• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Definitions and explanations
 Introduction
 Purpose of study
 Source of data
 Snap and lima beans
 Cabbage
 Cantaloupes
 Cauliflower
 Celery
 Sweet corn
 Cucumbers
 Eggplant
 Endive--escarole
 Lettuce
 Green peas
 Peppers
 Potatoes
 Radishes
 Spinach
 Squash
 Strawberries
 Tomatoes
 Watermelons
 Addendum
 Reference














Group Title: Economics Report - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations ; no. 85
Title: Florida vegetables, melons, Irish potatoes, and strawberries
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027771/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida vegetables, melons, Irish potatoes, and strawberries a historic data series
Series Title: Economics report
Physical Description: xviii, 129 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rose, G. Norman
Publisher: Food and Resources Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Truck farming -- History -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- History -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 128-129.
Statement of Responsibility: G. Norman Rose.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027771
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304581
oclc - 04032858
notis - ABT1164
lccn - 78620524

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    Definitions and explanations
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Purpose of study
        Page 2
    Source of data
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Snap and lima beans
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Cabbage
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Cantaloupes
        Page 21
    Cauliflower
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Celery
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Sweet corn
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Cucumbers
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Eggplant
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Endive--escarole
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Lettuce
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Green peas
        Page 71
    Peppers
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Potatoes
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Radishes
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Spinach
        Page 92
    Squash
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Strawberries
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Tomatoes
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Watermelons
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Addendum
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Reference
        Page 128
        Page 129
Full Text
May 1977


Economics Report 85


Florida Vegetables, Melons,

Irish Potatoes and Strawberries--


A Historic Data


Series


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611
in Cooperation with
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service
Statistical Reporting Service
United States Department of Agriculture
Orlando 32803


G. Norman Rose













ABSTRACT


Estimates of Florida's major vegetables' acreage, production
and value, released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and
covering the crop years 1918 through 1974 are presented in this
report. Production data for crop years prior to 1918, documented
in reports of the Commissioner of Agriculture are summarized.

Some narrative is presented on early production and marketing
of important crops not elsewhere treated separately.

Key words: Historic data: Florida vegetables--statistical
data compilation.













FOREWORD


Florida Vegetables, Melons, Irish Potatoes and Strawberries--A
Historic Data Series is the sixth and final in a series of historical
reviews.
This volume is designed to serve as a handbook of statistical
data. It covers all estimates of acreage, production and value released
by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for the commodity
groups listed in the title.
The various departments assigned responsibility for crop estimates
are named. Monthly prices, shipments and acreages by counties and
areas are also presented, but do not go back to the beginning of the
crop estimates.
The series covers detailed reports of snap and lima beans, celery,
peppers, potatoes and tomatoes. The data therein contained are reported
in this volume, but historic background is limited even on commodities
not released as a single report. A few pioneering farmers and develop-
ers are listed by areas.
Thus the available data are presented for the use, primarily, of
those who need background material in which a diligent effort for ac-
curacy has been pursued.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Leo Polopolus,
Chairman of the Food and Resource Economics Department at the University
of Florida, and to Robert A. McGregor, formerly Statistician in Charge
of the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, for their continued
support, assistance and allocation of time for research, analysis and
tabulation of documented data. In addition, thanks are also expressed
to Dr. K. R. Tefertiller and Joe E. Mullin, who preceded Dr. Polopolus
and Mr. NcGrego .in these respective offices.
Appreciation is gratefully extended Dr. Donald L. Brooke, Professor
of Food and Resource Economics, for assistance rendered in the preparation
of this manuscript and to Dr. Cecil N. Smith, Professor of Food and
Resource Economics, for his patience and skill in editing it.
The author acknowledges the capable work of James B. Owens, Charles
Townsend, Jr., M. E. Marks, Reginald Royston and others who were statis-
ticians in vegetable reporting and estimating at various periods during
the history of Florida vegetable estimates by USDA. Much of the narrative
and estimates herein restated were from notes by these men on file with
the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (FCLRS). Mr. Owens
specifically assisted the writer with much of the Everglades material.
Data furnished by the Florida State Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services and from the U. S. Bureau of the Census are greatly
appreciated. The source of all shipment data was the Federal-State
Market News Service, with special thanks to Elmo Scarborough of that
agency.
Various growers, shippers, suppliers and transporters were of
immeasurable assistance to the "crop reporter," including the author
of this volume. Crop reporting for vegetables in Florida has been
based on contacts made with operators in these various fields; the
information was gratis, usually freely given.










Old-timers who assisted with recollections about pioneer growers

have been given credit in Economics Reports 48, 64, 69, 74 and 81.
However, help on leaf crops and sweet corn in the Zellwood area is
duly credited also to Robert Stewart and K. L. Jorgensen. The same
is true of Donald Downs, formerly with the Hillsborough County
Extension Service office, for his Plant City strawberry story.


S444















TABLE OF CONTENTS







FOREWORD . . . . * *


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . .

LIST OF TABLES . .. .. .

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS . .

INTRODUCTION . ... .

PURPOSE OF STUDY . .. . .

SOURCE OF DATA . . . .

Statistical Records . . .
Some Interesting Figures to Consider

SNAP AND LIMA BEANS . .

CABBAGE . . .

Where It Began . .

The McIntosh-Micanopy Area .
The North Central Area ...
The Hastings Area .
The West Central Area .
The Everglades and Martin, Broward

CANTALOUPES .

CAULIFLOWER . . . .

CELERY ..... ..... .

SWEET CORN ...... . ... .

Early Production in Florida ... .
Statistical Records .
Production Areas ..


* * *

* .. .*. .*

*. *. . *



* . .



* S. . ..* *

* S * *


. *

*




.* .


and Dade Counties .




* S S*.......

*...........

S S * S .

* * S * *
* S * 5 5 S
S S S S S S







and Dade S Conte
Q e








e o


Page

i

ii

viii


xvi

1

2

2

2
3

4

6

11

11
17
20
20
21

21

22

25

27

32
33
33







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)



Page

The North Florida Area . . ..... 33
The North Central Area . . .... .. 33
The Everglades Area . . 35
The Lower East Coast and Ft. Myers Areas . . 37

CUCUMBERS. .... . .. .. . . 40

Early Production in Florida .. . 40
USDA-FCLRS Estimates Cucumbers . 40
Production Areas........ . .. 43

The North Florida Area .. .. . ... 43
The North Central Area . 47
The West Central Area .......... 48
The Southwest Area .... ...... 48
The East Central Area . . ....... 49
The Lower East Coast Area . . 49

EGGPLANT .. . . .. . . 51

The Early Florida Eggplant Acreage . .. ..... 51
USDA Estimates Eggplant ... .. ...... 51
Production Areas . . ....... 51

The North Florida Area ...... . 51
The West Central Area .. .. .. ... 54
The Southwest Area .. ... ... .. 58
The Lower East Coast Area .. ... . .. 58

ENDIVE--ESCAROLE ... .. ....... .. . 59

Where Grown in Florida . .. ..... .. 59
Early Planting Records . .. . 59
Production Areas . . . .. 63

The North Central Area. .. .. . 63
The West Central Area . ... .. .. 63
The Everglades Area ... . . 64

LETTUCE . . .. . . . 64

Early Florida Lettuce ..... .. . .. 65
Production Areas ....... . . . .. 65

The McIntosh-Orange Lake Area . ... 65
The North Central Area . . ..... 69
The West Central Area . ..... .. ... 69







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)



Page

Iceberg Lettuce Comes to Florida .......... .. 70

The Everglades Area ..... .... . 71
Other Areas . ..... . . 71

GREEN PEAS .. .. .. . . 71

PEPPERS . ......... ...... ..... 72

POTATOES . ...... . . 79

Seasonal Groupings and Areas . .... .... 82

RADISHES. .. . ..... ........ .. ... 87

Radish Production in Florida ... .. 89
Production Areas .. .. ........ 90

The Everglades Area . .. ....... 90
The Zellwood Area .. ...... . . 90
The Sarasota Area . ... . 90
The Lake Istokpoga Area .. . ..... 90

SPINACH . . . .. . 92

SQUASH .. .. . . . . 92

Varieties Common to Florida . .. .... * 93

Summer Squash . . 93
Prolific Squash . . 93
Italian Squash .. . 93
Hard Squash . .. * 94
Early Florida Statistics . .. 94

Production Areas . . . 94

The North Florida Area . .. ........ 94
The West Central Area . . * 94
The Lower East Coast Area .. * 99

The Pompano section . . 99
The Homestead section .. 1 100

STRAWBERRIES . . .. ..... . 100

Strawberry Production in Florida . . 100
Production Areas ..... .. . * 103







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page


The Starke-Lawtey Area .
The Plant City Area .
The Homestead Area .
The Pompano Area . .


. 103
* 103
. 106
. 106


TOMATOES . . . . . 107


WATERMELONS . .

Early Statistical Data Incomplete

Farm Operator Numbers .


. 113


. . .


. . . . 114

. . . 115


The USDA Crop Estimates . .
Planters and Handlers . .


. . 115
. . 120


West Florida .
Live Oak . .
Monticello . .
Gainesville-Trenton
Leesburg .
Arcadia-Lakeland .
Ft. Myers-Immokalee
East Central .


120
121
121
121
122
122
123
123


Varieties .... * . 124

ADDENDUM . . . . 125


. . . . . 128


REFERENCES . .


-Ij A













LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

1 Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries,
1960-61 through 1974-75 . . . . 5

2 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, all seasons combined, 1918 through 1973-74 7

3 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, fall 1922 through 1973 . . 8

4 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter 1923 through 1974 . ..... 9

5 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring, 1918 through 1974 . . 10

6 Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage, production
and value for the calendar years 1934 through 1969 11

7 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing:
Interstate shipments by months, 1954-55 through 1973-74 12

8 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Monthly average prices
received per hundredweight, 1954-55 through 1973-74 .. 12

9 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74
crop years . ....... ..... 13

i0 Florida lima beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter and spring combined, 1933-34 through
1967-68 .. . . * 14

11 Florida lima beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter, 1934 through 1958 . 15

12 Florida lima beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring, 1934 through 1958 . . 15

13 Florida cabbage for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, 1917-18 through 1973-74 . 16






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


14 Florida cabbage for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value for fall, winter and spring, 1970-71
through 1973-74 . . . . . 17

15 Florida cabbage for fresh market and processing: Interstate
shipments, monthly, converted to cwt., during 1954-55
through 1973-74 . ..... ...... ... 18

16 Florida cabbage for fresh market: Average prices received
per cwt., monthly, during 1954-55 through 1973-74 . 18

17 Florida cabbage: Acres harvested by counties and areas,
1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years . . . 19

18 Florida cantaloups for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, spring, 1918 through 1972 ..... . . 23

19 Florida cantaloups for fresh market: Interstate shipments,
monthly, converted to cwt., during 1955 through 1972 . 24

20 Florida cantaloups for fresh market: Average price received
monthly, for the spring season, 1955 through 1972 . 24

21 Florida cantaloups: Acres harvested by counties and areas,
1962-63 through 1971-72 crop years . . .. 25

22 Florida cauliflower for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, winter, 1944-45 through 1960-61 . 26

23 Florida cauliflower for fresh market and processing: Inter-
state shipments, monthly converted to cwt., during 1954-55
through 1960-61 ...... ... ...... . 26

24 Florida cauliflower for fresh market: Average prices
received, monthly, during 1954-55 through 1960-61 . 26

25 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, all seasons combined, crop years
1917-18 through 1973-74 . . . . 28

26 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, winter season 1918 through 1974 29

27 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, spring season 1928 through 1974 . 30

28 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, fall 1971 through 1973 . . 31







LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


29 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Inter-
state shipments by months, converted to cwt., 1954-55
through 1973-74 . .. .. .. ... .. 31

30 Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Average
prices received per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973-74 31

31 Florida celery: Acres harvested by counties and areas,
1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years . .... ...... 32

32 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, all seasons combined, 1947-48 through 1973-74 34

33 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, fall 1949 through 1973 . ... ... 35

34 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter 1949 through 1974. . .. 36

35 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring 1948 through 1974 ... . . 37

36 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Interstate shipments
by months, converted to cwt., during 1954-55 through 1973-74. 38

37 Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Average prices received
per cwt., monthly, during 1954-55 through 1973-74 . 38

38 Florida sweet corn: Acres harvested by counties and areas,
1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years .... ... 39

39 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, all seasons combined, 1917-18 through 1973-74 crop
years . . .. .. 41

40 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, fall 1923 through 1973 . .. .. . 42

41 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter 1945 through 1959 .... .. 43

42 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring 1918 through 1974 .... ... 44

43 Florida cucumbers for fresh market and pickles: Interstate
shipments converted to cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through
1973-74 . . . 45






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


44 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Average price received
per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973-74 . 45

45 Florida cucumbers for fresh market: Acres harvested by
counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years 46

46 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, all seasons combined, 1920-21 through 1973-74 . 52

47 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, fall 1923-1973 . . . 53

48 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, winter 1940-1974 ... .. . 54

49 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, spring 1921-1974 . . . . 55

50 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Shipments by rail, mixed
car and truck converted to cwt., monthly, during the 1954-55
through 1974-75 crop years . . ...... 56

51 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Average price received
per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973-74 crop years . 56

52 Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acres harvested by
counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years 57

53 Florida escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market:
Acreage, production and value, 1928 through 1974 . .. 60

54 Florida escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market:
Acreage, production and value, fall, winter and spring
1970-71 through 1973-74 . . . .61

55 Florida escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market:
Shipments interstate, monthly, converted to Cwt., 1954-55
through 1973-74 .. . . . 61

56 Florida escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market:
Average price received per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through
1973-74 crop years .. . ...... .. . 62

57 Florida escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market:
Acres harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through
1973-74 crop years . . .. 62






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)



Table Page


58 Florida lettuce (all types) for fresh market: Acreage,
production and value, 1917-18 through 1973-74 crop years 66

59 Florida lettuce (all types) for fresh market: Acreage,
production and value; fall, winter and spring 1970-71
through 1973-74 . . . . .. .. 67

60 Florida lettuce for fresh market: Shipments interstate,
monthly, converted to cwt., during 1954-55 through 1973-74
crop years . . . . . 67

61 Florida lettuce for fresh market: Average price received
per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973.74 crop years 68

62 Florida lettuce for fresh market: Acres harvested by
counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years 68

63 Florida peas, green: Acreage, production and value, winter
1918 through 1951 . . .. .... .. 73

64 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, all seasons combined, 1920-21 through
1973-74 crop years ... . . ...... 74

65 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, fall 1921-1973 ........... 75

66 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, winter 1921-1974 .... 76

67 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production and value, spring 1928-1974 ... . 77

68 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Interstate
shipments by months, 1954 through 1973-74 crop years 78

69 Florida peppers for fresh market: Monthly average prices
received per cwt., 1954-55 through 1973-74 . 78

70 Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acres
harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 79

71 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage, production and value,
1866 through 1908, available crop years .. 80







LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


72 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage planted crop year 1929-1974
and acreage harvested, yield, production, disposition and
value for crop years 1908-09 through 1973-74 .. .. 81

72 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage planted crop year 1929-1974
and acreage harvested, yield, production, disposition and
value for crop years 1908-09 through 1973-74--Continued 82

74 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage, production, value and farm
disposition winter 1923 through 1974 . . . 83

75 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage, production, value and farm
disposition (commercial) spring 1928 through 1974 . 84

76 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage, production, value and farm
disposition, spring, Hastings, 1928 through 1974 ..... 85

77 Florida Irish potatoes: Acreage, production, value and farm
disposition: spring, "Other (than Hastings)" ... .. 86

78 Florida Irish potatoes: Other early (non-commercial), 1923-24
through 1947-48 . . . . 87

79 Florida Irish potatoes: Interstate shipments by month,
1949-50 through 1973-74 .... .. . .. 88

80 Florida Irish potatoes: Prices received, all types of sales,
shipping point level, 1949-50 through 1973-74 .. . .. 88

81 Florida Irish potatoes: Acres for harvest by counties and
areas, all seasons combined, 1964-65 through 1973-74
crop years .. . .. .. . 89

82 Florida radishes for fresh market: Acreage, production and
value, 1965-66 through 1973-74 crop years .. 91

83 Florida radishes for fresh market: Interstate shipments
monthly, converted to cwt., 1954-55 through 1973-74 . 91

84 Florida radishes for fresh market: Average prices received
per cwt., monthly, 1970-71 through 1973-74 crop years . 91

85 Florida spinach for processing: Acreage, production and
value, winter 1956 through 1974 . .... 93

86 Florida Squash (all types) for fresh market and processing:
Acreage, production and value, all seasons combined, 1947-48
through 1973-74 crop years .. .. .......... 95







LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


7 Florida squash (all types) for fresh market and processing:
Acreage, production and value, fall 1947 through 1973 95

88 Florida squash (all types) for fresh market and processing:
Acreage, production and value, winter 1948 through 1974 96

89 Florida squash (all types) for fresh market and processing:
Acreage, production and value, spring 1948 through 1974 96

90 Florida squash (all types) for fresh and processing: Inter-
state shipments monthly, converted to cwt., 1954-55 through
1973-74 crop years . . . .* 97

91 Florida swuash (all types) for fresh market: Average price
received per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973-74 97

92 Florida squash for fresh market and processing: Acres for
harvest by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 98

93 Florida strawberries for fresh market and processing::
Acreage, production and value, winter 1917-18 through
1973-74 .. . ..... .. .. 101

94 Florida strawberries for fresh market and processing-:
Interstate shipments by months, converted to cwt.,
1954-55 through 1973-74 crop years . .. .. 102

95 Florida strawberries for fresh market: Prices received per
owt., by months, 1954-55 through 1973-74 crop years ... .. 102

96 Florida strawberries for fresh market and processing: Acres
for harvest by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74
crop years . . 103

97 Florida tomatoes: Acreage, production and value, all
seasons combined, 1917-18 through 1973-74 crop years .. 108

98 Florida tomatoes: Acreage, production and value, winter
1927 through 1973 .. .. .. ... .. ... 109

99 Florida tomatoes: Acreage, production and value, winter
1918 through 1970 .. . . ... .. 110

100 Florida tomatoes: Acreage, production and value, spring
1918 through 1974 ........ .. .......... ... .. 111

101 Florida tomatoes: Fresh market, interstate shipments,
monthly, converted to cwt., 1954-55 through 1973-74 .112






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page


102 Florida tomatoes: Fresh market, monthly average prices,
1954-55 through 1973-74 crop years .. . 112

103 Florida tomatoes for fresh market and processing: Acres
harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74
crop years . ............ ...... 113

104 Florida watermelons: Farm operators reported in the Census
of Agriculture (USBC), by areas and counties, with acreage
reported at the state level, 1929 through 1969 census years 117

105 Florida watermelons for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring 1918 through 1974 ........... 118

106 Florida watermelons for fresh market: Interstate shipments,
monthly, converted to cwt., during 1954-55 through 1973-74 119

107 Florida watermelons for fresh market: Average price
received per cwt., monthly, for the spring 1955 through 1974. 119

108 Florida watermelons for fresh market: Acres harvested by
counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years 120

109 Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries:
Acreage, production and value, 1974-75 crop year . 126

110 Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries:
Shipments by rail, mixed car and truck converted to cwt.,
monthly and total, 1974-75 crop year . . .. 127

111 Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries:
Average price received, monthly, during the 1974-75 crop
year .. .. ............. . 127








DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS


Pertaining to Tables of Data

Quarterly Groups During the growing season estimates were
prepared for most crops on a calendar quarter to indicate available
supplies for shorter periods of time than the entire crop year. The
crop year concept is used for fresh vegetables in Florida rather than
the calendar year; thus fall is basically October, November and
December or that which is harvested in a given season prior to
January 1; the winter season is considered where crops are harvested
from January 1 to April 1; the spring season is considered where har-
vest occurs on April 1 and subsequent days through June 30; however,
small portions of an acreage in early July are also considered a part
of the spring crop; e.g., the harvest of sweet corn and watermelons
is frequently extended into July. The fall, winter and spring
quarterly estimates are combined into a crop year total.for all crops.
Planted Acreage This acreage is that which is planted for har-
vest during one designated quarter. Acreage lost and replanted to the
same crop in time for harvest in the same quarter is counted only once;
if it is lost and replanted such that the harvest is in the following
seasonal quarter, the first planting is counted lost and the second
planting is counted as a planting for the season in which it is har-
vested. Acreage harvested and planted again to the same crop is
counted twice; seldom does this occur except for radishes.
Harvested Acreage Any acreage partially or completely harvested
is considered harvested acreage. Acreage lost before or at maturity
through natural or economic causes is not included in the acreage for
harvest. Prior to January 1, 1964 a better terminology was "for har-
vest" since yields were based on the estimated total production,
whether harvested or not; thus the "for harvest" might contain some acre-
age that was left in the field due to economic reasons.
Yield As stated above, yields prior to January 1, 1964 were based
on the estimated production of crops of merchantable quality brought to
maturity. Yields since that date are based on production sold; thus the
acreage harvested means, literally, that some production was sold from
each acre making up the harvested acreage.






Production This is basically the merchantable quality sold and is
used to determine yield since 1963; however, marketable quality not har-
vested and thus not sold, is also listed under production. The sum of
crops marketed and not marketed equals total production, the basis for
determining yield prior to January 1, 1964.
Economic Abandonment That portion of the production of merchantable
quality left in the field due to low market prices, insufficient labor
or other economic reasons, or, if harvested, was not sold or utilized
for those reasons. Estimates of acreage and production lost because of
economic reasons are difficult to define and measure and are not attempted
unless such losses become significant.
Unit Value Fresh market sales are based on the equivalent price
received on an f.o.b. basis at the shipping point (free-on-board) and
encompasses all grades and sizes utilized. Included in the price are
packing charges, selling charges at shipping point (since January 1,
1959), precooling, top-ice and other costs which contribute to the
value of the product at the shipping point. Prior to January 1, 1959,
selling charges were deducted and Florida produce did not have a true
fio.b. price in the prices submitted as "average" to BAE or its USDA
counterpart. Monthly price averages are shown.
The value per unit for quantities sold to processors is the average
value paid for usable quantities on a "point of possession," usually at
roadside where loaded from the field prior to January 1, 1959. After
that date and in all subsequent years the price is on a "delivered to
plant door" basis. For the farmer, this is a fictitious price as it
includes not only his production and harvesting cost, but also trans-
portation and other normal costs incident to delivery at the plant door.
Total Value The equivalent value of production sold or utilized
based on the unit value. Cullage and other quantities not sold or
utilized because of natural or economic factors are excluded.
Other Counties Most areas have a county or counties wherein the
acreage is of minor importance or an individual grower's production
would be a disclosure.
Shipments Rail, estimated mixed car (rail) and truck shipments have
been converted to cwt., and presented monthly. These were computed from
the average load per car for each year based on the net weight per package.






Production and Price Unit The official USDA vegetable crop esti-
mates are published on a weight basis. Hundredweight is used throughout
this publication. The net weights of the most commonly used container
and the number of containers per hundredweight are listed below for
those who desire to convert hundredweights to the commonly used unit.
Lettuce is not given inasmuch as different weights are used for the
different types. Watermelons vary in weight from 18 to 30 lbs. or
more; hence no average is shown; white-skinned potatoes generally are
marketed by the hundredweight while "reds" are usually in 50-lb. units.


Most common unit, estimated net weight, number of units per hundredweight,
principal vegetable commodities, Florida, 1973-74 crop season



Commodity Unit Est. net weight Units per cwt.

lbs. No.

Snap beans Bushel 30 3.333
Cabbage Crate 50 2.000
Celery Crate 60 1.667
Sweet corn Crate 42 2.381
Cucumbers Bushel 48 2.083
Eggplant Bushel 33 3.030
Escarole Crate .25 4.000
Lettuce Cwt. 100
Green peppers Bushel 25 4.000
Potatoes Sack 100
Squash Bushel 42 2.381
Strawberries Flat 10.25 9.756
Tomatoes Carton 30 3.333
Watermelons Cwt. 200 --


xviii













FLORIDA VEGETABLES, MELONS, IRISH POTATOES
AND STRAWBERRIES--A HISTORIC DATA SERIES


G. Norman Rose


INTRODUCTION


Vegetable production, including the staple Irish potatoes as well
as two annual fruits, melons and strawberries, started in the late 19th
century and increased rapidly to commercial importance.
Development of certain areas of production was often in advance of
the railroad systems of the state, but this necessitated a proximity to
navigable streams, lakes or canals. However, the railroads were most
instrumental in opening areas for commercial production.
The origin of the leading vegetables, melons, potatoes and straw-
berries grown in Florida are worldwide.
Vegetables indigenous to Asia include cucumbers, eggplant, endive,
onions and radishes; those of Africa are cantaloupe, okra, spinach and
watermelons; those of Europe are cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots,
celery, leeks, lettuce, mustard and turnips.
Many vegetables, along with potatoes, are indigenous to the
Americas. In North America snap beans, corn, sweet potatoes and straw-
berries are native, while in South America corn, herbacious peppers
(sweet and hot), lima beans, potatoes, strawberries and tomatoes were
found in their original habitat [5].
Scientists have bred improvements into native strains to provide
the consumer with the very best quality in quantity from Florida at a


G. NORMAN ROSE is an associate professor emeritus of food and
resource economics at the University of Florida. He was stationed
with the Florida office of the Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) of
the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Orlando where, since 1945, he
collaborated in vegetable crops estimating and reporting.







time when most states are in a period of vegetable dormancy. Thus
climate may be the most favorable factor in the economics of Florida's
production.


PURPOSE OF STUDY


In order for those who use background data concerning the acreage,
production and value of Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and straw-
berries, this compilation of documented estimates has been put together
for ease of reference and to preserve, in one volume, such data and a
minima of memorabilia for posterity.


SOURCE OF DATA


Statistical Records

Governmental Agencies Concerned
Since the data contained herein are the official records maintained
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, a list of the bureaus and agen-
cies given this responsibility are listed in chronological order of
their inception [18]:
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was established
May 15, 1862. (BPresident Abraham Lincoln appointed Isaac Newton Commis-
sioner on July 1, 1862. The President called it "an agricultural and
statistical bureau."
The Division of Statistics was established in the spring of 1863
and the first monthly reports were started July 10, 1863.
The Bureau of Statistics was established July 1, 1903, resulting
from a merger of the Division of Statistics and the Division of
Foreign Narkets.
The Crop Reporting Board (CRB) was established in 1905 and a period
of extended growth followed.
The Bureau of Crop Estimates became the official title on July 1,
1914 and an office was set up for each of most states.
The Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates (1921) was a step toward
an ultimate goal to combine all of agricultural economics into one
bureau.







time when most states are in a period of vegetable dormancy. Thus
climate may be the most favorable factor in the economics of Florida's
production.


PURPOSE OF STUDY


In order for those who use background data concerning the acreage,
production and value of Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and straw-
berries, this compilation of documented estimates has been put together
for ease of reference and to preserve, in one volume, such data and a
minima of memorabilia for posterity.


SOURCE OF DATA


Statistical Records

Governmental Agencies Concerned
Since the data contained herein are the official records maintained
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, a list of the bureaus and agen-
cies given this responsibility are listed in chronological order of
their inception [18]:
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was established
May 15, 1862. (BPresident Abraham Lincoln appointed Isaac Newton Commis-
sioner on July 1, 1862. The President called it "an agricultural and
statistical bureau."
The Division of Statistics was established in the spring of 1863
and the first monthly reports were started July 10, 1863.
The Bureau of Statistics was established July 1, 1903, resulting
from a merger of the Division of Statistics and the Division of
Foreign Narkets.
The Crop Reporting Board (CRB) was established in 1905 and a period
of extended growth followed.
The Bureau of Crop Estimates became the official title on July 1,
1914 and an office was set up for each of most states.
The Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates (1921) was a step toward
an ultimate goal to combine all of agricultural economics into one
bureau.







The Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAE) was formally established
July 1, 1922. Its Crop and Livestock Estimates Division (CLED) had the
responsibility indicated.
The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) replaced BAE on October 6,
1938; CLED continued to function but its name was changed to the Agri-
cultural Statistics Division (ASD).
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAE) continued as the
Planning and Research staff agency and in 1942 ASD was transferred to
function under BAE. The bureau (BAE) was again reorganized December
12, 1945 by the Secretary of Agriculture's Memorandum 1139.
The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was reselected in the
reorganization of 1953 by Secretary Ezra Taft Benson.
The Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) supplanted AMS and is
composed of the Agricultural Estimates Division (AED), the CRB, the
Statistical Standards Divisions (SSD) and the Market Surveys Branch of
the Market Research Division, SRS and the newly created Economic
Research Service (ERS) became effective April 3, 1961 and continues to
function currently [18].1
Although Florida potatoes have been estimated since 1866, estimates
of vegetable crops were not started until 1918; not all such crops were
of sufficient importance to be considered even then.
Those who desire to research further can find estimates (generally
incomplete) as made by counties to the Commissioner of Agriculture,
Florida Department of Agriculture (FDA) [4]. Those interested in farm
operator numbers are referred to the Census of Agriculture [15].
The data presented in this compilation are basically those of USDA
and mostly those from the crop reporting organizations numbered above.


Some Interesting Figures to Consider

The acreage, production and value of Florida vegetables, melons,
potatoes and strawberries has been expanded to encompass those not
estimated by commodity. During the 15 years these miscellaneous



An expanded treatise of the history of crop estimates is presented
in Economics Report 81, Irish Potato Production in Florida--A Historic
Data Series [10].






vegetables have been taken into consideration, "Cuban" vegetables,
grown primarily in Dade County, have played an increasing role in
the economy.
Inflation has played an important role in the increasing value
of sales of all products; the value figure is primarily on the f.o.b.
level and includes selling charges at the point of origin since
January 1, 1959. Table 1 shows the aggregate estimated acreage,
planted and harvested, production marketed and value of the combined
melons, potatoes, strawberries and vegetable commodities, and for
vegetables alone. Tables covering potatoes, watermelons and straw-
berries are found in the commodity tables in this report [3, 14, 16, 17].
Although the 1969 Census of Agriculture credits Florida with only
2,504 farm operators (only those having gross produce sales in excess
of $2,500 were listed)--down 25 percent from the 1964 census, the
308,926 acres harvested were down only 3 percent. In 1964 the census
reported 3,348 farm operators having harvested 318,635 acres of
potatoes, strawberries, vegetables and watermelons [15].
In most cases USDA-SRS estimates exceed those found in the census
enumeration. Inflation should be considered in comparisons of value.
In 1975 the gross f.o.b. value at $486,205,000 may have set a record,
but the production at 49,312,000 cwt. appears to be a record also;
certainly it was not exceeded during the last 15 crop years. Acreage,
however, has exceeded that of the 1974-75 season many times.
Those desiring data on acreage, production and value prior to the
date of estimates listed in this compilation are referred to reports
by the Commissioner of Agriculture, Florida Department of Agriculture
(FDA). Although each biennial report appears incomplete, there are
county data of value [4].
Brief comments and tables by commodities follow.


SNAP AND LIMA BEANS


Historic snap bean and lima bean data are presented in the
following tables, but the reader is referred to Economics Report 74,
Snap Bean Production in Florida--A Historic Data Series, for details
concerning its beginnings in this state; its pioneering growers; the
rise and fall of areas of importance; and bean culture and harvest







Table 1.--Florida vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries, 1960-61 through 1974-75


All vegetables, melons, potatoes and strawberries Vegetables alone

Crop year Acreage Acreage
Production Production
Planted Harvested marketed Value Planted Harvested marketed Value

---------Acres--------- 1,000 cut. 1.000 dol --------Acres------- 1,000 cwt. 1,000 dol.

1960-61 383,000 354,300 39,556 169,731 279,400 253,400 25,210 139,463
1961-62 369,820 347,300 37,301 206,419 273,220 253,900 26,145 174,369
1962-63 391,950 362,550 42,608 194,092 293,650 267,450 27,204 161,012
1963-64 381,200 348,200 41,194 229,805 286,500 257,000 27,376 186,466
1964-65 412,900 379,900 43,497 246,283 304,800 275,500 27,859 190,550

1965-66 413,450 384,550 47,044 257,843 304,250 279,750 30,511 209,706
1966-67 408,050 364,000 44,140 256,416 300,950 278,500 30,921 216,561
1967-68 405,650 379,440 45,690 294,553 299,450 279,640 31,211 251,307
1968-69 410,800 374,910 43,572 282,283 308,300 279,410 29,193 237,262
1969-70 407,850 363,745 37,173 260,254 318,350 277,745 24,205 215,401

1970-71 396,550 362,670 41,173 283,040 306,350 274,670 28,620 237,019
1971-72 404,400 367,850 42,107 343,742 307,900 277,550 30,569 305,198
1972-73 392,100 367,790 47,244 400,125 305,800 287,490 33,753 337,802
1973-74 391,050 355,150 44,249 402,841 308,450 278,450 31,865 331,526
1974-75 383,400 359,850 49,312 486,205 307,600 287,550 35,704 417,866


aWatermelons, potatoes and strawberries are shown in the commodity tables of this report. Cantaloupe
are included here with vegetables for comparability since in late years they are included in "Other" vege-
tables.


Source: [3,17].







problems of a by-gone era. Certainly Florida has a record of bean
production of which one can be justly proud. Economics Report 74 was
written to preserve for posterity names, methods and problems easily
forgotten [12].
Farm operators growing beans in Florida have followed a national
trend--that of a declining number of farms. Fortunately the amount
grown has not declined proportionately. In 1934 the peak number of
bean growers was reported at 8,724 farm operators in Florida; by 1969
the number had dropped to 271 [15].
In 1943-44 USDA-BAE credited the state with 83,500 acres of beans
for harvest for fresh utilization and 14,500 acres for processing or
a total of 98,000 acres, an all-time record foracres harvested; economic
abandonment was light in spite of the large acreage [17].
With the advent of mechanical harvesters, labor problems declined
appreciably. Currently practically all commercial bush beans are
machine harvested; only poled varieties continue to be hand-picked.
Seasons of production are fall, winter and spring to make a crop
year, but acreages for processing are listed on a calendar year basis.
Data on various aspects of snap and lima bean production and marketing
are contained in Tables 2 through 12.


CABBAGE


Cabbage may have been in cultivation for more than 4,000 years.
The eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor are thought to have been its
area of origin, but the Celts of Central and Western Europe had much
to do with its distribution and popularization as a food plant.
Existence of a hard-heading cabbage was recorded in Europe in 1536.
Jacques Cartier introduced cabbage into America, with first plantings
in Canada in 1541-42 [5].
Statistical data on cabbage production and marketing are contained
in Tables 13 through 17.












Table 2 .- V'lorI.da sep IbontIl for l'crshi nrket: Acrc.t g, prodlction and vale, ni1 season combblnd, i018 through 1973-74'


Crop Acreage Yilch Procducton Averagc VIl
ycar -a-- i per ;:cr pri co
ylapnted al.rvostcl Total Not markllcd Marketed

....... A res -------- C-t----O. .- 00 ---- Diollars 1,l000 l.,ll.II:.-


34 197
32 324


1920
1921
1922
1022-23
1923-24'

1924-25
1925286
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1.i30-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34

1934-3r,
1935-36
1936-37
1931-38
3938-09

1930-40
1410-il
1911-12
15t2-;J
1943-44

1011-45
1I345-46
1916--17
1340-47
1417-48
1916-10

1919-50
jo-.'6-

1951-52
19r2-$3
1953-61


I n .. -. '*,
1956-57
19!i7-58
1908-59


1 i.,'-. I1
n-r.,

'.V :.-f,.





I A r..


1909-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


197 4.67
321 6.67


5,700
10,200

8,100
8,000
12,300
14,500
19,F800

20,500
16,)00
10,700
29,450
27,000

35, 800
40,000
41,500
60,800
62,800

67,000
60,200
59, 00

60,700
641,000

52,000
62,500
55,300
50,000)
83,500

6 4,300
d9, 00
72,600
67,00
69,800

69,100
66,!00
or '" j
49,000
52,200

57,400
.2,500
44,700
13, 1'il.


45,400
42,100
42,400



:; -, .ln
37,000,
37,100
38,800
37,500

31,600
35,200
30,100
37,100
36,.00


1,475
1,255
1,407
1,614
66 2,054

1,527
1,734
1,738
1,672
30 2,091


151
365
233
159
343

77
386
121



as

55

55
490

35
35

48
107


1,631
1,803
1,630
1,591
1,9t8

1,670
1,631
1,803
1,535
1,791

2,045
1,789
1,501
1,209
1,330

1,391
1,500
1,501
1 '(7
1,. 17"


952
1,013
1,352
1.,500
1,913

1,475
1,285
1,407
1,6141
2,140

1,527
1,73-1
1,7:16
1,072
2,124

1,782
2,168
1,863
1,750
2,291

1,917
2,017
1,027
1,583


2,123
1,.44
1,501
1,274
1,379

1,426
1,514
1,586
1, I 7
1, I',i

1,'43S
1,1...

1,442
1,317

989
1,243

1,232
1,127


't5.- rD. .iit-.h, r.l" ExpIlanatiosB4page i1'urlldr telling (1959) and ullnder yield (1964).


98 1,33.

1,396
38 1,401
1,317

989
1,243
1,280
1,232
1,127


952
1,013
1,267
1,457
1,781


6.33
0.83
7.50
7.75
8.67

6.98
10.62
7.17
7.61
7.76

7.15
6.51
4.70
2.99
3.42

4.00
4.98
5.00
3.89
3.45


4.90
5.15
6.15
8.712
8.55

9.73
8.99
9.02
8.71
8.17

8.30
9.63
0.18
10.68


9.02
8.99
10.57
9.97
9o81
R.Ri8

10.87
9.75
10.19
In. 7


11.41
12.31 .
12.88
12.57
13.00

16.96
1.1. 7
1S.39
17.63
18.39


918
2,102

1,015
2,050
2,824
82?,3
4,009

3,705
3,749
3,433
3,902
5,448

6,805
6,602
5, 95
4,f6
6,099

5, 02
6,250
7,037
0,272
7,09M

7,480
8,933
)0, 69w
I-1,r35
17,909

15, 86ti;
106216
14,700
13,8601
15,922

15,529
15,711
1 (,, s:*.t
10,rl.l

1,>,413

16,089
15,862
12,051
1.1, 0in

15,124
14,713
15,293
15,174
18,118

14, ,n7
14-,,300
17,V974
17,612
17,114

)A,769
.18,114
1,9,b97
21,729
20,728


82,000

19,350f

67,500

88,000
95,800
111,650
74,900
73,400

90,000
86,700
71,100
55,4.00
SS,200

62,900
61,100
54,800
58,300
48,100

54, n00
46,200
40,200
46,400
.11, 40O

30,000
41,,600
40,20.0
40,700
39,100

37,700
36.700
37,*..0)
38,500
39,800




8








Tnblo 3 .--Florida snnp I;anns for fresh market: AI r .iwe, proKluctlon and value, fall 1922 through 1973


Yoar Acrg" i Prodcton ra
I'Lnl l'' Pcr .'. r> M il .j prir..


---------- Acres ------ *-


1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1940
19:11
119,1
19.13
i '.'.- .

19-15
19406
1947
1948
19,19
1949

1950
1951
1952
1953
193-1
1954

1055
1956

1958



1901
i I:' .
1965



1966
197

I'.",..*


17,500

22,000
22,000
14,000
23,000
28,200

27,000
32,950
22,600
24,000
27,500

26,800
23,700
19,000
18,900
19,700

19, ,',')

I e. ) 'o

15,800

12,400
l-,inn





1 I, ;00
11,800
11, .i.0
,l,100
I'1, 1 Ii


1970 10,200
1971 10,800
1972 .,.,0'O
1973 12,400


1,000
3,500
3,800

4,000
3,900
12,050
4,500
8,700

14,000
14,000
10,500
20,500
14,000

11,000
18,200
12,600
18,000
15,000

19,000
11 ,r500

,i tin')

38,100
20,400
1 7, .<'lO
2.C, IWO
15,500

11,000
20,700
15,400
17,000
16,600


] ...Inl l

11, 3:0,






l 71t1o

i.., flli
100,0
Il', 7 l.'l
i ,I .




j ',i-if.

11,300
11, 0oo


gcwnt.
26
31
21

27
22
15
20
28

25
40
28
32
22


------------..---.1 .on eI ------------._

26 26
108 108
80 80

107 107
88 88
181 181
92 92
248 248

353 353
567 567
299 299
646 129 517
315 313


330
546
412
86 724
450


244
124 497
370
35 526
548

31 646
493
503
49 510
330


50) 504
400
37.!
32 407"


n" t. I'. lfl-Ii .n- an z ..I C:. i.i ,' n. (, c ilij iijdc clllig (IP..~:I and under 3 rld (Iu'. 1I.

Source: 1' :


10.00
9.17
12.50

9.00
7.17
3.50
12.53
5.67

5,00
3.67
4.67
2.17
4.33

4,33
3.33
5.67
2.33
5.33

2.67
4.83
7.63
7.67
8, 83

8.83

8.50

9.15

13.35
8.00
12.00
7,85
9.50

7,50
9.70
0.50
7, 30
jr..20n

9. 00
8.10
11.60
11,90
10.20

13.00
14.60
11.00
10.60
19. 00

12.?,In
16.20
17.10
17.9n


.4000 dollar.'
255
990
99O

961
628
63?
1,151
1,404

1,764
2,079
1,397
1,119
1,365

1,430
1,820
2,338
1,688
2,400

2,128
3,350
4,265
6,612
3, 924

4,094
5,610
3,705
3,716
3, 971

8,257
3,976
4,441
4,129
5,206

4,845
4,782
4,798
3,723
4,026a

4,068
4.0'?
4, 600i
4,427
4,151


5,274
6,610
6,378
6,534




9





Tnble 4 .--Florida snap hbuiis for fresh narkct: Acreagu, production and valuc, winter 1923 through 1974

AcrmagpY Production
Year Ylrtd AvPraie Value
Planted llarvestoe( per ncre Total Notrmarketed Marketed price


....- ..- -Acres -----------

1923 3,000
1924 5,000


1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932 i
1033
1934-

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1940
1941
19,12
19413
19-14

19.15
1946
1947
1918
1949


1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

19.55
1956
1957

1965

1900

1962
1923

1964

1965

1907
1968
1969

1970
1911
1972
1973
1974'


31,000

36,000
26,500
31,000
29,100
39.500

36,200
44,700
45,000
31,400
31,400

37,500
36,500
31,300
23,,00
24.300

26,100
25,300
23,200
22,000
19,700

21,400
19,400
19,800
20,900
18,900

16,800
16, m'1.1
17,200
15,200
15,600

15,200
14,000
15,300
14,400
15,200


5,000
2,000
3,950
4,800
10,500

11,000
8,000
14,000
26,800
21,000

28,000
29,100
28,900
30,000
31,000

17,000
26,500
21,000
23,000
38.500

33,700
35, 700
25,500
32,800
30,100

32,600
32,900
30,300
22,300
23,6(00

24,600
21,600
18,800
9,500
18,500

16,300
18,300
19,300
19,700
16,500

15,500
16,300
17,000
14,00
15,300

13,000
13,400
13,100
14,000
13,500


Cwt.
32
28

27
26
27
22
2R

31
28
32
29
30

24
18
19
26
26

21
18
26
24
22

27
32
26
26
32


--.-.-.-... 1000 ,wt,..-...

94
141


OolliHrn

94 83
141 8.67

151 7.67
61 18.33
107 11.17
105 15.67
290 8.27

337 9.50
228 12.33
445 5.47
772 2.67
175 4.33

072 4.33
524 5,so
838 5.50
705 4.00
790 4.33

357 6.83
477 8.33
536 7.67
552 10.00
8660 9.17

8860 10.17
943 9. 00
547 9.17
724 8.67
963 9.35


910
1,124
650
836
963


913
95 823
818
758
850

37 922
713
620
114
518


473
604
660
605
528a


41 527
456
612
492
856

286
375
483
434
378


8.05



9,15


9.80
11.30
18.60
11.30a

12.40
10.80
10.40
10.70
12.30

12.20
14.00
12.70
15,20
13.10

19.60
17.70
13.90
19.80
21,60


1 .00 0 .rII., It
929
1,222

1,159
935
1,193

2,390

3,198
2,812
2.434
2.058
3,276

2,912
2,861
2,937
3,000
3,426

2,440
3,975
4,106
5,520
7,942

8.94,
8,492
5,016
6,279
9,004

7,897
7,942
7,771
8,224
7,778

8,436
6,987
7,000
2,120
5,8532

5,865
6,323
6,864
6,474
6,494

6,429
6,384
7,772
7,478
7,415

5,606
6.63n
7,66S
8,503
8.16J


. aee nllinitlons and Lxplln.ioinns (page 1lU under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).

Source 11)'.










'Tall ) 5 i--MH) :lida na be:lans for frf'vh market: Ac rIoI.'e, production anod vnlue, spring, 118 through 1974


-----Y-ieId rode-tion- Avvrage
Y.ar Value
Planted rIktavfsted"l per acre Total Not marktctur larkrete pficv
----------\I i ---...---... --- I... 1.ooL-o-...., rsi t f *----------- ml o ai I


5,700
10,200

6,100
18,000
12,300
10,500
11,300

11,100
10,000
11,850

12,000

|,, inn

13,500
3,500


25,000
19,100
11,100
18,200
15,000 .1,000


1925

1927
1928
1929

1930
1931

1934

1935
1930
1938

1939

1940
1941
1942
M913
1044

1945

1946
1947
1948
1949

1950
19617
181i9



1952
1933


1954
195

195
1901
1939


197 4.67
324 6.07


4a
32

32
38
31
32
18

27
20
24
18
27


367
432
340
429
511

-I4
401
323
437
540

720
4 ",fi
507

3.0

493
474
601
431
534

1600



415

CO16
454
30

302


20,000
17,000
17,800
16,000



15, i 11
10,000


If,, .,a;


22,i, 0R)
30,000
22,500
14,800
11,300


16,200
12,600
10,500
18,200
10,800

16,400
12,200
9,900
9,800


10,100
12,100
11,000

18,700

12,100
12,000
10,800
I 1 *.,("
i (0'I['


367
432
85 255
43 386
511

488
401
a33
437
540

120
459
507
676
3D 360


35 588
35 453
3l1
402
65 447a

25 404
608
429
38 439
419

399
456
3,9
1382
0s4


.'rl ln (1959) ind under yield tI114).


28,500
21 000
39,000
28,200
2, 2,000

23,600
25,100
3i, r,'.".'
.17.900
18,000

25,000
23,400
16,100
12,800
15,000

17,100
10,400

18 1 "



17,400
14,400
II i II.I
12,500
10,500
13,100
10,500
18,100

1 1, ,0.1
13,400

12,400
12,600
11,o00
12,100
1 2, ,',*


918
2,162.

1,061
2,050
2,621
2,039
1,797

1,548
1,852
1,612
1,625
1,901

2,203
2,016
1,445
901
1,704

1,625
1,930
2,260
874
1,980

2,640
2,830.
3,213
4,800
3,35&

2,996
3,630'
4,074
3,877
3,202

3,661
4,512
4,807
3,724
3,553

4,801
4.237
4,074
5,133
3. 4.-


4,122
4,347
4,100
4,197

4,727
5,232
65019
4,961
4,190

5,387
6,202
5,407'
6,758
6,029


6.00
4.67
5.67
2.33
3.33

3.33
4.R3
7.00
2.00
3.67

3.67
6,17
6.33
8.33
9,17


9.17
8,67
9.00
7,50

7.00
6.00
0.83
9.15
8. 00S


9.90
10.50
8.70
11. 50

8.90
9.10
12.90
10,20
9.39

11.70
10.30
11.70
11.30i
o1. nof

13,50
13.60
13.90
15.90
1i.70


aSee : f rliAna .,,,l I slin ittIll.n (['i~.7 1II) iJn l

Sourcpt tl71.




11






Table 6. --Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage, production and value for the calendar years 1931 through 19B69

.d .. rV .r ruJ
.-. A t r Ai. ,el|dr i. A rr rtrE
___'P__ [r ll~iii.-l L_ H- Irl, ( [f p r'. cre __O 1riPFrc. h __. _


------------- Arr---rc----------


1931

1935
1930
1937
1938
1939

10940
1911
1912
1913
19M4


1I I 8
10947
1918
1949


1950
1051
1952
1,9,53


1957
1950
1057
1950

1960
1901
1962
19613
196.1


100G
19'.?
1903
1i;";n


300

300
150
350
350
300

300
5,000
14,700
21,200 '
14,500

14,200
10,600
7,100
7,100
6,700

7,500
10, 00
7,200
18,700
13,000

11,200
8,900
13,200
9,100
8.,00

13,400
14, 00i
6, (i00

10,200

9,100
7,000
9,800
7,000
5,900


300

300
140
350
350
300

300
5,000
14,700
21,200
14,500

14,200
10,00
7,100
7,100
0,700

7,500
10, 00
7,200
18,700
13,600

11,200
8,o00
13,200
9,100
8,900

13,100
13,400
5,500
8,000
8,500

8,300
5,800
9,300
5,00
5,500


Tons

1.1

1.0
1.1
1.4
1.2
1.1

1.1
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.1

1.4
1.5
1.2
1.5
1.6
1.5

1.7
1.5
1.7
1.8

1.9
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.4

1.9
2.0
1.7
e.1
1.7

1.8
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.7


l.,Aa fI.r tlhe years 1970 and subsequent years are not published to avoid possible disclosure of Indivithial operations

b\c r ,lr i- cq(ulr.lt nIt it r,,-'.l ,'.II ,i tI p111 1:,.l purclm s pc rior tI oIutractlnj of acreage by proccssurs anud at any
L111hi.* h i tin. :) 10l UL on L .[ 1 |pi lh lit *s t- uill: ( I b.\ 11 processor anld p ri I U. illl/.d for f'sQ h Ilmarket.

C'Ib "v dine per unit" and Ir.ue (nio prodtautioni)" in 114 aiid i-irc-quinl years are equivalent returns for all varieties
and prndc4 at t..c processing plant door; prior to 1960 the basis was the first receiving point

So tu : 117).


Where It Began--Production Areas


The McIntosh-Micanopy Area

The earliest statistical documentation in Florida was by the

Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA) in 1889-90 when 2*240 acres were


lons (l2,r',0 Ih0..)
330

300
150
490
420
330

330
9,500
20,800
30,570
16,420

20,550
16,070
8,780
10,620
10,200

11,020
16,810
10,470
32,290
23,880

21,000
15,060
23,060
16, P50
12,100

24,930
2-1, q.>0
27,150
9,00
10,500
14,500

14,950
10,400
18,600
8,400
9,350


Dollars

66.70

60.70
40.00
40.80
37.50
25.00

25.00
54.90
72,70
85.00
95.50

110.90
116.60
102.40
103.70
109.00

100.40
102.60
114.60
135.90
108,80

95.00
115,90
121.50
110,30
123,20

123.70
113.70
108.60
120.00
124.000

115.00
115.00
111.00
11-1.00
102.00


SO000 d'rllary


8
522
1,918
3,132
1,068

2,278
1, 71
899
1,101
1,112

1,106
1,725
1,202
4,3'8
2, 59

1,995
1,7-15
2,871
1,9 ,
1,491


3,087

1,043
1.9"0
1,798'

1,719
1,196
2,0riS
958
9M4














I h1. 7 ', J jil p ,1 r I .f- I ,1. f. ....h I, I- | .H 1 .,^l- ,


E--.---- J I
----------7......-------. ---- --_ -------- ---- --- -- -- -----------------------------------
I+0 't" +'l t l" P'rtt+ + "%"+ +" 21., ]("+' M~+" 1 +"I' I P'"" T'"ii' |f"'


1954-85 33.9
1955-56 33.0
1956-57 32,0
1957-68 31.5
1938-59 27.8

1959-0G 12.5
1960-61 9.1
1901-62 25.6
1962-63 9.1
1963-64 30.9

I"'. 1-, 8.0
1965-66 8.,
1966-67 24 1.
1967-68 24,.8
1968-69 5.6


289.0 230.3 212,7 272,1 427.1 436.6 100.7
3795, 268.9 136.8 147.3 392,4 309.9 138.1
246.5 188.2 181.0 171.2 24,k5 269.2 162.6
291.5 170,3 39.0 10.0 49.7 366.4 201.1
280.9 199.5 133,5 141,0 214.8 171.2 121.1


2,4 2,0(i4.8
3,7 1,809.6
1.7 1,407.9
7.8 1,164.3
1.7 1,292.4


166.8 126.7 171.0 07.7 178.6 365.5 270.9 13.3 1,403.9
247.7 243.3 162.7 156.4 254.6 330.7 169.7 5.5 1,579.7
244;9 247.6 167.8 218.2 227. 176.1 130.3 2.5 1,440.5
177.6 163.2 109.9 223,4 231.5 259.7 119.6 2.0 1,296.0
180.0 149.7 144.5 99.9 244.0 302.7 105.6 13.8 1,331.1


175.4 160.7 189.1 122,3 178.0 227.7 130.9
134.1 147.4 208.4 83.5 121.6 281.7 172.6
120.7 158.2 184.2 200.2 198.6 285.2 120.1
S,-.A 209.2 169.6 128.1 150.1 279,8 118.6
90,2 131.2 154.1 171,7 174.6 268.0 101.8


9.2 1,237.3
6.1 1,103.7
3.0 1,294.3
2.5 1,285.5
4.5 1,108,0


1969-70 16.7 88.7 109.0 73.0 17.8 143,0 219.6 95,9 4.0 768.3
1970-71 12.2 131.4 1 .. 7 131.4 62.3 117.8 201.1 129.1 15.3 956.3
1971-72 7,1 140,2 117,1 138.1 121.7 152.6 188.9 J09.2 10.5 1,024.3
1972-73 36.7 169.1 122.2 1...2 88.8 r.'.3 234.4 511.5 25.0 1,096.2
1973-74 20. IG;." 108.1 89.5 91.4 142.6 220.9 161.7 31.6 1,035.6

-.,-,- rd. 1:I

Tuble r 1-- I, 11 smnap beans for fresh market: linnIllI nt v I .re irlir, c. vet peI r ,.dr'dlc tL I 11, 195t1-5 thluough 1973-74

Cro Oct. VO. A ... F... I,. yi Avoc i.ge
iuo~yc L_ -~L- -~~~ J Ms~~Yjdt~rlC ~_." -,


19514-5



19P4-69
1955-50

1957-58
198"-59

1989-60
196O-61-
1961-62
1902-63
1963-61

1980I-64
19865-66
l ',,.,, I. 7
I ', -i;-
1 I' --,1


I .1,. D

I' i 1-7'

197 A-';


-----.- -.- .---------- ------------- ---I ,11-.------ -- ------- -.. --.----.--.- ---" -
S. .? 9.30 9.30 I'.?n 8.80 7, 80 7.88 9.70 6.70 9.02
9.20 7.30 7.60 12. : '2 8.00 10.00 9.50 11.70 8.99
8.30 8.60 11.4*1 11.001 l.r..' i ..ll 1P).' 10.00 10. t7
B. '. 9.00 10.50 18.20 24.20 17.1') ?.' 8.90 6.90 9.97
t.2U 06.70 I( I '.. I J. 1. 10.40 11.90 11.10 8.40 6.81

13.10 1.. .I 11.70 12.60 11.40 1.20 12. 1,0 0.00 8.90 7.40 10.87
8.90 0.10 8.90 11.70 11.' 9, 9.0 9.30 8.80 7.80 9.,5
11.80 ..0 ?. 7 .1 11 ir. 'J. '. 10,10 1%;0 12.40 11. 6i, 10119
V1.30 Ii.: .2r I .(.i' y.0: In.0.70 10.60 9,40 9.40 10.78
10.40 9.60 11. 4 l .FI 13.40 14.80 10,60 8,40 12.20 12.40 11.23

11.'"n 9.30 10.20 10.80 ; t. 12.90 11. r,9 11.20 13.50 11.1I
10.40 0.90 13.00 13.40 11.'", 15.70 17.61 11.31 P. N.ri 7.20 12.31
11.50 16.70 I l.i' II.F..1 11.20 ?. .,n 12.00 11,00 li.i.') 12.88
13.340 13.it 11.00 \10.,6 12.71, 17.30, 1 .. 20 11.70 10.60 9.00 12.57
10.80 I I. :i8 1800 16.00 1 12.50 I I. nJ 0.30 11.70 11.00 1 :.00


15,50 12. '2 30 1'..70 2... 7.' 29.00 1,. ?n I ?. 0 I '. ('0 15.70 16.96
12.30 15,90 11. '. )'. 6u I ".. 22.00 1 .*1I, 14.20 12.'l0 12,80 14.57
f6. 90 22.90 I,. i" I1t.-' Is.. .1. 10.40 16.10 14.40 14.20 9.80 15.39
I i. I I'|.. 3 .i In.,n i.80 ?-... II n. n 17.90 11.70 17.70 18,50 17, I1
1 il) 1l.rO I .., 2??.;io 21. .i 21. ;i 21.70 15.70 60 1.0 5. i' 18.39


.e % I nlllnIon anid E-\4l..n irim,)n (pi ," Ill undJr r Ecil- ,: |191. I ).

Source; 1171'.



recorded. The major portion was grown in Alachua County which was

crossed by the Florida Railroad (connecting Fernandina and Cedar Key--


--- --- ---


--




13









Table 9 .--Florida snap beaus for fresh market and processing: Acres harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through
1973-74 crop years


County and area 1964-65 1965-66 196-67 1067-68" 1968-6i 1969-70 1970-71 1971-2 19-7972 973-74

------------------- -------------- Acre --------------------- --- .- .


West Florida
Gadsden
Other
Area total

North Florida
Alaclhua
13i rad ford
Marion
Union
Other
Area total

North Central
I akr
Orange
Seminole
Sumter
Other
Area total

wt,-' Central
: tglllhhlnds
Hilltsbrough
'Polk
Other
Arte total


470 600 600 660 530 800 1,400 950 920 1,000
10 50 70 40 160 100 120 250 230 250_
4b8 650 670 700 600 900 1,520 1,200 1,150 1,260


1,200 1,040 1,000 900 510 660 1,080 1,060 1,360 1,200
20 '
670 270 60
330 330 280 260 130 130 140 120
110 140 370 40 270 550 620 680 580
2,330 1I,7 -0 ,' l.0 1,530 L8if 1,280 1,771 1,8110 2, 0,0 1,840


1,750 1,560 210 525
740 750 1,050 780
680 600 400 510 170 260 380
130 50
3n 170 n 3:0 22.1 370
4,330 3,080 1,710 1,845 200' 40I 750) 3350 230e 2'50j


80
530 480 520 725 700 700 680 850 10 1,200
200 100 60
110 100 80 350 10 60 6 J A 02 9. 17 110
840 580 C80 1,175 770 760 660 900 980 1,310


Lower East Co:st
Browanrd 8i, .00 7,300 9,600 9,980 8.600 8,000 7,350 8,950 8, 520 6,900
dlde 130 6,590 7,175 T,740 6,430 6,810 7,700 6,550 6,850 5,810
Palm ricaoh (east) 1, 200 17,020 17,800 1t,25 18,600 15,180 14,250 15,850 16,970 19,340
Iauln BKach (west) 4,500 6,200 5,775 5,380 070 1,190 1,180 000 360 200
Other 250----- -
Arcil totad 37, 0.0 37, 110 .10,.fi. 42.350 3-.1, 0' 31,180 30,410 31,83n 32,700 32, 25


State totats:
Fresh
Processing
All


(36,300) (37,000) (37,1001 (38,800) (37,500) 34,600 35,200 36,100 37,100 36,900
(8,100) (6,800) (7, f00) (3, 00) 4,200 NA NA NA NA NA
.1. I4'0 4 21.120 t'iri 47, i00 41,700 *


aI*I lnerrl-slin, ucrc;.c Irncll-d d I Ii 7-t.- 1i J .idl prior croli ).ear. by cpInt.ILrp; r.luhded in all rrubs lqucnl crops eiAftV1 ,

bLol t trop year in u Hbich prkl ci ing aBcrl.c age is rerlrrIi d; i'.\chuled to nvold discloure.'.

CAll crunbc.. I,, area.

Soure: [3).


1860). In 1881 a branch line was completed from Waldo to Ocala via

Hawthorne and Lockloosa. In 1887-88 another railroad was being built

on the west side of the McIntosh-Micanopy area. It was later known as.

the Tampa and Jacksonville (T&J) railroad. Its tracks were retaoved

in 1944.

















Table 10.--'lorlda li nt b.-r. n fir f i iih Inal ret: Acreage, production and value, wintCr and spring combined, 1933-34'tIhr"u,;h
I .,T 7-r,,

Arre.re Prodactiton
Cr(.' -rar --e Yield Avetage Value
11Pl.l11-d 1.i l 0 I r WI Ii l I'or inr: rkeld Ma.rki.le l triC

.--------- Arrr- --------------. -. .o rn, t. --- ----- _jja s .,00 dolars


1933-34

1934-35
1935-3U
193A-37
1937-38
1938-39a"

1939-40
1940-41
1011-42
-I I-.-1 1
1913-11



31 1 17
1 !t- 1 7
]lB 7-,< '
I'i -- I'J

1949-50
;Pr.' ,1

1952-53
1953-514

1954-55
1955-.35
1 '. .





IJ. -i.,
] '*,,0- ,: J






1" :-61
'. -1.,.

l '...;-f 7

I .l 7-.. I


1,500
1,800
2,400
5,400
7, rf-.I

0,200
7, 000
56,00
6,200
5,100

5,400
7,1 nO
-, r.,r,


4,..->D

4,150
4,600

3,300
2, 'ilt

2,900
2,500

2,050
I t.Or

1,700

.1 OI
1,200


1,200
1,000
900
UO


29

29
2)
20
20
28

19
14
21
19
25

29
28
22
30


31

)n
25
28

329

27
26
24

28
35
27
26


25

30
25


i.'lju-tcd to IhIlude baby linm..h iaiil buirltt i bis. Prior yeas are Fordliook


b 'linti.r rdls,. rlit'd c n F c unP d$scrrdlii,.l ar.d Fni.ll I'l.-rira ntrc..ge co iljbiwd '.l illi spring ntelr 1958.

Stc De fl rtinis nad 1ptl:plinnatin (pf..ge il) under sllfri' (J io) nnJ under yield (19l61).

Snurcc: (17'.



Prior to 1895 Captain Knight's steamboat transported cabbage and

other vegetables from its Evinston loading dock across Orange Lake,

up Cross Creek and across Lochloosa Lake where it transferred its cargo


4
2.8
4
18


7

8



9

3
3






2
1


43 5.44

44 4.98
4'0 5.05
49 7.98
109 4.68
193 4.15

138 4.77
109 6.01
110 6.70
120 9.90
126 13.40

150 14.07
187 10.48
127 10.58
150 9.360
143 0.67

121 8.60
101 8.72
S7 10.00n
83 10.10
82 9.55

71 9.95
62 10.79
61 10,07
50 10.28
38 14.300

48 10,90
86 10.10
S3 11.90
39 10.30
3ic 12.40

30 12,00
29 11.90
27 a. 0oo
22 14.20


234

219
202
391
510
020

503
720
777
1,188
I,C.r

2,111
1,960
1,344
1,404
1,383

1,048
881
670
838
783

746
669
614
514
543

323
566
452
402
409

360
345
351
312


6,200
5,400

6,450
9,100
7,650
6,150
4,750

4,450
4,800
3,4100
3,450
2,950

3,150
2,900
2,700
2,300
2,000


1,700
1,700
1,600
1,200

]1,.lrni
1,100
1, .1.l1,
1.1.60


__ IILU/~_ __ __~


Li nl Inf ',nh Ili 1939 ;,.nrl eub:.'c 'I l. ;:,'t rs
vriel r i nrim rI).










'Talbi 11l.--Florldu: iilm Im be, n for resh omn;rkt: Acregce, production aild valiue, winter, 1931 through 1958


|Year Arciij e Per acreY
Plantedl lnrventld Pr),' acr'


Total ] Not tirketedT Marketed
.1 eta


--------Acres ------1

1,000


2,700
2,100
1,700
1,150

1,100
1,i00
800
650
550


Cwt-. ---------l --1,oO wt---------

24 24 241


400
900
1,000
2,200
2,600

1,100
4,200
2,000
2,300
1,500

2,000
2,400
1,200
1,500
930

950
000
600
600
500


I Ill'r. 1..i_ drllthr._

5.62 135

7.81 90
6.25 108
6.75 168
5.31 337
6.56 353

8.75 123
8.50 289
8.44 324
14.38 478
15.91 536

13.28 595
13.75 774
14.00 459
9.38 309
12.05 422

10.30 319
9.85 197
12.50 212
13.30 173
13.30 160


39;55 650 500 27 14 14 12,35 173
0005 700 600 30 18 2 16 9.30. 149
1957, 500 400 25 10 10 13.00 130
1958 500 350 14 5 11.90 60

S)aIrcx! (171.


Table 12. -Florlda limit beans for fresh mnarkart: Acreage, production and value, spring, 1931 through 1958


YorAc retig.. Yield Production Average
Planted Harvested per acr Total Not marketed Marketed price

-------- .cr ------- t. ---------- .n cwt---------- dollars 1,jOCC dollnra

1934 500 38 19 19 8.18 99

r'.1.' 1,100 29 32 32 4.00 129
1930 900 26 23 23 4.00 94
1937 1,400 22 30 30 7.3.1 223
1938 3,200 14 46 46 3.75 113
1939 4,200 34 .141 141 4.06 573

1040 5,100 20 104 101 4.22 440
101 3,700 20 75 75 5.78 431
]!LI- 3,600 22 78 78 5.78 413
1943 3,900 22 87 67 8.12 710
194-1 3,600 26 92 92 12.50 1,152

1943 3.1l., 3. 10o 4 105 14.53 2,810
194f 6,400 5,?*n' 29 150 19 131 9.00 1,186
1947 5,650 4,700 21 98 4 91 9.3R 885
1948 4,450 4,000 30 122 6 117 9.38 1,035
1949 3,000 3,600 30 108 108 8.90 961

1950 3,350 3,200 30 96 6 90 8.10 729
i951 3,700 3,700 22 81 81 8.45 681
1952 2,800 2,700 29 78 8 70 9.40 658
1953 2,800 2,700 26 70 70 0.50. 666
1934 2,400 2,400 29 70 70 8.90 023

1S55 2,500 2,400 29 70 9 61 9.40 $73
1956 2,200 l,900 24 46 46 11.30 820
1957 2,200 2,000 27 5 3 51 9.50 484
9058 1,800 1,700 2s 48 3 45 1t.10 454


Averagcp
price


1940
1941
1942
19431
1944

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

' 1030
1950
1951
1952
1953.
1954


:~I~OIBtr~llS~L1~-if~?l'*~rPNYIPTrt~CTrr


"1-~11~----- ----- Ir-^----- ~. .._~--^1~- 3-









Tnble 13. --Flo'1HtlOd cnhbtg for fr'tCh iu, rkel tr pIroelasirtln Acrenae, priouction and va!ht, 1917-.18 tlhrolugh 1973-74


Ctrop year '- -.S... --.-- 1 Y.ld --L --- Av rn...o.. Vhe
Pla ntedJ1 I.r l Iwr aoe Total Not nikhi. Markeltd p -Ice


1917-18
1918-19

1319-20
1920-21
1921-22
1932-23
1923-2 i

1921-25
1920-27

1)27-28
10--L..

1929-30
1930-31
Ia031-32
1933-33
1933-31

1034-35
1935-30
1936-37
1937-3S
1938-39

I I' fil
1910-41
1911-12
1912-13
1913-41

194l-145
1910$-4_
1910-17?
19-17-41
1S718-4


119-50



1953-51

1951-55
1955-tG

1'-F.--


., .,-' in
19360-61
19" l-i.2

1963-6-1

19&4-05
1966-67
19-7-68
I '.-i"-c


'19,';-7,
1S71-72
1972-73
1373--71


18,500
13,501)
16,300'
17,300
16,'1U0

18,000
19,700
10,100
20,500
16,000

14, 00
17,700
Ir.,n3.r.
17, ,*
19,300

19,500
18,000
155,00
17,100
18,100

16,900
15,100
17,500
17,600
1.9,000

17,700
18,700
10,100
18,300
19,600


16,000
12,000
12,200
lI ., i '. i
it ,'Ir.'

17,700

15,600
19,00
15,700

14,406
16,700
13,900
I, S00
17,500

17,9000



I ,. F.i-



15,400
17,000


II;, ,710.

17. r.,.6
17,400
17,800.


---1,1-- 0 (1Y t- -- ----- -- ----- .r 1.00oo (l.ol

968 968 1.73 1,07
530 530 1.760 33


-------.-A..r3- -----. ..- wt

9,140 10B1
4,420 120

9,280 136
5,370 120
11,280 1.10
2,050 160
4,920 170

4,650 128
3,B00 120
3,010 98
2.900 110
6,500 120

3,700 138
0,500 1418
5,500 80
6,200 140
10,700 120

5,600 101
9,000 80
8,500 120
9,400 130
10,000 110

16,000 140
10,000 120
18,000 120
10,000 1,. 1,P 170
20.0 000 20,000 161


1, 2'.?
641
1,580
328
636

59!
440
291
320
780
SIO

510
962
'410
868
1,2&1

582
720
1,(120
1,222
1,100

2,240
1,200
2,1i0
1,700
3,280

2, 500
2,0.10
2,000
2, 59.v
2, .11

3,1;1
4, 110
3, I'll
3, ..iii.


3.31"
2, 1.9


2,221
2,015
2,712

3,132
3,n fli'
2,?682



2,305
3, 100
83,23-1
3,910
4,0't8

2,923
3,608
3,821
f,095
4,272


],262
644
1,480
328
836

596
440
2941
320
780

510
142 820
440'
130 738
428 850

582
720
400 620
1,222
1.100

2,240
1,200
360 1,800
1,700
886 2,a91

672 1,988
50 1,090
408 1,502
410 2, I'n
409 2,535

1,148 2,572
1,014 3,166
274 3,1'27
1,206 2,.-I4
551 2,' Ai.

152 2.1 1
268 3,072
2,224
2.,015
273 2,439

304 2,828
800 2,700
2,082
2,83 i
277 2,5.71

44 2,261
133 2,3;3
3,231
3,910
14.01

2,923
3,608
37 3,784
4,095
4,272


2,0(75
824
1,738
761
1,688

837
1,065
459
590
975

1,612
918
704
590
685

1,630
612
400
978
1,012

2,061

1,602
Ii, I'.2
4,393

3,6 9
1, i 70i
2,702
6,530
5,577

3,858
10,701
9, 537
3,940
3,460

7,316
5,f10
B,782
8,246
6(098a

7,353
5,,870

9,741
6,91I

7,593
10,551
10,612
13,685
11,677

15,960
13,819
15,741
23,839
17,571


.93
1, 94
.689
3.80
1.81

1.81
2.45

2. G'
2.2u"

1.50
3.40

1,48
1.46

2,60
1.89
2.60
3.10
2. 50

2.60
2.10
5.30
3,46
2.69

3,21

3,30
3.60
2,86

8.40
8.83
4.16
6,82
4.11


SiEr U D..ll.laon. and lV.i.lar.,tlo,' (palge 111) inder selling (1059) ar.J uider trllI (1'*il.

Sure.r (171.




17






Table 4. --Florlda cabbage for fresh market and processing: Acreago, production and value for fall, winter and spring 1970-71
through 1973-71

Acreage Production
Season Yield Acreage Value
ild year Pntod Harvested per acre Total Not mkMi. Marketeda price

------- AcrCe -------- Cwt. -- ----- ---- 1.000 wt.--------- -----Dollars J" '4l.
Fallb
1970 1,700 I,f00 205 328 328 3.13 1,027
1971 2,400 2,300 215 492 492 4.98 2,450
1972 2,600 2,400 170 408 408 4.18 1,705
1973 2,200 2,000 190 380 380 4.44 1.687
Winter:
1971 10,100 9,500 205 1,918 3,948 3.50 0,825
1972 10,800 9,900 215 2,150 37 2,119 4.11 8,71G
1973 9600 9,200 240 2,208 2,208 6.61 12,387
1974 11,500 10,400 260 2,701 2,701 4.01 10,417

Spring:1'
1971 G,900 6,500 205 1,332 1,332 4.48 5,9G7
1972 5,900 5,400 215 1,173 1,173 3.90 4,575
1973 6,100 5,800 255 1,479 1,479 6.59 9,717
1974 5,900 5,400 220 1,188 1,188 4.24 5,037

ainchldes small quantities processed.

bFall and spring split off from all or winter to make three seasons during the seasons shown.

Source: [17).



to the Waldo-Ocala railroad. Early cabbage was grown in the rich ham-

mocks of the area, packed in barrels and moved out extensively by boat,

then rail. Pioneering farmers of the area are mostly well known families

of the area today--Brown, Culpepper, Huff, Richardson, Rush, Smith,

Whittington, Wood and Wolfenden, most of whom grew winter Cabbage.

The Black Acres area just west of Gainesville had its cabbage

farm operated by "Dogey" Stringfellow; Mr. Colclough was also an early

grower. Christian and Neal at McIntosh were area handlers of a large

tonnage during the '30s and '40s.

The Alachua-Narion area continued-to be significant from the late

19th century through the mid-'40s, ranging from 200 acres to 2,000,

averaging about 850 acres.

The North Central Area

Most growers of cabbage in Seminole County were mentioned in

Economics Report 69, Celery Production in Florida--A Historic Data Series,

for most cabbage growers also grew celery [7]. Chase and Company were




18







1 .hle 1.5. --Florida cabbage for froehl market andn processing: IntWrstaIte shipmicnts. monthly, converted to rut., during 1951-55
through 1973-74


p Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb ar Api May Jun J Crop year
yar totul


191 -S5
1951-55

1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
1951-62
1052-63
1963-6-1


1.5 59.8 391.1 528.9 868.7 049.9 153.6 2.7
14.9 302.7 441.7 619.6 712. I. 603.8 97.4 2.4
4.2 123.9 407,1 498.2 579.5 401.6 51.9 1.6
7.3 114.7 248.4 180.8 414.7 B71.9 279.6 8.1
2.6 115.5 403.1 482.2 618,9 574.6 67.2 2.3

14.2 83.1 430.3 569.9 703.8 667.8 150.2 9.7
3.6 119.0 512.5 509.9 675.6 501.2 93.6 10.1
13.2 170.3 419.4 415.5 561.2 01.5.4 142.0 4,7
11.4 81.4 20.7 355.1 746.0 869.0 200.0 3.7
27.3 135.8 400.1 365.8 4 4. 8 682.8 162.9 4.0


1964-65 7.3
1985-66 .3 10.2
1908-0'7 11.8
1967-68 31.4
19S3-6u9 16.0


188.4 459.0 398.7 474.6 368.7 131.4 7.0
238.5 576.9 474.9 574.7 556.2 273. 5 19.3
199.6 6i7.9 (.21.7 71'.i.. 514.4 197.4 8.0
414.8 770.6 I.'.. 730.8 787.6 290,4 5.5
168.0 529.7 689.2 88 8 980 1.3 452.3 21.5


I96E-70 5.2 129.3 .113.2 427.2 5;0.1l 699.2 298.3 33.9 .3 2,677.5
1970-71 .6 27.6 265.7 08.3 171.4 629.7 71-1.9 127.5 65.3 .3 3.211..1
1971-72 1., 50.4 397.0 t30.5 630.0 609.5 724.6 203.3 12.0 3 .:..
1'2-:.i .6 34.8 311.0 ...1.5 471.1 703.1 772.8 '123.2 61.8 1.8 3,338.3
1973-7.1 6 33.1 282.8 731.0 619.1 835.1 :V;.0 31. 1 20.1 .1.2 3,522.2

S.I it: 12),

1I ih, 16. -Florlda cal)tlag for fresh mtrkcot: Averaig pricCe received per owt. i, n.lui rdu'n1'i 194I-55 through 1973-71

Cro o. .D e n Fb Mar Ap Crop year
------ .J-c ,.-- --b ma- Apr tny June O

-_ -_ -_-_- ----- ---------- ---- - -p. -ILlIr- -ii* ----- ''- --------- N


.1954-55
1955-50 3.30
I ,,, '.- ;.

l o:.',-:.' 2.70

I .,: .0, 5.50,
. o'li-c
1 I r.,
l ..'-l .1
1r. -,I 2.40


i7,,..-73 .
1965-76 3.35

in0.,7-r 3,40
196 -6r.. 4.:00

1 r,;..-*7 -
1..70-71 3.30
1971-72 8.30
1972-7: 4.90
1973-74 4.35


2.u,
2.,")
2. 1'A
3.30
.'.,. b(


2.15 2.95
1.95 1.75
.900 2,05
3.00 2.90
2.15 ?.,

2.00 2.85
1.95 2.0"
8.60 5.7n
2.70 2.!90
2.50 2.4 10


2.30 2.35 2.80 4,80
2.95 8.00 3.75 3.60
3.85 2.70 2.00 3.15
3.80 3. .0 3.60 3.00
3.80 2.5 ?2..s 2.30

7.20 5.00 6. 8 4.30
3.40 3.50 3.60 4.00
.33 4. .'; 3.75 3.75
6,20 5.60 6.00 7.10
3.65 4. .: 4.10 3845


4.10 1.89.
1.25 2.00 2.60
1.60 8.10
2.10 2.00 2.30
2.40 2.50


4.80
2.25
3,85
3.00
2.20


2. to
2,10
,830

3.45
.069


3.27
2.60 3.55
3.80
8.60
2.65 2.85


5.10 6.10 5.45
5.10 5.70 3.83
4.28 4.00 4.16
5.60 7.10 ,5.82
5.50 5.20 4a12


See .'ftiniillo.las and Erplan.tiuns (p.lge Ilil lurlel 8rlling (19.39).

SeUtce! (171.


2,656.2
2, '.. 0
2,008.0
1,625.6
2,2f66.4

2,629.0
2,486.1
2,353.7
2,559 3
2,213.5

2,035.9
2,724.5
2,971.1
3,620.0
3,658.0


-----I-




19,








Table 17.--Florida cabbage: Acres harvested by counties and areas, 3964-05 through 1973-74 crop years


County and area 19084-65jj 90lS- 1906-67 1967-68 1968-09 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1072-73 1973-74


West Florida!

North Florlda
Alachua and Bradford
Clay and Dural
Union
'Other
Area total


Hastings
Flagler
Putnarn
St. Johns
Area total

North Central
Il.Ma, nlt O()anpec
Seminole
Volusla; s
Other
Arch :total


West Central
Ilardee and Polk
lIII I_.-ii rnngh
MlanncfO

Othee i
SnIraso0a
fMhtfru
Area total

Slluthnold (

Everglades
Palm M'uchl (wf"tl)

Lomer Fart Coast
Dade
Othr. r1
Area total

Stnto total


-r------------------------- ---
1-00 '100 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 60


20 90 50 50 40 80 40 50 40 b
250 180 190 240 130 30 90 100 b
110 70 80 80 80 100 90 30 50 b
20. 20 20 50 170 40 60 210 200
400 360 340 370 300 320 170 230 400 200


1,600 1,300 .1,650 2,100 2,450 2,300 2,150' 2,420 2,400 2,150
1,600 1,470 1,700 2,500 2,400 1,700 2,050 2,100 2,150 2,100
3.('0 2,pnf. 3.00 N 3. 10 '4,000 ) 4.000 ,0 400 4.200 4,200 4.700
6, 250 5,57vu b,5;'0 b,nu^ 6,80 h,000 b, -00 6,b7l1 3,750 8, !150


250 410
2,550 2,320
S 10O 240
O 30
S, 12, 3, ;()


370' 570 0665 900 870
2,550 2,530 2,600 2,650 2.620
350 550 : 000 080 850
20 15 10 20
~3,290 3.,50 3,880 4,140 4,3:GO


800
2,600
1,00

4,461u


800
2,250
1;150

4,200


900
2,600
700

4. 2i'.


130 180 130 90
530 670 600 700 600 530 470 600 570 560
200 270 500 750 B60 780 1,000 700 750
200 180 300 300
200 410 330 350 a50 510 790
k( i f,13U ,.200 '1,70 1,80 1,5..20 1,600 1.0950 1,760 2.10)

170 560 870 850 350 e e e


3,900 2,600


1,500 1,470


1.200 .1,300


900 610 720 1,140


700 450 470 300 270 220 320 510 70 280
3no 730 1,080 800 050 1,150 1:,600 1,'070 930 880
2,' '. 3,760i 3,050 2,570 2,42.0 2,b70 2,,20 1,580 ).500 1,16)0

13,700 14,560 15,400 17,000 17,600 16,700 17,600 17,600 17.400 17.,00


Includes some acres abandoned for economic reasons: 300 acres in 1964-66; 420 acres In 1965-66; ecotomle abandon-
ment lth rc.iller 'ai'n t',,clud l..

I InchlukJ td in t-i "Othell .

cllnchid.' one or nmor of the following counties: .Diito, l rrfc, Iihlands, Volk and/or Snrnsota.

dAll or part of the follon ing counties: Cha:rlotte, Collier, Glades, linldry, Lee and Martin.

Clncllded In Lower East Coast area "Other,"

Source: (31.



active growers of produce from the start in the late 19th century until

the end of the 1973-74 crop year. Plantings in the Orange-Seminole-

Volusia county area were not significant until World War I and not






heavy then. Shipments of cabbage from Sanford in 1908-09 and 1909-10
were less than 5,000 packages each season. Lake and Sumter county
acreages led the north central area during the period, reaching a peak
of nearly 1,700 acres in 1913-14, F. C, W. Kramer was for many years
('20s-'40s) a Leesburg grower-shipper. Center Hill had its Dickson,
Lamb, Smith and Todd, to name a few; Coleman was also a cabbage center
and a Mr. Crenshaw was an early grower there. These counties declined
as the Seminole-Volusia area increased and currently grow little, if
any. As celery production diminished in north central Florida, cabbage
production increased in the area to make it second in importance in
Florida. The greater portion of the production is now grown by the
American Produce Exchange (APEX), the W. L. Justice estate, Lake
Ashby Farms, Harold Kastner, Long and Scott, Schumacher Farms, Tright
and Pleterski, and Zellwin Farms; practically all is growing on sandy
soils. In the '40s and earlier P. H. Britt, C. G. and W. W. Tilden
and Roper Brothers grew relatively large acreages at Winter Garden.

The Hastings Area
This area accounts currently for about 50 percent of the Florida
acreage. Most cabbage growers are those farmers listed as potato
growers in the Economics Report 81, Irish Potato Production in Florida--
A Historic Data Series [10).
Farmers in the Tri-county Area (Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns)
harvested cabbage from 1,300 acres in 1936b exceeding 1,000 acres for
the first time; by 1940 growers increased their acreage to 4,000; by
1950 it further increased to 6,600 and in 1975 the area growers har-
vested 8,750 acres [3].

The West Central Area
Operators in DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee and Polk
counties were quite active in the late 'teens, '20s, and still
continue to be a source of supply each season. Sarasota County
growers have always been few in number. In late years Manatee and
Hillsborough counties have dominated production in the area. The
Harllees, C. & J. Growers, T. B. Ellis and Frank Diehl, among others,
are active in production.






The Everglades and Martin, Broward and Dade Counties
Cabbage in Palm Beach County has mostly been grown on the muck
soils of the Everglades and is not considered equal in quality to most
sand land cabbage; certainly it is subjected to lower temperatures.
During the World War II years plantings were heavy, such that in 1941-
42 and again in 1943-44 the acres for harvest were estimated at 6,000
each crop year and, in 1950-51, out of 7,000 acres planted, a record
6,500 were estimated to have been available for harvest, but one-third
of the estimated production was abandoned for economic reasons. During
the '50s the acreage was erratic but some less; production was lighter
still in the '60s and '70s.
Martin County's Zarrella Farms has, for the last several years,
concentrated on cabbage production.
Broward County producers in the late 'teens and early '20s ap-.
proached the 1,000 acre status, but in the '30s dropped back to 100-
200 and finally "terminated their cabbage efforts in the mid-'50s.
Cabbage has been grown in Dade County for many years, but never
as a major factor in the farm economy of that area.


CANTALOUPES


The "true" cantaloupe variety of muskmelon is grown in Europe and
is not known in America. The European cantaloupe was named for the
Castle of Cantalupi, near Rome, in whose gardens a variety of muskmelon
brought from Armenia was first grown. In America "cantaloupe" has be-
come the generic name of the small, oval, heavily netted musk-scented
muskmelon. All cantaloupes are muskmelons, but not all muskmelons are
cantaloupes.
The oldest record of the muskmelon is an Egyptian picture of 2400
B.C. It was introduced in China and the Mediterranean areas of Europe
at the beginning of the Christian era, and was an "early settler" in
the New World. Columbus brought the seed on his second voyage and in
1494 he had itplanted on Isabela Island.
One of the earliest books on its cultivation published in America
appeared in 1769 [5],
The first documentation of cantaloupes in Florida was in 1893-94.
Only 68 acres were reported and 35 of these were grown in Leon County.







By 1900 Alachua County was rather outstanding, reporting 617 acres out
of a state total of 1,111 acres. Shipments were in barrels; 51,141 bbls.
were estimated at a value of $62,452.
By 1909-10 plantings had increased to 4,209 acres; Mar`Ton County
claimed 3,509 of these. Shipments were now reported in crates; the
stance total was estimated at 276,409 erts,, valued at $270,748. Planting
declined; in 1919-20 only 1,041 acres were reported statewide, but Marion
County continued to lead with 896 acres.
USDA now uses the secondary spelling and all tables and references
to the crop are without the final "e." Economic figures on the industry
are shown in Tables 18 through 21. After 1972 estimates were dr-.-iped
completely. During the '30s the acres harvested averaged only 365 acres.
During the '40s the harvested crop averaged 695 acres, attaining 1,200
acres in 1948 and 1949. Alachua and Marion were the leading counties.
During the '50a the acreage harvested increased to 2,400 acres in 1956;
Dade County led with 700 acres, cantaloupe production having gotten
underway there in 1953 with 65 acres. Marion and Alachua continued to
lead in the more stabilized areas. Dade County's lead was short-lived.
In the early '60s the crop there had declined to less than 100 acres*


CAUL FLOWER


Cauliflower, Brassica Oleracea botrytis, is a member of the cabbage
family and is closely related to sprouting broccoli.
The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th century B.C.
In the 12th century three varieties were grown in Spain, having been
introduced from Syria, where it had doubtless been grown for more than
a thousand years. It was on the London vegetable market in 1619. It
has been in America for perhaps 200 years; however, broccoli and cauli-
flower have been important in America only since 1925 [5].
Although it had been in production for some time, the first cauli-
flower estimated in Florida was in 1945; shipment data started in 1940-
41. By 1953 an estimated 1,400 acres were harvested; this vegetable
was grown heaviest in Hillsborough and Nanatee counties, followed by
Orange and Seminole counties.
Cauliflower continues in production in the Ruskin area. Most
other areas have long since ceased production.









Tnble l --VFlrida: c:untloups for freh market: Aere.;itv, production utnl vnIc, 1,i prI)n, 101V th uugh 1972


Acreage YiPlk I'nrodctinm AvcrnVp
Year VlIU
-r e nre T- Okco


Phinl.nul I ltiaycstcd" j r


Total Not mktdl. Marketed


Cwt. .---..--- 000 cwt. -"-------- t~1ol


36 2.33
35 2.42


900
720
810
1,500
700

370
360
600
920
600

600
250
200
400
300

200
200
300
700
500

500
600
500
400 400
550 650


3 15
13 11
53
6S
40

70
65
81
B9
69
74

1 103
10 129
S6
72
66

72
75
10 68
77
86"

120
90
90
63
42

42
33


850 42
900 39


--------Acres---------


1910
1917
1918
101


1951
1952
1053

195S

1950
1951
1958
1959

1900
1961
1901
1001



1967

1968
*1969
1700

1970
197/


700
900
800
1,200


1,600
1,500
1,500
1,900
2,500

2,200
2,800
2.309
2,200
2,100

2,000
1,600
1,500
1,200
1,500


1,4'0Q
1,100
1,000
.800

700
700
600


500
800
800
1,200
1,200

1,400
1 300
1,500
1, 00
2,000

1,900
2,400
1,r000
1,600
1,900

1,800
1,500
1,200
1,100


1,200


000
700

. 600
400
500


t.43
4.31
2.71
4.82
4I.80

2.70
4.80
4.30
4.90
4.40

5.10
4.00
5.40
4.90
6.20a

8.20
8,00
4.00
2.65
4,96

4.50
4.60
6.20
4.72
7.60

6.80
7.56
7,99


" oSe Definitions and Explnnations, (page lit) wider selling (1959) and under yield (1964).

bEntlmates discontinued; included in mrscellaneou' vegetablco.

Source; (171.


----~---h--*----37-rrC11113


bt
81
81


93
108
120
109

48
39
108
74
72

52
18
15
21
23

18
15
28
65
46

39
36
52
81
123










Tablc 19. --Florida cantaloupe for fresh market: Interstate shipments, monthly, converted to cwt., during 1955 til ..'gh 1972

Yv..pr | J.in ry iry r.rcl. A .I v Lo il


.3
1.9 1.0
.3 .3


1065
1906
1907a
1968
1969


- ----------- ------ ~- -- 1, Oi'iij cwY.l. ----

35.7
4.9 53.5
.3 11.0
2.9
1.6 11.8


60.4
89.
26.5
.3 32.9
29.0

.3 20.0
16.5
.3 16.5
27.0
37.2


3.8
9.5
5.4
.3 11,1
1.0 19.1

6.4 33.7
10.8
19.1 16.2
5.4
3,2


.8 21.0
1,0 44.3
30.4


aIncludes shipments of Imports in March and Aprl totalling 21,700 cwt.

Source: 121.







Table 20.--llorida antilaloops for fresh market Average price recolved, monthly. for the spring season, 1985 through 1972

Year Ap rily I jun JuS I eason
..Y. AI. ,rMy Juno -July rn l

--- - -- - -- - - ---n -- i- -r-r -c-. - --L- -------arag


1955
1956
1057
1958



1961
108S
1963
1962




1096
1908

1969
1869


"n,:'r )Dfinations and LE'qlantii.Ion (page Il) under sll:ing (IP59).


Sourtes ItI.


3.2
1. 2 2.9 2.9 1.5 2.5
2.0 7.9 1.5 7.4


---












Table 21.--F'lorida cantaloups; Acres harvested by counties and areas, 19X2-63 through 1971-72 crop years ('in

County and area 1902-01 G3-64 19(i4-(i5 10S-66 196C -67 1-7- 1 1909-70 1070-71 1 071-71

---.-------.------- e. .R-- ---2---0 -- ------- ------ -- -------

West Florldab 40 140 120 30 150 150 40 40


North Florida
Alachua
Madison
Marion
Other
Area total

North Central

:iast Central

West Central
DeSoto, llighlalnds
Ilardee
Hillsborough, Polk
Other
Area total

Southwest
Collar, tlendry
Charlotte, Lee
Area total


Southeast
Dade
Martin
C'0.L I
Area total

State total


260 200
20 30
70 90
40 80
390 400

80 80

70 100


A fl


*e *c
* #

* *
IO* 1'00*

110 0,

30 30


150 100 50 70 90 50 40 *C *c
140 80 60 30 70
65 50 40 60 70 40 60 40 *
n0_ 60 20 30 40 140 40 _
~--63--- ----in--2To---z:> zo ?u mo 12'!(
6. 2J7 340 210 2.oM 200 21 150 0 120' P u"


40 200 310 120 110 100 120 120 *e *
80 0 60 60 40 40 30 90 *
10 0... "... ui .


90 110
80 50
50
-170 210

1,100 1,600


120
190
20


2.100


100
200


1200
1.200


60 40 50
90 40 20
10


1,900 1,000 1,200


40

25

65
1,200


* *
* 4
. 0.'- ,is-

600 500


acantaloup estimates were discontinued after the 1972 season,

bThis is a combination of some of the counlles, ibt not necessarily every county each season,

'Ilie asterisk (*) denotes the acreage, it any, Is inclutled in the area total.

Source 13)1.



Tables 22, 23, and 24 have data which relate to cauliflower

acreage, production and value; shipments and average prices.



CELERY



Data covering celery production in Florida from 1918 through 1974

are presented in the following tables, but the reader is referred to

Economics Report 69, Celery Production in Florida--A Historic Data

Series Eor details concerning its beginnings in Florida. Economics

Report 69 was written to preserve for posterity names, methods and

problems that may otherwise be lost to later generations [91. Omitted


i^~ ~r?-----------~


L








Table 22, -Floridat coulirJ'woN foor i'rslre~ mirkl t nd proct'oesshl Ac.re'age, production ilidl value, winter, )14-16. t through 1900-6"n

Afnotu ProlclAeetg
Crop year in
P inttc Itlr4vcsted p. ;err ..c Total N nt ktd. otiarl td I"'kc" .

-- --A-rA---------- t. ----L-----------I f- t. -_1-,-- *-- Im I .l ... L2I.l-i


550

700
500
000

850
1,300
1,400
1,500
1,200

1,100
1,200
1,200
000
650


500
500
000
400
600

800
1,100
1,300
1, 10I)
1,100

1,100
1,200
000
450
400


19-15-45
Xl'i-17
1917-116
11)[8-49
1019-00
1050-51


1951-52
1050-56


1951-58
1956-57

1057-58
1958-59

19,9-01
1960-61,


*.41
6.08
1.73
5.41
11.82

1.82
qsa
8.6 1

6.90

9.00
1. 70


7.30
T,,TO


23 9.50
20 8,80


"National estimnties were adjusted to a close trim basis cr,. riill used In prepackaging. Florida. growers have used
various containers through the years. Conversion to the close trim records did not affect usable curds, acreage or value.
Acrr.-a. production and value after 1961 was recorded, but not published to avoid disclosure data are made a part of mis-
crll,'i, r-.us vegetables.

sourl'es (17].








.Table. 23. -lFlerlda cauliflowe for fI frh nanrl. i a.nd pi occshllga interstate shlpmqilts. monthly, converted to cwt., during
190it-5 IthI...:l 1000-61

Crop year Nov Dc .t eb Mar Apr eMay June Total



1094-55 1.6 21.1 18.5 11.2 2.4 .2 $8.0
1065-80 .2 7.1 Ir.3 209. 5.8 4.7 .9 63.2
1950-57 2.a 8.5 4.4 .4 3. .3 23.1
1957-58 .2 1.2 .9 1.8 .9 .6 .4 .2 6.1
1958-%9 1.1 1.2 2,6 .7 .7 .3 6.6

1959-60 .3 5.6 3.4 3.1 1.2 .3 13.8
1900-01 .4 8.6 '.6 .3 .8 .9 12.6



Table 2.1.--Flfrrl.i cauliflower for fresh ntorkot: A crragp priccq cs rl I.'.l, ntor.lIh1, diill il 1951-35 through 196061

Crop year -Nov 'i. -1..n .b Mn r Apr .iy Jun Cici .ar

------------------- ----------- -----ID,llnrs per cwrt.-------------- --------------------


9.10
8.10
10,00
8.40
7.han


1.1.30 9.30
12.20 10.10


0.6 10.00
7.40 .4.20


aSte ilrrlnitolln and explainn IilNo.i (pIfie ii) Iluder selling (1050).


350 300 77
350 250 80


218
170


19 7-58
1958-50s9

1050-60
1000-61


8.0
7.40
8.00
, .60
0.80 ,'


8.00
12, 00


1.70
8.00
7.60 8.20
7.30


8.40
10.70


-~-- ---i-1 ---- I-I~- ----~-"-~-~---~I^~


---~I---







from that report as the information was not discovered until after it
had been published, is the name Neyland, whoa is credited with the first
celery in the Tampa Bay area, and thereby the first to grow commercially
in Florida. The source of this information was an article on lettuce
by Willis R. Hamiter in The Bradenton Herald for February 19, 1939.
Certainly growers of celery have more than followed a national
trend. The 1929 Census of Agriculture reported 553 farm operators in
Florida that harvested an average of 9.8 acres per farm; in the 1969
census only 22 farm operators were found, but they had a spectacular
average of 486.2 acres per farm.
State summaries were for winter and spring until 1973, when fall
was split off from winter to report celery as a three-season crop in
Florida.
Records worthy of note have been established; of 14,000 acres
planted in the 1945-46 crop year, 13,500 acres were brought to harvest;
record abandonment for economic reasons occurred in 1958-59, when an
estimated 683,000 cwt. of marketable celery was not marketed; of the
estimated 4,952,000 cwt. produced the 4,873,000 cwt. marketed in 1965-
66 set a record for Florida celery sold; in the following crop year,
1966-67, a record 5,229,000 cwt. was produced, but some of it was
over-production since only 88 percent of it was marketed.
Since overplanting and overproduction are often a discredit to the
success of an industry, the 1972-73 crop-year can be characterized for
its record-breaking sales; its 4,861,000 cwt. sold exceeded the previous
10-year average, but its average sales price at $6.40 fell short of the
previous year's all-time record high of $8.24 average f.o.b. price
per cwt,
Pertinent information on celery production and marketing is
contained in Tables 25 through 31.


SWEET CORN


Indian corn, Zea mays L., was cultivated in the two Americas,
from Canada to Patagonia, long before Columbus reached our shores; in
Biblical times corn had been a generic name for all grain in Europe
and east Asia. Maize was bound closely to the rise of the great Indian








Table 25.--florltI celery for fre;fs market and processing: Acreage, production and value, all Seasons combined, crop year
1917-S throligh 19737-74


Acreage c
Crop years 'Y
P'll.l.. ,.J i .. r..i P r


"---- ,-- A -*.-----------

1,730
i.,r>GO


1017-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24


1,730
2,260
2,800
3,200
4,000


1924-25
1925-26
1920-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
193,0-31
1931-32
S,3: '- :n .$
1933-34

1934-35

lr., i -
.I* 0. 'i-
19 r -13


19 i. In

SI l l- II
1942-43 8,800
1943-44 9,!006

1944-45 11,650
19.15-46 14,000
1946-47 12,000
1947--48 1' i
19-18-49 : ,600'

194-9-50 .
1 0.0-;,'1 10,900
195f-.2 10,5O50
1952-53 10,200
.;-:'.l 10,900

1' 1 5' .
I ?,,-;:. 10,400
1 .- 7 11,200
19 .7- ".' 12,100




1l.- 61. 10,400
"*1 l -", ij.., .
1962-63,
1963-04 i

1964-G05 II -,
1 r.i. .12,400

1 ". ,'- 1 2.,: r,
l ir.. '.3

] j.. .. r1 12, :
I 0- 71 12,` l
;'; .* 212, .
I9 .3, -l',-r.
197. [ 12;t 2


4,500
,780
4,400
5,385
6,050



6,200
0,100
5,000


5,450

(*, r,,'










11,100
13,500
11, 1 0

8,400

9,700
Ill, .1' i

10,000











11,300





I ti .
10,2400













'. I, i',
l .l] Illlll


ld ,. P;roductlon A ge
-eld---Av ge Vyf
ere *'lolr, l 'ro inl .1 .r l t i .l''",


*.1




422

413


,-..-..-... 1.-000 cr.-.~..*.-- .*-- .Ir- l'Lrn!

676 670 1,23
S711 l 744 4.92


793,



3,851


3 'lr.
1,23D
1,719
1,135
2,0809

2,299
2,055
1,95
).193
2,027

1,821
18:53 ,
2,281
2,489
2,180

2,289
2,o555
2,015
2,~,n
2,981

3,308
3,877
2,7;88
3,408
3,240

3,889
4,131:
4 ,352

4,389


4,004
3,910
3.? 2"


4,169
4,377
4, .,.
4,503
4,"602

4,682
4,952
.5,229
4,700
4,00fi9 .

4,012
4,763

3, F Ir,


1,131
1.183
1"-r4
1.0 11


R"',,
"
1,719
1,91S
2,Or6

? ?~r'

,I 895
226 1, '67
2,027

1,821
'1,873
2,281
276 2,213
2, IA*.

2,289
2,555
2,615
2.2, ,
240 2,741

61 3,2.17
97 '1 7'
2,788

93 3,154

137 ,
P 1 n1 1)1.
68 4,284
S4 i i "'


C. 1 4,124
29 3,975
3,910
3,252
Cp3 1 .j,"

4,109
130 41,2-11

224 4,2;9
183 .4,41'-a

134 4,548
79 4,873
008 4,(21
.13 1 .:!,.134
12 4,511

S 4,012
90 4,1r73
4,'01
4.htil
3,999


2.46
3,85
2.23
2,78


2.45
2.54-
2,01
1.17
1.47

2.40
2.40
2.00
,1. ri
2,48

2.58
3.19
2.77
0.84
5.30

5.'80
3,78
M.7$
6.22
3.27
5.03

.833
3,74
3.52
3.35
2.80





5.3'
,7i '


2. :;
3.00
5.92
3.65
i 1

4.29

4,.19
5.141
5, '50

6.22
4.23
8.24
6,40
5.3?


i 1700 Ir~i- i .

832
364

1,952
2,523
2,5740
2,57
*, '1 '


.4'45C
4,735
3:,834
5,317
S3,504


5,221

S1,949
2,989

4. I-;
4, ,('t .
4,553
3,309
5,420

5,907
8,149
7,246
17." l
14,530

18,820
14:,312
17,332
9,319







11,787

15,551
11,632
14,920
17,258
9,804"

182,3144
12,742
25,280
15,GJ.1I
?1.151

19 4:,1
S3. f67
19, 192
22,310
24,9B6

24,9.52
19,752
37.901
31,123
21,265


'':... i~i,,,~,,~.









Table 2(.--Florida celery for fresh market and proccaning: Acreage, production and value, winter season 1918 through 1974


Year. Acreage Yield Production Avera ge Value
Planted ia rvnctecd p'' acre Total Notmarketed Marketed price
--------- ----------- -----------------1. 000 cw ------------- I)olInR a R LO d liars


670 1.23
744 4.92


793
1,131
1,183
1,458
1,651


1,730
1,660

1,730
2,260
2,800
3,200
4,000

4,500
3,780
4,400
4,300
4,450

4,650
3,600
4,200
4,100
3,350

3,450
4,150
4,500
5,100
4,700

4,900
5, 00
5,900
6,000
6.500

6,800
8,600
7,100
6,300
5,000

6,000
6,200
6,(;00
6,100
5,900

5,300
6,200
6,300
6,900
8,100

6,800
0,200
6,400
C,ff't
6,700

6,800
7,400
6,900
6,600
6,700

6,700
4,700
5,300
4,700
4.400


aSee Definitions and Fll.rn i ns (page iti) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).


391
448

458
500
422
456
413

402
326
391
358
371

396
430
29S
340
399

369
332
345
363
303

354
267
29)

330

327
297
240
324
333

378
396
390
399
414

483
410
392
305
360

400
435
415
430
41n"


793
1,131
1,183
1,458
1,651

1,808
1,231
1,719
1,540
1,652

1,843
1,633
1,253
1,391
1,337

2,274
1,379
1,534
1,850
1,424

1,733
1,495
1,717
1,704
2,145

2,224
2,554
1,704
2,0411
1,665

2,268
2,455
2,574
2,434
2,443

2,560
2,542
2,470
2,104
2,916,

2,720
2,697
2,656
2, P'i5
2,769

2,680
3,145
3,354
2,890
2,781

2,747
2,129
2,276
2,209
1,848


2.46
2.23
3.08
1.77
2,62

2.46
3,85
2.23
2.54
1.54

2.23
2.58
2.03
1.08
1.35

2.40
2.31
2.15,
1.42
2.33

2.50
3.50
3.00
5.67
4.17

6.00
3.5$
5.67
3.50
6.40

3.10
4.15
3.25
2.75
3.10

4.15
2.80
4.00
4.60
2.55a

3.10
2.80
S.50
3.80
5.44


1,808
1,231
1,719
1,540
1,632

1,843
1,633
1,253
226 1,168
1,337

1,274
1,379
1,554
276 1,574
S1,424

1,735
1,495
1,017
1,764
197 1,948

49 2,17.
46 2,508
1,704
322 1,719
1,065

79 2,169
91 2,364
54 2,520
29 2,403
43 2,400

2,560
2,642
2,470
2,104
349 2,507

2,720
33 2,664
2,656
134 2,704
22 2,747'

28 2,652
3,145
422 2,932
94 2,790
2,781

2,747
2,129
2,276
2,209
1,848


832
3,.64


1,952
2,523
3,640
2,579
4,318

4,450
4,735
3,834
3,909
2.541

4,112
4,220
2,543
1,258
1,810

3,058
3,162
3,3146
2,228
3,324

4,336
5,233
5,152
9,9S6

8,1)8

10,872
8,987
9,656
6,019
10,656

6,78;
9,811
8,190
6,614
7,440

10,624
7,118
9,880
9,878
6,546S

8,432
7,459
14,608
10,275
14,914

11,191
15,006
10,409
14,260
13,071

15,933
8,261
20,258
14,756
8,815


6,000
6,500

7,050
6,800
7,400
6,700
5,100

6,100
6,400
6,650
6,200
6,000

5,300
6,300
6,600
7,300
8,500

6,900
6,300
6,500
6,700
67100


7,500
7,900
6,800
6,700

6,700
5,100
5,400
4,800
5,300









r,.l.v fiv ifri' is mna!rkl tirl ProcfOaini Acritte, pr duction and vntue, spHing season 198 hi .. 11I ,. 1

Sllr'IlJ O _____ Aveg, i



S.., .. .. ...... .-------- -- ,----- -. .------ .- A. .I --

1,080 347 375 3 3.75 3 1,408
3,600 261 417 417 2.31 963


1929

1930
1931
1032
1933
1934


2,000
2,000
l ,i oo
2,150

2 000

2,600
2,100
2,000





2,200O
3,400
4,000



4,800

3,400



4,900
3,700
4,200
3,800
3,900
4, 700

3,800
3,800
4,009
-4.500
5,200







4,600
4t,00
4,500
4,500
5,100

4,600
4,500
3,990
A R'ff0


326
235
321.
250
321

274
282
330
304
381

252
342
264
270
246


270
' 25
258
369

438
399
1
372
414

429
375


S320



38s :
370


395
360

145
345

275
360

390
,, '


450
422
642
499
690

547
494
727
039
762

554
1,O90O
898
7586
830:

1,084
1,323
1,054
1,367
1,584

1,621
1, 76
1,774
1,451
1, 94G


1,630

1,440
1,148
1,664

1 ,44 9



1,833




1,810
1,888

1,203
1,620
1,521
1.677
.1 *I .


456
422
642
499
690

547
494
727
639
762

514
1, (00O
8981
756
43 ,793

12 1,072
45 1,278
1,R84
236 1,131
95 1,489

58 1,503
26 1,650
14 1,764
16 1,435
274 1,672

66 1,564
29 1,433
,4140
1,148
334 "'

1,449
103 1,577
1,617
90 1,575
101 1,6720

S105 1,898
79 1. '"
186 1,689
*?; 1,853
128 1,760

1,265

I. ,4' i
1,677
.hi7


1940
19ii
1912
1013


1943

1947


1950

195fl
1952
18953

1}t54
1955
19i56

1958
1860
1903$



1660
10G1

19G3



966
1907


1970

1971
1971
S:''. I


3.35
2.37
1.94
1.38
1.71

2.40
2.68
1.60
1,69
2.175

2.83
2.75
2.33
0.58
8.08

7.,42
4.17
7,08
2.92
.3. 1,

3.05





3.15

3.15
3,50
6,00
2.45

2.70
3.35

3.40
3,88

4.38
4.00
5.20
?,. 2n
6.77

7.13
4.88
6.21
5.86
6.79


2,800
3,400

4,600
5,20

4,5600


3,700,
4,500

4,000



4,100
4,600

t,, ,





". '.





8,600
6,100

6,200
5,300





. -,.( ,, .', I ,


1,528
1,001
1,258
691
1,179

1,314
1,322
1,207
1,081
2,096

1,571
2,918
2,004
7,245
0,412

5, 325
7,676
3,300
5,212

5,705
5,198
6,890
6,242
4,347

4,927
4,514
5,0.10
7,577
3,25ba


3,912
9,283
10,672
5,355
6,487

8,304
8,571
6, 753
8.076


8,019

7,900

9. 4
it, i24


Source: 171.


-_-


i .ri. l,- i .' '''inl i : ;~.'1' ~.1~1'I.;'') .;lljllnlll~ll ~(i/rl (lrJr~4).





Table 2,--Florldla celery for fresh market and processing: Acreage, production and value, fall 1971 through 1973


Acrege Ykldc Production Average
Yure Averge Vrlun
I'lanted Jlarvct;ted lcr acre 'ota Not mrketeld Marketed price

-------. Acres ---------- --------------O cwt. -- --------- Dollars 1L Oqi i.J .1


1971 2,400 2,400 335 804 804 10.20 8,201
1972 2,700 2,500 390 975 975 8,71 6,542
1973 2,100 1,900 355 675 675 4.72 3,186


Source: [17].


Table 29.--Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Interstate shipments by months, converted to cwt., 1954-55
through J11/3-74


Crop yeai Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July 'Total


-------------------------------.--------------1, 000 c ..


57.4 237.9 549.0 656.4 786.3 784.6 602.4 183.0
82.7 352.7 462.3 591.9 692.2 680.6 644.0 190.6
2.2 68.2 335.4 630.2' 486,9 601.8 780.5 606.4 128,4
.3 130.1 321.5 313.2 288.6 486.1 630.7 530.7 241.4
.3 118.4 479.8 572.8 471.3 583.1 607.9 510.1 229.1

6,5 129.7 282.4 570.2 592.3 749.2 739.4 574.0 228.9
107.0 388.6 555.1 626,2 723.2 638.8 589.0 268.9
.3 206,2 411.4 521.3 557.3 667.0 716.4 601.6 203.2
101.5 417.8 552.7 618.4 713.9 614.2 594.1 232.3
178.1 478.1 651.4 578.9 670.9 708.1 582.8 216.2


3,857.0
1.7 3,698.7
3,6419.0
2.3 2,944.9
3,572.8

3.4 3,876.0
9,2 3,906.0
0.7 3,889.3
S2.6 3,847.7
2.1 4,006.6


192.2 491.9 563.4 510.5 585.1 730.3 710.4 330.6 4.0 4,118.4
232.9 565.4 656.4 648.2 733.8 743.6 623.4 241.8 .11.5 4,437.0
124.4 '77.3 661.7 644.0 697.0 667.2 625.4 334.5 11.5 4,249.3
169,7 535.7 622.1 601.0 632.8 739.5 552.4 139.8 3.1 3,997.3
142.5 346.4 585.6 667.0 791.0 710.9 632.4 276.1 16,4 4,168,7


140.9 460.4 622.8 630;,3 713,5 458.9 411.9 276.5
232.7 556.1 680.4 605.6 690.0 579.2 619.5 299.4
147.8 496.9 684.4 748.8 651.4 671.6 552.7 187.3
249.1 525.8 603.1 609,0 744.2 691.8 584.2 239.4
135.6 338.7 522.9 476.7 546.0 529.6 547.7 189.8


7.3 3,728.9
11.8 4,278.5
3.4 4,150.4
11.0 4,270.6
10.9 3,321.3


Table 30.--Florida celery for fresh market and processing: Average prices recelvcd per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through
1973-741


Cro pyar Oct. Nov. I rc. Itnn, Fb. hMa. Apr. ay JI n July Tota


.--.---- -------------r----------.-------.). .r--------------------------------------


3.75 4.25
3.80 2.60
3.30 3.80 3.55
3.25 3.10
4.25 2.75


4.30 3.05
3.20 2.35
4.55 3.40
3,10 3.60
3.80 3.75


3.75 4.85
2.80 2.70
4.75 4.90
3.45 4.35
2,50a 2,35


4.65 3.60 3.85
5,70 4.45 5.20
4.40 ,70 3.30
5.60 ,5.50 5.50
4.90 3.00 4.90

6,20 ".. 7.00
4.65 4,25 3.1.7 3. i5
9.40 10.50 10.80
5.30 4.50 7.70
7.50 7.00 4.85


i. r I t.'f, i-li..r, and E.planations (page il) under selling (1959),


1954-55
1955-58
1950-57
1957-58
3 k -* .-#

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-C63
1 3i3-CGl


1953-66
19GO-f7
1966-67
1967-68
S9008-C9

196(9-70
1970-71
197)-72
1972-73:
1973- -7l


Source: [2I.


1954-55
1955-56
1935-57
1937-58
1958-59


*1* '' -1 i
1961-62
1962-63
3 N'...- C )

1964-65
1965-66
196G-67
1967-68
1968-69

197 '- ;1

1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


3.35
4.85
5.70
4.90
2.95


3,77
2.93
3. '2
5.31
2.5 ."


2.75 2.40
2.70 3.00
7.50 7.40
3.40 3.50
7.00 3. !in


2.80 3.10
3.35 4.00
5.80 6.00P
3.30 3.45
3.60 4.60


Z.96
3.80 3.00
5.92
3.65
4.85

4.29
4,86
4.86
7.00 4.15
5.14
6.00 5..50

5.20 6.22
3.65 4.23
8.24
6.40
5.32


6.10 9.90
4,30 5.20
6.50 6.00
5.90 5.40
4.70 7.20


ICI -_L~- --


--------I----------------r------------------


-~ll~----^-CI------r~I~-I_-^C)---L --
_r----~---










"L.i.* 31. -- 1 ,i.r ,1, L-i.rI,: .. :i *. C. I. "*;A' I .- ?unm.aI '.n I il !,r I: -, ill l i ll-i I Dil i 3-7-1 L T rl p \ I i

County find area 1964 Z". 0li- i .7 II-I ;-, ii.-i 7- 1 71-72 I2 -?73 l'j 7-74
-------- -- ---- --I---C-----l-----l---- IC--- ------- -----
North Florida
Alachua 185 260 286 240 200 220 110

North Central
T.l, :.,l]Orange 1,185 1,215 1,355 1,110 1,180 790 1,070 1,210 1,100 a
SLII III. ,IC i- 7 *i '. i. r. ) 5'j 'r.ii '! 1'I .l14 __ .": ,1 n
Area total 2, ,-. 7 '0' 2, r 1,- ; l 7A,. ] 7r,7 .' ," 1,1 .', l ,.9 1. 710It,

West Central
Snrasota 295 370 370 340 340 380 360 370 370 a

Thre rvtIrrl l':,
I.1II I, l...li ,".h 9,450 8,705 8,780 9,500 9,170 9,540 9,470 9,540 8,690

State total 11,600b I',",1 11,4000 11,100C 11,F800C' 11,300 11,C00 11,600 11,500 10,400

Includes acreage not harvested for economic reasons: 324 acres In 1':,.l-).'i ; 327 acres in 1965-66.

SLake and Orange, Seminole and Sarasota included in North Central area total.
hIn ,h -, i ** not harvested for i-c.,nomlr rcn.aorr : 324 acres in 1964-65; 327 acres in 109,-(;6G.

'l *...1. l,.. acroage not harvested for r nol\ec reasons: 1, lrO n cre in 1960-67; 800 acres in 1967-68; 2l0 Iacres, spring
1969; and 230 acres, winter 1971.
t, .,,v,': 131.



civilizations, such as the Inca Peru, the Maya of Central America and

the Aztec of 'lexico [5]1

Earl,' Production in Florida

Sweet corn was primarily a minor or local crop until after 4WW II.

Duri-in the '-4Os there was a phenomenal growth in its cultivation for

fresh market. This was brought about by breeding new hybrids by the

availability of nuw synthetic insecticides and the development of

improved packing and shipping material, equipment and methods [5],

Records of shipments of green corn go back only to the 1930-31

season when 269 rail carloads were reported. This was the high in ship-

ments for many years; in 1940-41 only 4 carloads moved interstate by

rail and truck. During these early years of the industry nearly all

produce was shipped by rail; in 1938-39 the movement by truck began to

be counted as a supplement to the rail movement. Prior to 1950 most

green corn movrd during April, May and June. A large percentage of the

volume was "roastin' ear" type green corn.






Statistical Records
Estimates of acreage, production and value began in the spring of
1948 under BAE-ASD and by 1949-50 was extended to cover the three sea-
sons--fall, winter and spring. Plantings increased phenomenally from
the first 8,200 acres (see Table 32 for growth in planting and harvesting).
Other sweet corn data are noted in Tables 33 through 38.
Early shipments were measured by a weight of 50 pounds per crate
since ears were rather large, often only 4-1/2 dozen could be packed.
This weight was scaled down to 42 pounds per crate as ear size
decreased.
Most soil types in Florida are suitable for sweet corn culture,
and in the late '40s and '50s plantings were made in many counties.
As methods improved and the margin of profit narrowed, areas of pro-
duction became less widespread (Table 38).

Production Areas

The North Florida Area
In the sandy soils of north Florida in the late '40s and early '50s
many farmers added a small acreage of green corn for market. At first
"roastin' ear" types were grown but some sweet corn, both yellow and
white were added as better varieties became available. Portable hydro-
coolers, usually a long box-like vat filled with heavily iced water
through which the crate or bag moved slowly, were used to precool the
ears. A temperature of about 40F is desirable for the preservation
of quality during shipment to market.
Chase and Company, of Sanford, precooled and marketed from a
small market platform in Lake City during each harvesting season.
Frank Navillio annually sold corn for growers from platforms in
Brooker or Lake Butler. He came from Florida City. W. D. Pope, Jr.
of Atlanta handled sweet corn for growers in the Alachua-High Springs
area and later produced his own corn. Few growers continue to be active
in the area.

The North Central Area
Sanford sandy soil farmers added sweet corn to follow celery and
cabbage. Chase and Company were principal handlers. Their packinghouse


















Table 32.--Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production and value, all seasons comf)ined,1947-48through 1973-74

Acreage Production
Crop year -- -- Yield -Acreage Value
Planktd Itarvesteu p'er acre Total Not mktd. Marketed price
-------Acres ------- C. ----------J. 00o cwt. ----.-------- I'l dol.

1917-48 8,200 6,000 40 240 240 5.50 1,320
1918-49 10,000 14,700 58 852 852 5.30 4,516

1919-50 3,1,000 28,500 60 1,710 228 1,482 4.39 6,506
1950-51 29,300 25,700 61 1,573 1,573 4. 4 7.764
1]51-52 35,3 00 ,00 68 2,234 88 2,116 4.46 9,563
1952-53 341,00 30, 400 73 2,211 2,211 4.77 10, 517
1953-51 .2,100 36,800 71 2,628 2,628 4.07 10,689

1951-55 37,500 33,000 05 3,330 115 3,015 3,88 11,699
1935-56 43,200 37,500 90 3,384 3,3-1 4.07 13,786
195'-57 47,800 42,700 03 2,701 2,701 4.87 13,152
1957-5S 50,900 39,200 72 2,805 180 2,625 4.21 31, 0o4
1958-65 51,900 48,90( 63 3,06G 3,066 4,87" 14,9 10

1959-60 -18,300 41,900 73 3,077 33 3,014 4.63 11,102
190-610 41,.t00 33,900 75 2,557 2,557 5.86 11,976
1961-62 49,200 45,700 77 3,529 3,529 5.07 17,891
19,2-03 51,200 49,300 80 3,0924 226 3,.98 5.09 18,825
19G3-61 51,000 45,200 70" 3,313 107 3,156a" 6.03 39,035

3 9;. -;5 ;8,100 32, 00 06 3,6i9 46 3,623 5.791 20, 9s(
195-66 (2,500 55,2 00 71 4,026 89 3,937 ,.44 21,433
196(6-67 60, 500 56,100 80 4,468 4,4 G 5.88 26,255
1937-Gs 59,500 53,600 76 4,059 4,059 6.10 24,741i
19,S-C9 61,500 56,600 77 4,428 49 4,379 6.09 26,660

1969-70 65,.00 56,900 69 3,913 3,9413 6.81 26,868
1970-71 69,100 60,900 73 4,906 4'9 4,437 6.25 27,751
1971-72 62, 00 55, 700 82 4, 637 77 4,560 6.46 29,470
1972-73 51,500 52,900 102 5,4113 5,413 7.01 37,q9;6
1973-74 561,400 49, 00P 100 4,975 4,975 7.58 37,700


( o' : ill) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).


aSee Iefinitions and l:\i l]...['-- ,

Source: (171.


and pre-cooler were available for handling a large volume of corn, but

the muck soils in the north central area proved to be better adapted

for sweet corn production.

Zellwin Farms and Perl Stutzman grew the first commercial sweet

corn at Zellwood, planting the lona, Illinois Golden Seneca Chief #10

and Golden Rocket varieties. Acreages and numbers of growers increased

rapidly. Aiongi, them were Chase and Co., Clonts and Asso. Growers, Calhoun,

A. Duda and Sons, Hooper Farms, Long Farms and Lust Farms. The variety

changed to Golden Security primarily. Soon Ambs, Beal, Borders and












Toble 33. --Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production and vulue, all 1919 through 1973


000 35

900 30
1,000 38
900 40
1,300 58*
2,400 78

3,600 80
4,600 38
6,100 66
9,900 58
8,200 48

5,500 40
7,900 65
7,000 50
7,700 51
9,900 41a

10,200 44
11,900 46
13,400 58
8,600 55
11,500 52

141,00 53
12,100 58
13,200 79
11,200 80


Cwt. ------------ Or c"l. ------------ no-l-n-s


21

27
38
36
75
187

280
175
403
574
394

220
514
350
393
406

449
547
777
484
598

1,059
702
1,043
896


21

27
38
36
75
187

288
175
403
674
33 301.

220
514
350
393
406

449
517
77
48&
598

120 939
702
1,013
896


5.60

5.30
6.60
6.50
5.90
4.50

4.30
5.80
4.05
3.70
4.75a

6.10
4.30
5.50
6.00
5.90

5.50
6.30
5.40
7.30
7.01

5.22
7.25
7.00
7.65


aSee Definitions and Explanntions (page 1J) under selling (1959)and under yield P(904).

Source: 117).



Conrad, DeRyke, Franks Farm, Mobarek Farms (briefly), Geo. Long., Potter,

Reity, Roach Bros., Stroup, Staley, Sperry, Welling, and Wolfe were

active. Still later, Lakeland Farms, Eustis Muck Farms, Lisbon Muck

Farms (Ivanhoe Assoc., briefly), Knight and Wilkerson were added to

the list. Many of these are still going strong. Varieties changed to

predominantly Gold Cup (yellow) and Silver Green (white).

The rich muck soils, packing facilities very close to the farming

area, major highways and rail facilities adjacent to the aea have made

Zellwood a very successful farming area. The Zellwood Sweet Corn Exchange

was organized in 1967 for more orderly marketing.


The Everglades Area

Many bean growers planted "roastin'-ear" corn for windbreaks. The


-------Acre---------


1950
1951
1952
1953
19&5

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

1960

1962
15963
190(2

1963

1965
19(;6
1967
1096


1 t.7n
1901
1971
1972
1973


1,100

2,200
1,300
1,400
1,800
2,900

3,800
6,700
7,700
10.700
9,300

7,500
8,100
9,000
8,200
11,100

10,500
12,700
11,100
11,200
13,200

15,s00
12,900
13, 00
11, 100


10(6 dit..

.118

143
251
234
4412
842

1,238
1,015
1,632
2,124
1,71-5a

1,312
2,21n
1,925
2,.358
2,395

2,470
3, 416
4,190
3,533
4,192

4,902
5,090
1,301
06,851











Table 34.--Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production and value, winter 1919 through 1974

Acreage Yield Production Average
Year p acr price Vale
Planted Harvesteda Total Not mktd. Marketed
-----Are.s----- -- C i. .-. ---. --- ...-. ---L----.- F.- .r P. 1,000 dol.
1949 1,000 800 58 46 46 8.80 405

1950 3,100 1,900 68 129 129 7.20 929
1951 3,700 2,800 65 182 182 5.90 1,074
1952 7,800 7,200 58 418 418 5.70 2,388
1953 7,800 7,500 70 525 525 5.50 2,688
1951 11,000 9,900 82 812 812 4.90 3,979

1955 9,400 6,500 82 533 533 5.30 2,825
1956 11,000 6,600 72 475 475 6.00 2,850
1957 14,600 13,600 65 881 884 5.00 4,420
1958 11,200 2,300 40 92 92 7.60 699.
1959 9,400 8,000 48 3s4 381 6.20a 2,381a

1960 7,200 3,200 57 182 182 7.60 1,383
1961 5,900 5,400 58 313 313 6.70 2,097
1962 10,100 8,600 62 533 533 7.30 3,B91
1963 11,200 9,300 65 60-1 60 6.40 3,866
19 41 0,900 7,400 52a 385 385a 7,80 3,003

1965 9,900 7,800 50 468 468 8.30 3,8s4
1966 10,000 7,500 s 50 375 375 7.90 2, 92
1967 13,000 11,100 70 777 777 7.10 5,517
1985 9,200 9,000 70 630 630 6.20 5,166
19C9 12,700 9,000 75 675 675 8.55 5,771

1970 12,Po0 9,000 36 324 324 10.50 3,402
1971 14,100 12,400 49 668 60 608 8.11 4,931
1972 14,900 13,.00 67 898 895 6.46 7,597
1973 10,100 9, 00 95 931 931 .9 2, 8,621
1974 13,500 12.400 85 1,051 1,054 8,12 8,558

"See definitions and I.il.tll I.In (page lil) under selling (1959) and under yield (196).

Source: (171.



succulent green corn was desired in southern markets and Rawls Brothers

readily supplied their needs. R. Y. "Bob" Creech may have been one of

the first to plant a true sweet corn--Golden Bantam. A. Duda & Sons

also experimented with early sweet corn, Pioneer Growers was also

among the earliest handlers.

In 1948, growers in the Everglades harvested corn from 1,200 acres,

being exceeded only by Orange County and the Zellwood muckland farmers.

By 1950 the Everglades acreage had increased to 10,900 for harvest, but

there was a small economic abandonment. As markets expanded, acreages

increased; in 1959-60 an estimated 33,400 acres were harvested. The

rapid increase slowed, however, since the peak acreage in 1970-71 was

only 39,420 acres.




37








Table 35.--Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Acreage, production and v;luc, spring 1918 through 1974


Acreage
Yer
Planted Harvesteda


-------- Acre


Yield Production
per acre
Total Not Inktd. Marl


s-----_--- Ct.

6,000 40
13,900 58

20,000 60
22,000 62
24,700 72
22,000 75
25,600 68

24,100 100
27,300 96
2-1,500 67
30,800 75
31,000 i8

30,500 82
23,000 68
29,200 .5
33.000 90
30,100 79"

31,800 79
37,500 83
33,100 95
31,200 85
36,800 63

36,100 83
33,600 86
30,200 98
29,900 115
26,300 115


240
806

1,560
1,361
1,778
1,650
1,741

2,410
2,621
1,&612
2,310
2,10S

2,501
2,021
2,482
2,970
2,535

2,795
3,202
3,144
2,652
3,268

3,021
3,179
3,037
3,439
3,025


8,200
15,500

29,800
23,400
26,200
25,700
28,700

25,200
28, 100
26,500
32,000
31,800

31,800
28,000
31,000
3-1,000
32,900

37,100
42,000
31, 00O
36,2(00
40 600O

39,,I00
39,200
35,000
30, 90
20,500


.... --r


a"ice Dfinitions and Explanations (pnge 111) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).

Source: 1171.




Most bean growers listed in Economics Report 74 and celery growers

listed in Economics Report 69 make up the sweet corn grower list of the

Everglades. A fall and spring corn crop is a natural, and the warm

waters of Lake Okeechobee permits winter crops on the islands and "close-

in" farms. Most handlers were prepared to pre-cool corn along with

crops requiring cooling. Among the more recent growers are Apelgren,

Brady, Gressinger, Double D Ranch, Hatton, Hundley, Mace and Wilkinson.


The Lower East Coast and Ft. Myers Areas

The Ft. Mvers area has been a relatively light producer with a

small number of growers. The A & W Glad Co., Emmett Kelly and Albert


1949

1950
1051
1952
1953
1941

1935
1956
1957
1958
1959

1960
19G1
3963
1962(
G163
1961

1965
1906
1967

1969


1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1071l


228 1,
1,
88 1,
1,
1,

115 2,
2,
1,
180 2,
2,

2,
2,
226 2,
157 2,3

46 2,7
89 3.1
3,1
2,G
49 3,2

3,0
2R9 2,8
77 2,9
3,4
3,0


-------r- I------- --------


------


--3


Average
price Value
keted

--- Dlars 1,000 dol.

240 5.50 1,320
806 5.10 4,111

332 4.10 5,461
364 4.80 6,517
090 4.10 6,929
650 4.50 7,425
741 3.60 6,268

295 3.50 8,032
021 3.70 9,698
612 4.70 7,717
130 4.10 8,733
108 4.95a 10,435a

591 4.40 11,001
021 5.70 11,537
i82 4.75 11,790
744- 4.75 13,034
786a 5.75 13,671

19 5.35 11,707
13 5.11 In,001
1.-1 5.50 17,292
52 5.80 15,952
20 5.39 17,350

21 6.38 19,271
90 6.20 17,918
00 5.67 16,783
39 6.41 22,01-1
25 7.37 22,291


-----------1 n~~ri r\ i ------
-r












Table 3.-- Florida iveet corn for fresh market: Interstate shipments by months, converted to cwt. during 1954-55
through 1973-74


Crop year Sept Nov. j De.. Jan. 'el,. ]Mar. j Apr. May June July Total


--------.. ... 1 po cwt--. -----.. -.---..--..-..-.---.------------000 ...--.----.

2.7 40,9 101,5 91.9 107.5 255.7 617.0 992.3 510,8 23.5 2,743.8
0.8 109.7 122.6 117,3 76.2 188.1 817.8 997.1 562.4 13.2 3,011.2
32.8 70.9 31,5 10.4 241.5 341.5 490.0 617.4 3,5,.9 9.7 2,351.6
6.2 241.0 108.3 46.2 17.5 1.8 62,9 1,237.2 611.4 22.2 2,354.7
107.0 259.3 111.4 87.8 55.6 157.0 578.3 767.1 570.9 11.5 2,707.4

137.7 128.7 29.0 38.4 23.3 80.2 304.5 1,100.0 846.4 48.7 2,736.9
25.4 85.3 66.2 57.7 49.3 140.7 276. 7 870.0 654.5 40.0 2,271.8
9:.5 176.3 159.1 74.0 113.7 234.7 493.0 919.2 846.3 42.7 3,157.5
1.0 84.1 122.3 78.2 43.5 83.0 409.8 637.4 1,192.7 682.8 13.4 3,348.2
77.7 151.7 92.0 109.0 82.8 133.5 297.5 1,127.4 729.1 55.7 2,837.0


19G1-65
1965-60
1900-(;7
1967-G6
1968-69

1960-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-71 5.5
1973-74 3.7


27.4 135.5 153.2 171.3 110.4 116.2 554.5 1,166.3 842.9 77.9 3,355.6
75.6 102.0 1C1.7 144.2 59.7 92.0 382.6 1,498.0 977.7 70.1 3,627.2
104,4 204.6 154.7 170.7 144.8 345.6 662.0 1,355.4 813.2 115.5 4,070.9
128.1 273.8 263.4 210.6 129.7 190.0 591.4 1,037.5 726.1 73.5 3,624.1
136,0 144.9 102.3 .43.1 173.2 320.0 841.2 1,171.0 904.7 55.2 3,891.6

176.0 189.3 120.2 77.6 22.8 100.3 430.6 1,281.7 1,007.6 48.4 3,460.5
195.1 322.0 301.9 23$.1 55.9 169.2 242.8 1,121.1 1,202.1 77.2 3,926.3
192.4 217.9 179.8 180.4 270.9 289.0 516.5 1,288.4 793.1 65.4 3,993.8
269.6 303.4 234.2 100.5 183.1 297.2 616.2 1,212.8 1,028.1 123.3 4,43k.9
187.2 255.6 206.8 212.3 162.4 357.2 543.6 1,250.2 703.4 66.5 4,008.9


Source: 121.









Table 37.-- Florida sweet corn for fresh market: Average prices recevCed per cwt'. monthly, during 1954-55 through 1973-74

Crop yl ( l.. t. Nov. -i c,. Jan. Fl A.. ar. Apr. May .Jne July Ar.a. e
-- -- -- ------- -------I--- I H a ----------------------- total
--------- ------------- ;--. ----------------_^ .. a j rs *** -----"*' ----"***--"------


5.50 4.80
5.60 4.50
5.00 5.70
7.20 3.75
4.15 3.25

4.95 4.35
7.00 6.10
4.60 4.10
4.95 5.30
6.00 5.60

8.30 5.80
6.60 5.30
6.30 6.20
6.40 5.50
7.00 7.20

6.00 7.30
6.50 5.40
6.60 7.70
6.90 6.70 6.00
8.60 7.40


4.40 5.70 5.30 5.20
4.00 5.80 6.30 6.00
6.90 5.20 4.70 5.10
4.60 7.60 7.0O 7.80
4.25 6.00 6.40 6.20


5.90 61,0
5.80 6.30
4,25 8.20
6.30 8.20
6,80 7.50

5.50 6.80
5.10 7.20
6.30 7.50
4.90 6.90
7,80 11.70


8.20 7.80
6.40 7.00
7.20 7.10
7.40 6.00
8.30 7.80

9.10 9.80
8.20 8.70
8.00 6.60
0.50 8.90
8.80 8.00


8.00 10.90 12.30 9.70
4.20 6.50 10.70 6 .:0
7.40 9.70 7,50 n.'*.
8.70 10.40 8.70 9.00
7.10 8.00 9.20 7.70


")etfiniltios and ri.,l u.I Li, ; (p.'. iii) under :.-pl.. (1959).

Source: 117J.


1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1 957-58
1958-59

1959-0G
1960-61
1961-62
1962-6:3
1963-64


19541-55
1955-56
195G-37
1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
39(;0-61
1961-62
19G2-C03
1963-64

1984-65

1966-67
1967-08
1908-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


4.10 3.00
3.80 3.60
4."0 4.50
8.00 3.60
5.40 4.95

7.00 4.60
7.50 5.40
5.80 4.95
5.90 4.00
8.00 5.00

6.70 5.10
7.00 4.90
6,60 4.50
6.10 5.70
5.40 5.60

7.20 6.40
9.30 6.20
7.60 5.00
6.70 6.30
8.20 7.10


3.70 3.30
3.65 3.65
5.30 4.10
4.70 5.40
4.45 3.75

3.15 5.00
5.20 6.00
3.90 3.45
4.80 6.20
6.00 4.90

4.85 4.90
4.60 7.20
6.10 7.40
5.50 6.30
5.20 3.75

6.00 6.00
5.60 5.90
5.50 5.90
6.30 6.90
7.00 10.30


3.88
4.07
4,87
4.21
4.87a

4.63
5.86
5.07
5.09
6.03


6.81
6,25
6.46
7.01
7.58


~--I~-I_--~1~- -LL-C-~










Table 38. --Florida sweet corn: Acres harvcstcd by counties and arcane, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years

County and anen 19864-65 1965-66 196-67 1967-68 1968-G 9 19'I0-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74
.-.-..-- -----.---.-- ----------------- Acres ---------------------- ---- -------

West Florida
Escambia (mostly)" a a a

North Florida
Alachua and Marion
(mostly) 320 250 400 650 1,610 1,080 620 400 450 -450

North Central
Imke, Orange and
Seminole 8,150 8,370 9,150 7,900 8,300 9,000 7,700 10,000 10,200 8, 7-0

West Central
Ilillsborougl, Polk
and Sarasota 180 200 200 320 290 370 180 100 250 b

Southwest
Collier, Hendry
and Lee 840 450 50 750 1,490 750 250 200 150 c

The Everglades
Palm Beach (west) 33,360 35,250 36,150 32,600 32,870 35,050 39,420 31,500 26,000 24,000

Lower East Coast
Broward, l'Xde and
Palm leach (cast) 9,650d 10,680 9,550 11,380 12,040 10,650d 13,450 13,500 15,850 16,700

State total 52,500 55,200 56,300 53,600 56,600 56,900 60,900 55,700 52,900 49,900

avecst Flori.da, mo stly Escamrnbia County, included in North Florida, especially In 1968, 1969 anld 1970.
best Central included with North Central in 1974 to avoid disclosure of individual records.

cSouthwest included with the Lower East Coast area In 1973-74 to avoid disclosure.

'dMartin acreage included in 1964-65 end 1969-70.

Source: (31.



Craughon were principal producers. In Dade County, Alger Farms, B & L

Farms, George Cooper and, later, Wilkinson-Cooper have been the

principal growers.

At Pompano,the Plantation area in Broward and the sandy soils

of east Palm Beach County are well suited for winter corn. Some pro-

duction has been marketed through the Everglades but Vernon Brock

handled production from Brock and Gunn as well as for others. In the

early '60s Donald Coon, Earl Crossman, the Miami Plantation, Simpkins

Farms and, later, Collie Holt (who grew corn for Frank's Farm [Frank

Hooper and Pat Green at Zellwood]) were growers. Later still A. Duda

and Sons, Gene Borchardt, John Hooker, G. B. "Brack" Hogan, Jr,, Loren

Meredith, W. H. Jones, John Wilkinson and Frank Brady got into the

winter corn deal. Many of these are no longer active.







CUCUMBERS


Cucumbers are supposedly a native of India and have been culti-
vated since earliest antiquity. They were a popular food in ancient
Egypt, missed by the Israelites in their flight for freedom, according
to Numbers 11:5 in The Bible. Cucumbers were also popular among the
Greeks and Romans. An English sea captain brought back pickled gherkins
from the West Indies. After this cucumbers were grown in England [5].
Data on cucumber production and marketing are presented in Tables
39 through 45.

Early P-oduction in Florida
In 1889-90 only 767 acres of cucumbers were reported in Florida.
Alachua County led with 426 acres and Sumter had 137 acres. At the
turn of the century, acreages had declined; only 460 were reported--
158 acres in Alachua County, 85 in Marion and 52 in Sumter, to name the
heaviest producing counties. By 1909-10 a tremendous upsurge had been
made; 2,059 total acres were reported, with Sumter County's 664 acres
in the lead. Others were: Levy county, 491; Alachua, 206; Orange,
131; and DeSoto, 129 (Wauchula area probably, since Hardee was not
made a county until 1921). By 1919-20, counties reporting to the
Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA) had an aggregate of 4,654 acres of
cucumbers. Sumter County failed to report; thus Orange County led
with 1,491 acres; Levy, 1,386; Alachua, 605; DeSoto (Wauchula), 441;
and Marion, 316 acres [4].

USDA-FCLRS Estimates Cucumbers
The first official estimate of Florida cucumbers made by the USDA
Bureau of Crop Estimates (BCE) was in 1917-18. In 1919-20 the estimate
was 5,300 acres harvested, which allows for missing counties in the
FDA report. Increases were rapid during the '20s, peaking in 1923-24
on 12,370 acres, but declined during the depression '30s, holding for
five years in the 5,000-5,700 acre range. Acreages for harvest have
remained above 10,000 since WW II, and peaked in 1956-57 on 18,000
acres for harvest.









Tal"'c 39.--Florida cucunlbrs for 1.reoh Omariket: Acreage, production and value, all r;tasons combined, 1917-18 through
1973-74 crop ycarn


Acrciage
Crop yu r -l--
Planted Iliearvestedr"


Yield Production Average
per acre price
Total Notrnarketed Marketed


-----------Acre -------

3,500
5,000

5,300
6,500
10,3c0
10,700
12,370

10,830
7,59)0
7,720
9,420
11,400

12,100
9,650
7,300
5,600
5,000

5,100
5,700
5,600
7,000
7,600


1917-18
1918-39

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-253
1923-26
1926-27
1927-2-
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931--32
1932-33
1933-34

1934-35
1935-31;
1930-37
1937-38
1935 -39

1939-410
19.10- 4
19U1-42
1942-43
194-3-41-

19,1.4-45
194.,-46
1946-47
19-17-48
1948-49

1940-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54

1951-53
1935-56
1953-57
1957-58
1958-50

1959-60
1960-61


1903-6-1

19G4-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
106S-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


-.---------.- 000 cwv .-------------- Dollars

319 319 9.06
432 432 7.60


40-4
729
607
916
897

1,063
1,487
1,243
1,456
1,566

1, 594
1,642
1,797
1,673
1,444

1,335
1,716
1,642
1,832
2,059

1,883
2,030
1,642
1,980
1,456

1,357
1,379
1,746
1,691
1,443


17 1,046
244 1,2143
1,243.
1,456
222 1,3144

99 1,493
40 1,602
52 1,745
302 1,371
145 1,299)

159 1,176
50 1,660
79 1,563
88 1,744
128 1,931.

1,883
2,030
1,642
1,980
1,456


1,357
1,379
1,7416
1,691
1,443


6.56
5.21
4.06
6.46
4.44

5.03
6.65
.3.96
5.07
5.36

5.15
2.80
3.50
3.66
3.71

3.37
4.12
6.29
2.58
3.31

3.40
3.,41
4.67
10.37
9.41

8.91
7.77
8.27
6.80
6.55

6.11
5.56
8.14
6.65
5.82

6.06
5.99
6.51
5.57
7.31a

6.01
5.67
6.73
5.85
5.84

5.92
6.40
7.42
6.55
8.38

7.55
8.00
8.29
7.80
10.15


1 000 doijrlre

2,893
3,285

1,922
1,930
2,430
3,103
2,137

3,038
3,538
1,980
1,834
3,007

1,607
1,293

033
845

765
026
1,101
1,052
1,391

1.938
1.,S5
2,042
2,592
2,079

3,600
5,374
5,019
6,060
5, 743


6,395
6,911
10,116
9,683
7,818

9,056
9,600
11,360
7,639
9,496a

9,418
9,420
10,519
10,203
11,285

11,143
12,992
12,187
12,962
12,207

10,240
11,038
14,477
13,184
14,643


Value


8,200(
8,800
9,700
6,500
6,300

7,700
11,200
13,750
13,300
11,900

13,400
13,600
13,500
16,600
16,900

14, 500
35,000
18,000
17,500
14,500

15,700
15,300
15,600
15,500
15,200

16,000
15,300
15,000
16,600
17,000

15,000
14,100
14,500
14,400
13,000t


6,500
6,000

SSOO
13,2 00
18,r.oo
15,600
14,500

15,900
18,100
15,300
18,900
18,600

17,200
17,400
20,600
22,200
16,400

18,200
16,100
17,400
16,800
18,100

17,500
17,000
16,400
17,500
18,300

17,200
16,800

15,900
14,I100


"1--~1-'---------1~-- 1-"~ '


--------------4------


---' c~--~


-- ------------------'----~-~-~---' ----











Table 40.--Florlda cucumbers for frash market: Acreage, production and value, fall 1923 through 1973


Acreage Yield Production Average Value
Year per are -I- price
Planted lHarvesteda Total Not mktd. Marketed


.------e- -


1935
1936
1937
1938
1939


2,000
1, 00
1,00

3,000
5,800
4, 000
6,000
4,200

4,200
4,2)00
5,800
5,200
5,100

5,500
6,000
6,800
5,500
7,1 00

7,100
7,700
6,100
8,300
8,700




8,900
8,700


8,400
7,500
7,800
6,600


------ Cwt.

350 38
850 56

980 70
2 0 65
860 38
1,000 37
1,100 -13

1,650 42
1,300 29
1,600 30
1,600 50
1,800 34


1,600
1,600
2,000
1,800
1,800

1,800
2,000
2,000
1,800
1,200

2,700
4,7900
4,200
4,000
3,700

3,100
3,300
5,000
4,400
5,000

5,300
5,200
5,800
5,300
6,700

6,500
i., -0
5,500
6.300
7,800

7,100
6,700
7,900
8,000
7,400

6,800
6,700
7,400
6,100


- ,- ,-------1, Pwt ----------- '., Mr;

13 13 6.87
48 48 6.67


313
317
430
44 t
565

689
650
597
631
570

74,8
850
632
756
858

923
770
1,066
376
407


313
317
430
31 413
48 517

40 649
30 620
'76 521
71 560
80 490

56 092
79 771
35 597
27 729
858"

923
770

376
407


3.75
3.96
5.73
7.50
6.04

3.33
4.17
3.12
2.50
3.75

4.06
4.58
3.96
2.81
3.85

3.12
5.-42
7.50
10.42
13.23

7.81
8. 51
7.29
3.96
4.15

6.25
9.05
5.70
5.20
5.20

4.80
6.00
5.20
5.40
8.30a

5.50
4.50
7.10
5.90
5.70

6.40
7.90
5.30
12.10
9,31

6.38
7.15
6.53
8.88


257
72
190
277
287

232
156
152
202
227

312
111
190
243
300

28l
468
576
915
533

1,215
1,829
1,662
1,290
1,552

1,956
2,869
2,451
2,141
2,688

3,115
3,720
2,709
3,02.
4,067a

3,806
3,470
4,239
4,301
4,891

5,907
6,083
5,650
4,530
3,789

3,905
5,536
5,557
5,150


's,. Definitions and I i.I.. o (iod i il) n I.-r ii.i (1059) and .rd. i .-d %lP 4).

Souroc: 1171.


--------~ -------------------o~-----------LI-- --











Table 41.--Florida cucumblx'r for fresh inarket: Acreage, production and valuc, winter 1945 through 1959

Yea r e Yield roducAve rag Value
Planted larvesteda per acre Total Notraarketed Marketed price
----------t------- Cw -------------- -t-------------- I)nI Ia l'l:)
--------- Acres -- C--- -000ew -. Illas I ,0 ,
19415 600 400 34 13 13 13.12 176
1946 1,200 600 62 50 50 14.00 702
1947 1,600 350 48 17 17 19.79 332
148b 1,900 1,500 48 72 11 61 7.29 448
1949 1,500 1,300 94 122 122 9.40 1,147

1950 2,800 2,600 101 263 263 6.75 1,775
1951 3,200 500 43 24 24 17.70 425
1952 2,200 1,600 74 118 118 12.80 1,510
1953 2,900 2,300 58 133 133 9.03 1,204
1954 2,300 2,200 70 154 154 12.10 1,863

1955 3,300 2,500 70 175 175 8.40 1,470
1956 3,000 1,500 67 100 100 7.70 770
1957 3,300 2,600 92 239 239 7.50 1,792
1956 2,700 0 0 0
1959 1,900 000 54 49 49 13.80a 6760

aSec L finitions and Explanations (page Uii) under sellln;, (1959) and under yield (1964).

Source: 117).


Production Areas

The North Florida Area

Cucumber production in Alachua-LaCrosse-Brooker area got underway

in the late '20s; however, Alachua County had reported cucumbers since

1890 (Gilchrist was a part of Alachua until 1925) and had access to

the first railroad across the state. Frank Cellon was the first to

irrigate cucumbers which were grown under cloth like shade tobacco.

M. C. Harrell grew his first cucumbers at Brooker in 1921; other

pioneers there were the Cones, Gaineys, Greens and Hazens. Growers
in Alachua County and Marion were those named in other reports growing

beans, eggplant, peppers and potatoes [10, 11, 12]. In the 1929

Census of Agriculture 576 Alachua County farmers reported 1,695 acres

of cucumbers (FCLRS--1,800 acres); in the 1939 census, 366 Alachua

farmers reported 1,177 acres (FCLRS--1,150). In 1945-46 Alachua led

the north Florida area's 3,850 acres for harvest with 2,325 acres,

mostly spring season production; this was Alachua County's peak cucum-

ber crop year. In the 1929 Census of Agriculture 576 Alachua County

farmers reported 1,695 acres (FCLRS--1,800); in the 1939 Census, 366

farmers listed 1,177 acres (FCLRS--1,150).








Table 42. --Florida cucumbers fUr fresh i arxke: Acrcago, production and value, spring 9118 through 1971


Acreage Yield
-r-Yield*
Year Plnted per acru
Planted IlirveEt0d0'


P roductio a e

Total Not middkT. Marketed


------ Acres -------

3,500
5,000

5,300
6,500
30,380
10,7i0
12,020

9,980
6,610
7,410
8, 5i0
10,400

11,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
3,400

3,300
4,100
4,000
5,000
5,600


6,4100
7,000
7,700
4,500 4,500
6,200 4,500


6,300
9,000
11,100
9,100
8,000

6,900


10,200


8,800
5,900

11,300
12,700
9', 1)-'"'

9,700
9,300
9,700
10,700
9,800

8,800
8,700
8,900
9,200
9,100

8,500
8,400
8,400
7,500
7,500


6,100
7,700
8,700
7,600


7,100
10,000
8,000
9,300
10,300

.7,000
8,200
10,200
11,700
8,300

9,000
8,800
8,800
10,000
8,900

8,200
8,200
8,300
8,700
9,000

7,600
7,300
7,800
7,000
6,900


SCwt.

91
8G

55
68
58
45
39

56
70
65
38
50

24
49
25
31
43

50
36,
36
72
58


- -.---------.-- 1------0 I-l- r- 1,r 000 dol.

319 319 9.06 2,893
432 432 7.60 3,285


167
148

360
334


351
517
376
602
429

426
1,150
808
803
968

854
853
908
1,076
761

765
968
792
1,200
1,303

1,025
1,107
872
914
1,080

950
7'67
975
$40
863


492
420
351
173
130


351
34 483
370
602
429

17 409
244 P06
808
893
191 777

51 803
853
22 886
226 850
74 690

79 6806
968
792
53 1,147
101 1,202a


1,025
1,107
872
914
1,080


3.33
3.75
4.48
11.67
8.75

8,23
7.OS
7.60
6.50
7.80

7.50
5.00
7.10
6.75
4.90

6.10
6.70
6.60
5.80
8.40a

7.80
5.80
8.90
5.20
5.81

6.10
6.40
7.00
8.00
7.09

6.80
9.30
9.17
9.08
11.00


1,922
1,950
2,430
3,103
2,015

2,721
3,281
1,908
1, 614
2,730

1,320
1,061
499
481
613

538
616
960
862
1,148

1,03'S

1,575

2,016
1,131

2,891
3,127
2,858
3,950
3,316

3,068
4,530
5,737
6,028
3,807

4,898
5,715
5,848
4,930
5,796a

5,351
5,614
7,019
5,964
6,984

6,252
7,085
6,104
7,312
7,657

6,400
7,133
8, 1l
7,627
9,493


Average
price


Value


I___I___________~__^11^~1_11___
-r~-r--- -- --~--^"-~-(-C~----- (-~---?~---*--i-C---


. --- --






Table 4', --'lor'l;d:a pu~nfuri Tov for fresh market apd plCklefs l o te:r'btt sh pmentlT convvrtcd to cwt., monthly, 1954-55
through 1973-71

Crop)
ycar Sept. Oct. Nov. DIc. Jpn. Fo. MI.l Apr. May Juno July Tntlc


- .-.. -. r ---- ---------- wt -- - -- - --- -- -- -- -- -- -
.9 93.3 243.2 1I1.6 10M.0 9.4 42,1 429.8 292.5 25.8 1,393.4
4.4 161. 267.2 187.4 56.4 10.4 )5.9.8 357.3 239.6 33.2 .3 1, ,7.1.
41G.3 280.2 169,7 91.5 49.1 219.0 331.1 318.7 5.0 1,C17.2
.3 1!2.3 274.4 93,7 217.9 524.4 47.7 1,270.7
62.7 285.6 Gi6.0 20.2 167.6 273.9 200.0 8.5 1,187.5


1954-55
1955.-56
1956-57
1957-5S
1958-590

1959-60
1960-61
1960-01
19Gl-63(
1963-61

1901-65


1907-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


.3 1,070.8
1,570.9
1,439.3
1,604.6
.3 1,779.3

1.0 1,785.9
2.0 1,971.9
.7 1,728.5
1,927.3
1.7 1,431.5

1.7 1,289.1
.7 1,264.1
1,783.2
4.7 1,700.4
.3 1,515.9


Pickle ship nuts re excluded from 1958-59 ~nd prior y.*4rs,

bThp e 8 .it xctvdew the estimated import,' moving Interstate (the interstate movement was estimated to have been less than
the entrip lo Flolrida ports ip later yearR~ s al nost all wvee repackced as well as some was consumed within Florida).-

c''le pveraige weight pver lu. at 48 lb. In 1934 and prior y-ars was increased to 52 lb. until 1973-74 when it again reverted
to 48 Ib8.

Source. 121.




Table 44 .--'lorida cucunmbere for fresh market: Average price rece-lvtl pot cwt., monthly, 1951-55 through 1973-74


yar Spt. Oct. No, Uc. Jan c. Mlar. Apr. May Juno ver

-L---.----- --------- .-... '-- -------lrs------- ------------ -------------------


1951-55
1955-50
1950-57
1057-58
1958,59a

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1902-63
1963-64


1964-65
1085-G6
1966-07
1967-68
1968-60 3.35

1969-70
1970-71 5.00
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


7.20 ;.75
'10 5 .1.80
4,45 5,50
4.05 4.05
6.29 4.50

S.30 7.40
9.09 4.70
3.55 4.40
4.90 6.10
4.15 4.80

7.8p 4.90
5.10 J.90
5.30 6.60
5,70 4.50
, 50 14.00


6,20 7,20 6.40 11.90 6.40 5.70 6.10
5,70 7.70 7,60 7.80 5.70 7.80 4.80
7.90 p.pp 8,70 8,63 7.00 5.40 8.70
9,70 9.50 4.35 3.70
6.80 11.20" 14.00 8.60 7.20 10.00 5.70

15,70 0.10 9.60 13.70 12.40 6.50 4.50
8.10 9,40 11,20 9.20 5.80 4.70 7.20
4.65 7.90 8.10 9.20 10.60 8.20 6.20
10.00 12.20 5.80 6.20 3.95 7.10
7.109 0.70 8.90 6.60 5.30 5.60


5.00
6.90
9.30
4.70
26,50


5.90 10.70 3.70
5.60 6.00 9,80
6.50 7,50 7.10
5.80 5,40 6.30
11.90 7,00 11.30


.,20, ;O0,40 12.30 7.30 4.70 4.60
,400 11.20 6.70 6.00 6.80
9.70 13.$0 13.20 8.20 5.40 6.60
9.70 11.40 17.20 11.40 6.00 3.65
13.30 9.70 10.10 8.10 6.00 5.00


)1.80 8.70
8.60 8.00 14.20
7.00 14.50 12.30
13.80 19.60 13.30 10.40
11.00 l3s90 11.30 15.50


6.10 6.10
8.80 7.70
7.90 7.30
7.80 11.30
8.90 8.90


"a`0 Definitions and Explanatlonq (page tili unter selling (19J9).

Source! 11[


.7 137.7 209.0 77.2 10.2 1,7 6.4 151.1 453.9 19.6
29.3 339.5 211,6 46.6 8.7 120.3 416.8 371.6 16.5
1.6 143,3 278.5 270,1 24.2 5.1 158,4 182.3 339.7 36.1
97.9 267.5 1-18.9 37.7 1.0 217.3 385.8 409.9 8.0
1.0 ;29.4 301.2 175.7 60.0 1.0 109,4 527.7 442.7 22.9

.6 60.6 3953,1 292.1 108.2 15.7 48.5 369.4 529.6 7.1
.4 l'3,6 933,8 268.2 151,5 13.5 2.1 501.5 500.0 84.7
5,7 120,0 299,5 223.41 !P.8 22.3 48.8 390.6 463.6 27.1
.4 1535, 414.7 366.1 05,5 23,7 32.5 262,9 551.8 34.2
5.1 129.5 131.1 53.4 15.9 47.4 74.0 400.7 525.6 46.5

1.0 138.3 164,6 48.0 15.2 3.8 2-46.8 58 3.6 86.1
3.3 15l. 3 43110 00.0 12.0 6.6 .4 91.8 43?.2 158.8
1.1 282.5 916,1 226.7 17.4 17.6 239.8 56. 6 85.4
2,2 160y6 414.2 172.9 3S9, 19,4 20.5 223.0 522.0 120.8
,7 97.4 398.6 16(,; 16.3 73.7 237.4 466.5 _7.4


6.06
5.99
C 6.51
5.57
7.311


7.55
8.00
8.29
7.80
10.15




46









Table 45. --Florida cucunmbcr& for fresh market; Acres harve tqd by counties and arova, 1964-G65 through 197:1-74 crop years


County and area 1964-,65 1605-66 1960-67 1957-6 16- 00-70 1970-71 1!t!--;7 172a73 1973-74


----------.1-----. -. ------ ----.. -- .... r ----------- -------------------------

30 20 110 : 100 100


West Florida


North Florida
Alachua 750 C50 530 600 530 590 600' 900 1,000 900
Bradford 60 70 0. 0. 140 250 250 ; 220 210 150
Flagler and St. Johns 40 100 40 150 240 100 170
Gilchrist 50 30 0; 80' 70. 30 .30
Levy 30 80 50",, 40 50 60 00
Putnam 10 50, 110 120 1.".' 70
Union 140 1 120 12 80 60
Other I1' IIl ,. I 1'___ ...
Area total 1,100 1,010 950 1,080 1,160 1,210 1,410 1,280 1,450 1,200

Central Florida
Lake and Orange 265 430 : ,520 370 3 00 3.0 420 250 a' a
Scnlnolc 350 495 ,320 ,; 310 500 600 710 550 350 320
Sulllter 500 595 450 450 30. ,00 550 720 00 500
Volusia 245 210 ;130 160 580 500 350 310 '260 180
O)ler 1_____4.__ ____., _
A rea total ] .,- T.i 1,-u I, ':,. I, 7-II.i ,>.: .,. l, .' 1, .', .,, 1, '.:,

West Central '
DcSoto 390 140 530 550 '0 440 730 '.4 580 820 780
ilardie 2,210 1,940 1, 00 1,700 1, 80 1,150 1,410 7,720 2,450 1,850
Htillsborolghl b b I br', i 9 b 90 120 520 320 280
Manatce 1'40 120 370 300 160 90 210 200 200
Polk and lighlrids 41O 170 3i40 200 230 380 5' 200 600
Other".i .-- 1 1 : I 2 2.0C
OArea total _3,00 2,650 u 3 10 2,_ 20 2,3_0 3,800 4,00 3,700 _
Area total .,0500 cso ;, .1v .,_ L ,, 3,1Co 2,4)20 2,360 3,800 4, ;l0i 3,700


130 90 40 100


60 100


50 d d


,8oithwe'st
Collier
lecndry
Lee
Other
Area lot;al

Lower East Coast
Mide
tPa11nl Ieaclh
Other
Area total


2,350 3,.330 :1,-* C000 4,070 2,750 2,900 2,650 2.70(1 2,450
1,200 1,190 050 1,225 1,290 1;200 1,:240 1,000 90' 00 0
1,970 1,60 2,0 1 2 1,920 1,300 .1,040 1,230. 1,420 1,580
I ;' l' ,'*, ., '" "' ;. ".. 1:1
7. *2 b *l !- 66 0 Z,, F .l. .


1,900 1,420 1,200. 90 8, 60 6S0- 430' e e
2,010 1,0-40 1,030 2,100 1,3 10 1,00 2,12b 1,550 1,020 1,0to
T, | .o 3, 1 ,,, .>, li,, .'. > .', 5.,. ', 7, '1i :2,,*. *,*:.' 1: 1 I, 1, :: .'7


State total 16,000 35,300 15,000 16, ,..o' 17,000 15,000 14,100 14,500 14,400. 13,000

""O-nitc" and other .procc;sod pickles all counted a- pickles in 1972 and subsequent, seasons; prior years overnite
dilla classified as fre'ch.

bhillsborough and IManatec ..ra ."-r ....i..l:hl il' I i- ; i u Io .h 1968-69.

CSarasota acreage included In '"Other."

din,,ll i .1-t Central acreage Ieluded 'n ih WV...- Central "Other" diurltig 1971-72 and 1972-73.

CDade included in "Other'. '

Source; [33


East Central








B. 0. Gay, G. E. Spires, George Fletcher, J. E. Fugate, Jr.,
D. L. Norris, Joe Imler, Elmer and Clarence Strickland and Woodrow
Smith and, in south Alachua, P. K. Richardson, were among those active
in the deal. The Johnsons at Reddick, A. D. Carter and J. L. Dees were
among the Marion County growers.
In the 1929 Census of Agriculture 234 Levy County farmers
reported 1,671 acres of cucumbers (FCLRS--1,400); in 1939 there were
only 32 farmers who reported 146 acres (FCLRS--150). The Williston area
and Levy County as a whole held their important place through the '20s
and early '30s, peaking in 1929 and 1930 on 1,400 acres. Denmark,
Fugate, Hartlee, Lee, Wardell, Scott, and Whitehurst were later growers
that may have been active in these early years.

The North Central Area
The Webster area of Sumter County was an early leader in produc-
tion of cucumbers. George Franklin Hayes named the town and was its
first postmaster. His grandson, Francis, born about 1889, recalls
cucumbers being grown during the '90s. His father, Robert S. Hayes,
hauled produce to the Oklawaha River and moved it north by boat. After
the railroad was built, several cars were loaded daily during the early
spring season. Plantings were started in January on the "Twin" days of
the Zodiac, and seedlings were protected by V-shaped cypress board
troughs; "Skinner" system overhead irrigation was used. During the
late 'teens and early '20s "Kirby Sta-Green" was the principal variety;
it was utilized in fresh market and "O-nite" dill pickle processing.
These were followed by "Pride of Delaware."
Among the early Webster growers, besides the Hayes family, the
Akins, Beech, Bouquadez, R. Collins, Cant, Jones, Lance Pitts, Smith,
and Rowell families were active, to name a few. Mr. Whitehurst at
Bushnell grew cukes and financed other growers. Buddy Branch was a
long-time grower-packer there. In adjacent Lake County, G. G. Oldham
and, later, Moore and Morgan, handled cukes for a large number of
growers southward to Bay Lake, Byron Herlong was one of the larger
Lake County growers in the '40s.
At Winter Garden in Orange County trough cucumbers were grown by
the Britts, Denmarks, Maquires, Pruitts, Tildens and Segars through
the '40s and earlier.








Seminole County has not been known for an appreciable production
of fresh market cucumbers, but in recent years pickle production has
become a major crop. In the '60s and '70s pickles have been grown
under contract and open market sales for both vats and "O'-nite" dill.
The American Produce Exchange, Dunn and Sons, Long and Scott (in nearby
Zellwood), Meriwether, Turner, Tvre and Wilkie have been active fall
and spring in pickle production.

The West Central \Ar c,
The Wauchula ar.nihcingi area of the Peace River Valley has been a
fall and spring center of cucumber production for many years. Prior to
1921 Hardee County was a part of DeSoto County. In the 1929 Census of
Agriculture 534 Hardee County farmers reported 1,015 acres (FCLRS--1,700
spring and 325 fall). In the 1939 Census, only 386 farmers reported
620 acres; in the same year FCLRS reported 700 acres in the spring and
800 in the fall. Appiai.-ntly reporters turned in only one crop, for
most groers planted fall and spring.
M. E. Brown has a long-time record as a grower, packer and shipper.
His headquarters are at Bowling Green. Frank Studstill also had a long
record in the area for years as Brown's partner and, later, independently
working out of Pompano. There were many growers and Wauchula claimed
the title of "Cucumber Capital of the World." Some early farm families
were the Bests, Conleys, Hrabels, Roberts, Shackelfords, Smiths, Stephens
and Williams; most of these grew cucumbers.
In Hillsborough's Ruskin area few vegetables were grown prior to
the '30s. In the '40s a few growers were producing cucumbers--Almond,
Beaudcte, Brandon, Elsberry, Kushmer and Willis, but none grew big
acreage. In Manatee County' the Harliles, lcLeans and Whisnants were
leading producers. At Venice in Sarasota County, Manhattan Product
Co., was a leading girou'er; "Buster" Tuiner was the farm manager. Some
of the acrcia:;e may hav,; been pickles for Manhattan Pickle Co. in New
York. Nokomis Farms, the i-lancheys and Simpsons were also cuke growers
in this area durinLg the '40s.

The SouthwEst Area
Lee County noted 7 acres of cucumbers in 1891-92; there was no
reported increase until 1911-12 when 15 acres were reported. In 1923-
24 Lee County reporc'd 420 acres and the new Hendry County had 14







acres [4]. In 1919 the Census of Agriculture listed only 10 acres,
all in Lee County; by 1929 the five-county area had increased to 358
acres grown by 109 farm operators. Ten years later, the 1939 Census
of Agriculture found 705 acres reported by only 52 farm operators.
Thus, from 1892 to 1939, growth was very slow [15].
The FCLRS estimated the Southwest area to have had 550 acres in
1928-29 and 600 acres in 1938-39 (fall and spring). By 1948-49 pro-
gress had been made--1,525 acres were harvested; in 1958-59 the South-
west area with 4,225 acres for harvest had surpassed the Wauchula area
and was nearly equal to the Lower East Coast. The following year the
Southwest area forged well ahead and has maintained a significant lead.
Most of the growers were those who pioneered peppers and tomatoes
as reported in Economic Reports 48 and 64 [11, 13]. Among the Lee
County growers of the '40s and earlier were the pearce Bros., Kinseys
and Charlie March; the McDaniels at Felda in Hendry, and Jimmie Tooke
at Immokalee were pioneers in production. Later, Barley, Branch, Brown,
Creel, Ellis, I & B Farms, Johnson, Maddox, Miller, Plunkett, Rockow,
Spooner, Studstill and Stokes (later Pool), Thomas, Whisnat and Garris,
and Williams (S & M Farms) were primary leaders in production during the
'50s and '60s, some perhaps earlier.

The East Central Area
Although it was seldom a large producer, yet at times cucumber
acreage in the East Central Area exceeded that is the Pompano area.
Fair acreages have been grown in Indian River, St. Lucle and Okeechobee
counties. During the late '40s Conrad, Goodwin, Hamilton Bros., Hogan
and Vann were the principal growers [3].

The Lower East Coast Area
It is possible the 28 acres of cucumbers reported in Dade County
in 1903 were in the Pompano area for Broward County was a part of Dade
until 1915. In 1915-16 all three Lower East Coast counties reported
cucumbers--Broward 8 acres, Dade 21, and Palm Beach 20 [4].
The 1919 Census of Agriculture reported Broward County as having
only 35, Dade 5 and Palm Beach 52 acres of cucumbers. In the 1929 Census
Broward's cucumber area had increased to 123 acres grown by 22 farm
operators; Dade's was only 10 acres and two growers; and Palm Beach's
was 43 acres and 14 growers. The 1939 Census reported Broward with 104







acres groavn by 21 farm operators; Dade's was 13 acres and 7 growers; and
Palm Beach's was 51 acres and 14 growers. The FCLRS had not found
sufficient cucumber acreage in any of these counties to publish data
in other than area terms. The area did not show significant acreages
until the WW II years.
Pompano pioneers in cucumbers were doubtless some of the bean and
pepper growers named in Economics Reports 64 and 74 [11, 12). Butler
Brothers pioneered cucumbers at their Deerfield area farm where they
started facming in 1915. The Jbnes Brothers (E & A Jones and 0 & L
Farms) were avid cucumber growers, starting in the depression '30s.
Col. Thomas Nanuel and, later, his son, Tommie, Jr., Bourn Brothers,
Eller Farms, Willie Dame, Dean Bros., Kermit Dell, Burton Gaylor,
McJunkin Farms, Clyde Parnell, Robertson and Voss, and in south Broward,
J. A. Tindale and H. L. Chancy were growers in the '40s and perhaps
earlier.
During the '50s Hood and Shireman, Kamp Farms, Lee Bros., Steven
Lenart, Miami Plantation, J. C. Smith and Son, Frank Studstill and
H. A. Welch became important in the roster of Pompano growers of
cucumbers. Zarrella Farms for many years was a leader in cucumber
production; that farm operation was in Martin County. A. Duda and Sons
became active in the Indiantown and Pompano areas for a short period.
The Pompano area and Martin County peaked in acres for harvest in
the late '50s and continued relatively important through the '60s,
but Broward became a very light producer and Martin practically
dropped out as Zarrella FaLms shifted its production to cabbage.
In excess of 1,000 acres of cucumbers were harvested in Dade
County each crop year during the late '50s and early '60s (see Table 45
for county acreage during the last 10 years). During the '50s and '60s,
when the area was in peak production of cucumbers, Barnes and Smith,
Basso, Bossio, Briadenberg, Davis, Dudley, Dymlond, Eichenberger and
Abernathy, Harvey Bros., Hubbard, Iori Bros., Stallings Farms, Torcise,
Van Veldheuzen and Hayes and Welch were the principal growers. During
the '70s production for fresh market practically ceased in Dade County.







EGGPLANT


Eggplant is an annual of the potato family; it is native in India,
where it has been grown since remote antiquity. The Chinese and Arabs
grew eggplant in the 9th century, and the early invaders supposedly
introduced it to Europe. Most eggplant in America produce dark purple,
fleshy fruit, sometimes six to eight inches in diameter [5].

The Early Florida Eggplant Acreage
In 1889-90, 111 acres were reported to have been grown in
Florida; 50 of these acres were produced in Brevard County, which
then extended south to meet Dade County at about Stuart. By 1899-
1900 the acreage had increased to 344 acres; 172 acres were in
Putnam County and 74 in Pasco County. By 1909-10 there had been little
change at the state level, but Dade County led with 129 acres, probably
concentrated at Pompano (Broward became a county in 1915) [4].

USDA Estimates Eggplant
In 1920-21 the first estimate was made by the USDA's crop estimating
branch at 1,380 acres for harvest. There were three seasons--fall, winter
and spring. By 1932-33 the acreage had increased to 2,450 acres for har-
vest, but the peak was not until 1945-46, when 4,400 acres were planted
and 3,900 acres were brought to harvest (see Tables 46-52 for crop year
and seasonal acreage, production and value) [17].

Production Areas

The North Florida Area
Alachua and Marion counties became important mainly as producers
of fall "eggs" in the mid-'30s; both continued as large producers of
late-spring eggplant through the '40s and '50s, but Marion production
began to wane in the '60s. Long-time growers are mainly those named
in Economics Reports 64 and 74. Marketing centers were McIntosh and
Alachua-LaCrosse for many years [11, 12]. In Alachua County, Bethea,
Cellon, Hague, Hitchcock, Imler, Rogers and Thomas are but a few
family names of growers associated with eggplant production through
the years. In Marion's Mclntosh-Reddick area, eggplant production
was important and small acreages were grown by many; Brown, Christian,
Huff, Johnson, McAuley, Richardson, Rush, Whittington, Woods, Yawn
and Zettrauer grew or handled eggplant. Acreages per farm were small;












Table 46.--Florlda eggplant for fresh market: Acreaeo, production and value, aUl seasons combined, 1920-21 through 1973-74

CI \,. I,... I' Yield Production Average
Pl'.ntd _- ^ {'* .,.,*,r r.. ', T ...IAerage, Ll.^l Valuel-


-----------A ----------A


1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34


1,380
1,13(0
1,610
1,620

1,400
1,020
730
1,550
1,300

1,700
1,800
1,950
2,450
2,050

1,500
1,100
1,450
1,00
2,100

1,450
2,300
2,350
1,950
3,500

3,2110
3,900
3,500
3,330
3,300

2,600
2,200
2,5350
2,800
2,400

2,550
.,9030
2,700
2,900
2,900

3,200
2,700
2,600
2,550
2,200

2,500
2,250
2,200
2,100
2,200

2,000
1,870
1,750
1,800
1,00


130
131
114
102

91
126
105
79o
104

74
79
62
84
62

59
95
93
87
308

67
85
78
92
' 8

90
114
64
95
88


-----.--- o... l 00 t------------..-- -


aSee Definitions and L.planainons (page ill) under selling (1959) and under yleld 1964i).


Source: 131.


97
196
183
179
30 270


5.09
5.45
7,00
3.24

2.11
3.63
3.90
2.91
4.21

3.67
2.51
2.29
1.75
2.28

2.38
2.58
2.39
2.28
2.27

3.90
3.97
3.51
7.23
5.56

6.24
4.93
6.52
5.06
4.88

4.91
5.87
5.90
5.14
5.09

5.28
4.62
5.22
6.85
6.25a

6.95
6.58
5.78
5.72
6.87

5,87
7.25
6.94
9.68
10.27

10.98
8.51
9.44
10.55
10.97


125
142
121
205
127


1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1933-39

1939-40
19410-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

194-1-45
19-5-146
194-t-47
19;7-48
1918-49

1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54


1934-55
1055-5G
1956-57
1957-58
1955-59

1959-60
1960-01
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64

1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

3916-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


14 260
226
323
304
303

16 295
20 328
327
24 224
311

288
330
14 3814
351
338"

40 383
21 363
389
322
317

248
315
345
354
382


1,950
3,500

3,700)
4,400
4,150
4,0,0
3,850

2,850
2,300
2,700
3,000
2,4.0

2,600
3,000
2,700
3,100
3,100

3,600
2,900
2,800
2,750
2,400

2,700
2,400
2,250
2,200
2,200

2,050
1,950
1,800
1,850
1.F 5'


S100) dolI-rH

914
810
1,291
538

268
468
300
358
569

459
356
277
359
289

212
268
323
356
514

378
779
643
1,293
1,501

1,79S
1,616
1,461
1,195
1,279

1,276
1,326
1,916

1,543

1,557
1,515
1,706
1,535
1,944a

2,003
2,172
2,219
2,007
2,323

2,250
2,633
2,700
3,116
3,255

2,722
2.682
3,257
3,734
4,169













Table 47.--Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage., production and value, fall! 1923-1973

Acrcac Yield reduction Average Value
Years Planted Harvestdcl per acreJ Total INot m anr ed Markcted price ___Va


**-------- Ac)' c---.


1,100
1,200
500
700
500

650
550
900
600
900

1,200
600
1,100
1,100
1,100

900
1,100
600
750
900

750
750
900
700
850

750
550
800
600


------------- 1.000 ewS------------- Dolllara 1,000 dollars
25 25 4.55 112
13 13 4.70 62


------ Cwt.

240 103
150 89

490 121
150 102
620 72
200 69
800 53b

,200 66
950 50
,050 63
050 26
900 33

500 50
850 66
000 50
100 86
950 40

100 45
400 61
700 40
300 36
800 30


20 62
61
13
28
22

26
53
80
56
3 83

1S 113
66
11 99
104
84

78
14 129
100
94
20 108"

101,
116
1221
84
85

128
96
124
105


6.36
5.76
11.97
7.12
6.35

8.35
9.25
6.75
6.05
5.15

2.95
' 7.40
5.70
4.65
8.30a

7.20
4.05
5.40
6.40
5.57

6.50
6.40
6.,50
13.20
10.30

6.09
10.60
7.65
9.03


391
353
150
197
140

217
490
460
339
427

333
488
564
484
697a

562
522
540
602
602

656
742
793
1,109
878

780
1,018
949
948


2.88
4.85
2.73
8.03
4.18

1.94
3.03
1.94
3.48
1.82

5.00
2.12
3.64
2.27
3.94

3.18
2.42
7.27
7.58
5.91


1,

1,



1,


1,

1,

1,
1,


700
1,300
1,200

1,400
1,500
950
1,100
600

650
700
1,000
650
950

1,200
600
1,100
1,200
1,300

1,100
1,200
900
850
1,000

650
800
930
700
850


1915
104;
19-17
19-13




1952
1954
1933



1956
1957
19-58
1959

31960
19601
1862
1963
1964

19G5

1967
1968
199D


Source: (171.


aSee Definitions and Explanations (page lii) under selling (1989) and under yield (19G4).

















Table 48.--Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acreage, production and value, winter 1940-1974

YarsAr e Yielfd i ,luI,.,n Avorgo Valuei
__,,,,]_______ ___ ri:r ,ii ,i ,,,.N. T,,. r. ,,T.'1... '..,rl.,.Ir- r ,_, ,-
------ Ae-S..g----- -...-.--.----., 000 t,. J- 1,000 doDllars
1940 100 107 11 11 4.70 50
1941 300 116 35 35 4.85 168
1942 250 116 0 29 29 4.55 132
1943 55C 550 148 82 82 8.48 694
1944 1,000 1,000 124 124 17 107 5.61 601

1945 850 800 116 92 92 6.97 644
1946 1,200 1,100 129 142 6 136 6.30 861
1947 1,000 900 79 71 71 6.52 464
1948 380 330 102 34 34 10.61 357
1949 800 800 134 107 107 5.60 599

1950 1,000 900 132 119 119 5.00 595
1951 450 350 129 45 45 10.00 450
1952 800 800 157 126 126 6.05 762
1953 900 800 127 102 102 5.90 602
1954 800 800 148 118 118 6.05 714

1955 650 650 139 90 90 6.80 612
1956 700 650 135 88 88 6.50 572
1957 900 900 150 135 135 4.40 594
1958 600 400 30 12 12 15,00 180
1959 800 800 115 92 92 7.50a 690a

1960 700 600 90 54 54 10.30 556
19O1 700 700 140 98 9 8.10 794
1962 600 600 215 129 129 7.10 916
1963 650 750 155 116 110 5.90 684
1964 600 650 1900 104 1040 8.20 853

1965 700 700 200 148 8 140 5.96 834
1966 600 550 200 110 110 8.30 913
1967 600 600 215 129 129 6.70 864
1968 500 500 185 92 92 12.10 1,113
1969 500 500 195 98 98 10.20 1,000

1970 400 350 135 47 47 10.40 489
1971 400 400 170 68 68 9.42 641
1972 450 450 210 95 95 8.82 838
1973 350 350 210 74 74 11.70 866
1974 450 450 215 97 97 10,40 1,009

a"ec Definitions and Explanations (page 1il) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).

Source: [171.



the census of 1929 reported 21 growers in Alachua with 69 acres and

23 farms with 142 acres in 1939. Only three growers with 22 acres were

reported in Marion County in 1929 and 15 with 126 acres in 1939 [15].


The West Central Area

The Hernando County acreage of fall eggplant was significant during

1929-34, ranging from 180 to 325 acres and continued with lesser plantings











Table 40.--Florida eggplant for fresh imrket: Acreage, production and value, spring 1921-1974

Years creag Yield Producti on ar Average
lantced Hlarvcstiacl per acre 'Totabl Not marked Marl:eted price Vl


-.-- -- -- -. -Are -- - --
1,380
1,130
1,610
1,380

1,250
530
580
930
1,100

900
600
1,000
1,400
1,000

600
600
600
800
1,000


700
1,200

1,650
1,800
1,650
2,750
1,950

1,250
1,200
1,200
1,100
1,000

3,000
1,100
1,200
1,400
1,100


1, i'..
1,000
1,000
950

1,000
950
850
750
1,000

800
750
800
650
750


400
900
700
700
1,200

1,600
1,700
1,400
2,500
1,800

1,200
1,200
1,200
1,100
1,000

1,000
1,100
1,200
1,400
1,000

1,500
1,100
900
1,000
900

900
950
850
700
1,000

800
720
750
650
750


Slt,
130
131
114
102

91
132
107
84
111

92
106
74
99
99

99
132
132
132
132

119
124
99
99
107

107
130

107
86

111
129
122
111
129

135
120
103
90
115

100
340
140
135
155"

150
160
170
155
133

145
165
205
240
240


----------..- 000 oowt, ----------


48
112
69
69
13 116


14 119
155
146r
122
129

13 122
5 127
126
13 113
115

150
1 54
126
133
140a

12 135
21 152
144
108
135

116
119
154
156
180


DMllarf1
5.09
5.45
7.06
3.03

1.82
4.24
3.64
3.03
3.79

3.39
3.18
1.82
1.67
1.64

2.67
1.82
2.58
1.67
2.27

3.79
4.09
4.39
5.76
4.70

5.91
3.33
6.97
3.64
3.80

4.55
4.25
4.55
4.10
3.80

4.25
44.80
4.05
7.00
6.70;'

5.00
5.30
6.20
5.80
6.20

6.03
7.00
7.60
11.20
8.49

11.70
10,60
9.10
12.30
12.40


.r' d. jll0 rs
914
810
1,291
426

206
297
226
236
460

282
202
135
231
192

158
144
204
176
300

180
456
304
399
542

1,014
564
644
688
483

541
659
664
500
490

518
610
624
791


750
816
781
783
808

814
1,064
1,094
1,210
1,146

1,357
1,261
1,401
1,919
2,232


aSee Definitions and Explanations (page iii) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).

Source: 117).




56







Tab!l? 50. --Florlda eggplant for fresh market: Shipments by rail, mixed car and truck converted to cwt., monthly, during the
1951-55 through 1974-75 crop years

SAr. y JnI .
Ci'l. .''.>'. I' ;. A l,. [< lI. ,t. AIi J llnr "\ ,,t'l.il


1951-55 13.8a 36.2
1955-56 20.5a 45.6
1936-57 8.4 18.1
1957-58 20.3a 46.0
1958-59 17.1a 42.7

1959-60 16.7a 34.5
19GO-61 5.2 27.9
1901-62 19.5a 50.0
1962-63 9.7 42.9
1963-64 10.9a 33.9

1904-65 7.4 41.6
1965-66 12.8 37.9
1966-67 13.0 41.0
1967-68 19.71 42.5
1968-f69 9.0 26.9

1969-70 11.8a 28.9
1970-71 29.9 46.1
1971-72 12.5 20.4
1972-73 24.3 40.1
1973-74 9.7 46.6


--~-------------- 1 )cnrj ( wt. ---- ---------------- ------------- --- --
35,6 14,4 35.5 46.5 35.5 24.8 10.7 281.8
34.6 23.2 32.4 47.8 39.5 21.8 8.9 316.0
40.5 31.3 50.5 47.4 36.1 25.5 10.1 312.2
9.4 2.0 4,9 35.6 34.3 24.5 13.1 210.8
32.1 16.8 42.8 37.6 37.8 25.7 5.5 296.1


29.8 24.4 24.0
42.6 26.6 27.8
46.3 25.5 57.4
41.2 25.0 59.9
44.8 27.5 36.9


41.7 38.9
32.5 31.5
31.0 46.3
26.4 23.8
26.1 34.5

7.4 4.1
12.5 12.0
29.5 28.4
11.8 20.5
17.9 35.8


50.2
45.5
38.9
35.8
36.4


12.8 302.4
11.9b 314, .
9.4 366.8
9.4 342.8
8.9 323.0


6.2
10.2
14.1b
11.0b
8.4b

11.2
20.5
11.0
16.4
13.0


361.8
342.5
359.6
280.3
265.1

200.0
278.3
297.4
291.4
321.0


alncludeas S-lptlcmbr thipmeonts

bIncl ues August shipments.

Sources 12).

Tuble 51 --Florida eggplant for fresh market: Average price received per cwt., monthly, 1954-55 through 1973-71 crop years

S Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aycruge
rIe I Ir


---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- J- ll-r- PL r cat. -1--- -- -------
1954-55 6.95 5.60 3.80 4.85 11.65 7.30 3.20 5.45
1955-56 3.90 3,00 2.40 6.10 7.60 6.10 3.65 5.60
1956-57 9,00 10.90 5.30 4..80 5.70 3.30 3.90 5.90
1957-58 7.00 7.90 4.25 6.60 15.00 6.50 7.60
1958-59 4.00 7.00 4.00 4.35 6.10 10.40 6.10 6.90 6.20


4.85 3.65 5.28
5.00 6.80 4.62
5,90 4.10 5.22
8.00 4.50 6.85
7.00 7.70 6.25


1959-60 6.90 6.40 8.20 9.50 8.90 11.40 12.00 5.40 5.20 4.50 4,45
1960-61 7.30 9.30 5.80 5.90 8.30 11.40 4.30 4.90 7.30 6.90
1961-62 6.20 3.75 3.55 6.50 10.20 6.30 6.10 6.80 5.50 0.20
1962-63 6.90 5.60 4.95 6.00 10.70 4.85 4.95 7.00 5.80 5.40
1963-64 7.30 6.80 5.90 7.50 0.20 8.60 5.00 7.20 6.90 6.30


194M-G5
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1908-69


12.50 6.30 3.85 .4.85 5.80 8.10 5.50 7.20 5.00 7.90 5.87
8.00 7.70 4.195 7.20 8.40 10.40 6.00 7.10 8.20 8.50 7.25
7.40 7.80 4.85 6.30 8.80 6.00 6.60 9.40 7.80 5.80 6,94
6.20 6.30 6.90 11.00 10.40 15.70 14.70 8.40 13.00 8.70 9.68
9.70 14.80 12.80 12.30 9.20 9.40 8.00 9.30 8.80 5.50 10.27


1969-70 9.70 12.60 8.00 11.00 8.00 11.20 8.90 14.40 12.40 6.70 10.98
1970-71 5.30 6.50 6.30 5.50 7.40 7.30 17.10 11,10 14.60 8.90 7.80 8.51
1971-72 11.60 14.90 6.70 7.90 8.70 9.70 10.80 9.90 6.90 10.50 9.44
1972-73 12.20 9.10 7.40 6.80 8.50 13.60 13.80 12.60 11.40 13.60 10.00 10.56
1973-74 13.10 8,40 8.60 8.20 11.60 11.00 14.20 10.60 12.'0 11.90 10.97


aAverage prices January 1989 and subsequent thereafter are f.o.b. a nd incluIde v eling charges at point of orlg;o.


Sources 17).


--------------c-rrirr-r------rr














Table 52.--Florida eggplant for fresh market: Acres harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74 crop years

County and area 1064-65 1965-G6 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 199-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74

--------- ---;--------- ---------dcc --------------------------------i-
West Florida 30 60 30 30 130 50 20 10 20 a

North Florida
Alachua 140 170 210 220 180 150 150 140 140 180
Marion 120 70 28 40 40 16 60 60
Other 20 40 70 120 130 110 60 50 90
Area total 280 280 300 380 350 270 270 200 190 270

North Central
Lake and Sumter 65 80 50 50 130 140 85 80 50 b
Seminole and Volusta 45 40 60 40 60 40 65 50 60 b
Other 130
Area total 130 120 130 90 190 180 150 130 110 130

West Central
Hardee and Polk 30 40 50 50 70 90 55 40 c
lilllt.Iorollgh 120 150, 90 170 300 190 140 70 50 c
Manatee 20 20 10 20 30 50 50 20 30 c
Other 90 20 40 20 15 20 100
Area total 170 210 240 200 440 350 200 130 100 100

Southwest 70 70 30 90 90 70 100 170 170 160

Southeast
|iroward 260 190 220 160 210 200 170 190 240 260
Palm klter,'b (ea.t) ]3,51n ,300 1,2.r0 1,090 730 800 900 P50 900 820
Other 50 20 20 60 60 70 70 60
Area total 1,620 1,510 1.490 1.250 1,000 1,060 1,070 1,110 1,210 1,140

State total 2, 00 2,250 2,200 2,100 2,200 2,000 1,870 1,750 1,800 1,800


0West Florida acreage included in north Florida "Other."

blncluded In North Central "Other."

included In West Central "Other."

Source: (3).



until about 1940. The 1929 Census of Agriculture reported that 73

growers planted 344 acres, with Hernando leading the state that year.

The number had declined to one grower and less than an acre in 1939;

FCLRS agreed estimating none [3].

Twenty-eight farms reported a total of 34 acres of eggplant in

Hillsborough County in the 1929 census; 55 growers reported 153 acres

in Manatee County the same year the FCLRS estimate for the area was--

200 acres the same season. In the 1939 Census of Agriculture, Hillsborough

County eggplant operations had increased perceptibly to 104 farms reporting

172 acres; Manatee's eggplant growers had declined to 47, with 126 acres

[151.







In 1945-46 Hillsborough County led all counties in the state with
500 acres for harvest; Manatee County was estimated to have had 375
acres. As the years passed and small farmers went into other vocations,
Manatee's eggplant operations declined to about 50 acres by 1950 while
Hillsborough continued with over 100 acres into the early '70s. Hardee
County continued rather steadily with 75 to 300 (one season) acres.
Eggplant crops were grown in relatively small lots each season [3].
Council, Reeder, Willis and later, Capps, Ennis, McNillan and Hrabel
(Hardee County)' were among the larger growers.

The Southwest Area
In the 1929 Census of Agriculture Lee County was listed as having
41 farm operators and 181 acres; FCLRS reported 250 acres. By 1939
the census reported only 28 growers, but the area acreage was up to
259 [15]. In 1945-46 FCLRS estimated Lee County to have had 375 acres
for harvest. Growers made a name for themselves through the develop-
ment of a better strain. Thomas M. Biggar specialized in "eggs" and
was active in this development, as were Ira and Ora Cook. They
crossed a New Orleans variety with a local, redder one and came up
with the new very dark purple "egg" that was a great improvement
over older varieties. It was named for the Cooks. Lyman Frank was
another active grower of this era. Acreages declined in the '50s and
few eggplant are presently grown in the Southwest area.

The Lower East Coast Area
The 1929 Census of Agriculture reported Broward and Palm Beach
(mostly east) counties with 83 farm operators and 119 acres of eggplant;
by 1939 there was an increase to 122 farms and 329 acres. Dade and
Martin added a few acres. By 1945-46, when the state peaked on planted
and harvested acres, the Pompano area led with 1,025 acres planted and
940 acres harvested [3]. It did not lead in yields, however.
During the '40s some of the leading growers were Burton Gaylor,
R. V. Jones, Fred McNeese, Clyde Parnell and J. N. NcJunkin and Son.
In the '50s the area dominated the Florida production. Martin Amestoy,
Jarmin Smith and Son, S & H Farms, DuBois and Smith, O & L Farms,
Kermit Dell, B. O. Giddens and H. H. White were growers of larger than
average acreages. In the '60s Billy Bretz, Capella Farms, Cheshire







Farms, Walter Osthoff, West Side Farms, Crosby and Jones, John and Paul
Fichera, John Guerrera, G. E. Jones, E. & G. Lamb, Levi Matthews,
Marini Bros., Parrish Farms, George Snyder, Thomas Bros. & Mecca and
Wilbur Youngblood brought eggplant into the realm of large producers a
crop that had been grown on a small scale by so many. In the '70s
a few additions were noted; i.e., W. A. DuBois, Sr., "Buck" Curies
and Jose Rodriguez.
Eggplant, as this is written, is grown by fewer farmers, but
seldom does one farm operator plant in excess of 100 acres. Far
more frequently 20, 30, 40 and 60-acre plantings are noted.


ENDIVE--ESCAROLE


Endive is native to the East Indies. It was introduced into
Egypt and Greece at a very early period and references to it appear
in their history. The plant was brought to America by colonists.
Endive is closely related botanically to chicory and the two names
are sometimes incorrectly used as synonyms. Escarole is another name
for a type of endive with broad leaves and a well-blanched heart.
The work "endive" is reserved to designate plants with narrow, finely-
divided, curly leaves [5]. Production and marketing data on endive
and escarole are shown in Tables 53 through 57.

Where Grown in Florida
In Florida escarole and endive have been and continue to be grown
profusely in the mucklands of the Everglades, Zellwood and other north
central muck pockets, and in Lake Istokpoga and Sarasota muck soils.
In the past, escarole and endive (long called chicory in Florida) were
grown in central areas on sandy soils, especially at Sanford and
Winter Garden.

Early Planting Records
No acreage was reported by the Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA).
In 1929 the Census of Agriculture reported the state had 29 farms
which grew 73 acres of escarole [15]. USDA-BCE estimated much more
than was found by USBC; the first estimate was made in 1927-28 indi-
cated 340 acres were harvested. In 1929 BCE estimated 500 acres and
did not adjust to the small census figure for there were records of




60









Table 53. --Florida escarole (including chicory-ondive) for fresh rnarkot: Acreage, production and value, 1928 through 1974


Acreage Yield Production Average
Crop year e crice Value
per acre price
Planted Iarvesteda Total Not mktd. Marketed

.------Acre'; ---- -I. C r. -------. ---------- I dollars l. .


340 222 75
500 227 114


1927-28
1928-29'

1929-30
1030-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-31

1931-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-10
1910-41
1911-12

1913-14


194-1-15
1915-1
'1(3-17
1917-(7
1918-19

1919-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-51

1951-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-5S
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-61

1961-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


278 *
160
120
207
235

163
183
168
168
162

149
138
148
130
158


75 2.84
114 2.03


450
850
700
700
700

650
700
900
1,000
1,000'

1,300
1,000
1,200
1,500
2,300

2,800
2,500
2,700
3,100
3,000

3,600
4,700
.1,800
.,000
4,500

4,600
4,800
5,700
5,500
6,400

6,200
6,000
6,100
6,700
6,600

7,800
8,100
7,000
5,600
7,300

0,600
6,800
7,900
6,500
6,000


664
-644
671
724
cfioa


52 647
810
770
40 786
803

792
850
869
946
774


194
138
.177
195
162 200

07 255
67 280
2416
64 292
14 301

75 393
161 431
48 552
-488
104 508

21 618
12 58s
627
605
99 669


1,500
2,300

3,100
2,900
3,550
3,600
3,300

4,100
4,900
5,200
5,000
5,000

4,900
5,600
6,700
6,800
1,500

7,000
6, 100
6,500
7,500
7,500

8,600
8,600
7,500
6,600
8,000

8,100
1,400
9,200
8,100
7,900


214
230

456
209
204
212
267

2-10
208
306
2(
266

291
358
333
1,170
610

1,479
896
1,331
1,285
1,702

1,415
2,414
2,760
2,245
2,134

2,596
2,822
2,916
3,630
2,977a

3,453
2,930
4,697
3,581
4,508

3,578
3,883
4,158
5,821
6,891

5,451
7,505
6,448
8,578
7,015


5.80
3.20
5.10
4.. 40
5.60

3.60
5.60
5.00
4.160
14.20

4.20
4.80
4.65
6.00
4.45a

8.20
4.55
7,00
4.95
6.83

5.53
4.80
5.40
7.70
7.34

6.89
8.90
7.42
9.07
9.06


aSee Definitions and :.xplnrlborns (pa e ill) under selling (1 9Z9) and under yirld (IP19-).

Source: [17).




61






Table 54.--Florida escarole (including chlcory-endivc) for fresh market; Acreage, production and value, fall, winter and spring
1970-71 through 1973-74


Season Acreage Yield Production Average Value
and year per acre price
Planted Harvested Total Not mktd. Marketed

------- Acres ------ Cw.t. -------- ---1, 00 cwt ---------.-- D ars .0,- dol.Dol


Fall:
1970
1971
1972
1973

Winter:
1971
1972
1973
197.1

Spring:
1971
1972
1973
1974


2,000
2,400
2,300
2,400


3,300
4,700
3,600
3,600


2,100
2,100
2,200
1,900


1,800
2,100
2,000
1,700


3,000
4,100
2,900
2,900


2,000
1,700
1,600
1,400


225
235
240
179


125
110
120
105


130
105
155
135


115
115
1C0
145


5.85
7.15
8.09
7.46


8.39
7.59
8.66
8.17


12.84
7.38
10.70
12.20


1,316
1,680
1,942
1,335


3,360
3,292
3,897
3,203


2,889
1,476
2,739
2,477


Sources (17).


Table 55.--Florid. escnrole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market: Shipments interstate, monthly, converted to Cwt.,
1954-55 through 1973-74


Crp yar Oct. o ec. an. Feb. Mar. Apr. ay June Tota

----------- ----------------- -- w ----------------------------------------


1954-55 2.4 57.8 73.7 95.6 89.4 109.2 97.2 68.1
1955-56 .6 48.1 83.6 64.4 84.1 115.9 100.3 61.6
1956-57 1.1 54.0 85.8 101.6 95.5 103.8 92.7 62.2
1957-58 4.8 68.7 78.4 67.3 46.3 84.5 97.1 91.4
1958-69 4.5 60.9 92.5 101.4 92.4 102.4 97.7 76.4


1959-60 .6 56.4
1960-61 .2 52.5
1961-62 5.1 59.1
1962-63 3.1 75.2
1963-64 7,4 62.7


76.2 95.4 97.6 114.6 110.0 72.2
92.6 100.3 91.6 98.2 95.7 67.7
70.6 6.4.6 92.9 126.7 108.9 98.8
69.0 101.8 109.5 116.7 108.7 77.9
60.1 75.3 84.3 124.5 109.3 78.1


1964-65 1.9 75.8 98.S 66.8 52.8 92.2 115.8 100.1
1965-66 4.2 86.9 111.6 120.3 75.7 121.5 126.4 91.8
1966-67 2.1 82.2 105.4 106.0 88.0 112.2 113.7 96.5
1967-68 3.4 85.0 10S.6 99.9 76.1 103.9 114.8 75,2
1968-69 1.3 65.7 74.2 96.3 104.3 136.2 124.3 80.3

1969-70 4.0 68.6 97.5 97.2 99.2 111.8 103.0 86.5
1970-71 9,6 73.0 100.7 119.8 92.5 120.4 96.6 86.1
1971-72 5.1 81.6 114.9 127.7 122.7 119.2 111.0 58.9
1972-73 13.4 80.0 105.9 103.8 111.7 142.7 123.8 82.5
1973-74 3.2 53.5 60.8 95.2 80.9 114.3 91.1 68.4


2.7 596.1
6.1 564.7
.9 599.6
4.0 543.1
.7 628.9

1.5 624.5
4.6 603.4
2.7 629.4
1.4 663.3
2.3 630.3

3.0 607.2
1.5 739.9
3.6 709.7
.4 667.3
.4 683.0

1.1 670.9
5.7 704.4
.7 741.8
.8 764.6
.2 587.6


Sources (21.


~'-----I--~-- --- --~~-


I-


... .-~I "~'




62






Table 56.--Florida escarole (incl.ling chicory- endive) for fresh market: Average price received per cwt., monthly, 1954-55
through 1973-74 crop years

Crop year Oct. Nov. IC. 1 Jan. Feb. Mr. Apr. May June aveCrage

.- --.. --- -- ..------ .- --.- ..---------------- rll.i rr,------- .- ------------------------------------- .------

1954-55 8.00 6.40 3.80 3.80 4.20 4.00 3,80 4.00 3.60 4.20
1955-56 3.60 3.60 4.40 7.80 5.60 4.00 3.40 5.80 8.00 4.80
1956-57 6.00 4.80 4.80 4.00 3.00 4.40 6.00 4.65
1957-58 6.00 3.50 5.60 7.70 10.00 7.00 4,30 6.00 5.00 6.00
1958-59 3.80 3.90 4. 00a 4.00 3.55 5,00 6.60 4.05

1959-60 8.30 7.30 4.89 5.00 3.30 4.20 5.50 5.20
1960-61 4.70 3.70 4.30 3.50 4.10 4.25 8.20 6.40 4.55
1961-62 5.00 5.40 8.10 10.40 8.80 5.20 5.10 7.80 6.40 7.00
1962-63 5.20 3.75 5.20 5.60 4.90 4.65 4,70 5.90 4.95
1963-64 4.70 5.30 5.70 9.40 11.40 5.80 4.30 7.00 6.83

1965-65 5.30 3.85 4.05 7.00 7.00 5.00 6.90 4.90 5.53
1965-66 4.80 4.40 3.90 4.90 7.30 4.80 3,30 6.20 4.60
1906-67 5.20 3.75 4.80 6.00 4.60 5.70 7.70 5.40
1967-68 6.10 4.80 4.80 13.00 12.50 6.90 4.90 8.80 7.70
1968-69 9.00 11.40 12.30 5.00 5.10 5.60 5.70 7.34

1969-70 10.10 10.50 8.40 8.00 5.80 5.20 5.70 5.70 6.89
1970-71 6.30 6.10 5.60 6.70 7.20 11.00 14.50 11.00 8.00 8.90
1971-72 11.20 7.10 6.90 6.60 9.20 6.90 6.20 9.60 7.42
1972-73 8.40 7.10 8.80 13.40 7.80 5.90 7.60 15.40 9.07
1973-74 8.00 6.30 v.20 8.10 9.60 7.20 12,00 12.40 9.06

aSee DeCinitions and Explanations fne i iii) under selling (1959).

Source;: 17).



Table 57,--llorlda escarole (including chicory-endive) for fresh market: Acres harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65
through 1973-74 crop years

County and area 1964-65 1965-66 3966-67 I197-68 196 8-9 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74

------------------------ -- --- A c r es------- --------
North Central
Lake and Orange 1,680 2,020 1,850 1,660 1.670 1,410 1,230 1,4001 1. 20
Sneminole and Volusin lon 4. 5n 60 2 10 In 30 30
Area total 1,7 U 2,-;-( 1.910 i.6t0 3,710 1,. 1,200 1,430 1,4:50 2,20

West Central
(mainly Highlands
and Sarasota) 450 300 360 350 330 330 320 350 a a

Everglades
Palmn Beach (west) 5,540 5,710 4,700 3,530 5,240 4,800 5,200 6,100 5,050 4,750

Lower Enst Coast
bade 30 20 30 40 20 20 20 20

State total 7,800 8,100 7,000 5, f.0i 7,300 6,600 6,800 7,900 6,500 6,000

aWest Central included with North Central to avoid grower disclosure.


Source: 131,







676 straight cars [2] shipped that season from Florida. In 1939 the
Census of Agriculture reported endive at 18 acres grown by 9 farm
operators and escarole at 890 acres grown by 85 farm operators; USDA-
,AIt estimated 1,000 acres combined of escarole and endive [15, 17].

Production Areas
The North Central Area
In 1929 FCLRS credited Seminole County with 325 acres of Florida's
500-acre total. From this acreage 365 straight carloads were shipped
(at that time a load made up of endive and escarole was counted a mixed
car). Some of the growers were also celery growers and are listed in
Economics Report 69 [9]. Orange and Volusia counties grew 75 acres
that year; P. H. Britt, M. C. Britt, Roper Bros. and Tilden Brothers
were long-time growers and handlers at Winter Garden. The average
price received of $2.03 per cwt. was just over 501 per hamper.
The Zellwood Drainage District (ZDD) was created in 1941. Mid-
'40s pioneers in the mucklands escarole and endive (chicory) were
Bob Stewart and Ken Jorgensen with the Zellwoods Farm Co. (The name
was changed to Zellwood Farms, starting March 1, 1947), Dingfelder and
Saperstone, a Mr. Burney, and Dan Carraway (Swope). A. Duda and Sons
started their Lake County muck farm in 1945-46 and soon added escarole
to their schedule of plantings. C. T. Niblack, Hooper Farms, Long
Farms, Lust Farms, Chase and Company and later Franks Farm and S. N.
Knight joined the earlier growers. Most of these continue toproduce
leaf crops. Early growers produced far more escarole than endive or
chicory (as it was commonly called). The muckland producers may have
been a great factor in forcing out the small sandland growers. The
Zellwood area for several years has been second only to the Everglades
in production.

The West Central Area
In the fall of 1919 Louis Fleischer brought seed from Sanford
and persuaded Courtney Brothers to grow the area's first escarole.
The McLeans also were pioneer escarole and endive growers. Later
Max Cohen and Harl.ee Farms were active growers. At Ruskin, the
Ruskin Vegetable Cooperative and Paul Dickman grew small plantings.
The Manatee County Growers Ass'n. (MCGA) shipped only three straight
cars in 1930, but increased to 16 cars in 1931, 12 cars in 1933, 34







in 1940, and 24 in 1944; shipments in other years were much less.
Incidentally, Manatee County led the state during 1938, 1939, and
1940 with 500 acres each crop year. In 1943-44 Manatee harvested from
a peak 600 acres, but was exceeded by Palm Beach County that year. The
Ruskin Vegetable Cooperative and Paul Dickman grew escarole on a small
scale during the '40s and perhaps later. At Sarasota, Keyser Brothers
were grower-shippers of escarole-endive for many years, especially
during the '50s and '60s; Gary Weingart was a producer on a smaller
scale.
At Lake Istokpoga escarole-endive has been grown for many years;
during the more recent years the Tope Brothers firm has been the
primary producer there.

The Everglades Area
In 1931 the Everglades was credited with its first 20 acres of
escarole by FCLRS. The 1939 Census of Agriculture found 364 acres of
escarole (less than an acre of endive) grown by eight farmers (FCLRS
credited Palm Beach County with only 90 acres harvested that season).
Soon the Everglades area forged ahead to harvest over 1,000 acres and
advanced to more than 4,000 each season during the '50s, '60s and '70s,
continually leading the state.
In the mid-'40s A. Duda, Borchardt, Jones Brothers, Creech, Evans
and Rogers, Keesee and Chamblee, McCabe and Hufty Farms, Ford-Shiver,
Price-Murphy, Chapman, Seyler and Wedgworth were leading producers.
Later, Buss, Chase, Double D Ranch, Gressinger, Kirchman, Kruse, Lyon
and Watson were the main producers as earlier growers dropped out.
Later still, Florida Lettuce, Inc., Hatton, Hundley, Knight, Roth and
Senter became very active. Currently many of the above have ceased
production.


LETTUCE


Cultivated lettuce is believed to be native to the Mediterranean
and Near Eastern centers of origin of cultivated plants. Some botanists
believe modern forms of lettuce were derived from a wild form which
grows as a weed in most areas where lettuce is found. When a few
inches high, this wild plant may be cut for salads or as a pot herb
which needs little cooking. Historic records indicate it was served







to Persian kings as early as 550 B. C. It evidently arrived in the
Americas with Columbus. The New York Agricultural Experiment Station
reported 87 varieties in 1885.
The earliest lettuces cultivated were loose leaf types. The
loose-heading and firm-heading forms occurred much later. It has
been said that leaves of heading varieties develop under conditions
of complete darkness and are therefore more tender, succulent and
sweet than those of the loose-leaf types [5].
Statistics on the production and marketing of Florida lettuce
are in Tables 58 through 62.

Early Florida Lettuce
The first documented acreage of Florida grown lettuce was in 1901;
Alachua County reported 37 acres, Marion 16 and Nassau 15. The following
year the acreage in Alachua increased to 315 acres and in Marion to 356
acres; the state total was 970 acres [4].

Production Areas
The McIntosh-Orange Lake Area
Many pioneers in vegetable farming started and stayed in the rich
hammocks of south Alachua and north Marion counties. P. K. Richardson
stopped producing cheap cotton in North Carolina to come to the Evinston
area in 1893 and start growing vegetables. He is said to have grown
the first commercial Boston lettuce in the state. Later his father-
in-law, J. L. Wolfenden, who owned no land, rented land for production
of Boston lettuce and paid rental of 10 percent of his sales. His
crop sold so well he paid more in rent than the land would have cost
had he bought it outright. The "Big Freeze" of 1894-95 forced many
out of citrus into commercial vegetables, but 0. C. Huff, Sr., was
already growing Boston lettuce and managed to save his crop by plowing
a furrow of soil over the plants. Brown, Culpepper, Rush, Smith,
WIhittington and Woods are still familiar names of early growers of
the area. Christian and Neal were active handlers; 0. D, "Buddy" Huff,
Jr. became their buyer in 1926, but later built his own packinghouse
on the T & J RR, one mile west of McIntosh. Early lettuce was packed
in 48-qt. hampers and moved by boat across Orange Lake, thence through
Cross Creek and across Lake Lochloosa to transfer to the Waldo-Ocala
RR for its journey north. The area declined as a Boston lettuce center




66


Table 5.--IoriLda lettucee (all types; for frneh market: Acreage, production and value, 1937-1 through 1973-714 crp years


Crop A er o T l Pruodc tito e A
year e.ni *l.,.d i pler aUcr Total Npt nlrtd Marketed c"


1917-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-25
1925-26
1026-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1032-33
1933-34

1934-35
1935-3G
1936-37
1937-3
1938-39

1939-40
1910-11
1911-42



1944-I5


1066-17
19-17-48
1918-49

1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-5.

1951-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-&1

1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1907-08
1958-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


2,200
3,100
2,100
2,900O

3,200
3,500
2,900
3,600
3,600

4,200
5,300
4,600
4,800
4,200

3,700
3,200
3,300
3,700
3,900

4,500
4,600
4,500
4,800
5,300

7,400
6,800
7,.100
7,300
9,300


1,400
1,800
2,200
1,700
2,300

3,100
3,300
2,800
3,300
3,300

4,100
4,3,,,,
3,700
3,700
3,200

3,300
2,900
3,000
3,400
3,400

3,400
4,000
3,900
4,000
4,700

4,400
4,800
5,500
5,900
7,000


t1lI 1000 dtlo.


--r-----Acres ------

2,040
2,680

3,500
3,060
3,140
3,780
3,490

3,400
1,500
2,000
1,500
1,500

1,100
1,600
1,000
50
1,100

900
550
800
900
1,000

2,000
2,500
3,500
2,500
2,400


392
576
605
1.044
1,154


19 291
61 335
322
303
380

492
473
38
240
31 209

248
276
255
340
272a

235
380
351
360
414

392
576
605
1,011
1,15 1


--. ----.--------. -n-orv._ ...----------

228 601 601
161 431 431

182 637 637
224 685 685
224 704 704
189 715 715
183 640 640

158 6 536 536
118 176 176
112 224 224
361 242 242
189 284 284

158 174 174
162 260 200
140 140 140
200 196 190
165 182 182

147 132 132
189 104 101
130 10 104
130 116 110
126 120 126

120 252 252
63 158 158
46 100 160
(6 15R 158
91 227 77 150

112 157 18 139
130 233 26 207
77 109 169
91 155 22 133
105 242 2 12


3.50
3,70
5.00

4.00

4.15
3.75
4.30
6.30
5.10a

6.90
5.20
7.90
6.60
8.40

7,40
6.90
7.50
9.70
9.80

7.4
7.97
10.80
8.65
6.72


aSee Definitions and Explanations (p.e ull) vn,.lr vtllingr (19.%9) an I unir n ipid (1964).


1.50
2.07

2,29
2.50
2.50
2.36
1.86

2,00
3.14
2.29
2.43
1.84

3.14
1.14
1.83
1.37
1.61

1.93.
1.79
1.61
1.29
2.14

2.43
2.71
3.29
5.00
3.6 (

4.1.50
4.71
4.07
3.50
4.35


901
893

1,456
1,713
1,759
1,685
1,188

1,071
554
512
580
522

546
297
256
269
286

255
185
170
119
270

612
428
521
788
516

627
977
690
-166
1,053

1,018
1,240
1,610
1,307
1,520

2,012
1,77.1
1,668
1,512
1,0066

1,711
1,435
2,014
2,244
2,285

1,887
2,622
2,632
3,492
4,057

2,995
4,591
6,534
9,032
7,759




67







Table 5).--FYlorida lettuce (all types) for fresh market: Acreage, production and value: fall, winter and spring 1970-71
through 1973-74

Season Acreage Yicrl Production Average Value
and year Planted Flarvestedl per ace Total Not marketed Marketed pice


--------- Acres--------- Ct. -------------- 1,000 cwt------------- ars 000 dol.


Fall:


1,600
1,900
1,700
2,400


3,500
3,500
3,500
4,300


Winter:


1,200
1,500
1,500
1,700


2,300
2,500
2,800
3,400


Spring:


1,700 1,300
2,000 1,500
2,100 1,600
2,600 1,900


Source: 117).

Table 0O.--Florida lettuce for fresh market: Shipments Interstate, monthly, converted to cwt., during 1954-55 through
1973-74 crop yea r


Crop year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June I Total

------------------------------------------- L20 cwI ----------- -------------


1954-55 .4 16.9 42.3 91.4 65.7
1955-50 .9 29.0 56.3 48.3 58.9
1956-57 .4 17.6 60.4 55.2 37.7
1957-58 1.3 29.2 21.3 12.8 6.5
1958-59 .7 11.9 20.9 15.0. 19.0

1935-60 .2 4.4 14.0 24.8 25.1
1960-61 13.3 17.8 34.2 26.2
1901-63 1.6 12.3 20.4 19.3 32.3
1962-63 .4 21.2 17.8 45.6 55.9
1963-64 1.3 16.6 24.7 25.2 21.0

1964-65 .2 16.9 22.8 24.6 10.2
1965-66 1.6 32.6 51.5 54.0 18.9
1966-67 .8 29.0 43.9 54.9 27.0
1967-68 1.8 34.0 42.3 36.9 29.7
1960-69 13.9 26.8 43.9 53.6 74.7

1969-70 1.6 18.0 36.4 39.4 45.5
1970-71 1.1 32.1 57.2 58.6 28.4
1971-72 2.8 24.0 56.3 101.9 67.0
1972-73 4.8 32.1 60.8 58.7 67.4
1973-74 2.3 30.3 47.4 56.1 79.5


b3.0 36.7 4.9
63.0 51.3 8.0
33.2 30.8 7.1
18.8 23.4 21.2
20.6 14.6 6.4

23.6 30.0 12.8
33.6 29.2 10.0
38.1 23.7 12.1
43.7 43.5 9.6
36.5 32.8 7.1

19.5 35.6 14.6:
44.6 54.9 16.7
31.7 44.1 11.9
39,2 51.1 11.0
62,8 21.8 .2

52.2 30.1 18.5
46.4 53.7 14.3
49.9 39.0 10.4
112.5 124.5 22.9
129.1 74.6 31.9


.2 341.5
.7 317.0
1.3 243.7
1.1 135.2
.4 109.5

1.3 136.2
.5 164.8
.9 160.7
.5 239.2
.7 165.9

.4 144.8
1.1 275.9
.4 243.7
.2 246.2
297.7

.4 242.1
.9 292.7
,5 351,8
.9 490.6
.9 452.1


Source: 12).


132
165
188
204


5.65
12.90
8.60
5.59


8.95
10.90
7.85
6.19


8.05
8.64
10.20
8.62


746
2,129
1,617
1,140


2,694
2,910
4,396
3,999


1,151
1,495
3,019
2,620










Table Gl.--l'lorida lettuce for fresh market: Average price received per cwt., imonll;, 1954-55 through 1973-74

Cro Crop year
S Oct Nov Doc. Jan. Fe Mar. Apr May June average
ot. ovr.. Jn average
....-.-- -.. --.-.---...------------- ----------[I>l rb------------------ Mi-- ---------- -- -----
1954-55 7.00 3,50 3.50 4.35 -4.55 4.00 3.50 4.15
1955-56 3.85 3,85 4.00 4.30 3.55 3.80 3.15 3.55 3.55 3,75
1956-57 5.90 4.10 4.50 4.10 3.70 4.20 4.00 4.00 4.30
1957-58 7.00 4.25 6.60 6.40 7.00 7.40 6,50 7.50 7.00 6.30
1958-59 5.50 5.50 6.00 4.80' 5.10 3.80 5.20 4.65 6.20 5.10

195(-(60 7.20 7.20 7.20 8.20 6.90 5.70 6.20 6.20 6,90
19G0-61 4.90 6.00 5.20 4.90 4.60 4.90 7.90 5.20
1961-62 7.40 7.30 6.90 7.640 8.90 7.40 9.90 6.40 6.40 7.90
1962-63 5.40 8.90 6,40 7.40 6.40 5.40 7.40 6.60
1963-64 6,90 8.30 8.10 10.10 10.30 6.70 6.70 5.00 8.40

1964-65 8.40 6.60 5.60 7.30 9.00 7.60 7.70 7.40
1965--66 6.90 6.70 9.70 8,00 6.00 5.30 5.30 6.90
1966-67 7.10 6.00 6.40 9,40 7.80 8.30 10.70 7.50
1967-68 10.60 8.10 14.80 14.40 6.60 6.50 9.00 9.70
1968-69 11.50 9.60 7.80 6.00 11,20 11.40 7.90 9.80

1909-70 9.50 13.40 10.50 7.30 7.30 6.00 6.00 5.50 7.64
1970-71 9.80 5.30 5.60 8.50 7.20 12.00 8.00 8.80 7.97
1971-72 11.30 14.30 11.80 10.70 11.70 9.40 8.20 9.20 10.80
1972-73 13.50 13.30 7.50 8.80 ^.20 7.10 10.00 12.20 8.65
1973-74 7.60 6.20 5.40 5.00 6.50 6.50 8.50 6.90 6.72

aSee DIfitdLiosi ad L I l:..|l.ii..l.Lin. (page ill) under selling (1959).

Source: (171.

Table 62. --Florida lettuce" for fresh market: Acres harvstled by eountles ndl areas, 1964-66 through 1973-74 crop years

C..*..r.l and area 19D4-65 165il-66 1966-67 1987-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74

---------------------------------..---.------- C-I- ---------------------------------------------

North Central
Lake a.,d Orange 500 540 690 620 620 570 460 550 720 950
Seminole 330 300 300 220 330 120 120
Sunmtr 40 30 60 110 150 200 100 150 180 50
Volus a 71 I IC. .r, 17, W .) 0( I J
Area total V10 I 90 1, 10f 1,120 ].'.?i 9'iu 790 700 b) l. Oj 1

West Central
Sarasota and Manatee 330 210 220 330 510 530 360
Other .I13 0 :-'. 2 .7 'l *31 550 4 5 3A?
Area total 760 14 1 4 i:i 6.l0 b80U b9 610 5!0 450 320

The Evcrglades
Palm Peath (west) 1,510 2,480 2,160 2,180 2, '17 2,500 3,400 4,250 4,650b 5,680b

Lower East Coast
Dade 140 100 130 80 60 20

Other area counties 50 40 40

State total 3,400 4,000 3,900 4,000 4,700 4,400 4,800 5,500 6,900 7,000

aLettuce encompasses all varieties: Bibb, Boston, Iceberg, leaf and Romaine.

bIncludes Glades and Hendry counties.


Source: [3).







during the '30s but continued production into the '40s [3, 4]. In 1929
the Census of Agriculture credited Alachua and Marion with 98 growers
and 399 acres, compared with 434 acres in 1919. In 1939 these two
counties had declined to 53 growers and 128 acres [15]. Boston lettuce
had given way to the more popular Iceberg variety of the West.

The North Central Area
The "Big Freeze" of 1894-95 affected all produce areas. Sanford
was no exception. The celery story tells of lettuce also [9]. The
general schedule was (1) a crop of Boston lettuce in the fall, followed
by (2) celery and then (3) peppers. Thus Orange County (Seminole became
a county in 1913) was an early producer with 57 acres in 1902, 178 acres
in 1903 and 220 acres in 1904 [4]. In 1909-10 there were 189,659 crates
of lettuce shipped from Sanford, an increase of 40 percent over that of
the previous season (reported by The Sanford Herald for November 25,
1910). Growers at Sanford are primarily among those named in Economics
Reports 64, 69 and 74 [9, 11, 12].
The Census of Agriculture credited Seminole County with 909 acres
of lettuce in 1919, 274 acres grown by 71 farmers in 1929 and 177 acres,
including Romaine, by 46 farmers in 1939. The FCLRS estimated Seminole
County to have had 430 acres in 1929 and 200 acres in 1939 [3]. Boston
lettuce had given way to the popularity of western Iceberg. Production
revived somewhat after Manatee County proved a new variety of Iceberg
lettuce was suited for Florida.
In Volusia County, Samsula farmers began to grow Iceberg lettuce
in 1950. Planting reached its height in the late '60s when growers
formed the Middle East-Coast Cooperative for lettuce, peppers and rad-
ishes. Among active growers were the Benedicts, Hafners, Luzners,
Sweibelius, Thomazini, and Wright and Pleterski.
At Zellwood and in other north central muck pockets, Romaine,
Boston, leaf, Bibb and, later, Iceberg have been grown since the mid-
'40s as a part of their "leaf" programs. Growers are those listed
under Escarole. Iceberg lettuce has been grown successfully by A. Duda
and Sons and, to a lesser extent, by others.

The West Central Area
Manatee County Boston lettuce production goes back to 1902
(22 acres). Plantings increased rapidly: 1903--165 acres; 1904--329






acres; 1913-14--673 acres; and 1915-16--892 acres [4). The 1919 Census
of Agriculture substantiates this with 939 acres that year; but in
1929 a marked decline had set in and only 235 acres were reported by
38 farms; in 1939 the census reported 265 acres grown on 47 farms-
MCGA reported 30 carloads of Boston lettuce in 1921 with none shipped
in 1924-1926 and 1934-1938.

Iceberg Lettuce Comes to Florida
Florida's Big Boston had given way to the more popular western
states' Iceberg variety. In 1939 Manatee County planted 200 acres
each of Boston and Imperial No. 847, a new Iceberg lettuce proven
suitable for Florida in experimental plantings; thus the 58 cars of
lettuce shipped by MCCA was hailed as a new era for lettuce in Florida.
A story is told of a promotional banquet for Boston lettuce and, to
everyone's dismay, each salad had been prepared with the western.states'
Iceberg lettuce.
In 1939-40 Iceberg lettuce was grown successfully in several areas
of the state. The following year, 1940-41, an estimated 7,000 acres
of Iceberg lettuce was to have been planted in the various areas of
Florida; of this the early crop of approximately 5,000 acres was
primarily to have been planted in Manatee County, and the muck sections
of the Everglades, with smaller plantings in Dade, DeSoto, Orange and
Seminole counties. A late crop of 2,000 acres was planted in the above
counties and in the Weirsdale muck of Marion County. Of all this
acreage, only 1,400 acres winter and 600 acres spring was harvested.
Growers in Manatee County harvested 500 acres all season. Losses were
due to a mid-November freeze followed by six weeks drought and then by
recurring heavy rains. The big Iceberg crop was a failure, but undaunted
growers tried again and harvested 3,000 acres in 1941-42; Manatee County
had 1,300 acres of the total.
Sarasota became a county on May 14, 1921. The mucklands were devel-
oped for farming in the late '20s. Later the Keyser Brothers, IWeingart,
and Yoder, who grew Bibb lettuce almost exclusively, were leaders in
lettuce production in the mucklands area of Sarasota County.



2Willis R. Hamiter, The Bradenton Herald, February 19, 1939.






Hillsborough County production increased in the mid-'40s. W. H.
"Chick" Willis and Fagenbush-Brannom were important producers of
Iceberg lettuce along with members of the Ruskin Vegetable Cooperative.

The Everglades Area
The Everglades area began producing lettuce of all varieties in
the late '30s, but advanced to a leading role in the WW II years. Most
of this acreage is grown in Palm Beach County (west), but a sizeable
acreage of Iceberg lettuce has been grown in Glades County just north
of Clewiston on the Shawnee Plantation (not to be confused with Shawano
or Brown's Farm). Iceberg lettuce is currently being grown in this
area by A. Duda and Sons. This area became the state leader in pro-
duction by a very comfortable margin in the '50s and '60s. See Table 62
for county acreages during the years 1964-65 through 1973-74. Growers
are those listed under Escarole-Endive on pages, 59, 63 and 64 of this
report and in Economics Reports 69 and 74 [9, 12].

Other Areas
The Tope Brothers and others have grown Iceberg lettuce in the
mucklands of Istokpoga in Highlands County. Martin County for several
years had its "Cap'n" Leighton who produced Iceberg lettuce of top
quality.


GREEN PEAS


Green peas probably originated in middle Asia, the Near East and
on the plateaus of Ethiopia. Green peas were mentioned by historians
after the Norman Conquest of England. So many fine varieties were
developed in that country that it became known as the "English pea."
"Little Marvel" was the principal variety planted in Florida.
English peas were reportedly grown in Florida as early as 1889-90,
but fewer than 100 total acres were grown; Citrus, Brevard and Alachua
counties reported, in descending order, the most acreage. By the turn
of the century plantings had increased to 378 acres with a value of
$36,000; Pasco led with 181 acres, but Leon with 86 acres out-produced
Pasco and other counties. In 1909-10 English pea production in Florida
was still at a low figure; the 402 acres were mainly grown (85 percent)
in Marion and Lake counties. English peas are not to be confused with






field peas, of which Florida reported 6,447 acres in 1909-10. By 1919-
20 the reported acreage had dwindled to 99 acres [4].
After the USDA took over the estimates in 1923 the Everglades area
of Palm Beach County, as indicated in Table 63, forged ahead to lead
the state. In 1936, the peak in Florida, Palm Beach County grew an
estimated 96 percent of the 8,200 acres. Rail shipments were 727 car-
lots plus intrastate consumption; possibly a few were transported by
truck. The 1933-34 shipments were 745 carlots, exceeding all other
seasons in the history of Engligh pea production in Florida.
Data on Florida green pea acreage, production and value from the
winter of 1918 through 1951 are noted in Table 63.


PEPPERS


Historic pepper data are presented in Tables 64 through 70, which
follow but the reader is referred to Economics Report 64, Pepper Pro-
duction in Florida--A Historic Data Series, for details concerning its
beginnings in this state, its pioneering growers, the rise and fall of
areas of importance, pepper culture, labor and material requirements,
and costs of production and marketing. A by-gone era in which many
growers operated small acreages is past, but it is tied effectively
to the present in volume of production.
Florida has followed a national trend in that the numbers of
farm operators are diminishing. According to the Census of Agriculture,
there were more pepper growers in the late '30s through the mid-'50s
than at any other time in the history of the industry, but by 1969
there were fewer than 400 [15].
Plantings are divided into harvest periods. All production har-
vested prior to December 31 is designated fall, on an equivalent
acreage basis. The same is true of January, February, and March
(winter) and April 1 to the end of the season (spring). During the
1965-66 and 1967-68 seasons record crops (17,900 acres each) were
planted, but the 16,800 acres harvested in 1965-66 set a record.
The small number of farm operators in recent seasons are growing
more peppers on fewer acres. A production record was set in 1974-75
when 1,901,000 cwt. was produced. The harvested yield of 118 cwt.














Table 03.--Florida peas, grcrn": Acreage, production and value, winter 1918 through 1951

Crop Acreage Yield Production Average
year Planted Harvested per acre Total Not marketed Marketed price Value
-------- Acres ---------- Cwt. --------------- 1000 cwt.----------- Dollars dollars

1918 270 14 4 4 9.17 33
1919 300 15 4 4 10.00 45

1920 360 15 5 5 10.83 58
1921 300 18 5 5 10.00 54
1922 470 16 o 8 8 8.50 64
1923 2,250 18 40 40 8.83 358
1924 1,330 18 23 23 12.33 289

1925 2,250 11 26 26 9.50 245
1926 760 16 12 12 8.83 10G
1927 700 15 10 10 11.67 119
1928 1,230 16 20 20 8.33 170
1929 1,350 17 23 23 6.00 116

1930 700 12 8 8 5.00 42
1931 2,000 18 36 36 6.17 222
1932 3,800 10 40 40 6.67 266
1933 3,600 21 76 76 8.33 403
1934 4,800 29 138 138 3.67 507

1935 5,000 24 120 120 4.33 520
193G 8,200 19 152 152 3.33 508
1937 6.200 15 93 93 4.50 418
1938 6,200 27 167 167 3.83 642
1939 5,000 21 105 105 6.17 G4S

1940 5,000 27 135 22 113 4.33 488
19-11 3,000 21 63 63 6.50 410
19.12 3,500 21 74 74 5.17 350
1943 1,500 20 29 29 8.67 255
1944 2,500 18 45 45 10.00 450

19-15 2,600 22 58 27 31 9.00 284
1946 2,400 1,600 22 36 36 10.00 360
19.17 2,000 1,400 12 17 17 8.17 137
1918 700 600 18 11 11 8.50 92
1949 600 400 12 6 5 9.50 45

1950 400 300 24 7 7 8.65 61
1951 400 350 21 7 7 9.50 66

Statistics were given only during the years specified. After the acreage became inslgnificant, estimates Were dropped.

Source- [17].



also was a record per acre for any crop year, but some seasonal yields

exceeded this level.

Pepper production is important to the economy of Florida because

production still comes in a period when very few are produced anywhere

else in the U.S. and Canada.

Data on pepper production and marketing are presented in Tables 64

through 70.




I -+


Table 64.--Florida poppers for fresh market and procesalngr Acreage, production andt value, all seasons combined, 1920-21
through 1973-74 crop years


Crop Acrage Yield Production Averago Value
year lanted Hr te pr acrotal Not rk Mark d price
year ... 1 pr acre Total NotnnrkcetedxI Marketed 1


Cwt. -------------1 W( C*. I.---------


e--------At.ro)C--- ----

2,200
2,450
2,800
3,170

3,300
3,000
3,400
5,2410
5,650

6,550
8,200
8,050
8,300
6,000

7,700
6,500
7,200
7,400
7,300

6,200
7,200
6,500
7,100
8,900


1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-2-1

1921-25
1092-26
192r-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34

1931-35
1935-30
1936-37
1937-35
1938-39

1939-10
1910-11
1 11- 2
1912-13
1913-14

1911-15
1915-16
1916-17
1917-48
1918-19

1919-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-51

1951-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1935-59

1950-60
1960-61
1901-62
1962-63
1963-64

1961-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-71


D.I'irq, ,00'11 L"I1'rl


6.40
8.25
8.03
5.01

6.57
7.65
5.84
5.09
6.32

6.98
4.79
3.96
2.32
4.63

4.43
3.48
4.79
3.00
5.01

6.11
6. 1
6.99
11.65
8.61

9.86
9.83
15.49
8.35
11.341

6.70
9.55
11.24
10.62
9.87

8.05
9.68
11.145
16,09
12.20a

11.42
9.90
10,79
10.32
12.41

11.38
12.64
12.57
14.02
13.24

22.34
16.59
16.37
15.93
19.59


1,637
2,185
2,420
1,675

1,786
1,951
1,711
2,266
2,471

2,602
2,243
1,769
1,283
1,675

1,277
1,273
1,9 05
1,668
2,771

2,121
2,988
3,1.3
5,578
4,911


10,138
12,900
13,015
11,408
12,398a

13,325
13,161
14,985
14,012
17,498

16,007
19,056
20,332
25,790
21,050

19,16i
17,772
22,772
2.,762
81,034


aSeC Defiitiions and Explanations (pagoe MU) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).


317
466
4 18
479
591

672
763
535
757
831

1,020
898
863
897
972

1,296
1,312
1,137
750
1,016

1,226
1,381
1,389
1,358
1,410

1,477
1,5 19
1,617
1,840
1,090

688
1,140
1,391
1,617
1,584


3-17
466
448
479
17 574

672
91 669
7 528
62 695
831

68 952
32 866
863
897
18 951

37 1,259
6 1,306
1,137
41 709
1,016

59 1,167
55 1,329
1,389
1,358
1,.110"

70 1,407
41 1,508
1,617
1,840
1,690

58S
1,1410
1,301
1, 517
1, 5M-


12,300
1,1.500
12,200
12,100

16,200
12,200
11,500
13,550
14,200

14,400
14,300
17,200
16,.100
16,400

15,600
14,100
13,200
14,300
13,900

16,500
17,900
17,000
17,100
17,900

15,700
15,400
14,100
14,800
14,100


9,350
11,100
10,600
11,250
10,750

1.1,300
11,200
10,700
12,800
13,850

13,800
13,400
1.1,600
11,500
13,500

13,400
13,200
12,400
12,600
13,100

14,900
16,800
15,900
16,200
16,700

12,800
13,600
12,800
14,100
13,400











Table 65.--Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acteage, production and value, fall 1921-1973


Acreage Yield Production Average
Year Pla dper acre Maprice Val
PI'lanted Harvesteda Total Not marketlcd Marketed


-*~------Acres -------


1,200
600
1,550
450
650

2,400
1,650
1,400
1,200
2,700

1,400
2,000 '
2,000
2,100
2,600

2,100
1,800
1,500
1,000
750

.1,300
1,700
.150
850
800

300
300
700
450
900

1,300
1,000
1,400
1,500
1,000

1,000
2,100
1,000
1,400
1,700

1,400
1,800
2,400
2,400
2,900

3,300
3,100
3,200
2,600


Cwt. --------- 1,000 wt.----------


1o0
110
100
110

78
100 b

45
80

52
60
62
88
2-1

38
50
40
40
42

69
70
68
44
31

51
55
49
50
70

23
79
58
54
88

120
103
90
123
73

90
120
90
90
100a

80
95
120
80
75

105
105
110
100


Dollars 1,000 dollars


10.40
10.20
5.60
8.80

6.00
6.80
3.80
17.80
9.76

3.04
4.00
4.60
5.20
3,00

7.80
4.20
5.40
4.40
5.40

5.40
5.20
7.20
10.20
11.-1

9.00
8.00
15.00
17.80
7.00

24,00
32.40
10.20
18.80
8.60

8.00
11.50
12.90
9.40
19.90A

15.10
7.60
15.00
13.10
9.07

15.60
12.80
15.90
13.40
23.20

10.30
13.00
14.40
22.70


289
301
504
4841

558
408
375
360
508

383
396
402
516
192

410
420
432
1SS
597

760
655
915
847
268

585
691
330
756
392

192
778
6641
451
679

1,200
1,181
1,625
1,730
1,453

1,359
1,915
1,350
1,051
1,512

1,717
2,1S9
4,579
2,572
5,058

3,574
4,238
8,069
5,902


aSee Definitions and Explanations (page ii under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).


Source: (171.


1915
1916
1917

1919

19r50
1951
1952
1953
1951

1955
1956
1957
1058
1959

1960
1961
1001
1902

1DG2
1 DO


1965
1966
1967
19G8
1969


1970
1971
1972
1973


2,000
650
1,300
1,200

400
600
950
600
1,200

1,300
1,300
1,00
1,700
1,500

1,400
2,200
1,900
1,900
2,300

2,000
2,300
2,600
2,900
3,300

3,600
3,500
3,500
2,900





76




Table 6 6.--Florida peppers for fire- market and processing: Acreage, production and value, winter 1921-1974


Acreage Yield Productior Average
Planted Harvestled p'r acre I 1lo,1 ol ninlkr.ld M.rl:.ettr price


, ----.--.--.--. 1. 000 Cr%- ----.---.-----


217
162
238
136
199


2,200
2,180
2,530
2,270

2,800
1,800
2,800
1,600
2,800

3,000
3,800
3,700
4,000
900

1,000
600
3,000
3,000
2,500

1,500
3,000
2,200
2,900
3,600

3,800
3,500
3,500
2,500
3,200

4,400
2,300
3,700
4,200
4,500

4,400
4,600
6,200
3,100
5,600

4,600
5,900
4,900
4,900
5,600

7,000
7,000
7,100
6,900
6,500

3,300
4,100
4,600
4,300
5,300


116
109
109
108

78
90
85
65
71

59
50
66
80
58

64
55
62
85
100

42
49
72
69
94

84
89
81
99
125

95
118
109
89
96

126
129
100
50
88

98
120
135
115
115a

97
83
105
120
95

68
80
115
110
120


ieolla ra

6.40
8.00
7.80
4,80

6.00
8.60
5.00
6.80
5.72

7.60
5.60
4.20
1.92
6. 00

6.00
6.40
4.40
3.20
5.60

11.40
8.60
6.20
13.40
8.00

9.60
10.00
15.00
9.80
10.00

7.00
14.20
9.80
10.80
10.60

6.60
10.90
9.40
29.70
11.60a

13.40
8.56
10.37
12.37
12.731

9.51
14.00
11.50
12.50
14.70

25.30
13.80
17.00
17.90
15.50


1 000 &dollaa

1,637
1,890
2,122
1,171

1,302
1,393
1,333
925
1,137

1,340
1,197
1,029
614
310

351
211
625
816
1,400

727
1,255
1,308
2.673
2.564

3,055
2.770
4. 3'.5
2.3S)
4,000

2,926
3, 8 45
3,949
4.039
4,579

4,764
6,464
5,828
4,604
5,719a

6,043
5,587
6,864
6,979
8,188

6,455
8,134
8,547
10,376
9,080

5,667
4,526
8, 993
8,467
9,858


See Definitions and Explanations. (page ill) under s llig(i039) and under lirld (1964).

Sources (17).


S64
146
160
200
17 321


451
55 C.;
662
564
644

53 679
13 581
74<6
828
618

224
328
529
473
636


1942
19-12



1943




1947
19-IS
1949

1930
1951
1931

1951
1954

19.1
1956
1957
1958
1959

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974


4,500
3,900
2,500
3,300

5,000
2,500
4,000
4,500
4,600

4,500
5,000
7,000
6,100
6,400

5,100
6,000
5,000
5,500
5,700

7,600
7,300
7,200
7,100
7,000

4,400
4,700
4,700
4,400
5,400


-1--l..~i- -- --- -- -----------






77






Table 67.--Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acreage, production and value, spring 1928-1974


Year Acreage Yield Production Average Valu
PIlanted Halrvesteda pcracre Total Notmarke(cd Marketed prce


---------- Acreas-----------

2,090
2,400

2,900
2,000
2,700
2,900
3,900

4,000
4,500
2,200
2,400
2,400

2,100
2,100
2,500
2,700
3,400

4,800
6,500 6,000
8,600 5,400
9,050 8,300
7,500 6,700


10,000
9,300
6,900
8,100
9,000

8,700
8,000
8,900
8,700
8,300

9,000
6,700
6,000
6,900
6,300

6,600
8,600
7,500
7,400
8,000

8,000
7,100
5,900
6,900
5,800


Cwt.

100
72

50
64
38
50,
52

40
62
50
88
80

82
84
65
55
50

69
60
28
59
58


9,100
8,600
6,700
7,900
8,900

8,500
7,500
7,400
7,000
6,400

7,800
6.300
5,400
6,700
6,100

6,200
8,400
7,000
6,900
7,800

6,600
6,200
5,100
6,600
5,500


------------- 1.000 cwt.--------------


330.
32 328
14&
59 429:
389

68 478
32 587
436
482
18 498

37 626
563
414
41 428,
0 339

59 643 1
586i
475.
704.
640a

558S
28 815,
700'
724
780

416
465,
536,
792;
68Sf


Source: [17).


Dollars

4.60
5.88

5.20
5.20
3.40
1.84
4.00

4.40
2.32
6.00
2.00
4.60

4.60
5.40
7.20
13.20
9.00

10.00
9.80
20.80
7.20
12.00

6.40
7.20
11.40
10.00
8.80

7.50
0.30
14.50
12.10
14.60a

9.07
10.61
13.07
8.07
11.97

14.35
11.30
13.70
15.00
12.00

20.30
20.80
17.80
16.70
S22.20


1.000 dol !ars

966
974

754
CC3
344
267
819

704
652
660
420
883

797
950
1,170
1,960
1,530

3,300
3,219
3,089
3,083
4,668


3,039
4,226
4,970
4,F20
4,352

4,695
5.236
6,003
5,179
4,94.9

5,829,
6,215
6,206
5,683
7,659

8,010
9,175
9,596
10,835
9,398

8,439
9,672
9,541
13,226
15,274


"See Definitions and Explanations (page li) under selling (1959) and under yield (1964).





78






Table 68. --Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Interstate shipments" by months, 1954-55 through 1973-74
crop years

Crop year Oct. Nov. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total

------------- ----------------------- -. ry.I --------------- ------------ -------


1951-55 .4 15.6
1955-56 .6 21.2
1956-57 .2 9.9
1957-58 .6 29.0
1958-59 .4 30.9

1959-60 3.2 17.8
1960-61 5.7
1961-62 2.1 63.9
1962-63 2.1 20.6
1963-01 .6 17.0

1961-65 .4 21.0
1965-66 .7 16.2
1966-07 ,9 27.0
1967-68 2.0 56.5
1908-69 1.5 35.0

1969-70 2.0 39.5
1970-71 5.7 95.7
1971-72 5.2 73.5
1972-73 5.9 104.5
1973-74 1.9 74.8


53.4 155.7a 152.9 216.3 221.7 248.4 117.1 1.0
116.3 153.2 191.3 211.4 236.6 211.9 79.5 2.7
85.5 194.5 197.2 189.4 161.1 155.5 60.0 1.2
87.2 73.9 24.9 37.2 78.7 129.4 172.5 6.5
143.3 188.6 149.4 122.1 141.1 109.4 56.3 .6

42.4 117.4 119.9 180.6 220.5 186.3 180.4 9.7
73.4 186.4 227.2 199.0 173.6 232.8 132.3 4.0
169.3 193.6 192.7 2-0.2 166.5 179.9 83.8 3.6
55.6 112.0 113.4 301.2 247.9 283.9 119.4 2.1
94.5 210.0 203.6 191.9 226.1 215.9 128.9 2.2

127.8 230.0 221.1 186.2 201.3 214.0 96.5 .4
79.2 186.4 149.8 203.6 2G9.7 320.1 170.6 .9
123.4 243.4 197.1 255.8 240.9 264.6 136.2 5.2
211.8 207.1 245.7 261.6 220.5 281.2 158.1 7.2
132.3 159.6 152.5 255.0 305.6 256.1 156.1 2.2

148,6 101.7 68.4 20.6 45.4 163.5 160.1 5.0
222.4 208.7 4,5.2 25.5 92.8 120.2 1690. 9.0
214.6 191.0 127.5 162.3 145.6 177.1 151.1 2.1
204.4 178.1 113.5 143.3 207.0 '362.2 166.6 2.4
137.8 193.5 134.3 258.6 286.4 210.6 109.0 1.5


aAll data are straight rall, mixed cars and truck carlot equlivalents converted to hu~dredweight tasts of 25 Ibs. net per bo.
through December 31, 195-1, al 28 lb. per txt. thereafter, tutil nagin reduced to 25 lb. In the 1973-7-1 season. All imports
entering through Florida ports and estimated to have moved interstate. have been removed.

Source: 121.



Table i6.--Florida peppers for fresh inarket: Monthly average prices received per cwt., 1954-55 through 1973-74

Crop yer Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. .Feb. .Mar. Apr. May June July Avrarge


1951-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
19G1-62
1962-63
1963-6-1

19G(.-65
1955-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


10.80 6.00 5.50 10.40 9.50 8.70 6.60 6.80 8.05
9.30 10.10 7.70 11.40 10.40 11.10 8.00 8.70 14.50 14.30 9.88
11.10 12.10 11.40 8.60 8.70 11.00 14.70 14.70 13.50 13.50 11.45
10.70 9.00 14.20 28.70 3S.60 25.40 16.30 11.10 7.90 5.40 16.09
8.60 16.20 7.90 10.30a 12.20 12.80 13.30 17.80 11.60 12.20a


9.40 11.20 24.30 17.30 14.00 10.40 9.90 11.50
17.90 14.90 8.50 7.10 10.30 13.60 10.00
13.40 8.90 7.00 10.20 10.60 10.40 13.90 14.80
7.60 13.20 16.00 16.20 18.10 8,80 8.60 8.50
9.80 10.80 13.60 12.40 11.40 14.80 13.80 12.10


5.10 11.42
4.45 9.90
6.90 10.79
10.32
12.41


11.70 8.60 8.50 8.20 12.40 16.70 14.70 9.50 11.38
10.40 18.80 15.00 14.80 13.70 13.50 13.60 10.50 10.50 12.61
10.70 16.00 12.10 11.00 12.10 11.50 18.00 12.00 10.70 8.50 12.57
19.00 23.00 1.00 10.6 1. 11.00 16.20 20.00 14.80 10.00 10.00 14.02
14.00 17.50 12.40 17.80 17.70 11.10 12.20 13.50 10.00 ** 13.24

16.20 29,10 21.70 24.60 20.00 27.00 24.00 26.00 14.50 14.00 22.34
14.30 13.60 8.70 10.50 16.10 37.50 .70 26.10 11.20 5.90 15.59
15.80 21.30 10.10 141.80 19.10 18.10 17.30 21.20 14,30 16.37
141.80 15.20 14.00 18.00 17.00 18.50 21.40 13.80 17.00 15.93
14.50 25.00 22.00 14.10 17.20 15.60 22.40 25.00 16.30 19.59


aPrices received after January 1, 1939, are f.o.b. (include selling charge at origin).

Source: (17).


1,182.5
. 1,227.7
1,054.5
638.9
912.1

1,078.2
1,234.4
1, 295.6
1,258.2
1,290.7

1,307.7
1,397.2
1,491.5
1,714.7
1,455.9

757.8
1,011.6
1,250.0
1,t85.9
1,408.4


- ..----------------.........----- ------ ..------ R rs


---------------------- -------------------















Table 70. --Florida peppers for fresh market and processing: Acres harvested by counties and areas, 1964-65 through 1973-74


County and area 1904-65 1965-66 1960-67 1967-68 1968-69 1909-70 1970-71 1071-72 1972-73 1973-74

----------------------------------------- Acres ------------------ ----------------------


West Florida

North Florida
Alachua
Bradford
Union
Other
Area total

North Central
Lake and Orange
Seminole
Sunter
Volusia
Other
Area total

West Central
Ilardee
Ilillsborough and Poll
Other
Area total

Southwest
Charlotte and Glades
Collier
flindry
Lee
Area total

Southeast
Broward
Martin
Palm Beach
Other
Area total

State total


20 30 40


870
30
70
1020
1,020


930
30
80
20
1,060


90
230
640
70


20 30


880
70
70
30
1,050


170
290
590
190


620 870 970 960


60 130 220 200
680 1,000 1,190 1,160


160
310
650
110


100
430
520
110


170
530
500
220


220
530
620
160


250
450
520
110


810 900 985 1,030 1,240 1,230 1,160 1,420 1,530 1,330


140 250 250 480 300 350 210 260 320 220
k 850 440 370 410 190 210 150 90 150 130
120 250 250 240 330 460 280 480 330 290
1,110 940 870 1,130 820 1,020 640 790 800 640


180 220 220 300 170 370 750 760 750 400
2,300 3,480 3,]80 2,630 3,530 2,430 2,950 2,930 3,650 3,500
840 950 800 950 1,200 1.920 1,.930 ],780 1,580 1,500
1,150 1,530 1,685 2,650 2,820 1,500 1,090 860 1,970 1,050
4,470 6,180 5,885 6,530 7,720 6,220 6,720 6,330 7,950 7,590


670 400 290 150 200 170 70 110 100 100
450 680 600 960 800 230
6,340 6,680 6,240 5,320 4,820 3,030 4,270 3,110 2.370 2,200
10 20 40 20 30 6G0 40 160
7,470 7,760 7,170 6,450 5,850 3,430 4,400 3,260 2,630 2,680


14,900 16,800


15,900 16,200


16,700 12,600 13,600 12,800 14,100 13,400


Source: 131.


POTATOES


Historic data on Irish potato production in Florida are in the

following tables, but the reader is referred to Economics Report 81,

Irish Potato Production in Florida--A Historic Data Series, for details

concerning this major crop. That report includes the history of Irish

potato production, particularly the Hastings area. It also describes

cultural practices and costs and returns of a by-gone era [10].

Statistical data on potatoes are shown in Tables 71 through 81.


~-~----




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