• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Highlights
 Introduction
 Methodology
 Physical description of the...
 Population
 Migration
 Employment
 Value added
 Tourism
 Health facilities
 Education
 Transportation
 Housing
 Implications
 Appendix tables
 Glossary of terms
 Bibliography






Group Title: Economics Report - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations ; no. 73
Title: Historical economic conditions in the Northeast Gulf River basins
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027780/00001
 Material Information
Title: Historical economic conditions in the Northeast Gulf River basins
Series Title: Economics report
Physical Description: vi, 69 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harris, Gene T
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Economic conditions -- Case studies -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Case studies -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Case studies -- Georgia   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 67-69.
Statement of Responsibility: Gene Harris.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027780
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000303330
oclc - 02648455
notis - ABS9871
lccn - 76623468

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Preface
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Main
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Highlights
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Methodology
        Page 3
    Physical description of the basins
        Page 4
    Population
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Migration
        Page 11
    Employment
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Value added
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Tourism
        Page 46
    Health facilities
        Page 47
    Education
        Page 48
    Transportation
        Page 49
    Housing
        Page 50
    Implications
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Appendix tables
        Appendix cover page
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Glossary of terms
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Bibliography
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
Full Text
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Ju


ly ly/1 Economics Report 73







Historical Economic Conditions in the


Northeast Gulf River Basins


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
in cooperation with
Natural Resource Economics Division
Economic Research Service
United States Department of Agriculture


Gene Harris


I I I -- II I I -pL~-IPwas~qg _1


AmlI! D


v 'f4















ABSTRACT


This report describes present and historical economic conditions
in the Northeast Gulf River Basins in north Florida, southeast Alabama,
and south Georgia. It provides secondary data relating to population,
employment, income, tourism, transportation, education, and housing.
Dollar values are expressed in terms of 1972 prices. County data have
been adjusted to reflect the magnitude of each indicator within the
Basins' hydrologic boundaries.

Economic growth in this 25-million-acre area has been slow. Each
State subarea in the study has developed at a slower rate than the State
as a whole in almost all economic phases examined. Population of the
Basins increased from 1.3 million in 1950 to 1.6 million in 1970, but
two-thirds of this growth occurred in three Florida counties. About
half of the 77 counties lost population from 1960 to 1970. Per capital
incomes were only 74 percent of the national average. The industries
located here tend to be those with slow national growth rates and which
employ unskilled labor and pay low wages. Agricultural employment has
declined considerably in recent years. Medical care, education, and
housing are less favorable in each State subarea than statewide.










PREFACE


This study was carried out under the general multiobjective
guidelines of the Water Resources Council, published in the Federal
Register on September 10, 1973, [22]. Economic Research Service
participated in this study of the Northeast Gulf River Basins under
the authority of Section 6, PL-83-566, as amended, and with Soil
Conservation Service and Forest Service under provisions of a
Memorandum of Understanding dated May 6, 1968. This report empha-
sizes the non-agricultural conditions in the area. The agricultural
situation is described in another report entitled Agriculture in the
Northeast Gulf River Basins [3].
Appreciation is expressed to Neil Cook, Gary Jones, Bill Hene-
berry, James Cato, Carlton Davis, and Clyde Kiker for reviewing
earlier drafts of this report. Gratitude is also expressed to Mrs.
Phyllis Childress for clerical assistance and to Mrs. Mary Lee
Alexander and Mrs. Lois L. Pitman for typing the final draft.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE . . .... .

TABLE OF CONTENTS .. ..... . .

LIST OF TABLES . . .

APPENDIX TABLES . . ... .

LIST OF FIGURES *

HIGHLIGHTS. .. . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . .

METHODOLOGY . . . ..

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BASINS ...

POPULATION ........

MIGRATION .. ... ......

EMPLOYMENT . . . . .

Fast-Growth Industries . .....
Coefficient of Industrial Specialization
Location Quotients . ..
Shift-Share Analysis . ...
Unemployment . . . .
Underemployment . .

VALUE ADDED . . . ..

INCOME . . .

High-Wage Industries . . .
Income Distribution .

TOURISM . . . .

HEALTH FACILITIES . . .


. . 6 .


Page


ii


iii

vi

vi

1

3

3

4

4



12

22
22
25
26
31
33

33

35

39
45

46

47















TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


EDUCATION ..

TRANSPORTATION

HOUSING . .

IMPLICATIONS .

APPENDIX TABLES .

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

BIBLIOGRAPHY .


. . .


. .



. .I

e e o


S S S *~

S S S


* r rr


* S


LIST OF TABLES


Table

1 Population, Northeast Gulf River Basins and subareas

2 Percent of nonwhite population, Northeast Gulf River
Basins, and selected areas, 1970 . . .

3 Index of population change, Northeast Gulf River
Basins, and selected areas .. . .. ...

4 Cities with population 10,000 and over, Northeast
Gulf River Basins, 1970 . . . .

5 Percent of population classified as rural, Northeast
Gulf River Basins and selected areas .. ..

6 Population densities and acreage per person, Northeast
Gulf River Basins, 1970 . ...

7 Net migration, all races, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and subareas, 1960-70 . . . .

8 Net nonwhite migration, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and subareas, 1960-70 .

iii


. 10


. 10


. 12


Page

48

49

50

50

53

64

67


r



r














LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table


9 Employment by industries, Northeast Gulf River Basins

10 Employment by major industries, Northeast Gulf River
Basins and subareas . ...

11 Percent of population employed, Northeast Gulf River
Basins, subareas, and United States . .

12 Percent change in employment by industries, Northeast
Gulf River Basins and selected areas, 1960-70 .

13 percent of total employment by industries, Northeast
Gulf River Basins and selected areas, 1970 . .

14 Annual water use per employee in selected manufacturing
industries, Northeast Gulf River Basins, 1967 ..

15 Percent of civilian employment in fast-growth industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins, and selected areas, 1970

16 percent of total employment in fast-growth industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins, and selected areas ..

17 Coefficient of specialization, Northeast Gulf River
Basins subareas, and selected areas . .

18 Industries with location quotients of 1.0 or higher,
Northeast Gulf River Basins . . . .

19 Shift-share analysis, Northeast Gulf River Basins .

20 Components of employment change, Northeast Gulf
River Basins, and subareas, 1960-70 . . .

21 Percent unemployed, Northeast Gulf River Basins,
and selected areas . .. ..... .....

22 Counties with high unemployment rates, Northeast.
Gulf River Basins . . .

23 Experienced unemployed, Northeast Gulf River
Basins, 1970 . .. . . .

iv


Page

- -* 13
. 15

* 15


*. 16


S* .18


* 20


. 21


. 23


. 24


.. 25


. 27

. 30


. 31


. 32


. 32


S. 35













LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

24 Value added by manufacturing, 1967, and percent of
State's manufacturing employment, 1970, Northeast
Gulf River Basins and subareas . . . 36

25 Personal income by major sectors, Northeast Gulf
River Basins . . . .36

26 Earnings by major sectors, Northeast Gulf River
Basins . . . .. .37

27 Per capital income, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and selected areas . . . 39

28 Median family income, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and selected areas, 1970. . . ... 41

29 Families with incomes below poverty level, Northeast
Gulf River Basins and subareas, 197Q ... . . 42

30 Families with incomes over $10,000, Northeast Gulf
SRiver Basins and subareas, 1970 ............. 43

31 Percent of civilian employment in high-wage industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins and United States, 1970 44

32 Percent of civilian employment in high-wage industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected areas . 45

33 Coefficient of variation, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and selected areas. . .. . .... 47

34 Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners per
1,000 population, Northeast Gulf Riyer Basins, and
selected areas, 1970 ... . . .... .... 48

35 Educational levels of residents 25 years old and older,
Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected areas, 1970 . 49

36 Houses with inadequate plumbling and with 1,01 or more
persons per room, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas, 1970 ... . . 51















APPENDIX TABLES


Population in the Northeast Gulf Basins Counties

Employment by industries, Alabama subarea .

Employment by industries, Florida subarea .

Employment by industries, Georgia subarea .

Shift-share analysis, Alabama subarea .

Shift-share analysis, Florida subarea .

Shift-share analysis, Georgia subarea .

Factors used to convert values to 1972 dollars


* 4 *


. * 4


Table

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure

1 Location of State subareas, Northeast Gulf
River Basins . .. . . .

2 Population change 1960-70, Northeast Gulf
River Basins . . .. . ..

3 Distribution of employment, Northeast Gulf
River Basins . . . . .

4 Location of lumber and wood products plants, 1970

5 Location of apparel and other textile product
plants, 1970 . . . . .

6 Counties with 35 percent or more underemployment
in 1960 . . . . .

7 Per capital income, 1970 .. ..... ...


Page


4 .









4 4 4


S 4 .4 4


Page

53

57

58

59

60

61

62

63











HISTORICAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE NORTHEAST


GULF RIVER BASINS



Gene Harris


HIGHLIGHTS


Economic development in the Northeast Gulf River Basins was below
the rate for the United States as a whole in 1950-70. Most economic
indicators in the three State subareas in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia
were less favorable than those for the individual States. Population
in the Basins increased from 1.3 million in 1950 to 1.6 million in 1970,
but the rate of increase was below the national rate. Population re-
mained almost unchanged during this period in the Alabama and Georgia
subareas. Two thirds of the population growth from 1950 to 1970 occurred
in three Florida counties. Thirty-five counties in the study area lost
population from 1960 to 1970. Tallahassee (71,897) and Pensacola
(59,507) are the largest population centers. Mobile, Alabama; Mont-
gomery, Alabama; Jacksonville, Florida; Gainesville, Florida; and Colum-
bus Georgia, are just outside the study area.
Population density in the Basins is very low, and there is poten-
tial for the area to help reduce densities in highly populated urban
areas elsewhere. However, the trend was the reverse in the 1960's--
there was migration from the area to cities outside the Basins. Pop-
ulation increase was a result of births exceeding deaths, as there was
a net outmigration of 78,300 from 1960 to 1970. The nonwhite population
declined 13,600 during this period. About 25 percent of the 1970 popu-
lation was nonwhite.



GENE HARRIS was formerly an agricultural economist with the
Natural Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, stationed at Gainesville, Florida. He also
held a courtesy appointment as an instructor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department at the University of Florida.






Total employment of persons 14 years old and older increased

from 425,600 in 1950 to 542,000 in 1970. Women comprised about 40 per-
cent of the labor force in 1970--an increase over previous years. Man-
ufacturing, services, and wholesale and retail trades represented about
three-fourths of total employment in each State subarea. In 1950, about
33 percent of those working were employed in agriculture, forestry, and
fisheries; this share had declined to 8 percent by 1970, mostly as a
result of increased agricultural mechanization and a large decline in
cotton acreage. Manufacturing employment was highest in furniture, lum-
ber and wood products, and textiles. The percentage of the value added
by manufacturing in the Alabama and Georgia subareas was below the per-
centage of State employment, indicating a low value of output per worker.
Basin industries tend to be lower paying industries that have not in-
creased employment nationally as fast as other employment sectors. Ed-
ucational levels in the Bao.. ;s are lower than the national average.
For this reason, many industries have located here that employ unskilled
labor. Unemployment is low;, each State subarea has a lower percentage
of unemployed than the State.as a whole. In 1960, 27 percent of the
area labor force was underemployed. Later data are not available.
These factors have contributed to low per capital incomes.
In 1970, the per capital income of the Basins was $3,117, which was
only 74 percent of the national average. Although per capital income has
been increasing at a faster rate than nationally, the absolute gap has
not been substantially reduced. In 1970, 406,000 persons and about one-
fourth of the families had incomes below the poverty level. Each State
subarea had a higher percentage of families with poverty incomes than
the State as a whole. The average poverty income was $1,715 below the
established poverty level, based on family size.
Total 1969 personal income in the Basins was $4.8 billion. About
two-thirds of this amount came from wages and salaries. Total earnings,
which are comprised of wages and salaries, other labor income, and pro-
prietors' income, were $3.9 billion. Government earnings, representing
about 36 percent of all earnings, were high because of the number of
military installations and the large number of State employees in Talla-
hassee. Farm work in 1969 pri:vided only 7 percent of all earnings, a
considerable drop from the 20 percent in 1950.






INTRODUCTION


The States of Alabama and Florida asked the U. S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) to participate in a study to determine the avail-
ability of water and land resources in the Northeast Gulf River Basins
area, and the present and future resource demands. The substate area
in Georgia was included because resource uses upstream affect the quan-
tity and quality of water in northern Florida. This report identifies
historical and present water and related land resource problems. This
study will serve as an input to State water and land use plans. The
information should also help Federal and State Agencies, regional plan-
ning councils, local governments, landowners, and concerned citizens in
planning future development of the area.
This report presents the basic structure of the Basins' economy.
Future use and availability of the area's natural resources depend on
population, employment, income, and agricultural and industrial develop-
ment. A basic survey of current economic conditions and historical
trends indicates changes that can be expected, and provides information
needed to identify potential problems and plan resource use so as to
maximize human welfare.


METHODOLOGY


Secondary data sources were used throughout the report. Very
little use was made of State publications, in order to maintain compar-
ability between the three States. A complete bibliography appears at
the end of the report. Data for counties partly within the Basins were
adjusted, based on land area and estimates by USDA representatives in
each county for agricultural items and the share of Basin population
for nonagricultural items. Population was estimated by determining
whether towns listed in the 1970 Census of Population were located in
or outside the Basins, and assuming the remainder of the county'.s popu-..
lation was randomly distributed. The base year selected for the study
was 1972. In cases where 1972 data were not; available, the most recent
data available were used. All dollar values were converted to 1972
dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index for all items.1 Much of
the data is presented by State subareas.


1See Table 44 (Appendix).






INTRODUCTION


The States of Alabama and Florida asked the U. S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) to participate in a study to determine the avail-
ability of water and land resources in the Northeast Gulf River Basins
area, and the present and future resource demands. The substate area
in Georgia was included because resource uses upstream affect the quan-
tity and quality of water in northern Florida. This report identifies
historical and present water and related land resource problems. This
study will serve as an input to State water and land use plans. The
information should also help Federal and State Agencies, regional plan-
ning councils, local governments, landowners, and concerned citizens in
planning future development of the area.
This report presents the basic structure of the Basins' economy.
Future use and availability of the area's natural resources depend on
population, employment, income, and agricultural and industrial develop-
ment. A basic survey of current economic conditions and historical
trends indicates changes that can be expected, and provides information
needed to identify potential problems and plan resource use so as to
maximize human welfare.


METHODOLOGY


Secondary data sources were used throughout the report. Very
little use was made of State publications, in order to maintain compar-
ability between the three States. A complete bibliography appears at
the end of the report. Data for counties partly within the Basins were
adjusted, based on land area and estimates by USDA representatives in
each county for agricultural items and the share of Basin population
for nonagricultural items. Population was estimated by determining
whether towns listed in the 1970 Census of Population were located in
or outside the Basins, and assuming the remainder of the county'.s popu-..
lation was randomly distributed. The base year selected for the study
was 1972. In cases where 1972 data were not; available, the most recent
data available were used. All dollar values were converted to 1972
dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index for all items.1 Much of
the data is presented by State subareas.


1See Table 44 (Appendix).







PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BASINS


The Northeast Gulf River Basins cover northern Florida, southeastern
Alabama, and southern Georgia (Figure l)--an area of some 24.8 million
acres. About 22 percent of Alabama's total area, 34 percent of Florida's
area, and 13 percent of Georgia's area are within the Basins. Twenty-
two counties in Alabama, 31 in Florida, and 24 in Georgia are partly or
wholly within the Basins. The principal rivers are the Apalachicola
(below Jim Woodruff Dam), Aucilla, Blackwater, Chattachoochee (Alabama
portion only), Choctawhatchee, Escambia, Ochlockonee, Perdido, St. Marks,
St. Marys, Suwannee, and the Yellow. The St. Marys River flows into the
Atlantic. All other rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico.
The topography is strongly rolling in the northern part of the
northern part of the Alabama subarea, gently rolling to moderately roll-
ing in southern Alabama and western Florida, and gently rolling to flat
in the Georgia and eastern Florida areas. The winter climate is general-
ly mild; summers are long and hot, with frequent thundershowers. The
average annual rainfall varies from 44 to 64 inches. The growing season
ranges from 235 days in the northern areas to about 300 days along the
Gulf of Mexico.


POPULATION


In 1970, 1.6 million people resided within the Basins (Table 1).
Population has increased at a slower rate than in the Southeast and the
United States as a whole. Each State subarea has grown at a slower rate
than the State as a whole. Between 1960 and 1970, 35 of the Basins' 77
counties lost population (Figure 2). Only 21 counties gained population
at a rate above the national rate.2 In 1970, about one-fourth of the
Basins' population was nonwhite (Table 2). Each State subarea had a
higher percentage of nonwhites than did the State as a whole. Nonwhite
population in the Basins declined from 410,000 in 1960 to 397,000 in
1970.



2The total population of the 77 counties, as shown in Appendix
Table 37.


I







PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BASINS


The Northeast Gulf River Basins cover northern Florida, southeastern
Alabama, and southern Georgia (Figure l)--an area of some 24.8 million
acres. About 22 percent of Alabama's total area, 34 percent of Florida's
area, and 13 percent of Georgia's area are within the Basins. Twenty-
two counties in Alabama, 31 in Florida, and 24 in Georgia are partly or
wholly within the Basins. The principal rivers are the Apalachicola
(below Jim Woodruff Dam), Aucilla, Blackwater, Chattachoochee (Alabama
portion only), Choctawhatchee, Escambia, Ochlockonee, Perdido, St. Marks,
St. Marys, Suwannee, and the Yellow. The St. Marys River flows into the
Atlantic. All other rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico.
The topography is strongly rolling in the northern part of the
northern part of the Alabama subarea, gently rolling to moderately roll-
ing in southern Alabama and western Florida, and gently rolling to flat
in the Georgia and eastern Florida areas. The winter climate is general-
ly mild; summers are long and hot, with frequent thundershowers. The
average annual rainfall varies from 44 to 64 inches. The growing season
ranges from 235 days in the northern areas to about 300 days along the
Gulf of Mexico.


POPULATION


In 1970, 1.6 million people resided within the Basins (Table 1).
Population has increased at a slower rate than in the Southeast and the
United States as a whole. Each State subarea has grown at a slower rate
than the State as a whole. Between 1960 and 1970, 35 of the Basins' 77
counties lost population (Figure 2). Only 21 counties gained population
at a rate above the national rate.2 In 1970, about one-fourth of the
Basins' population was nonwhite (Table 2). Each State subarea had a
higher percentage of nonwhites than did the State as a whole. Nonwhite
population in the Basins declined from 410,000 in 1960 to 397,000 in
1970.



2The total population of the 77 counties, as shown in Appendix
Table 37.


I












Legend


tj Alabama subarea


jS Florida subarea


M Georgia subarea


LOWNDES


CAMOEN


+
. I


NORTHEAST GULF RIVER BASIN
FLORIDA. ALASAMA AND GEORGIA

IVANOtl*--W


o4UL OF E.ICO


. Figure 1.--Location of State subareas, Northeast

Gulf River Basins


rrro
------- ~rrr
-- ~I-









Percent change 1960-1970

S13.3 or over

+ 0 to 13.3

Population decline

1
U.S. population increased 13.3
percent between 1960-1970.
















S- ..-.--..CA. .DEN


o..Oinf !


NORTHEAST GULF RIVER BASIN
PLORfDA, ALABAMA AND GEORGIA
4ct. SOl*Vf.lO S.Vt
'


UrF or Ce-lCO


Figure 2.--Population change 1960-70,
Northeast Gulf River Basins


_ 1 111___ ~I~ ____ _____bll____m______mmD__l__l__^s_____








able l.--Population, Northeast Gulf River Basins and subareas



Item 1950 1960 1970



Thousands
Alabama subarea 446 435 451
Florida subarea 549 724 843a
Georgia subarea 281 286 288

Northeast Gulf Basins 1,276 1,445 1,582


aBureau of Economic anii Business Research, University of Florida
figures indicate a population of 885,000 on July 1, 1972. The percentage
of Florida's population in the Basins dropped from 12.4 percent in 1970
to 11.9 percent in 1972

Source: [8, 17].



Table 2.--Percent of nonwhite population, Northeast Gulf River Basins,
and selected areas, 1970


Area Subarea State


Percent
Alabama 30.2 26.4

Florida 20.5 15.8

Georgia 32.1 26.1
Northeast Gulf Basins 25.1 NA


NA = Not applicable.

Source: [8].

U. S. population increased 34 percent during 1950-70; the Basins'
population increased 24 percent (Table 3). Almost 96 percent of this
increase occurred in the Florida subarea, and over two-thirds of the








Table 3.--Index of population change, Northeast ',if River
Basins, and selected areas (1950 = 100)



Area 1960 1970


Alabama subarea 99 101
Alabama 107 112

Florida subarea 135 154
Florida 179 245

Georgia subarea 102 102
Georgia 114 133


Northeast Gulf Basins 115 124

Southeast 115 130

United States 115 134


Source: [8,17].

population growth in the Basins occurred in Escambia, Okaloosa, and
Leon counties in Florida. Population of the Florida subarea increased
about 54 percent compared with 1 percent for Alabama and 2 percent for
Georgia.
There are seven Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's) in
the Basins. Only Tallahassee and Pensacola are completely within the
Basins. Those partly within the Basins are Mobile, Alabama; Montgomery,
Alabama; Columbus, Georgia-Alabama; Jacksonville, Florida; and Gaines-
ville, Florida. Tallahassee was the largest city in the Basins (71,897
population) in 1970; Pensacola was the largest SMSA. Only six cities
had populations exceeding 25,000. Table 4 lists cities with populations
of 10,000 and over.



A SMSA is defined by the U. S. Bureau of Census as a county or group of
contiguous counties (except in New England) that contains at least one
city with at least 50,000 population and comprises a single economic and
social unit.









Table4.2--Cities with population 10,000 and over, Northeast Gulf
River Basins, 1970



Rank City, State Population


Number

1 Tallahassee, Fla. 71,897
2 Pensacola, Fla. 59,507
3 Dothan, Ala. 36,733
4 Valdosta, Ga. 32,303
5 Panama City, Fla. 32,096

6 Phenix City, Ala. 25,281
7 W. Pensacola, Fla. 20,924
8 Ft. Walton Beach, Fla. 19,994
9 Thomasville, Ga. 18,155
10 Myrtle Grove, Fla. 16,186

11 Warrington, Fla. 15,848
12 Enterprise, Ala. 15,591
13 Moultrie, Ga. 14,302
14 Ozark, Ala. 13,555
15 Tifton, Ga. 12,179

16 Troy, Ala. 11,482
17 Lake City, Fla. 10,575
18 Andalusia, Ala. 10,092


Source: [15].

In 1970, 48 percent of the Basins' total population was classified
Rural, a considerable decline from 1950, when about two-thirds was
Lassified as rural (Table 5). Over half of the population in both the
.abama and Georgia subareas was classified as rural in 1970.
Rural population can be broken down into two components--farm and
farm. The Basins' rural farm population declined from 429,000 in 1950
95,000 in 1970. However, rural nonfarm population increased from
5,000 in 1950 to 656,000 in 1970, as there was a tendency for people to
ve to rural areas and work in town


The U.S. Bureau of Census applies the term "urban"to all incorpor-
ed or unincorporated places with 2,500 or more inhabitants and the
nsely settled fringe areas around them.








Table 5.--Percent of population classified as rural, Northeast,
Gulf River Basins and selected areas



Area 1950 1960 1970

Percent

Alabama subarea 69 58 52
Alabama 56 45 42
Florida subarea 64 53 43
Florida 35 26 19
Georgia subarea 66 55 54
Georgia 55 45 40
Northeast Gulf Basins 66 55 48
United States 40 37 27


Source: [8 ,17].

The Basins are not densely populated; only four counties have a
population density of 125 per square mile or higher. The number of
persons per square mile increases rapidly with city size. For example,
cities of 2,500 to 4,999 persons had an average population density of
683 per square mile, or about 1 acre of urban and built-up area per
person (Table 6). Cities of 25,000 or more persons had an average
density almost three times as high.


Table 6.--Population densities and acreage per
Gulf River Basins, 1970


person, Northeast


Population Population per Acres per
of city square mile person

Number Acres
2,500 4,999 683 .94
5,000 9,999 1,064 .60
10,000 25,000 1,201 .53
25,000 + 1,816 .35


Source: [15].








MIGRATION

Population gains are a result of natural increases (more births than
deaths) and/or immigration. The U.S. population is highly mobile. About
one person in five changes residence during a given year. The prevalence
of immigration or outmigration is one indicator of local economic conditions
and the desirability of an area. Obviously, this measure has its limita-
tions because of the differences in human values.
Net migration figures were derived by subtracting the net change of
births minus deaths from the total change in population. The population
increased 136,800 between 1960 and 1970 (Table 7). Births exceeded deaths
by 215,100, which means that 78,300 people moved out of the Basins. This
represented a net loss of over 5 percent of the Basins' 1960 population.
The Florida subarea had a slight increase in net migration, while both the
Alabama and Georgia subareas had net losses from 1960 to 1970. Only 17 of
the 77 counties showed a net migration gain. Fourteen were in Florida and
three were in Alabama.

Table 7.--Net migration, all races, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
subareas, 1960-70



Aa Increase in Net Pct.a
Area Births Deaths
Population Migration Change

--- -- Number - Percent
Alabama subarea 15,500 101,800 46,100 -40,200 -9.2
Florida subarea 119,300 180,900 62,200 600 .1
Georgia subarea 2,000 69,000 28,300 -38,700 -13.5

Northeast Gulf Basins 136,800 351,700 136,600 -78,300 -5.4


aMigration change as a percent of 1960 population.
Source: [6].

The average age of the Basins' population in 1970 was 26.1 years, a
slight increase from 24.8 years in 1950. This reflects the fact that
many of those migrating out of the area were in the younger age groups.
The outmigration of blacks and other nonwhite races occurred at a
much faster rate than the overall migration rate. Only three counties
showed an increase in net migration. The Basins had a net migration







loss of 91,600. 22 percent), with all three subareas showing a large
loss (Table 8). This loss was primarily a result of declining agricul-
tural employment and improved opportunities for employment and living
conditions in other areas of the United States.

Table 8.--Net nonwhite migration, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
subareas, 1960-70


Net
Area Births Deaths Net Chang,- in Population
Migration

,Number Percent
Alabama subarea 41,800 16,400 -40,300 -14,900 -27.5
Florida subarea 49,400 17,600 -25,500 6,300 -15.3
Georgia subarea 31,300 10,500 -25,800 5,000 -26.5

Northeast Gulf
Basins 122,500 44,500 -91,600 -13,600 -22.3

Source: [6].

EMPLOYMENT

Small changes in the Basins' population especially in rural areas,
reflect the lack of employment opportunities. The civilian labor force
increased from 439,100 in 1950 to 556,900 in 1970. Women comprised 40
percent of the civilian labor force in 1970--up from 29 percent in 1950.
Total civilian employment of individuals 14 years and older increased
from 425,600 to 542,000 (Table 9). There was a large employment gain in
manufacturing, educational services,
occurred during this period. Various service categories employed the
largest number in the Basins (Figure 3). Manufacturing, services, and
wholesale and retail trades represented about three-fourths of total
employment in each State subarea (Table 10).6


Figure for 1970 does not include 14 and 15 year olds. However,
these groups represent less than 1 percent of the total labor force.
The civilian labor force includes both employed and unemployed.

6Detailed employment figures for each State subarea are shown in
the appendix.








Table '9.--Employment by industries, Northeast Gulf River Basins


Category


: 1950 : 1960 : 1970


Total employment
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing (total)
Furniture, lumber, and wood products
Metal industries
Machinery except electrical
Electrical machinery, equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment
Other durable goods
Food and kindred products
Textiles and fabricated products
Printing, publishing and allied industries
Chemical and allied products
Other nondurable products
Railroad and railway express
Trucking service and warehousing
Other transportation
Communications
Utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Food, bakery and dairy product stores
Eating and drinking places
General merchandise retailing
Motor vehicles retailing and service stations
Other retail trade
Banking and credit agencies
Finance, insurance and real estate
Business and repair services
Private households
Other personal services
Entertainment and recreation services
Hospitals and health services
All educational services
Welfare, religious and nonprofit
Legal, engineering, and miscellaneous prof. sv
Public administration
Industry not reported
Hotels and lodging places


i- -

: 425,619
: 139,182
S 737
S23,122
71,234
28,902
759
720
88
686
S 1,355
6,821
20,054
1,938
S 3,025
6,898
5,598
: 2,271
4,101
: 2,431
S 3,507
S 8,869
13,162
S 9,442
NA
NA
S31,381
S NA
6,430
S 6,674
S25,782
: 9,641
S 2,907
S 7,443
S17,764
NA
s. : 3,886
20,236
6,821
S 2,989


Number -

469,743 542,019


70,520
1,370
33,090
95,502
21,272
2,976
1,329
739
4,510
2,584
11,564
32,046
3,194
3,745
11,543
4,162
3,987
4,644
4,092
5,565
10,612
13,519
11,337
NA
NA
45,026
NA
11,943
8,962
33,922
15,490
2,642'
9,853
29,033
4,453
6,983
31,811
11,224
NA


44,222
2,309
39,542
114,890
16,972
5,078
2,042
1,801
8,519
6,144
8,919
36,503
3,377
8,416
17,117
2,936
4,774
9,961
6,934
8,735
16,082
14,938
14,112
11,593
16,217
30,735
7,110
10,327
11,891
19,891
19,229
3,016
25,666
48,744
S6,597
9,088
42,481
NA
NA


NA = Not available

Source: [ 9,18].


- _II ------- I I


-- ---~~----~----


-C ---- I-L- I LI-- ~r I ----- ---------- --



















































Figure 3.'--Distribution of employment, Northeast Gulf River
Basins, 1970





Table 10.--Employment by major industries, Norcheast Gulf River Basins and subareas



Alabama Florida Georgia Northeast
Industrysubarea subarea subarea Gulf
Industry
1950 1970 1950 1970 1950 1970 1950 : 1970
: -- - - - -Number -- -- -
Agriculture, forestry : 56,513 11,216 41,741 18,150 40,928 14,856 139,182 44,222
and fisheries

Mining 122 643 479 1,185 136 481 737 2,309

Construction : 7,432 11,231 11,770 22,064 3,920 6,247 23,122 39,542

Manufacturing 33,579 46,862 22,864 40,644 14,791 27,384 71,234 114,890

Transportation,commu- : 5,077 11,039 8,642 17,155 4,189 5,146 17,908 33,340
nications and
public utilities

Wholesale and retail : 19,591 27,951 29,345 55,892 13,918 19,834 62,854 103,677
trade

Finance, insurance 1,929 4,296 3,177 10,061 1,324 3,080 6,430 17,437
and real estate

Services : 30,554 43,330 53,888 114,811 19,711 28,461 104,153 186,602

Total :154,797 156,568 171,906 279,962 98,917 105,489 425,620 542,019


Source: [ 9,11].







In 1970, only 34 percent of the population of the Basins was employed,

compared with 38 percent in the United States (Table 11). This could indi-

cate,among other things,a very old or very young population, but in the

Basins, it was basically due to a lack of long term employment opportun-

ities. In Florida, the data do not include the considerable numbers em-

ployed in military installations. In many cases, the local labor force

does not have the skills required for the jobs available at these instal-

lations.


Table 11.--Percent of population employeda, Northeast Gulf River Basins,
subareas and United States



Area :1950 : 1960 : 1970

- - Percent- - - -
Alabama subarea : 35 34 35

Florida subarea 31 31 33

Georgia subarea :35 34 37

Northeast Gulf Basins : 33 33 34

United States 37 36 38


Does not include military employment.

Source: [9,18].




The Northeast Gulf Coast has one of the heaviest concentrations
of military facilities in the'nation,[25]. In 1970,-41 -405 were employed by
the mil.tary--33,822 in the Florida subarea alone. These figures are not
included in Table 9.






17
Employment in the Basins increased 15.4 percent between 1960 and 1970,

compared with a national increase of 19.6 percent (Table 12). Employment in

the Florida subarea increased 23.7 percent, while the Georgia and Alabama

subareas had gains of less than 9 percent. However, the rate of gain was

less in each State subarea than for the State as a whole.

The Basins' employment in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries de-

clined from 139,200 in 1950 to 44,200 in 1970. In the Alabama and

Georgia subareas, the rate was higher than the national rate. In 1950,

this category represented 32.7 percent of total Basins'employment but

declined to 8.2 percent by 1970. This decline resulted from a large de-

crease in cotton acreage and increased farm size, coupled with agricultural

mechanization. Excess agricultural labor either had to be absorbed by

other sectors of the economy, migrate outside the Basins, or become unem-

ployed. However, agriculture was still important in 1970; over 14 percent

of the employment in the Georgia subarea was in agriculture. All three

State subareas' share of total employment in agriculture exceeded the

shares for the State (Table 13). A larger percentage of the labor force

was employed in the manufacture of furniture, lumber, and wood products

in all three State subareas than in the State as a whole. These plants

were fairly well distributed through the Basins (Figure 4).

Employment in manufacturing of furniture, lumber and wood products,

food and kindred products, railway express, and private households de-

clined between 1960 and 1970. The shares of employment in wholesale and

retail trades and the financial sectors were lower for the State sub-

areas than for the States. The Alabama subarea's share employed in con-

struction, transportation, and manufacturing was above Alabama's. Almost

30 percent of the workers in the Alabama subarea were employed in







Table 12.--Percent change in employment by industries, Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected areas, 1960-70


StU.S ht. Alabama Florida Georgia
Category total : Gulf Subarea State Subarea State Subarea State
t a. Basins :

Total employment 19.6 15.4 7.3 -12.8 23.7 42.5 8.2 27.2
Agriculture, forestry & fisheries -32.3 -37.3 -53.2 -54.8 -23.4 1.1 35.0 -39.0
Mining 2.7 68.5 71.7 -25.2 49.9 19.6 134.4 45.4
Construction 20.9 19.5 21.3 15.8 17.6 32.4 23.2 38.2
Manufacturing (total) 14.3 20.3 15.9 21.5 11.8 53.4 46.3 31.4
Furniture, lumber, & wood products 7.5 -20.2 -21.4 -19.6 -20.1 7.9 -18.3 -25.1
Metal industries 7.3 70.7 182.9 1.2 2.6 33.7 144.5 76.1
Machinery except electrical 28.1 53.7 49.9 109.9 77.6 153.9 34.7 32.8
Electrical machinery, equip. & supplies 29.3 143.5 208.3 94.3 136.0 161.0 27.8 100.7
Transportation equipment 18.7 88.9 14.6 58.4 107.5 153.5 688.5 93.0
Other durable goods 51.1 137.7 110.8 105.4 142.6 89.0 214.2 93.1
Food & kindred products -23.0 -22.9 -27.4 -17.8 -25.0 -16.3 -16.6 7.1
Textiles & fabricated products 4.3 13.9 17.0 31.1 -47.5 68.8 87.5 21.6
Printing, publishing & allied inds. 5.4 5.7 5.1 4.7 15.4 43.3 7.1 16.0
Chemical & allied products 15.3 124.7 9.3 23.4 214.1 60.1 3.9 18.6
Other nondurable products 35.6 48.3 232.4 76.0 12.2 76.4 90.1 108.1
Railroad and railway express -31.7 -29.5 -31.8 -26.7 -26.6 -21.4 -31.6 -24.9
Trucking service and warehousing 19.9 19.7 15.0 23.6 32.1 .50.7 .1 38.3
Other transportation 26.2 114.5 250.9 30.7 84.7 50.1 -18.2 59.2
Communications 32.2 69.5 70.5 50.5 70.6 89.8 63.6 72.4
Utilities and sanitary services 44.2 56.9 66.7 54.9 47.4 83.6 73.1 75.7
Wholesale trade 42.9 51.5 56,2 71.3 57.2 66.3 33.3 66.7
Food, bakery & dairy product stores 14.2 10.5 10.5 6.2 15.6 38.0 1.3 8.7
Eating and drinking places 28.8 24.5 18,5 11.9 27.9 43.2 20.2 35.8
Other retail trade -29.7 -31.7 -37,6 -38.1 -27.7 -16.3 -33.4 -30.4
Finance, insurance and real estate 4.7 -13.5 -16.8 -13.2 6.1 14.6 -31.6 4.5
Business' and repair services 50.1 32.7 26.0 43.6 38.2 69.9 25.7 68.6
Private households -40.7 -41.4 -42.3 -43.3 -39.5 -33.2 -43.3 -42.6
Other personal services 25.3 24.1 11.5 18.7 29.7 41.1 26.7 39.8
Entertainment and recreation services 26.7 14.1 9.3 12.5 23.0 54.6- 8.7 29.1
Hospitals and health services 154.5 160.5 178.0 166.3 147.5 261.8 192.4 196.7
All educational services 82.8 67.9 47.6 61.2 86.1 116.8 35.0 86.5
Welfare, religious and nonprofit 37.4 48.1 44.2 35.4 59.2 64.3 24.1 64.0
Legal, engrg. & misc. prof. services 19.8 30.1 3.9 9.4 51.4 32.2 4.1 27.2
Public administration 32.4 33.5 39.4 17.9 37.1 52.3 7.8 38.5


Source: [9,11,18].









idinber of plants per county
1 10

r 11 24

-- 25 or more I















--j1


I OWNOES
+I


NORTHEAST GULF RIVER BASIN
FLORI. ALABAMA AND GEORGIA
-. .










-a
NORTHEAST GULF RIVER BASIN o
FLORIDA. ALABAMA AND GEORGIA







figure 4.--Location of lumber and wood products plants,
1970, Northeast Gulf River Basins






Table 13.--Percent of total employment by industries, Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected areas, 1970
0o

NSorheast Alabama Florida Georgia
U.S. Gulf
Category' total B Subarea State Subarea State Subarea State
Category* total Basins

Total employment : 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00"
Agriculture, forestry & fisheries 3.81 8.16 7.16 3.95 6.48 4.70 14.08 4.40
Mining .82 .43 .41 .74 .42 .38 .46 .45
Construction 5.97 7.30 7.17 6.88 7.88 8.49 5.92 6.79
Manufacturing (total) 25.90 21.20 29.93 28.61 14.52 14.08 25.96 27.18
Furniture, lumber, & wood prods. 1.28 3.13 4.21 2.57 2.35 .88 3.60 1.94
Metal industries 3.49 .94 .74 5.78 .56 1.58 2.24 1.47
Machinery except electrical 2.60 .38 .52 1.01 .25 .82 .50 .77
Electrical machinery, equip. & supplies : 2.49 .33 -.28 .97 .47 1.52 .05 .83
Transportation equipment 2.79 1.57 2.04 1.90 1.05 1.33 2.25 3.00
Other durable goods 2.68 1.13 1.55 1.90 .95 1.48 1.00 1.90
Food & kindred products : 1.82 1.65 1.66 1.76 1.07 1.50 3.14 2.35
Textiles & fabricated products 2.85 6.73 15.42 7.47 1.26 1.17 8.39 9.76
Printing, publishing & allied inds. 1.56 .62 .52 .76 .72 1.16 .52 .93
Chemical & allied products 1.29 1.55 .42 1.13 2.47 .74 .82 .94
Other nondurable products 3.06 3.16 2.58 3.36 3.37 1.89 3.44 3.28
Railroad & railway express .83 .54 .41 .76 .48 .52 .91 .79
Trucking service & warehousing 1.41 .88 .99 1.30 .86 1.08 .77 1.48
Other transportation 1.45 1.84 3.03 1.33 1.62 2.46 .65 1.60
Communications 1.40 1.28 .99 1.21 1.53 1.79 1.04 1.43
Utilities & sanitary services 1.68 1.61 1.64 2.05 1.64 1.84 1.50 1.69
Wholesale trade 4.09 2.97 2.79 4.06 3.03 4.49 3.05 4.35
Food, bakery & dairy prod. stores 2.50 2.76 2.86 2.57 2.73 2.85 2.69 2.32
Eating and drinking places 3.00 2.60 1.90 2.08 3.13 3.65 2.24 2.17
General merchandise retailing 2.72 2.14 2.13 2.35 2.29 3.03 1.74 2.86
Motor vehicles retailing & svc. stations 2.22 2.99 2.95 2.72 2.94 2.80 3.18 2.55
Other retail trade 5.54 5.67 5.22 5.19 5.84 6.70 5.90 5.26
Banking and credit agencies 1.69 1.31 1.18 1.37 1.33 1.74 1.47 1.61
Finance, insurance and real estate 3.32 1.91 1.56 2.30 2.27 4.27 1.45 2.96
Business and repair services 3.13 2.19 1.93 2.35 2.44 3.83 1.93 2.69
Private households 1.47 3.67 4.65 3.45 3.05 2.35 3.85 3.09
Other personal services 3.15 3.55 3.05 3.20 3.94 5.26 3.25 3.39
Entertainment & recreation services .82 .56 .43 .50 .68 1.30 .41 .58
Hospitals and health services 5.54 4.74 3.58 4.92 5.63 5.39 4.09 4.38
All educational services 8.03 8.99 6.61 7.27 11.27 7.46 6.50 6.93
Welfare, religious & nonprofit 1.52 1.22 1.10 1.32 1.35 1.30 1.05 1.35
Legal, engrg. & misc. prof. services 2.55 1.68 1.09 1.76 2.05 2.70 1.47 1.91
Public administration : 5.49 7.84 5.24 5.80 10.57 5.58 4.43 5.83


Source: [9,11,18].










manufacturing and over one-half were in textiles and fabricated products.
The Florida subarea's share employed in services was higher than the
State's share.
Changes in employment affect water use and requirements. Data on
the Basins' water use are not available. However, information in the 1967
Census of Manufacturing indicates the two biggest water users per employee
in manufacturing were paper and allied products, and chemicals and allied
products (Table 14). Textiles, the largest manufacturing employer in the
Basins, used about 400,000 gallons of water per employee.


Table 14.--Annual water use per employee in selected
manufacturing industries, Northeast Gulf
Rivers Basins, 1967


Industry Water use

per employee


1,000 gallons


Paper and allied products 15,200
Chemicals and allied products 8,800
Food and kindred products 1,600
Textile mill products 400
Primary metal industries 200
Machinery except electrical 200
Electrical equipment 100
Transportation equipment 100


Total intake.

Source: [13].


I









Fast-Growth Industries


Between 1960 and 1970, there were 19 U.S. industries that increased
employment faster than the national rate for all industries (19.6 percent;
see Table 15). These 19 industries are termed "fast-growth industries."
In 12 of these, the Basins gained at a faster rate than the Nation. How-
ever, in only six of the 19 did the Basins have as large a percentage of
their total employment as did the Nation. In the Nation, 60 percent of
the labor force was employed in the 19 fast-growth industries; in the
Basins, 54 percent was employed in the 19 fast-growth industries. There
is no assurance that these same 19 industries will grow as fast in future
decades, but if regional employment gains are to keep pace with national
8
economic development, fast-growth industries should be sought in the
area. However, the resources needed by fast-growth industries have to be
carefully considered. Perhaps some of their needed resources can be de-
veloped or enhanced and thus add to the area's industrial attractiveness.
In both 1960 and 1970, the Alabama and Georgia subareas had a lower
share of employment in high-growth industries than the other areas ana-
lized (Table 16). Employment opportunities seem favorable for the Florida
subarea, with 63 percent of its workers in fast-growth industries.


Coefficient of Industrial Specialization


The coefficient of specialization gauges the degree to which the mix
of a region's economy differs from that of the Nation as a whole or the
same region at an earlier date [4]. It is calculated by subtracting the



National economic development in this case is measured in terms of
per capital income although the shortcomings of this single measure are
recognized.










Table 15.--Percent of civilian employment in fast-growthindustries, Northeast Gulf River Basins, and
selected areas, 1970


Fast-growth industries United Northeast Alabama Florida Georgia
States : Bass subarea subarea subarea
_Basins

- - - Percent -- - -----

All educational services : 8.03 8.99 6.61 11.27 6.50
Construction : 5.97 7.30 7.17 7.88 5.92
Hospitals and health services : 5.54 4.74 3.58 5.63 4.09
Public administration 5.49 7.84 5.24 10.57 4.43
Wholesale trade : 4.09 2.97 2.79 3.03 3.05
Other personal services : 3.15 3.55 3.05 3.94 3.25
Business and repair services : 3.13 2.19 1.93 2.44 1.93
Other nondurable goods--manufacturing : 3.06 3.16 2.58 3.37 3.44
Eating and drinking places : 3.00 2.60 1.90 3.13 2.24
Other durable goods--manufacturing : 2.68 1.13 1.55 .95 1.00
Machinery manufacturing except electrical 2.60 .38 .52 .25 .50
Legal, engineering, and misc. prof. services : 2.55 1.68 1.09 2.05 1.47
Electrical machinery and supplies--mfg. : 2.49 .33 .28 .47 .05
Utilities and sanitary services 1.68 1.61 1.64 1.64 1.50
Welfare, religious and nonprofit 1.52 1.22 1.10 1.35 1.05
Other transportation : 1.45 1.84 3.03 1.62 .65
Trucking service and warehousing : 1.41 .88 .99 .86 .77
Communications 1.40 1.28 .99 1.53 1.04
Entertainment and recreational services .82 .56 .43 .68 .41

Total :60.06 54.25 46.47 62.66 43.29


Source: [9].








percentage of total employment in each industry in an area from the per-
cent each industry represents in national employment. If the pluses
exactly offset the minuses, the sum of the differences is zero. However,
if the positive differences are added, a measure of the degree to which
an area differs from the Nation is generated. A coefficient of zero
would indicate no specialization at all, with the region's mix just match-
ing the national mix. The maximum value of a coefficient close to 100 per-
cent would correspond to a situation in which the Basins are devoted en-
tirely to one industry not present in any other area of the United States.
The coefficient has been used to determine whether a given region's employ-
ment pattern diverges more from the national pattern in years of reces-
sion than in prosperous years, or whether two areas are more alike than
some third area.

Table 16.--Percent of total employment in fast-growth industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins, and selected areas


Area 1960a 1970b

- -Percent - -

Alabama subarea 32 46
Alabama 44 53

Florida subarea 43 63
Florida 47 61

Georgia subarea 35 43
Georgia 41 53

Northeast Gulf Basins 38 54
United States 52 60


aIndustries with employment growing faster than national average
of 14.9 percent from 1950 to 1960.

bIndustries with employment growing faster than national average
of 19.6 percent from 1960 to 1970.

Source: [9,18].

The correlation coefficients between the coefficient of industrial
specialization in 1970 and (1) the percent change in population between
1960 and 1970, and (2) the mean family income in 1970 were -.46 and -.54,
respectively, for the 77 counties.








The coefficient indicates that the Basins and each State subarea
have become more diversified and similar to the U.S. economy each census
year since 1950 (Table 17). The Alabama subarea was the most special-
ized in each census year; the Florida subarea was the least specialized.
Each State subarea had a higher coefficient than the State in each
census year.


Location Quotients


A location quotient indicates the relative importance of an in-
dustry to a region, compared with its national importance. For example,
8.16 percent of the employment in the Northeast Gulf Basins was in


Table 17.--Coefficient of specialization, Northeast
subareas, and selected areas


Gulf River Basins


Area 1950 1960 1970

- Coefficient - -

Alabama subarea 39.5 30.9 26.0
Alabama 22.7 16.6 12.9

Florida subarea 28.0 21.2 19.7
Florida 18.7 16.5 13.9

Georgia subarea 36.6 27.6 24.0
Georgia 22.9 16.4 13.2

Northeast Gulf
Basins 29.9 23.6 19.3


Source: [9,18].








agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, compared with 3.81 percent in the
United States. Thus, the percentage employed in this category in 1970
was 2.14 times the national average (Table 18). If the location quo-
tient is greater than one, the industry is more important regionally
than nationally in terms of employment.
Four employment categories--(1) agriculture, forestry and fisher-
ies; (2) furniture, lumber, and wood products; (3) textiles and fab-
ricated products; and (4) private households--have a location quotient
of 2.0 or above, which means these categories represent a percentage of
the Basins' employment at least twice that represented nationally.
However, the first two categories have been declining substantially in
importance during the past two decades.
The above four categories had a high location quotient in each
State subarea. The relative importance of agriculture, forestry, and
fisheries in terms of employment is declining in Alabama and Florida
subareas and increasing in the Georgia subarea. Employment in tex-
tiles and private households is increasing in Georgia and Alabama.
Figure 5 shows textile plants in the Alabama and Georgia subareas.
The location quotients for furniture, lumber and wood products have
declined in each State subarea. Chemical and allied product manufac-
turing and public administration in Florida and food and kindred products
manufacturing in Georgia had location quotients of 1.5 or higher in
1970.


Shift-Share Analysis


Change in employment totals by industries gives little comparison
of the Basins with other areas of the country. If an industry's growth
rate is compared with the Nation's, it is possible to explain the differ-
ence in growth rates in terms of national growth, industry mix, and re-
gional shares. This procedure is known as shift-share analysis.
Table 12 indicates that U.S. employment between 1960 and 1970 in-
creased 19.6 percent. National growth represents the increase in em-
ployment that would have occurred if each industry had grown 19.6 per-
cent. Industrial mix represents an adjustment for industries that have
grown at a faster or slower rate nationally than the U.S. average for










Table 18--Industries with location quotients of 1.0 or higher
Northeast Gulf River Basins


Category : 1950 : 1960 : 1970
: :


- Quotient -----


Private households

Furniture, lumber, and wood
products manufacturing

Textiles and fabricated products -
manufacturing

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Public administration

Motor vehicles retailing and service
stations

Other transportation

Construction

Chemical and allied products -
manufacturing

Other personal services

All educational services

Food, bakery and dairy product stores

Other nondurable products manufac-
turing

Other retail trade

Total employment


2.13

3.19


1.16

2.61

1.06

NA


.63

.88

.63

.68

1.13

1.04

.55

.80

1.00


2.44

2.74


2.09


2.23

1.37


2.50

2.45


2.36

2.14

1.43


NA 1.35


.72

1.19

.60

1.10

1.18

1.10

.91

1.02

1.00


1.27

1.22

1.20

1.13

1.12

1.10

1.03

1.02

1.00


Source: [ 9,18],












... 1 -21 -.
+o 3-4 4-
5 or more





I I ot












a A -.0
I--T









IO+ 0


NORTHEAST GULF RIVER BASIN c- I OF AIE -co
FLORIDA. ALABAMA AND GEORGIA





Figure 5.--Location of apparel and other textile product
plants, 1970, Northeast Gulf River Basins
B Y 2L L

l~ ~ ~ ~ J,,., ..
NORTEAS GUL RIER ASINo =,. i1
FLORIIA LABAA ANDGEORIA _


Fiue5--oainofaprlan ote exieprdc
pl~ants 190 otes ufRvrBsn








all industries. It is calculated by determining the national growth
rate for a particular industry, subtracting the 19.6 percent national
growth rate for all industries, and applying this rate to the 1960 Ba-
10
sins' employment in that industry. The regional share represents the
total employment change from 1960 to 1970, less the adjustments for
national growth and industry mix.
The industries in the Basins tend to be those that have failed to
increase employment as fast as the national growth rate (Table 15).
Although the Basins' employment has not increased as fast as the Nation's,
they have done remarkably well in view of the number of slow-growth in-
dustries located here. The area's employment increased 83,500 between
11
1960 and 1970 (Table 19). Employment wduld have increased 89,900 if
the Basin's employment had grown at the national rate for all industries.
However, if the industries located here had grown at their national
rate, this figure would have decreased 18,500. Thus, 12,100 jobs can
be attributed to the regional growth of the industries that exceeded
their national growth. Agriculture declined at a faster rate than
nationally. Construction, wholesale and retail trades, and services
also failed to grow at the national rate. All other categories showed
positive regional increases.
The Florida subarea exhibited employment growth in all three cate-
gories (Table 20). The Georgia subarea had a regional growth increase
despite a very unfavorable industrial mix. The Alabama subarea had a
poor industrial mix, and the industries in the region grew at an even
slower rate than nationally. The largestregional declines were in
agriculture and services.







10
1The industry mix and regional share shown in Table 19 were cal-
culated for broad industrial classifications, such as manufacturing,
by summing the industrial mix and regional share of all manufacturing
industries listed in Table 9.
11
Does not include industry not reported in 1960. The actual
increase was 72,300.








0
Table 19.--Shift-share analysis, Northeast Gulf River Basins


SCivilian employment National : Industry : Regional
Industry Change mix : share
Indust1960 1970 1960-1970 growth mix share

S--- ---- -------- Number- ----------------
Agriculture, forestry 70,520 44,222 -26,298 13,822 -36,634 -3,486
and fisheries

Mining 1,370 2,309 939 268 -305 976

Construction :33,090 39,542 6,452 6,486 438 -472

Manufacturing :95,502 114,890 19,388 18,720 -13,760 14,428

Transportation, communi- : 22,450 33,340 10,890 4,401 67 6,422
cations, and utilities :

Wholesale and retail :80,496 103,677 23,181 15,776 8,970 -1,565
trade

Finance, insurance and 11,943 17,437 5,494 2,339 2,877 278
real estate

Services :143,148 186,602 43,454 28,059 19,859 -4,464
b458,519 542,019 83,500 89,871 -18,488 12,117
Total 458,519 542,019 83,500 89,871 -18,$488 12,117


a
14 years and older

bEmployment of 11,224

Source: [9,18].


in "industries not reported" in 1960 was not included in the analysis.







Table 20.--Components of employment change, Northeast Gulf River Basins,
and subareas, 1960-70



Area National Industry Regional
growth mix share

- -Number - ---

Alabama subarea 28,054 -14,143 -471

Florida subarea 43,083 6,647 10,422

Georgia subarea 18,734 -10,992 2,166

Northeast Gulf Basins 89,871 -18,488 12,117



Source: [9,18].


Unemployment

12
The Basins' unemployment totaled 20,700 in 1970, representing 3.7
percent of the total civilian labor force (Table 21). This is a very low
rate and is considered close to full employment because it includes per-
sons in the process of changing jobs or not actively seeking employment.
Although all three subareas had unemployment rates-below 4 percent, un-
employment was lowest in the Georgia subarea and highest in the Florida
subarea. Historically, each subarea has had unemployment rates lower than
the State's. However, the unemployment rates in some counties exceeded
5 percent in 1960 and 1970 (Table 22).
Unemployed persons who have previously worked are classified as ex-
perienced unemployed. Eight-three percent of the unemployed were so
calissified in 1970. The occupations with the largest numbers of un-
employed males were craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers, operatives,
and nonfarm laborers. The major categories among females were clerical
workers and operatives (Table 23). Almost 60 percent of the experienced
unemployed were female.


12
1Unemployment is defined by the Census Bureau as civilians 16 years
old and over, and (a) were neither "at work" nor "with a job, but not at
work" during the reference week, (b) were looking for work during the
past 4 weeks, and (c) were available to accept a job.








Table 21.--Percent unemployed, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas



Area 1950a 1960a 1970h


- - Percent - -


Alabama subarea 2.7 5.3 3.8
Alabama 4.2 5.7 4.5

Florida subarea 3.6 4.7 3.9
Florida 4.5 5.0 3.8

Georgia subarea 2.8 5.0 3.1
Georgia 3.4 4.5 3.2

Northeast Gulf Basins 3.1 4.9 3.7

United States 4.8 5.1 4.4



a14 years old and over.

b16 years old and over.

Source: [9, 18].



Table 22.--Counties with high unemployment rates, Northeast Gulf
River Basins



County 1960 1970

--- Percent - -

Conecuh, Alabama 4.6 7.9
Clinch, Georgia 5.8 6.6
Okaloosa, Florida 5.4 6.5
Liberty, Florida 6.1 6.2
Escambia, Alabama 6.6 5.9
Bullock, Alabama 4.4 5.9
Escambia, Florida 5.3 5.2
Atkinson, Georgia 6.6 5.0


Source: [9,18].







Underemployment


A person is classified as underemployed when he is employed in a
job below his capacity with respect to age, education, and other attri-
butes. If a low-income area is also an area of underemployment, ex-
panding demand for labor through increased business activity may be met
using the local labor force. However, if low incomes are a reflection
of the employees' capacities, the labor force is already being fully
utilized. Also, if low income people have little incentive to improve
their economic positions, labor availability cannot be expanded in the
short run. Data on lack of incentive is unavailable, and there are no
current estimates of underemployment. Kampe and Lindamood [5] made
estimates of underemployment based on the 1960 Census of Population.
Their estimates indicate that approximately 27 percent of the em-
ployed civilians were underemployed in 1960. Underemployment was
lowest in the Florida subarea (21 percent) while approximately one-
third of those employed were underemployed in the Georgia and Alabama
subareas. There were 27 counties in the Basins that had 35 percent
or more underemployment (Figure 6).


VALUE ADDED


Value added by manufacturing is derived by subtracting the total
cost of materials from the value of shipments and other receipts, and
adjusting the result by the net change in finished products and work-'
in-progress inventories between the beginning and end of the year.
The 1967 Census of Manufacturing reported that the Basins had a
value added of $1.2 billion from manufacturing (Table 24). Although
this is a sizable figure, both the Alabama and Georgia subareas had a
much smaller share of each State's total value added than their share
of the State's manufacturing employment. This generally indicates a
low value of output per worker, low capital/labor ratios, or a pre-
ponderence of unskilled labor. As a result, low wage rates can be
expected.









I

535% or more I a


-~ MAC .S vL --



LOWN S







----8 1r (F~S l O ) ,- h
1ON'IOU





-+-E
ICI T0 N MITC f Z l B aF E


s o.X A N-f A T O f C L NC C


- / or i~es. 1S .IL A II
I i .~i' i 1+
NMTHASTGUL RIER ASI
FLORID. ALABMA AN GEORGA e,
II (K~I~SAE 'yn


Figure 6.--Counties with 35 percent or more underemployment
in 1960, Northeast Gulf River Basins





35


Table 23.--Experienced unemployed, Northeast Gulf River Basins,
1970




Occupation Male Female


Professional, technical or managerial 503 672
Sales workers 353 631
Clerical and kindred workers 322 2,234
Craftsmen, foreman and kindred workers 2,269 NA
Operatives, including transport 1,822 2,354
Laborers, except farm 1,670 NA
Farm workers 651 574
Service workers, including private household 794 NA
Other blue collar workers NA 441
Service workers, except private household NA 1,803
Private household NA 1,117
Other 36 255
Total 8.420 10,081


NA = Not available

aRoutine manufacturing jobs such as assembly workers, garment
workers, and packagers.
Source: [9].


INCOME


Personal income is the current income received by residents of an
area from all sources. It is measured before deduction of income and
other personal taxes but after deductions of personal contributions to
Social Security, government retirement, and other social insurance. Per-
sonal income in the Basins in 1969 totaled $4.8 billion (Table 25).
Shares for the Alabama, Florida, and Georgia subareas were 27, 56, and
17 percent, respectively. About two-thirds of personal income came from
wages and salaries.





36


Table 24.--Value added by manufacturing, 1967, and percent of State's
manufacturing employment, 1970, Northeast Gulf River Basins
and subareas


Value added, 1967 Share of State's
Area Valuea Share manufacturing
of State employment, 1970

$ million Percent Percent
Alabama subarea 375.6 9 14
Florida subarea 587.4 13 12
Georgia subarea 232.3 4 6

Northeast Gulf Basins 1,195.3 NA NA



a1972 dollars.

NA = Not applicable.

Source: [9,13 .



Table 25.--Personal income by major sectors, Northeast Gulf River
Basins


Sector 1950 1959 1969


$ milliona- -.----


Total personal income 1,852 2,765 4,844

Wages and salaries 1,033 1,820 3,260
Other labor income 20 52 115
Proprietors income 455 395 504
Farm 258 158 231
Nonfarm 197 237 273
Property income 177 310 616
Transfer payments 192 242 488
Less: Social Security 25 54 139



a1972 dollars.

Source: [20}.








Earnings are the sum of wages and salaries, other labor income, and
proprietors' incomes (Table 26). Total earnings in the Northeast Gulf
totaled $3.9 billion in 1969, accounting for about 80 percent of total
personal income. Earnings are more directly affected by water resource
development than personal income; however, earnings affect both property
income and transfer payments, which are included in personal income [23].
At the national level, earnings comprise about two-thir4s of the gross
national product (GNP).

Table 26.--Earnings by major sectors, Northeast Gulf River Basins




Sector 1950 1959 1969


- $.million- - -



Total earnings 1,508 2,267 3,879


Farm 300 197 269
Nonfarm 1,208 2,070 3,610
Government 346 680 1,405
Federal 210 417 795
Civilian 78 158 290
Military 132 259 505
State and local 136 263 610
Private nonfarm 862 1,390 2,205
Manufacturing 259 448 782
Transportation 68 85 150
Wholesale and
retail trade 239 357 527
Services 146 253 390
Other 150 247 356



a1972 dollars.

Source: [20].
Government employment at all levels provided about 36 percent of the
Basins' total earnings in 1969. There are several military instal-







lations in the Basins and a large number of State employees in Talla-
hassee. Manufacturing and wholesale and retail trade together repre-
sented over one-third of total Basins'earnings. Farm earnings accounted
for only 7 percent in 1969, a drop from about 20 percent in 1950.
Counties with total earnings of $200 million or more in 1969 included
Dale, Alabama; Escambia, Florida; Leon, Florida; Bay, Florida; and
Okaloosa, Florida.
One of the major problems in the Basins is low per capital income.
About one-fourth of the population is black, many of whom are very young
or old. Those employed are working in many cases as unskilled laborers
and on farms, receiving low wages, The Basins' real income more than
doubled from 1950 to 1970 and increased as a share of total U.S. income.
However, the absolute gap was reduced very little. Per capital income in
the Basins in 1970 was $3,117, which was only 74 percent of the national
average (Table 27). Nine of the 77 counties had per capital incomes less
than half the national average of $4,235 (Figure 7). Only one county
(Dale, Ala.) had an average income exceeding the national average and
only five counties had averages exceeding the Southeast average ($3,643).
Low income and lack of employment opportunities have contributed to the
slow population growth in the area.
The median family income in the Basins in 1970 was $7,436--72 per-
cent of the U.S. median (Table 28). Family income in each subarea was
about $1,000 below the State average. The median family income in the
Florida subarea was more than $1,000 higher than in the Alabama and
Georgia subareas.
In 1970, 406,000 persons, including 85,200 families, had incomes
13
below the poverty level3 The average family income of this group was
only $2,177, which was $1,715 below the poverty level (Table 29). This
figure was similar in all State subareas. Each subarea had a higher per-
centage of poverty families than the State.
In 1970, 112,200 families in the Basins had family incomes exceeding
$10,000--a considerable increase over 22,400 in 1960. However, it should
be recognized that $10,000 in 1960 was roughly equivalent to purchasing


13Poverty levels used were same as those used by the Bureau of Census.
The correlation coefficient between the percentage of poverty families,
and (1) population change between 1960 and 1970, and (2) mean family
income was -.73 and -.86 for the 77 counties.









Table 27.--Per capital income, Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected
areas



Area 1950 1959 1970


- Dollars - -

Alabama subarea 1,350 1,761 2,888
Alabama 1,531 2,110 3,081

Florida subarea 1,615 2,219 3,307
Florida 2,229 2,788 3,933

Georgia subarea 1,329 1,715 2,906
Georgia 1,799 2,317 3,599

Northeast Gulf Basins 1,460 1,984 3,117

United States 2,603 3,112 4,235

- Percent - -
Basins' percent of U.S.
level 56 64 74


a1972 dollars.

Source: 120].


power of $14,000 in terms of the 1970 dollar. Although the Basins have
a large number of families earning more than $10,000, the percentage earn-
ing this amount in each State subarea was below the percentages Statewide
(Table 30).


High Wage Industries

The more important industries in the Basins tend to be the lower pay-
ing industries. In 1972, 17 industries had higher wage rates nationally
than the 1972 U.S. average wage rate [71. In 1970, the Basins' percentage
of total employment exceeded the U.S. share in only three of these

















'6551
-2 .... 2 5
2808 \
CO1 FE __


-I 3 7



2 0 i iE 3036551 .






2270 2181 o- -
S ---- ------ 147 ,
o_ .Ko. ,S2)53.-*I Cr. _.












3 .158 i =----. \- ,"-- 1 1554 3
--- c/ .,,,- 2443 _-- I-*-- \ M.,











....2292 rr 2274 .2516- 0476 3327 --
1 ---, --. r 2156 I E3673 E A- O J cOFF
A/ -i- 3278 i,2008
----- 3169 (- ,
.. 270ij I.. 0 ... -2 ,. / 3 6 4'' \


S 23673 3387 2 t .. 4 -, .










NORTHEAST GU0L.F RIVER BASIN a aBRc 27 59 2008
FLORIDA. ALABAMA AND GEORGIA 0 -
O -S- .R R 5 2EKG 0 2 3 2 8 9 r 2 .
1. -\ 1 .... 2304 <" \ J T--' ....


I : AND "0 xI E "
n !T T a .f_ G--IA 1 1" 1 ~


Figure 7.--Per capital income, 1970, Northeast Gulf
River Basins







Table 28.--Median family income, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas, 1970a


Area Subarea State


Dollars
Alabama 6,808 7,847

Florida 7,987 8,928

Georgia 6,847 8,820

Northeast Gulf Basins 7,436 NA


NA = Not applicable.

aMedian county incomes weighted by population. All incomes ex-
pressed in 1972 dollars.

Source: [9].


industries: construction, chemical and allied products, and other trans-
14
portation (Table 31). The Florida subarea exceeded the U.S. share in four
industries; the Georgia and Alabama subareas exceeded the U.S. share in
only two industries. However, the industrial mix in the Basins improved
somewhat between 1960 and 1970. The Basins increased their employment
in high-wage industries from 30 to 34 percent, while the U.S. share de-
clined from 44 to 42 percent (Table 32). In both 1960 and 1970, each
subarea's share of employment in high wage industries was below the State
share. These data, as well as data on employment, unemployment, and under-
employment, indicate that the area has attracted more than its share of
slow-growth, low-wage industries. Any type regional development plan de-
signed to raise income levels should encourage the growth of the high wage
industries listed in Table 31.


14
The correlation coefficient between the percent employed in high
wage industries, and (1) population change between 1960 and 1970, and
(2) the 1970 mean family income was .46 and .33, respectively,for the
77-county area.











Table 29.--Families with incomes below poverty level, Northeast Gulf River Basins and subareas, 1970a


Mean Mean Percent of Percent of
Area Families family income Basins' families state families
income deficit below poverty below poverty

Number Dollars - - Percent- - -

Alabama subarea 28,489 $2,175 $1,715 25 21

Florida subarea 38,664 2,181 1,701 19 13

Georgia subarea 18,025 2,175 1,746 25 17

Northeast Gulf Basins 85,178 2,177 1,715 22 NA


NA = Not applicable.

a1972 dollars.

Source: [9].






Table 30.--Families with incomes over $10,000, Northeast Gulf River Basins and subareas, 1970



Income class Percent of Percent of
$10,000- $15,000- subarea families families in State
14,999 24,999 $25,000+ over $10,000 over $10,000


Number of families - - Percent - -

Alabama subarea 19,587 6,673 1,742 24 31

Florida subarea 40,760 19,295 5,005 32 39

Georgia subarea 11,698 4,432 3,030 27 38

Northeast Gulf Basins 72,045 30,400 9,777 29 NA


NA= Not applicable.

Source: [9].










Table 31--Percent of civilian employment in high-wage industries.
Northeast Gulf River Basins and United States, 1970


Industry United States : Northeast
SGulf


- Percent- -----


Construction

Public administration

Wholesale trade

Metal industries

Finance, insurance and real
estate

Transportation equipment

Machinery except electrical

Electrical machinery, equipment
and supplies

Food and kindred products

Utilities and sanitary services

Printing and publishing

Other transportation

Trucking service and warehousing

Communications

Chemicals and allied products

Railroad and railway express

Mining


Total


7.30

7.84

2.97

.94


1.91

1.57

.38


5.97

5.49

4.09

3.49


3.32

2.79

2.60


2.49

1.82

1.68

1.56

1.45

1.41

1.40

1.29

.83

.82


.33

1.65

1.61

S.62

1.84

.88

1.28

1.55

.54

.43

33.64


42.50


Source: [9].


Q






Table 32.--Percent of civilian employment in high-wage industries,
Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected areas



Area 1960 1970


- Percent --

Alabama subarea 25 30
Alabama 38 40

Florida subarea 34 37
Florida 39 40

Georgia subarea 27 30
Georgia 35 38

Northeast Gulf Basins 30 34
United States 44 42



Source: [9,18].




Income Distribution


The coefficient of variation (c) measures the dispersion of the
county per capital income levels relative to the Basins' (subarea) average;
each county deviation is weighted by its share of the Basins' (subarea)
15
deviation. The higher the coefficient (c), the greater the geographic
income differentials.


15


Where


c

Pi
n
Yi


= coefficient of variation
= population of the ith
county
= regional population
= income per capital of the
th
i county
= regional income per capital







The coefficient of variation is often used in analyzing develop-
ment in countries with a regional imbalance of income differentials,
which Williamson has described as the North-South problem or regional
dualism [26]. He found that regional inequalities tend to increase in
the early stages of growth but are slight in mature economies.
Williamson found that the eight lowest income States had a coefficient
about 2 1/2 times that of the richest seven. In 1960, Mississippi had
the highest coefficient (.37) and Connecticut the lowest (.05).16 The
higher the level of development and the smaller the State, the lower
is the index of regional inequality.
The Basins' counties in Georgia had a more equal distribution than
the rest of the State for the last 2 decades. In 1970, the Alabama
subarea had a more unequal distribution and the Florida subarea had the
same distribution as the State as a whole (Table 33). In 1950 and
1960, the Florida subarea had a more unequal and the Alabama subarea
had a more equal distribution than the State. However, in each State,
the coefficient has shown a tendency to decrease over time, with a con-
vergence characteristic of maturing economies.


TOURISM


The Florida Department of Commerce collects data each year relat-
ing to the State's tourist industry.7 Although some data is obtained
from visitors who are not traveling by auto, most information is
collected at Florida's official welcome stations. A tourist is de-
fined as "an out-of-State resident who stays at least one night in
the State for reasons other than strictly business transactions."
Visitors on shopping trips, those in transit to points outside the
United States, and those visiting Florida for strictly business reasons
were not classified as tourists, nor were out-of-State military person-
nel or students enrolled in Florida educational institutions.



16Williamson used family incomes rather than per capital incomes.

7Comparable data for Alabama and Georgia were not available.





47


Table 33--Coefficient of variation, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas

: 1950 1960 :1970
Area Subarea : State Subarea : State Subarea : State


:- - - Coefficients -- --


Alabama .31 .33 .22 .27 .27 .20

Florida .30 .23 .26 .17 .16 .16

Georgia : .13 .38 .18 .31 .13 .25

Basins .29 NA .27 NA .20 NA


NA = Not applicable.


About 9 percent of the automobile tourists surveyed in 1972 indicated
that their destination was within the Basins [1]. The leading counties in
terms of tourists were Bay, Escambia, and Okaloosa, Florida. During 1971,
tourism contributed more than $4 billion to Florida's economy and made
sizable contributions to taxes. The north Florida coastline is especially
attractive to summer tourists. Based on a 1968 survey, the average summer
tourist stayed 12 days and spent $194 per stay [2]. These statistics and
the fact that all automobile tourists to Florida must pass through the
Basins indicate the importance of tourism to the entire study area.


HEALTH FACILITIES


Basins' residents have indicated a need for more health care--doctors,
dentists, nurses, and facilities. A few counties do not have any medical
doctors. The 1970 Census of Population indicates there are 2,369 medical
doctors, dentists, and related practitioners in the Basins. This would be
about 1.5 per 1,000 population, which was lower than the ratio for any of
the three States (Table 34).





48

Table 34.--Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners
per 1,000 population, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas, 1970


Area Subarea State


Number per thousand

Alabama 1.4 1.8

Florida : 1.6 2.4

Georgia 1.4 2.1

Northeast Gulf Basins 1.5 NA


NA = Not applicable.

Source: [91.


There were 110 .,::-'-. I.. ,.. ,..~ 1 in the 77-county area in 1967, with
a capacity of ; ir-!ey over I,.:-0 :... .1]. Ti-ic. .:.nc1or.ded 50 hospitals
in Florida, 42 in Alabama, and 18 in the Georgia counties. There are also
many nursing homes in the area.


EDUCATION


One factor r ...:; 'i.~ ,il- for low Basin incomes is the number of un-
skilled workers. In 1950, the average resident over 25 years old had
only 7.6 years of ;'-::.-,.,-,l.iir2.. This fi;,~.'. had increased to 10.6 years
by 1970. Although this was a large ipr,,..r c:it each State subarea still
lagged the State (Table 35). Only 42 ,,..trt of the residents 25 years
and older had '.*i-,..l,:i 4 high school. T;., percentage was lower for each
State subarea than for the State. In 1950, only 3.5 percent of those
25 years old and older had ;..,1_.led college. This figure had increased
to 7.9 percent by 1970. There are several col i)-es and vocational train-
ing centers located in the Basins.
Education and income are closely correlated. In the 77-county area
the correlation cLoe-lfr. i,-Ji. between years of school completed and family
income in 1970 was .78. The correlation with l.:-r::'eni:age of families in








Table 35.--Educational levels of residents 25 years
Northeast Gulf River Basins and selected


old and older,
areas, 1970


Years of Percent high
Area school completed school graduates


Alabama subarea : 10.0 36.3
Alabama :10.8 41.3

Florida subarea :11.2 48.1
Florida :12.1 52.6

Georgia subarea 9.8 32.3
Georgia 10.8 40.6

Northeast Gulf Basins :10.6 41.7


Source: [9].


poverty was -.78. Each year of school completed increased family income
$720. A regression of the change in median family income with change in
education between 1960 and 1970 indicated each additional year of educa-
tion increased family income by $276.


TRANSPORTATION


Highways are an important link between producers, manufacturers, and
markets. Highway facilities in the Basins are generally adequate, but
some need improvements such as widening, paving, or other changes to cor-
rect conditions considered unsafe by local residents. The major North-
South route is Interstate Highway 75, which covers about 180 miles in the
Basins area between Gainesville, Florida, to north of Ashburn, Georgia.
This road becomes very crowded during tourist seasons and a major North-
South toll road has been proposed. Interstate 10, which will cover about
400 miles between Jacksonville to west of Pensacola, is open in sections.
Completion of this route will help alleviate East-West traffic problems
in Florida. It will also provide a better access to markets in New Orleans
and Jacksonville and should increase economic activity along its route.







Other major U. S. highways are 82, 84, 27, 441, 41, and 280. There is
need for better land transportation to the Atlanta markets. There are
several small airports, but the major airports are in the SMSA's just
outside the Basins. Port facilities are available in Pensacola, Pan-
ama City, Port St. Joe, and Fernandina Beach, Florida. However, the
larger ports are in Jacksonville and Mobile, Alabama, which are just
outside the Basins. Rail 4rvice is very limited.


HOUSING


There is no universally accepted measurement for housing quality
[24]. Various measures, such as durability of structure, adequacy of
plumbing, size of dwelling, amount of living space per person, and
adequacy of heating have been used in various studies. In 1967, the
Bureau of the Census found that 87 percent of the rural structures
that were rated as dilapidated lacked complete plumbing [14]. There-
fore, in the next survey, questions relating to the quality of housing
were replaced by questions on plumbing.
In 1970, each State subarea had a higher percentage of houses
lacking some or all plumbing than did the State as a whole. In the
Basins, 89,900 houses or 17.6 percent lacked complete plumbing, com-
pared with 6.9 percent in the United States (Table 36).18 The per-
centage of occupied houses with 1.01 or more persons per room, which
indicates the degree of overcrowding, was higher in each State subarea
than in the State. About 11.1 percent of the houses in the Basins had
densities this high.


IMPLICATIONS


By most socio-economic measures, the Northeast Gulf Basins area
is relatively poor. Population growth per capital income and value
added per worker are all low. The most apparent "cause" is that fast
growth, high-wage industries have not been attracted to the area. Most



18The percentage of housing with inadequate plumbing had a corre-
lation coefficient of .90 with percent of families in poverty, -.66
with percent population change between 1960 and 1970 and -.76 correla-
tion coefficient with 1970 mean family income in the 77 counties.







Other major U. S. highways are 82, 84, 27, 441, 41, and 280. There is
need for better land transportation to the Atlanta markets. There are
several small airports, but the major airports are in the SMSA's just
outside the Basins. Port facilities are available in Pensacola, Pan-
ama City, Port St. Joe, and Fernandina Beach, Florida. However, the
larger ports are in Jacksonville and Mobile, Alabama, which are just
outside the Basins. Rail 4rvice is very limited.


HOUSING


There is no universally accepted measurement for housing quality
[24]. Various measures, such as durability of structure, adequacy of
plumbing, size of dwelling, amount of living space per person, and
adequacy of heating have been used in various studies. In 1967, the
Bureau of the Census found that 87 percent of the rural structures
that were rated as dilapidated lacked complete plumbing [14]. There-
fore, in the next survey, questions relating to the quality of housing
were replaced by questions on plumbing.
In 1970, each State subarea had a higher percentage of houses
lacking some or all plumbing than did the State as a whole. In the
Basins, 89,900 houses or 17.6 percent lacked complete plumbing, com-
pared with 6.9 percent in the United States (Table 36).18 The per-
centage of occupied houses with 1.01 or more persons per room, which
indicates the degree of overcrowding, was higher in each State subarea
than in the State. About 11.1 percent of the houses in the Basins had
densities this high.


IMPLICATIONS


By most socio-economic measures, the Northeast Gulf Basins area
is relatively poor. Population growth per capital income and value
added per worker are all low. The most apparent "cause" is that fast
growth, high-wage industries have not been attracted to the area. Most



18The percentage of housing with inadequate plumbing had a corre-
lation coefficient of .90 with percent of families in poverty, -.66
with percent population change between 1960 and 1970 and -.76 correla-
tion coefficient with 1970 mean family income in the 77 counties.











Table 36.--Houses with inadequate plumbing and with 1.01 or more
persons per room, Northeast Gulf River Basins and
selected areas, 1970


:Percent of year-round Percent of occupied
:housing units lacking : housing units with
some or all plumbing : 1.01 or more
Persons per room

- - -Percent- - - -

Alabama subarea : 22.9 11.5
Alabama : 16.9 11.1

Florida subarea : 13.2 9.9
Florida : 5.1 9.0

Georgia subarea 21.9 14.0
Georgia 16.9 11.1
Northeast Gulf
Basins 17.6 11.1
United States :6.9 8.2


Source: [14].







of the other "problems" in the area are related to industrial growth,
e.g., underemployment, low educational levels, and lack of public
services.
The role that water and related land resource development can play
in correcting this situation has not been explored in this report.
Although it is obvious there is some relationship between natural re-
sources of the area and tourism and agricultural industries, neither
of these activities has been identified with fast growth and high
wages in this area.
At the other extreme, the problems associated with rapid popu-
lation growth and a highly industrialized economy have not occurred in
these Basins. This contributes to the area's attractiveness as a
place to live and to visit. If slow growth in the area is reversed
because of the area's attractiveness, the area's main attributes could
be eroded without thoughtful, careful planning. Long term planning
to seek a desirable balance among economic and environmental uses of
the natural resources of the area, and especially to seek those uses
that are compatible with one another, is needed to preserve the area's
unique attributes. Fortunately, there is time left to do it.
The biggest need is to ascertain the suitability of each piece of
geography to produce those products considered desirable by the people
of the area. To the extent possible, these suitability ratings should
be quantified and placed in broad perspective so that the impacts of
alternative management plans for the natural resources of the area can
be compared by all concerned.
Proper use of the area's natural resources is the key variable
rather than resource development. If efficient use of natural resources
to achieve the area's goals requires their conservation or their devel-
opment, and is a specified goal of the people in the Basins' area, then
USDA programs can provide valuable assistance in improving the economic
welfare of this area.


_L






































APPENDIX TABLES





53


Table 37.--Population in the Northeast Gulf Basins' Counties


Population persons
Persons
County 1950 190 1970 : Change, : per sq.
:: 1960-70.: mi., 1970

-- --------- -Number ------------

Alabama

Baldwin 40,997 49,088 59,382 10,294 38

Barbour : 28,892 24,700 22,543 -2,157 25

Bullock : 16,054 13,462 11,824 -1,638 19

Butler 29,228 24,560 22,007 -2,553 28

Chambers 39,528 37,828 36,356 -1,472 61

Coffee 30,720 30,583 34,872 4,289 52

Conecuh 21,776 17,762 15,645 -2,117 18

Covington : 40,373 35,631 34,079 -1,552 35

Crenshaw 18,981 14,909 13,188 -1,721 22

Dale 20,828 31,066 52,938 21,872 95

Escambia 31,443 33,511 34,906 1,395 36

Geneva : 25,899 22,310. 21,924 -386 38

Henry 18,674 15,286 13,254 -2,032 24

Houston : 46,522 50,718 56,574 5,856 98

Lee 45,073 49,754 61,268 11,514 100

Lowndes : 18,018 15,417 12,897 -2,520 18

Macon 30,561 26,717 24,841 -1,876 40

Monroe 25,732 22,372 20,883 -1,489 20

Montgomery 138,965 169,210 167,790 -1,420 213

Pike 30,608 25,987 25,038 -949 37

Randolph 22,513 19,477 18,331 -1,146 32

Russell : 40,364 46,351 45,394 -957 72

Continued







Table 37.r-Population in the Northeast Gulf Basins' Counties--Continued

: Population Persons

'County 1950 1960 1970 Change, er sq.
: 1960-70 : mi., 1970


~ Number -


Florida

Alachua

Baker

Bay

Bradford

Calhoun

Columbia

Dixie

Duval

Escambia

Franklin

Gadsden

Gilchrist

Gulf

Hamilton

Holmes

Jackson

Jefferson

Lafayette

Leon

Levy

Liberty

Madison


S 57,026

S 6,313

S42,689

S 11,457

S 7,922

S 18,216

S 3,928

304,029

112,706

S 5,814

S 36,457

S 3,499

S 7,460

S 8,981

13,988

S 34,645

S 10,413

S 3,440

51,590

1 0,637

3,182

S 14,197


74,074

7,363

67,131

12,446

7,422

20,077

4,479

455,411

173,829

6,576

41,989

2,868

9,937

7,705

10,844

36,208

9,543

2,889

74,225

10,364

3,138

14,154


104,764 30,690

9,242 1,879

75,283 8,152

14,625 2,179

7,624 202

25,250 5,173

5,480 1,001

528,865 73,454

205,334 31,505

7,065 489

39,184 -2,805

3,551 683

10,096 159

7,787 82

10,720 -124

34,434 -1,774

8,778 -765

2,892 3

103,047 28,822

12,756 2,392

3,379 241

13,481 ....-673


Continued


114

16

101

50

14

32

8

691

309

13

76

10

S18

15

22

37

15

5

154

12

4

19








Table 37.--Population in the Northeast Gulf Basins Counties--Continued


: Population :P
Persons
County 1950 1960 1970 : Change, : per sq.
: : 1960-70 : mi., 1970


:- -- -- Number ------------


Florida (Cont'd.y

Nassau

Okaloosa

Santa Rosa

Suwannee

Taylor

Union

Wakulla

Walton

Washington


Georgia

Atkinson

Ben Hill

Berrien

Brooks

Camden

Charlton

Clinch

Coffee

Colquitt

Cook


Crisp


12,811

27,433

18,554

16,986

10,416

8,906

5,258

14,725

11,888




7,362

14,879

13,966

18,169

7,322

4,821

6,007

23,961

33,999

12,201

17,663


17,189

61,175

29,547

14,961

13,168

6,043

5,257

15,576

11,249




6,188

13,633

12,038

15,292

9,975

5,313

6,545

21,953

34,048

11,822


20,626

88,187

37,741

15,559

13,641

8,112

6,308

16,087

11,453




5,879

13,171

11,556

13,739

11,334

5,680

6,405

22,828

32,200

12,129


17,768 18,087


3,437

27,012

8,194

598

473

2,069

1,051

511

204




-309

-462

-482

-1,553

1,359

367

-140

875

-1,848

307

.319


Continued


32

93

37

23

13

34

11

15

20




19

52

25

28

17

7

8

37

57

52

62


:





56

Table 37.--Population in the Northeast Gulf Basins' Counties--Continued


Population :
Persons
County 1950 1960 1970 Change,: per sq.
: : 1960-70 : mi., 1970

-- ------------- Number -- ---- ----
Georgia ((bnt'd.):

Decatur 23,620 25,203 22,310 -2,893 39

Echols : 2,494 1,876 1,924 48 5

Grady 18,928 18,015 17,826 -189 38

Irwin : 11,973 9,211 8,036 -1,175 22

Lanier 5,151 5,097 5,031 -66 28

Lowndes 35,211 49,270 55,112 5,842 109

Mitchell :22,528 19,652 18,956 -696 37

Thomas :33,932 34,319 34,515 196 65

Tift :22,645 23,487 27,288 3,801 103

Turner :10,479 8,439 8,790 351 30

Ware 30,289 34,219 33,525 -694 37

Wilcox : 10,167 7,905 6,998 -907 18

Worth :19,357 16,682 14,770 1,912 26
--- ----------------


Source: ,9,18].










Table 38.--Employment by industries, Alabama subarea

Category 1950 1960 1970
__________________________________ ______ _______ ____ *-- - -- -- ~ ~ -


Total employment
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing (total)
Furniture, lumber, and wood products
Metal industries
Machinery except electrical
Electrical machinery, equip. & supplies
Transportation equipment
Other durable goods
Food and kindred products
Textiles and fabricated products
Printing, publishing and allied ind.
Chemical and allied products
Other nondurable products
Railroad and railway express
Trucking service and warehousing
Other transportation
Communications
Utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Food, bakery, and dairy product stores
Eating and drinking places
General merchandise retailing
Motor vehicles retailing & svc. stations
Other retail trade
Banking and credit agencies
Finance, insurance and real estate
Business and repair services
Private households
Other personal services
Entertainment and recreation services
Hospitals and health services
All educational services
Welfare, religious and nonprofit
Legal, engineering and misc. prof. serves.
Public administration
Industry not reported
Hotels and lodging places


-- --- Number ---


154.797 145.891 156.568


56,513
122
7,432
33,579
11,355
377
322
23
415
672
2,092
16,406
553
904
458
1,401
843
1,125
602
1,106
2,545
4,312
2,628
0
0
10,106
0
1,929
2,201
9,900
3,200
910
1,852
5,269
0
1,080
3,632
1,960
549


23,944
375
9,258
40,421
8,395
410
542
140
2,786
1,154
3,576
20,625
862
717
1,215
937
1,347
1,351
907
1,539
2,801
4,047
2,513
0
0
13,081
0
2,946
2,401
12,620
4,280
617
2,015
7,009
1,192
1,640
5,889
2,763
0


--- .


Source: [9,18].


11,216
643
11,231
46,862
6,595
1,159
812
432
3,191
2,431
2,595
24,141
818
650
4,038
639
1,550
4,740
1,546
2,564
4,375
4,473
2,977
3,336
4,622
8,168
1,846
2,450
3,025
7,279
4,772
675
5,601
10,344
1,719
1,704
8,211
0
0


----- -- -- I-. I









Table 39.--Employment by industries, Florida subarea


Category 1950 1960 1970


Total employment
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing (total)
Furniture, lumber, and wood products
Metal industries
Machinery except electrical
Electrical machinery, equip. and supplies
Transportation equipment
Other durable goods
Food and kindred products
Textiles and fabricated products
Printing, publishing and allied ind.
Chemical and allied products
Other nondurable products
Railroad and railway express
Trucking service and warehousing
Other transportation
Communications
Utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Food, bakery and dairy product stores
Eating and drinking places
General merchandise retailing
Motor vehicles retailing and service sta.
Other retail trade
Banking and credit agencies
Finance, insurance and real estate
Business and repair services
Private households
Other personal services
Entertainment and recreation services
Hospitals and health services
All educational services
Welfare, religious and nonprofit
Legal, engineering and misc. prof. serves.
Public administration
Industry not reported
Hotels and lodging places


:171,906
41,741
479
11,770
22,864
11,379
172
178
52
238
474
1,871
652
1,015
1,059
5,786
2,461
881
2,385
1,255
1,660
3,983
5,964
5,140
0
0
:14,258
0
3,177
2,893
10,095
4,464
1,364
4,182
9,161
S 0
: 1,943
14,622
3,252
1,899


--Number -


226,378 279,962


23,704
790
18,760
36,369
8,233
1,600
396
557
1,422
1,093
4,009
6,702
1,741
2,198
8,417
1,828
1,822
2,456
2,512
3,110
5,399
6,600
6,856
0
0
22,602
0
6,759
4,940
14,124
8,507
1,554
6,364
16,948
2,368
3,850
21,586
6,568
0


18,151
1,184
22,063
40,644
6,581
1,559
704
1,314
2,951
2,653
3,007
3,517
2,010
6,903
9,446
1,341
2,408
4,536
4,287
4,583
8,490
7,630
8,768
6,419
8,243
16,340
3,715
6,346
6,829
8,546
11,032
1,911
15,752
31,547
3,770
5,829
29,596
0
0


Source: [9,18].


- -I-









Table 40.--Employment by industries, Georgia subarea

Category 1950 1960 : 1970
:* ; _


Number


Total employment
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing (total)
Furniture, lumber, and wood products
Metal industries
Machinery except electrical
Electrical machinery, equip. and supplies
Transportation equipment
Other durable goods
Food and kindred products
Textiles and fabricated products
Printing, publishing and allied ind.
Chemical and allied products
Other nondurable products
Railroad and railway express
Trucking service and warehousing
Other transportation
Communications
Utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Food, bakery and dairy prod. stores
Eating and drinking places
General merchandise retailing
Motor vehicles retailing and svc. stations
Other retail trade
Banking and credit agencies
Finance, insurance and real estate
Business and repair services
Private households
Other personal services
Entertainment and recreation services
Hospitals and health services
All educational services
Welfare, religious and nonprofit
Legal, engineering and misc. prof. serves.
Public administration
Industry not reported
Hotels and lodging places


98,917


40,928
136
3,920
14,791
6,167
209
220
13
33
208
2,858
2,995
370
1,062
654
1,737
546
591
575
740
2,340
2,886
1,675
0
0
7,017
0
1,324
1,579
5,788
1,977
633
1,409
3,334
0
862
1,981
1,608
540


97,474 105,489


22,872
205
5,072
18,712
4,645
966
390
42
301
337
3,979
4,719
591
830
1,912
1,396
818
837
673
917
2,412
2,873
1,969
0
0
9,343
0
2,238
1,620
7,178
2,703
471
1,475
5,077
892
1,493
4,335
1,893
0


14,856
481
6,247
27,384
3,797
2,361
526
54
2,377
1,060
3,317
8,846
549
863
3,634
956
817
685
1,101
1,587
3,216
2,835
2,367
1,838
3,351
6,227
1,549
1,531
2,037
4,066
3,425
430
4,313
6,854
1,107
1,555
4,675
0
0


Source: [9,18].


-- --












Table 41.--Shift-share analysis, Alabama subarea


Civilian employment :
Industry : Civ n et National Industry : Regional
:n1960 a 1970 Change, growth mix share
: 1960 1970 60-70 :
1960-70

------ ------ Number ----------------


Agriculture, forestry and fisheries :23,944 11,216 -12,728 4,693 -12,438 -4,983

Mining 375 643 268 73 -83 278

Construction : 9,258 11,231 1,973 1,815 123 35

Manufacturing :40,422 46,862 6,440 7,922 -6,561 5,079

Transportation, communications, and
public utilities 6,081 11,039 4,958 1,193 105 3,660

Wholesale and retail trade :22,442 27,951 5,509 4,398 2,478 -1,367

Finance, insurance, and real estate : 2,946 4,296 1,350 577 709 64

Services :37,660 43,330 5,670 7,383 1,524 -3,237

Total civilian employment : 143,128 156,568 13,440 28,054 -14,143 -471
a.


a
. Employment of 2,763 in "industry not

Source: [9,18].


reported" was not included.












Table 42.--Shift-share analysis, Florida subarea


: Civilian employment : National Industry :Regional
Industry a : Change, growth mix share
1960 : 1970 : 1960-70
*


- - Number -


Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Transportation, communications, and
public utilities

Wholesale and retail trade

Finance, insurance, and real estate

*Services

Total civilian employment


23,704

790

18,760

36,368

11,728

41,457

6,759

80,244


18,150

1,185

22,064

40,644


-5,554

395

3,304

4,276


17,155 5,427


55,892

10,061

114,811


14,435

3,302

34,567


: 219,810 279,962 60,152


4,646

155

3,677

7,130

2,298


8,125

1,325

15,727


43,083


-12,314

-176

248

-3,732

311


4,611

1,629

16,070


2,114

416

-621

878


2,818


1,699

348

2,770


aEmployment of 6,568 in "industries not reported" was not included.

Source: [9,18].


6,647 10,422


i


., ---














Table 43.--Shift-share analysis, Georgia subarea


: Civilian employment : national: Industry Regional
Industry : N l
S1960 7 Change, growth mix share
u 1970 1960-70


- - - Number- - - - -


Agriculture, forestry and fisheries :22,872 14,856 -8,016 4,483 -11,882 -617

Mining : 205 481 276 40 -46 282

Construction :5,072 6,247 1,175 994 67 114

Manufacturing : 18,712 27,384 8,672 3,668 -3,467 8,471

Transportation, communications, and 4,641 5,146 505 910 -349 -56
public utilities

Wholesale and retail trade :16,597 19,834 3,237 3,253 1,881 -1,897

Finance, insurance, and real estate 2,238 3,080 842 437 539 -134

.Services : 25,244 28,461 3,217 4,949 2,265 -3,997

Total civilian employment : 95,581 105,489 9,908 18,734 -10,992 2,166

a
Employment of 1,893 in "industries not reported" was not included.


Source: [9,18].











Table 44.--Factors used to convert values to 1972 dollars




Year Factor



1949 1.75
1950 1.74
1951 1.61
1952 1.58
1953 1.56

1954 1.56
1955 1.56
1956 1.54
1957 1.48
1958 1.45

1959 1.44
1960 1.41
1961 1.40
1962 1.38
1963 1.37

1964 1.35
1965 1.33
1966 1.29
1967 1.25
1968 1.20

1969 1.14
1970 1,08
1971 1.03
1972 1.00











GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Basin A geographic area drained by a single major stream. The Northeast
Gulf contains several basins, including the St. Marys, Suwannee, Aucilla,
St. Marks, Ochlockonee, Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, Choctawhatchee, Yel-
low, Blackwater, Escambia, and Perdido.

Civilian employment May be measured as a count of the number of employees
(head count), the number of jobs filled (job count, including multiple
job holders and part-time workers), or the number of jobs filled, con-
verted to a full time equivalent. It does not include military employ-
ment. The employment used in this report is the Census of Population
head count made decennially on April 1st.

Constant dollars Dollars of constant purchasing power measured at a
specific point in time. In this study, 1972 dollars are used as the
base.

Coefficient of industrial specialization Measures the degree of indus-
trial specialization regionally compared with the Nation. Calculated by
determining the percent employed in each industry in the region and
nationally, and subtracting the positive regional percentages from
national percentages.

Earnings The sum of income accruing to persons from wage and salary
disbursements, proprietors' income, and other labor income.

GNP The market value of the output of goods and services produced by
the Nation's economy. GNP is a "gross" measure because no deduction
is made to reflect the wearing out of machinery and other capital
assets used in production. Constant dollar or real GNP represents
the output of goods and services valued at base year prices. When
GNP is disaggregated by industry, each industrial component is called
gross product originating (GPO).

Industrial Water Use Water used by industry for cooling, processing,
and sanitary purposes. May be self-supplied or municipally supplied.

Inmigration Total number of people moving into an area from outside.

Labor Force Persons 14 years of age and over who are employed or are
seeking employment.

Location Quotient A number, generally in index form, which shows the
relative importance of an industry in a local region compared to the
importance of that industry in the Nation. A location quotient of
1.0 or higher indicates that particular industry is more important
in the region than nationally.







Net Migration Difference between immigration and outmigration.

Other Labor Income Primarily employer contributions to private pension,
health, and welfare funds. Also included are such items as compensa-
tion for injuries, directors' fees and pay of military reserves.

Outmigration Total number of people moving from an area to settle
elsewhere.

Per Capita Personal Income Total personal income divided by total
population.

Personal Contributions for Social Insurance Employee contributions into
the public insurance funds such as Social Security. This item is net-
ted out of income accruing to persons to arrive at total personal in-
come.

Personal Income Income from wage and salary disbursements, other labor
income, proprietor's income, property income (interest, dividends,
and rental income) and government and business transfer payments.
Both cash and in-kind income are included from private and govern-
ment sources. Personal income is measured before tax deductions are
made, but it does not include personal contributions for Social
Security.

Population Density Population per square mile or other unit of land
area.

Property Income Consists of dividends, interest and net rents and
royalties accruing to persons. These items may be in cash or imputed.
The net rental value of an owner-occupied house is a major type of
imputation. Net rental income received by persons primarily in the
real estate business is reported as proprietors' income.

Proprietors' Income The income derived from unincorporated business--
proprietorships, partnerships and producers cooperatives--from
current business operations. It does not, however, include supple-
mentary income of persons derived from renting property except in
the case of real estate.

Rural Population Persons living outside places with 2,500 or more popu-
lation or the densely settled urban fringe areas around places of
2,500 or more population.

Shift-Share Analysis An analytical technique designed to measure
regional departures from national industry growth rates. The change
in an industry in a region may be divided into three components.
The first reflects the overall growth of the national economy. The
second element of an area's expansion, and the first of the two fac-
tors which make for a difference between the growth rate of an area
and the Nation, stems from differences in industry-mix of the area
and the Nation. The third element of an area's growth, and the







second which makes for a differential change, comes from regional
shifts within individual industries. The sum of the three components
equals the total area change in employment. The sum of the industry-
mix and regional-share components for all industries combined repre-
sents the net relative change in employment in the area. It is the
amount by which the area change exceeds or falls short of that which
would have occurred at the national growth rate.

Tourist An out-of-State resident who stays at least one night in the
State for reasons other than strictly business transactions. Visi-
tors on shopping trips, those in transit to points outside the U.S.,
military personnel and students were not classified as tourists.

Transfer Payments Monies paid to individuals by either business or
government for which no goods or services are currently received in
return. Thus, there is no offsetting contribution to the economy's
productive process.

Underemployment Employment of a person in a job below his capacity
with respect to age, skills, education, and other attributes.

Urban Population All persons living in urbanized areas or in places
of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas. Places may
be either incorporated or unincorporated.

Value Added Annual value of shipments less total cost of materials
adjusted to reflect the net change in finished products and work-
in-progress inventories between the beginning and end of one year.

Wage and Salary Disbursements The wages and salaries paid during the
year irrespective of when they were earned. They cover all employee
bonuses, commissions, payments in kind and tips.









BIBLIOGRAPHY


[1] Florida. Department of Commerce. Florida Tourist Study
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[2] Development Commission. Florida Tourist Study
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[3] Harris, Gene. "Agriculture in the Northeast Gulf River
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[4] Hoover, Edgar M. An Introduction to Regional Economics.
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[5] Kampe, Ronald E. and William A. Lindamood. Underemploy-
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[6] U. S. Bureau of the Census. Components of Population
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[8] General Population Character-
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[9] _____. General Social and Economic
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[10] _. Measuring the Quality of
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[11] ______. 1950 United States Census of
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67






[12] U. S. Bureau of the Census. 1950 United States Census of
Population--Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and U. S. Summary:
Number of Inhabitants. P-A2, P-A10, P-All, and P-A2.
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[13] ...____. 1967 Census of Manufacturing.
Vol. 1. Washington: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1970.

[14] .____. 1970 Census of Housing:
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[15] _. 1970 Census of Population:
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[16] __. Rural Population by Farm-
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[17] _. United States Census of
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[18] _. United States Census of
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[19] United States Census of
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[20] U. S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (Bureau of the Census).
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[22] U. S. Federal Register. Principles and Standards for
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123] U. S. Water Resources Council. 1972 OBERS Projections:
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124] Walden, W. Charles. Differences in the Quality of
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[25] Whitaker, William M. "The Northwest Makes Its Move,"
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[26] Williamson, Jeffrey G. "Regional Inequality and the
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