.vi y d h- ho- Ma hea. D-. at. .ul :o.
of Creek and French parentage who was a member of the powerful Wind
c' .n. Mc il. 'vr,- w-- t' rr -t f? .en' al 're c ief Iu.i n- he
American Kevulution and played an important role in the control of British
trade (Oott1rill 19;4:~6.)

Osceola, a leader durinQ the Second Seminole War, is considered by
s .ie :hc ar- to e .otr -r .amr ie f i, .xe. pa ..ant. jg .i p- .tr. .ts
suggest European features but most artists such as Catlin tended to
g' .re1 igl : 3 at- es .0 ei s jec s. So s. oi :s 1i- ve .is
lineage can be traced to the Highlander James McQueen, although this
point .s 3isp tah'e. (Br -d ''55 25?' F we -:r, lcQ ?.en lIi th -he
U[Lper CreeKs n tLe tegion now known as Alabama froi 176 until his
death in 1811 at the incredible 4ge of one hundred .a-d twenty-ei ght
y.- .rs i. i .rie- a .al ..ha.. ee woT;... .. tl,_: W.... d ..C an ainc. wc. of he...,
children were a son,Peter and a daughter, Ann. Ann was married to a man
o mi. d .ire -ai n. .ed op .nc : 3 ey ad d-.-gh 1-. o y. Sh.
may have married a white trader, Powell. Osceola was the son of Polly
a' 1 p- Tha ; F. .el th, gh -hi pc it em: ns -np :*ve ftc t'
Creek wars, Osceoia and his mother tied to Florida with a group lea by
Peter McQieen

Because of the ingenuity and adaptive nature of the Creeks and
S& .in .es di nat an .s :er l .l re .is. re. Jlt. 3 i onm on
tinued white contact. These changes were manifested in Indian adoption
or Eu ,pe ..- c add in re re- e .) t sec of at- e nu ict re an.
many indigenous goods, tools and crafts were quickly abandoned. As
ol. s.-illr we"e f-rgerter o4'1er tecl' ic es -ool th. Ir 'ar as th.
In:diais u.ed Lne anew materials in; their own way. Accua. ph sical
evidence is scant. but material excavrated from histrric-neriod Tndiin
s. .es ind i&s s ar;. n..- o:. go is ..ive.. o0 trt.-ed .:o .e ndi .ns 3
indicative of the extent of Creek and Seminole dependence on British
g' :ds

Tr'ca" -ti is .t F ter in "Ic- '.da .and 5ec. gi re' -al 'or ;de ab'
amounts oL European goods, such as trie remains or metal Knives, nails
and tools. musket balls, English ceramic pieces, mirror-. silver or
b .s s .te: -, .. ad ,laS.- b;a.ds -ouL.J i.. cc..jur,-tiu. w..h :. st ric period
Crrek or Seminole potsherds or burials. (Goqgin 1949:10-25) Burials
a- omn;r ni .i b Ei pe p ,n : je. :s .di te .ot. an.. t. -ir i.cc .tc- :e a
daily life but also their value to the deceased.

Lists of merchandise traded or given as presents to the Indians
reflee tl-h ano-.un- of clc-hir- or cloth that car' ir'to Tndi-1 h: nd
FQ. e.-mp-a, tc a inmortint rii_.sh- Ind-an .onitrezce ai P colta .n
Florida in 1765, British presents included: white plain shirts-201-
ch. cq -re sh .:ts .3E r'. flt s _rt .54. pi. ntc c. ..ic.-,s pie as! 3;
colored botton (pieces):12; strouds (pieces):50; needles:2,000;

E ST IN' .E ] C1L PrH G

thread:20 pounds; and gartering:16 gross. Trousers were not listed
; :nc tnm ni .5 .d -'i ais a ct .f Vi j v s < in. cn r .n n i
camps. Only ii gold edged hats and suits of clothing and three great
c t? Le. .te an te- s3 3' err pr,' abt r ser r2d r! r he -,,. .' o.rt -1.
men. A limited amount or silver jewelry was included: 71 uairs- o-
-rri- s, 4 lr'- cr ge- e ve ar prl e i 'i'' r .'rist pl-te
,s..d -. Sil. ,er >..,d _,s. (C v evl i.,ior. 19 7.. 7...

i )I r -t e L :: b we- t ; t i ia .* an ," :. ..
Indians greatly influenced the art of clothing which, as a result of
S- 1 s3 f e. na :.ve ilt ar f Ft h i r t I i -1
mary means of artistic expression. The nature of that influence was
t re -ifc c? er- .in -e n '-m 'es r. dvy irc, -.:nt in -, -'de -f ":e.-
.'z we- cl ti e outLjr'iait corluwring Oi soile n.,,-.' iceas.

.c. th. Tr z.- e M.n:. s E li .1_ :. n r :n :
lanovations, the appearance of the Creek and Seminole men's costume
: iy t ct th hc hl. c .ot .rc .,: A Ur f
the Indian men to have arn affinity for Highland dress. Of all of the
i.E -; A: rn n e .er ar fr: -i ,- 3' t'I l ,, '" a .s
French and Germans, only Scotcisn Highlanders cnose a saKirL-li.".e dLtire.
Ti- -t 1. ofC dr--s --st sui.i ed Tindj 2n n rp-.es toc

Convenience and freedom of movement could be considered the best
r isc f. : fe nc of hc c : ir b me ; lp -t:; j 1-.I :or .en .'he
lived or travelled in wet areas. Highlanders considered trousers
S'ee th *-he w a d' t- ar s! rt. al- we mce --w ee,' .m .: rr. e-
ment. (Dunbar 1962:162) Creek and Seminole men lived along rivers
a 1 i- s- mo:- ar,-s -..- G -rc-' c Fc ri -. ar -1 s' rt" we-e m-re 'ra-.ic-1
eKpec.al.y for men w;,o ttavelec in uugLut Lanc.Cs. Finill., tie l;dia.
mpn affixed the idea of helplessness and effeminanc, with trousers.
(. IA it :G3

c if n e n .e id cer co. .ci dnc td 11i m rt -rm
compared the dress of the Creeks to that of Highlanders in his Travels.
B- -tr -, ho as f- .en" of Lac'la- MCI -to'-- (B -tr :n 1 "5 .- ) w ; id
have ueen acquainted with Hiqhland uress. he descriD ec Creek uostuiLe;

.-;e -lot..in, of Lhe.. b,_die_. 1 vee s... pl ar.. f.t ga
Sometimes a ruffled shirt of fine linen, next to the skin
Id f p, hi c -er t ii c -w. p -ts tV 3 c rm. t
somewhat resembles the ancient Roman breeches, or the kilts
t'e h'l nd -s; _t A u i L on st of ( 'c 'f 'lu
ciotn, abour eignteen inches wide, chis they pass uetveen
+-hei th ghF~ a-d br-th nnds fail do'"n, one before +-he -theo
,ehi.ld, 4ot quite t. th, kne; hi. fl.p i us.ali, pSit...
and indented at the ends, ornamented with beads, tinsel,
Ace .. ne .hi h gs Loc e ou th wa ,t, Li} a
frock, or split down before, resembling a gown, which is
)ImiF mE-. w: pp c 'se anc -:h a t ci. ile b a
curious belt or sash. (Bartran 1950:318)

aimi.Laricie between the appeaLince of digi.anuers anc. Crt--k .
Spmin-le men 's moTst obvious in portraits, paintings, and lithographs



II :i




: ~-
.:~I! "~':


~. i.. :




-~ -. ;




~t t

0. a-

-~ pry.


Fi. rure 6.

Figure 7.

iugcJ Ac-.g... r .-ch -ar. or --g ..-
,r 17 -2- 9' .n -1 t' -
..- .r, .e r. ..n ie. :a 1 t
-.ac' ,ror~, d, 4he nol 77t- o- Montgor'ry
ic. a: r- e e -c- tX
with the Indians, Courtesy Scottish
3+ n: ?. r :1 '. i u ..

sEf.Aser, -2,.j. i.uyas E2yli.iud .ey
t C ig i .13 at- or r r a"' \ c
,w .1 1 3, .t t
'rnitrd S'rv!Tes 'ujsr'nm.

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SE, .AC V : L' .i:

P 1 O.... g. S .r ,,
S iti .ni.a.. u.t.An,
A-: h -s ":er N. 4 .

),- e: .,o e F.
aationa Arnhnropologicla

f e -. re ar'- an"- he ,or a ,ar' 3 1 *ee '- c1 th i+'4 a irr e -'-ir of
d .. y r: t ..t d .t .a. h k e t! f. .c .. nc : ,
hi? dress hefit th- "quprome Thie' of thp Seminole Nation". He wtenf to
t:. A .it c t .r e n i 3 9. : t; s .. :: -.E 3 aJ -
imagine. His frocK or coat was of the finest quality, and adorned with
a .- a t .f r n-. :-n a n n -.:.im a w. -. t w
guageous iadcx-es& or colored shawls. Hi. bearing ;,As .-,at of chtief
i, ..-e'e "

r-orr-c C.-tlin sai'd hr ha? f;ithf"11- oportra-r.'ed ncenla

He wrote:

I have painted him precisely in the costume in which he
S c tc -i :- : n : t .nr: n i ,:, 4-
wure chree oscriuh feathers in hiLS neaa, anu a Lurban i,ade
v i- ic w. e w:: c- f c.
i s th ,,ds_.,Tne .ea... sa.. be. .. ..u. h.. w :-st,
S:.- 5 rif'e : ':-,h h -.d 'Cat- in '97' 21.

The cost'~ e ,.,orn by Rill: Bowlec fnr his 1852 daguerreotype portrait
c t-- t t -n 1 :f -. 1: t .. s r d .e
development ot unique Seminole styles. innovations inciudeu the use oi
r tI f.e- f: t :e .:g ..id .: t :n i A c :. -.n .
apwliaqed aec,-at-,jn. TL s :Lyl1 of _oaL sE:. ti. p .ce,-..nt. tOLr che
" ., ii .e atr c t" wr t o he -we ic r- :t ..

r U. : 9

E 0. r .. 'E ,( I



4 .

rra-, -

gu r a. 'orr.'iL JuwipDtL an,, Biii. i ttwarL, S .minuieLf.
s' u -r: '.!-r .' 7. -h ,o T 1 T '
-j 3I

iiL thiorLi.an
e N -


"- -

'- s

^ ^

~irgt~ 2~jO

CoGiuril g9ss seet- b& ds .werw enmiL'ol.ere oi straps .na poul..iLeLs .n
's s 'er ec' -'rr; p ii- r' C -ek ot r- ae :n- '- -ee.' ar-
am ai. de ..gs. a d; i. i c ch e. :e.. s re 0 o ..-
r-astern Tndi.?n : rt 'nd -err unlike des.ians of the western nro s ouch
Sx r- n. h .a.- .:-. c 6 -7 -I I e: e
say diamond designs represent tne rattlesnake and chat the snaxe Lian was
.c i :: .. S .n y. T' e .. t
neaacd uesigyis coulu ha.e LIcsi3Late; tidve tik jr cLan uf -ALe !.idwnef oi
'.e a er. er i: c-. :d he la of -h -:w .' *. hl -d
.pc ..an o ns .ei e.. el. .sh.... v .h An jai y as- nr-nc
' s~ Is 4-f -ve''ed rtr u d '-ec-'"e i.--,or-n'-n -Sec.-ra- ve e-lem" nt ,of
_e a L-- i .e ..u. s I ic o .e. o -e 1 ar x<-
Pxamnle of the people's creative adaptability, as they so successfully
.rr. Ie ir ..g :... u: h c- i .c -4 -Tr- -E C .S3 r...

BuLtali reiea.l cha. p- .ni. or S.. t...at. st:.rn Lnd..n ; ...-n n. ar
r-. rs f :-ri -s 1 be 's. 'F: 'a? rk 95 -lF = '"5) H- 't-or
r.- J g gs. .: .f -t... s jC .)r w n it.-. g el wl .h
'erp eijter fir~-erw-,ver or .oormd headI-'ork of neomrtrie p.9tternfs.
-a .1C at. r; ..t :r. t. It. i .ac -c s, e ..d
the look of Highland fitted tartan stockings.

Cro-k 'nd ,emirolF men wore one piece sofl- leather shoes whi.
.ie c t m. i .- r. c.. n a. s. A .c .: f 'e.
wore leather shoes with buckles for their portraits, soldiers favored
f ' .,olis furl general wear because they aloweu greater mooility. It has
23e ne. i :d a --.h re a' .d a : -a d e .-d .i5
ox me a i.- e ::ee- de-. .ve.. fLa, ;-.e .-.el.C to m. H -.;ave. C u e
-esrmbl]..'.ce f 'e foo*t'-ea" ma' be -oi j-ci- -'t:- a- ? t!?.- r :.ul of
:ic er. n: .-e .- n .

*: :h :c -.it at r;. n r. a A.. n e
of metal working, tnere is no question that silver jewelry introduced
e s -. l t : m c: b ,t f.. u .
Sat b Iri aar ieiea a iadLncA, wL-st anu driL. oai>as, .orj-. ts ian
:'" d "s '...re -'ni gi -an "' -"-.s ".st m.:m -t r-'n, n'id ar -: c -int i
: l E. r_ s -r i -.o -- 16 i _a .
c. it. .s :.. r. .i-ec -_ --. 1 t : r .': t ta Wt .' -,
with native copper and during the firs+ contact+ period th- IndianF of
r k.. w : ir 1 : .. i -. .. ...
sheets and more coins became available from British sources, Indian
ir )r -t. i o: t .- p a 3, .. -c .h- a
-ar.YLngi WiL. l ,cisud, 9ie .ed and amb.ntses deaigi;.

,i r-. S,_ :h- .it n .d .... s r h- .h i .. al oi -t I
'ngqish -ave crr-,cert s.apPF.- s':vel- go'ret- tr Inri'.n lea.l.rs 'ro ..kr-'w-
c *1 11 a -. i. s : .. h t i
continued the making and wearing gorgets aq status symhols into the
-'e :.f- c t'. :h t r. n t- f c -' r a: i .o.
_aste wt-i'e itade qurie large.

h..- in-..1ue e .a ee,. a ... E.,ir ..e ..n -.. c ..ch...g .- bL, < e
.'*ar'-le -f T 'it' h -:;f '.en-- o- No '-h ';.:er -ar Tnro'n: ". gl' h nd
2c is a : ..e .r. r se ec .v 1.- : p ar r..
in bringing abort rnm=or changes in material culture of other ,rouns
t C. .:c .1 i .ur e


h" ? ,

Fu" "abr'k, "mr L '
1 7 .n .r. s id a .d
t.uverne, NAlham

;...aa .ii, Fu. -ah.... k,

Funuaburk, Emma Lila
1 u a r 'n r -i f- o a. c,
.CprZ..it Worporau on, MeL. uch-n, ,'ew Jersey.

-iO'.. in Jc .

S 199 TC

o .n 'c

7 H teCi'c 'nd -'" -ri--1, 'lac .a -ur
.3: a .. .t p c (I )

,>yli Ar-ds .n sbathieasitrn nndan art.
e t'. nt rn- '.- '. .n" sF f 'e:
ua I- ... ie '... .r .

,, LOC .-

Proceedings oi
- a .'~3r .- oor

r -. .m La 1-h Ie Zc. ,i
1956 Colonists from Scotland. Cornell Universitv Press

e. -3 t
r L- re Li ar 4a... st D .-i:
:. .-.. Sh .t d ... s .y -i L:.e ..otL.sh re- 3ui.,e'L. Pec ra9 ,
I :nd- ..

Hanson, Charles E.
1 -: a3C : n .r

..vers, -arr
i C., I

19 _6
.i 1r :dt.--.:c
19 6h

. .. c .: F. T_ 'a. e ,

'-itl -h 'u or '-.he ;o. he- F -nt -r. U r-e: -it
rt. Ca: 11: -s C Cv pe L. 1 I

A Relation or a Journal of a Late Expedition.
-.V- F.' T1:.: P; s',: : E. _'1

IcC. '1 'na-
17 .A -

1- 2

1..pa 9i-i
19 "7

" c-- he', :r. ,.x. r .r r" .
L 'ctt s ht o r ; i -r. .nl'.-rs : ,y ."e: .-.ae s
Cine vi' e

Robert G.
-:e r : .ri :. .. :am .
Press, Atnens.

C.,let or-r'- i- Ar .-ic 'ni rs ".
'." L e :". -'

,..f 1.oriLa,

"ni r- y -ar .i

Sr c:. 7c, i S

o.' a .e t'. _t, .i ':La"
19,1 Creek into Seminole. North American Indians in Historical
s s t 'i Rp F .o:- o -'o ., 0. n!- ) )r-

"rl. er :r-, 3ar .1
1 :a_..ed e-ez "_ t : A z .. rg ..- E ..gr....ti. ec ..
1Y A;r ri 11 "73-'.734 vo' T "Tli vr-s i C" Ge-rg' -
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lablie 1. bimei.r.ios5 and h,:qigh.us -; T ,- S,-ll ,ac.w;s
(. nc ..':. : t" i c t: t. :.- .- c. C. :r n a.'

i" rs 'ac-. : '3E:' *.C at ; :

Di ..nE .-: a:. i. s a g* 3

12 x "3 x .2 <4
11. x .. 35 '. 0. x .1 .
10 C x r .5 ~42 13.? x 5 R88.
.G x .. ,. 30 3 x : -7
15.2 x 5.8 150,7 13.0 x 6.7 232.t
1. ;: ,1 .0 x ." 7
12.6 x 6.3 209.9 13.u x i.O 226.
S .. 32 .0 E 0
14._ x .9 46 9. x ... 36 .
12 x '39 '0 x 1.9 :6.
ii. x .32
11,9 2 5.8 147,

S. .- -- a m .. f :u .-. I o' h. 'i f .e- t. -.-o .- s: ..1
(Laxson b464 most or tnem probably oe.iig Tininui.actueca Trcui tr,
S. .s g :h h sr- ir- .s ~:y Iv 'e ir e :' or. th
s l : b ., t.. .. c: ...C p .. t:. ..o .. -.s s:: ..cu (C. gi : : .p
T S'.:orr. '3 :s --r ?.t'el co or hc f. h r B' ca' ne r~vy uJrJi g
p. iT r : e.. a. b il t: g r s- -.re y r ..
lithir resources, much of the prehistoric tool assemblage in southeast
S -ri ,. ti .

s. s V V- e --r ..L -e in : a, gr nC 'n .e id
Tie b ade edge. t.,ds :o in gLJurI-. ft..-n ._.ch .idc t ,e -d ce-
tr- do," -na -, ..me' i.m--- g irp. th-:" bl .-.e --!ze !.ke -ro le bu'- a?
G. g ,. a s, ht j e c. 13 a a c: r: -. r .
whether the tcol 7erv-d ac, either an adze or an axe (Gocrnin 1949: n.p.)
. 1 i j.r n a .s id t .s ..
suggested by the curvature ot the implements ana, in one case, i'y eitC
s .jt. gr_ vr- a *.g ."ie gc idc.--.'e s .. 'er.

S .o :c 3 t ct e '.or. n- .an 'he in th? th' f' -st
c,..ne .nc. d a r. ra d -..s' n e, ( g. ItL o -. -..
u-.,al -utt--W IWa" 1 ':th -i s.iT-c rc'lar not-h in it but instead of
S.-ir, ..e .g 1 :. sL -. c t 1i a: w -. .
it below the shoulder. The tip of the columella is smooth and weliworn,
W .; .e ..te o -.d. : : e ..., t .g d1. -e: .i. i. : .
Tnis tool is made froin tne Bsy-con cu.ntxariumi. a,,A mikTasu-.es fcCu- 1i..35 ..
i. le. .t

.e .;-cc:" r che har' a "r*ec- of -:al-iti- s .ndst-ne fFin. 4. on
t.. c. ti! cu-. s, T < .v. s s -.r a. n r r .r :..- -r
in, the tN-ol edge., Moore observed Pimilar artifacts during a visit
t .S TSr T:.- s .. .-.- 3; a t s 2: -_ a .
Fikahatchee Key, we found masses of sandstone, sinoocunea ana ruif-owt-

*...i 4-.- ".sY~c.
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T .*.. ..4 : "- J : .i :.; : *'. --.' a.'. : .^. '. L- .. : -. U -
4'4 .. F j -. -- t. 4 ,, .- 4*; ., ..-'....-.,.t ^ ^, ", : ;' i -. l :. ', 4 .- 4. .
,"'- .4',p;.: _-., .,.aI-.:.,,r """ ,'._i .i. ..'.'.'^4 ',' ; ; .- ^ '. r'r'*c ~ :.. -s

l g. =-'i n" e e n~ r- *;;; appror :ria ^.n li:t t boo.; '
.. .: b r 1 -a o brief inc

,:'" o.d'; -. .-- '-. :. : ,3 dise.-"r : :c i. ; .;: -' or' ,sent 1.e.i atl r _e o i 'n.:i
t .- :f ..c bt l i y icat la- r :-r. Stra- .- o -,_
..ue th the t whle tr erve nl

ome. sign-.i t reach .. N h r ao ,

n f.r-unateiy f..:it flaw-. Whiethcr or nc ons agrees with t-ts pre-

ry interpretT io. :t should cause the reade. ..r to ponder a nu- br
us to think mus. psess mre virtue rs thn i medtely meets the eye.ith
ihe -ic:1n.:: s Stat-e Museu:m or c: o hwcs ter Yr1t'c-rsit T :e
re:is- ,:on.:iu.:ue with thhe orinior-, t hilt whxie :_ster serves to3 chrnicl,
souw ruiv sianxt:can:t research -' North ;_Ticar: archaeoioCi. it
untar-:unat-ei-: hL i i t.n; It3 fiaws$. IWheth er or, no.r on*-.e-, a,_rees with its pre-
1i-,:,arv nt erpretation, at should cause the reader to ponder a number
f important issues in American archaclo-0 and a,!. book whicl;, motivates
us Ito think must possess more virtues than immediately meets the eve.

".''Ct. -.

i 'i



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