• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Map
 Key to symbols
 Systematic list of predators and...
 Check list of injurious specie...
 Check list of beneficial speci...
 Check list of incidental speci...
 Literature cited
 Families, genera, and common...














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 634B
Title: An annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027761/00001
 Material Information
Title: An annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
Series Title: Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 634B
Physical Description: 46 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Muma, Martin H ( Martin Hammond ), 1916-
Selhime, Allen G
Denmark, Harold A., 1921-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1975
Edition: 3d ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 42.
Statement of Responsibility: Martin H. Muma, Allen G. Selhime, and Harold A. Denmark.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ; |v 634B.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027761
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001643581
oclc - 02774490
notis - AHV5055

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Map
        Page 2
    Key to symbols
        Page 3
    Systematic list of predators and parasites
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Check list of injurious species
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Check list of beneficial species
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Check list of incidental species
        Page 41
    Literature cited
        Page 42
    Families, genera, and common names
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text


&34 B December 1975






An Annotated List of

PREDATORS AND PARASITES

isociated with Insects and Mites

on Florid Qr





Martin H. Muma, A f
and Harold A. Denmark


Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
J. W. Sites, Dean for Research


















AN ANNOTATED LIST OF PREDATORS AND
PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH INSECTS
AND MITES ON FLORIDA CITRUS


Martin H. Muma, Allen G. Selhime,
and Harold A. Denmark














First edition: November 1961
Second edition: July 1971
Third edition: December 1975


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $2,163.06 or a cost of $1.44 per copy to provide informa-
tion on predators and parasites associated with insects and
mites on Florida Citrus.












CONTENTS


Page


INTRODUCTION ......................---............................ ----------.....----------..---.. 1

M AP ............................................................................................................................ 2

KEY To SYMBOLS ................................ .... ............. 3

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES ...............-....----------.---...----- 4

CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES ..................................... ------.. 32

CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES ........-.................------- ---- ------ 39

CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES ........-----------...........................----- 41

LITERATURE CITED ......................................................---- ...----------- 42

INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA, AND NAMES ...........................--------------. ---. 43







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Mrs. Helen

Louise Greene in the organization and validation of records, and

proofreading and correcting this manuscript.












CONTENTS


Page


INTRODUCTION ......................---............................ ----------.....----------..---.. 1

M AP ............................................................................................................................ 2

KEY To SYMBOLS ................................ .... ............. 3

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES ...............-....----------.---...----- 4

CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES ..................................... ------.. 32

CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES ........-.................------- ---- ------ 39

CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES ........-----------...........................----- 41

LITERATURE CITED ......................................................---- ...----------- 42

INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA, AND NAMES ...........................--------------. ---. 43







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Mrs. Helen

Louise Greene in the organization and validation of records, and

proofreading and correcting this manuscript.











AN ANNOTATED LIST OF PREDATORS AND
PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH INSECTS
AND MITES ON FLORIDA CITRUS

MARTIN H. MUMA, ALLEN G. SELHIME,
and HAROLD A. DENMARK



INTRODUCTION

This systematic list of predators and parasites of insects and
mites associated with Florida citrus has been compiled from files
and reference collections located at the University of Florida,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred; the
United States Department of Agriculture, ARS Horticultural Lab-
oratory, Orlando; and the State of Florida Department of Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
Gainesville. Records used are confined to those specimens actually
taken on citrus or in litter beneath the trees. As a matter of con-
venience, the citrus-producing area has been divided into the five
geographical sections shown on the map. Records outside these
locations are given to the nearest town. Evaluation of import-
ance, seasonal abundance, and distribution are given on the basis
of records to date.
Reference identifications have been made largely by specialists
of the Entomology Research Division, USDA, located at the United
States National Museum. In a few instances, entomologists of the
Florida Department of Agricalture and Consumer Services, Divi-
sion of Plant Industry, Bureau of Entomology, and authorities at
other institutions have also been consulted. The latter include Dr.
E. A. Chapin, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge,Massachus-
etts (deceased); Dr. Warren T. Atyeo, Department of
Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens; Dr. Francis M.
Summers, Department of Entomology and Parasitology, Univer-
sity of California at Davis; Mr. Harold Compere, University of
California Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside; Dr. William
E. Bickley, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland
at College Park; Mr. Ellis C. MacLeod, Department of Entomology,
University of Illinois at Urbana; Dr. G. W. Krantz, Department

'Professor Emeritus (Entomologist Emeritus), University of Florida, Ins..,ute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.
'Entomologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, ARS Horticultural Laboratory,
Orlando.
3Chief Entomologist, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Servi-
ces, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. Contribution No. 215








of Entomology, Oregon State University, Corvallis; Mr. Stanley
F. Bailey, Department of Entomology, University of California at
Davis; Dr. E. E. Lindquist, Entomology Research Institute, Ot-
tawa, Canada; Dr. M.K. P. Meyer, and Mr. G. DeLotto, Plant
Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; Dr. P. E.
Hunter, Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens;
Dr. Gisela Rack, Zoologisches Staatsinstitut u. Zoologisches Mu-
seum, Hamburg, Germany; and Dr. Roberto H. Conzalez, College
of Agriculture, University of Chile, Santiago. Later identi-
fications have been made by the authors using the reference
material.
Cross-reference check lists of predators and parasites of
injurious species, beneficial species, and incidental species are
also included.










KEY TO SYMBOLS

Subject Symbol

Systematic list of predators and parasites

Following symbols or combination of symbols indicate
10 or more specimens at:

Gainesville (Florida Division of Plant Industry) ...................................... C
Orlando (USDA, Citrus Insects Investigations) ....................................... O

One to nine specimens at:
G ainesville ............................... ............... g
O rland o ......................................... .... ... ........ ......... .. ............ o
Specimens retained at United States National Museum .......................... 'SN

Check list of injurious species

Predatory or parasitic habit questionable ................................. .......
Important predator or parasite ................................. ............... ..
Com m on predator or parasite .................................................. ............ +


NOTE: The collections at Lake Alfred referred to in the previous editions of this
bulletin have been moved to Gainesville.








SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES

Class ARACINIDA

Order ACARINA

Family Anystidae


Anystis agilis Banks-Many collections from scaly orange leaves.
This predator has been observed feeding on Lepidosaphes beckii
(Newm.) crawlers and Panonychus citri (McC.). Distribution:
north central, central, and east coast in fall and winter. (C)



Family Ascidae


Asca citri Hurlbutt-Many collections from citrus leaves and fruit.
Distribution: state-wide in winter and spring. (C)

Asca duosetosa Fox-Many collections from litter and scaly leaves.
No feeding records. Distribution: north central and east coast
the year around. (Go)
Asca garmani Hurlbutt-Seven collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: north central, central, and east coast in the spring
and fall. (g)

Asca muma Hurlbutt-Many collections from citrus litter, leaves,
and bark. Distribution: state-wide in winter and spring. (C)
Asca mumata DeLeon-Three collections from citrus bark and litter.
Distribution: east and west coast in winter, spring, and sum-
mer. (g)
Asca tarsialis DeLeon-Two collections from citrus leaves. Distri-
bution: south central in fall. (g)
Camasellodes rectiventris Lindquist-One collection from citrus
litter. Distribution: east coast in the fall. (g)

Gamasellodes sp. near rectiventris Lindquist-Three collections
from citrus litter. Distribution: north central and south central
in winter and summer. (g)
Protogamasellus primitivus Karg-Sixteen collections from citrus
litter. Distribution: all areas in the summer, fall, and winter. (C)

Protogamasellus sp. near massula Athias-Henroit-Five collections
from citrus litter. Distribution: north central, central, and west
coast in the summer and fall. (g)








Family Bdellidae

Bdella distinct Baker and Blalock-Five collections from scaly
leaves and under L. beckii. Distribution: east coast and central
in summer and fall. (g)

Bdella longicornis (L.)-Two collections from litter under trees.
Distribution: north central in winter. (g)

Bdella mexicana Baker and Blalock-Three collections on orange
leaves. Distribution: central and north central in summer and
winter. (go).

Bdellodes longirostris (Hermann)-Two collections from litter
under trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (g)


Family Blattisocidae

Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese)-One collection from litter. Dis-
tribution: south central in summer. (g)

Blattisocius keegani Fox-Eight collections from leaves. Distribu-
tion: north central, central, south central and east coast
in all seasons. (C)

Blattisocitts tarsalis (Berlese)-Five collections from rotten fruit
and insect cultures. Distribution: central in fall and winter. (g)
Cheiroseius floridianus (DeLeon)-One collection from litter. Dis-
tribution: south central in summer. (g)
Cheiroseius jamaicensis (Evans and Hyatt)-Three collections from
litter. Distribution: south central and east coast in the fall. (g)

Lasioseius athiashenriotae DeLeon-Many collections from insect
and mite infested leaves and fruit. Distribution: statewide in
all seasons. (G)

Lasioseius sp. dentatuss group)-One collection. Distribution: cen-
tral in summer. (g)

Lasioseius krantzi Chant-One collection from litter. Distribu-
tion: central in summer. (g)

Lasioseius scapulatus Kennett-Several collections from leaves and
litter. Distribution: north central, central, south central, and
east coast in all seasons. (G)

Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram-One collection from rotting grape-
fruit. Distribution: central in fall. (g)
Proctolaelaps longipilis (Chant)-Six collections from leaves and
litter. Distribution: central and east coast in summer and fall. (g)








Proctolaelaps nemathrix Krantz-One collection from fruit. Dis-
tribution: east coast in fall. (g)

Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Miiller) (=hypudaei Oud.)-Mlany collec-
tions from leaves and litter. Distribution: central, south cen-
tral, and east coast in winter and summer. (C)

Proctolaelaps sp. (nr. orientalis [Chant])-One record from lit-
ter. Distribution: central in summer. (g)
Proctolaelaps regalis DeLeon-Eight collections from fruit leaves.
bark, and litter, Distribution: central, south central, and east
coast in all seasons. (g)

Family Cheyletidae
Andrecheyla scutellata (DeLeon)-One collection from Tice,
Florida on calamondin. Distribution: south central in the spring.
(g)
Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago)-One collection
from orange fruit. Distribution: central in spring. (g)

Cheletomimus duosetosus luina-O(ne collection tromu litter under
trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (g)

Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon-Three collections from citrus leaves,
fruit, and bark. Distribution: north central, central, and south
central during the summer and fall. (g)

Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara)-Six records from citrus seedlings
and litter feeding on six-spotted mites and citrus flat mites.
Kanavel and Selhime (1967) have shown that this species is
parthenogenic and has a wide host range. Distribution: north
central and central during the spring, summer, and fall. (C)

Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker)-Many collections have been made
from leaves and twigs infested with scales and mites. To date,
this predator had been observed feeding only on phytoseiid
mites. It refused other food under laboratory conditions. Dis-
tribution: north central, central, south central, east coast, west
coast, and Archer, Alachua County, in fall winter, and spring.
(Go)
Ker palmatus Muma--Two collections from citrus litter. Distri-
bution; east coast and south central in the summer and fall. (g)
Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker)-One collection from an orange
leaf on the shore of Lake Okeechobee near Canal Point. Distri-
bution: south Florida in the winter. (g)
Nodele calamondin NMuma-Two collections from calamondin. Dis-
tribution: west coast in the spring. (g)
6









Oudmansicheyla denmarki (Yunker)-Many records from citrus
fruit, leaves, and litter. Distribution: central, south central,
and west coast in the winter, summer, and fall. (C)

Prosocheyla buckneri (Baker)-Eight records from citrus leaves.
Distribution: north central, south central, east coast, and west
coast in the winter, spring, and summer. (g)


Family Cryptognathidae

Cryptognathus cucurbitae Berlese-Two collections from litter un-
der trees. Distribution: east coast and central in winter. (g)


Family Cunaxidae

Bonzia bdelliformis Ateyo-Two collections from litter beneath
the trees. Distribution: north central in summer and fall. (g)

Cunaxa boneti Baker and Hoffman-One collection of many speci-
mens from litter. Distribution: north central in fall, (C)
Cunaxa capreolus (Berl.)-One collection from twigs. Distribu-
tion: east coast in spring. (g)
Cunaxa mexicana Baker and Hoffman-Six collections from litter
under trees. Distribution: north central, central, and east coast
in winter and summer. (g)
Cunaxa setirostris (Herman)-One Collection from L. beckii in-
fested leaves at Archer in Novenber. (g)
Cunaxa simplex Ewing-Many collections from litter. Distribution:
statewide in all seasons except spring. (C)
Cunaxa taurus Kramer-Many collections from scaly leaves and
litter. This predator has not been observed feeding and its
hosts have not been determined. Distribution: state-wide in all
months. (C)
Cunaxa womersleyi Baker and Hoffman-Two collections of many
specimens from litter. Distribution: north central and east
coast in winter and fall. (G)
Cunaxoides andrei Baker and Hoffman-Many collections from lit-
ter, two from scaly orange leaves. Distribution- the year rounl.
(G)
Cunaxoides pectinatus Ewing-One collection from litter under
trees. Distribution: east coast in winter. (g)
Cunaxoides pectinellus Muma-One collection from litter. Distri-
bution: north central in winter. (g)









Cunaxoides whartoni Baker and Hoffman-One collection from
bark. Distribution: south west in summer. (g)


Family Hemisarcoptidae
Hemisarcoptes malus Shinier-Nine collections feeding on Chry-
somphalus aonidum (L.) eggs and crawlers, one collection feed-
ing on Unaspis citri (Comst.). Distribution: north central,
central, and east coast in fall, winter, and spring. (go)


Family Laelapidae
Androlaelaps queenslandicus Womersley-One. collection from
citrus litter. Distribution: north central in summer. (g)

Androlaelaps sp. No. 1-Fourteen collections from citrus leaves,
bark, and litter; 12 collections are from litter. Distribution:
all areas except east coast, in winter, spring, and summer. (C)

Androlaelaps sp. No. 2-Seven collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: east coast, west coast, and south central in winter
and summer. (g)
Androlaelaps sp. No. 3-Two collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: south central in fall. (g)

Androlaelaps sp. No. 4-Two collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: east and west coasts in summer. (g)
Cosmolaelaps sp. No. 1-Six collections from citrus leaves and
litter. Distribution: north central in winter. (g)
Cosmolaelaps sp. No. 2-Three collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution; south central and west coasts in fall (g)

Hypoaspis mumai Hunter and Glover-Nine collections from
citrus litter. Distribution: east coast, west coast, north central,
and south central in winter, spring, and summer. (g)

Hypoaspis picketti Hunter and Glover-Three collections from
citrus litter. Distribution: east coast in summer. (g)

Hypoaspis sp. No. 1-Nine collections from citrus litter. Distri-
bution: all areas except south central, in winter and spring. (g)
Hypoaspis sp. No. 2-Three collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution; north central in winter. (g)

Hypoaspis sp. No. 3-One collection from citrus litter. Distribu-
tion: south central in fall. (g)
Hypoaspis sp. No. 4-One collection from C. sinensis at Welaka,
8/10/61. (g)









Ololaelaps sp. No. 1-Twelve collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: east coast, west coast, and north central in summer,
fall, and winter. (G)
Ololaelaps sp. No. 2-Five collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: east coast in the spring. (g)

Pseudoparasitus sp. No. 1-One collection from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: north central in summer. (g)

Family Macrochelidae
Areolaspis sp.-Two collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
north central and central in summer and fall. (g)
Glyptholaspis americana (Berl.)-Two collections from citrus lit-
ter. Distribution: south central in summer. (g)
Glyptholaspis fimicola (Berl.)-Two collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: north central and south central in summer and
fall. (g)
Holotaspella bifoliata (Trag.)-Nineteen collections from citrus bark
and litter. Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (G)
Macrocheles insignitus (Berl.)-One collection from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: west coast in the winter. (g)
Macrocheles merdarius (Berl.)-Four collections, two from litter
and two from scaly orange leaves. Distribution: north central,
central, and west coast in spring, summer, and fall.
Macrocheles n.sp., near muscaedomesticae (Scopoli)-Four collec-
tions from old citrus fruit. Distribution: north central in
summer. (g)
Macrocheles robustulus (Berl.)-Ten collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: all areas except west coast, in spring, summer, and
fall. (G)

Family Neophyllobiidae
NeophyUobius equalis DeLeon-One collection. Distribution: cen-
tral in winter. (g)
Neophyllobius mexicanus McG.-Three collections from scaly
leaves. Distribution: central in summer. (g)
Neophyllobius sp. nr. texanus McG.-One collection. Distribu-
tion: North central in winter. (g)
Neophyllobius sp.-Seven collections of immatures on scale infested
orange leaves. Distribution: north central, central, and east
coast in all seasons. (g)









Family Pachygnathidae
Bimichaelia sp.-One collection from citrus litter. Distribution:
north central in the summer. (g)
Eryngiopus sp. No. 1-One collection from fruit. Distribution:
west coast in fall. (g)
Eryngiopus sp. No. 2-Two collections from leaves. Distribution:
central in the summer and winter. (g)
Pachygnathus sp.-Three collections from bark and litter. Distribu-
tion: central and east coast in the fall and winter. (g)

Family Phytoseiidae
Amblyseiella setosa Muma-Many collections from citrus leaves,
fruit, bark, and litter. Several collections from orange and grape-
fruit leaves infested with scales and mites. Distribution: east
coast, central, and west coast in winter, spring, and summer. (C)
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)-Many collections from citrus leaves
infested with scales and mites. Muma (1971) demonstrated
that flat mites and spider mites are optimal food for this
species. Distribution: all areas the year around. (Go)
Amblyseius deleoni Muma and Denmark-Many collections from
leaves and fruit infested with scales or mites. It has also been
collected from citrus bark and litter. This is the common long
spined mite on citrus. Muma (1971) demonstrated that it is a
general predator. Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (Go)
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)-Six collections from citrus leaves.
This species has been confused with A. deleoni in the past.
Distribution: east coast, west coast, and Keys in the spring. (G)
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)-Three collections from litter and
bark. Distribution: north central, south central, and east coast
in summer, fall, and winter. (go)
Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt)-Four collections from leaves.
Distribution: east coast and south central in spring, summer, and
fall. (g)
Euseius hibisci (Chant)-Many collections from leaves infested
with scales or mites. Muma (1971) summarized our know-
ledge of this species under Florida conditions and concluded
that it was a general feeder with an ability to feed on pollen.
Distribution; north central, central, and west coast in winter,
spring, and summer. (Go)
Fundiseius cesi (Muma)-One collection from citrus leaves.
Distribution: central in spring. (g)
10








Galendromus annectens (DeLeon)-Three collections from E. sex-
maculatus infestations. This predator is closely related to
Galendromus floridanus (Muma). Distribution: east coast in
spring. (g)
Galendromus floridanus (Muma)-Many collections from E. sex-
maculatus colonies. Muma (1970 and 1971) demonstrated that
the species is an obligate, high-density spider mite predator,
most commonly associated with six-spotted mite infestations and
capable of controlling this latter mite. Distribution: all areas in
winter, spring, and summer. (Go)
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)-Many collections from citrus
leaves, fruit, bark, and litter. Muma (1971) summarized our
knowledge of this nocturnal, general, facultative predator. Dis-
tribution: state-wide the year around. (Go)
Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma)-Three collections, two from citrus
litter and one from Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy on citrus.
Distribution: central and south central in the spring. (g)
Neoseiulus marinellus (Muma)-Many collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (G)
Neoseiulus planatus (Muma)-Six collections from citrus fruit and
litter. Distribution: north and south central in the spring. (g)
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)-Three collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: north central and east coast in the summer. (g)
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant)-This species has been introduced onto
Florida citrus, but establishment has not been proved. Distri-
bution: introductions have been made in all of the central
districts. (G)
Paraamblyseius lunatus Muma-Six collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution; south central in the fall and winter. (G)
Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon)-Two collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: extreme south (Coral Gables) in spring. (g)
Paraseiulella elliptica (DeLeon)-Two collections from seedling
citrus. Distribution: central in the fall. (g)
Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma-Many collections from leaves in-
fested with acarids. Muma (1971) concluded that this species
is an acarid predator. Distribution: north central, central, and
south central in spring, summer, and fall. (Co)
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)-Two collections from leaves in-
fested with spider mites. Distribution: east coast and central in
spring. (g)
Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant)-Many collections from citrus litter.
11









Distribution: south central and east coast in winter, spring,
and summer. (G)
Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma)-Seven collections from citrus
litter and bark. Distribution: all areas except east coast, in
winter, spring, and summer, (g)
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma)-Five collections from citrus bark
and litter. Distribution: north central and south central in win-
ter and spring. (g)
Proprioseiopsis clausae (Muma)-Two collections from citrus bark
and litter. Distribution: east coast and south central in winter
and spring. (g)
Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma)-One collection from citrus bark
in Turnbull Hammock. Distribution: east coast in the winter. (g)
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma)-Many collections from scale and
mite infested leaves and fruit. Muma (1971) reported that all
offered foods except citrus red mites were inadequate for sur-
vival, so its food habits are unknown. Distribution: all areas
in all seasons. (G)
Proprioseiopsis lepidus (Chant)-One collection from citrus litter.
Distribution; north central in the spring. (g)
Proprioseiopsis macrosetae (Muma)-Two collections from litter
under trees. Distribution: east coast in winter and spring. (g)
Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma)-Nine collections from citrus
litter. Distribution all areas except west coast, in winter, spring,
and summer. (g)
Typhlodromalus limonicus (Gar. and McG.)-Many collections from
leaves infested with scales and E. sexamaculatus. Distribution:
east coast in winter and spring. (G)
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)-Many collections from citrus
fruit, leaves, bark, and litter. It is the most abundant predatory
phytoseiid on Florida citrus. Muma (1969 and 1971) cited eight
survival, adequate, and optimal foods and concluded that it is
a general facultative predator, highly tolerant to spray chemi-
cals, but not a critical species. Distribution: state-wide the year
around. (Co)
Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark-Many collections
from citrus leaves and litter. Muma (1971) summarized our
knowledge concerning this species and concluded that its food
habits were unknown. Distribution: state-wide, except south
central, in winter, spring, and summer. (G)








Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma)-Two collections from citrus
leaves. Distribution; south central and east coast in fall and
winter. (g)
Typhlodromips dentilis (DeLeon)-Six collections from citrus
leaves and litter. Distribution: north central, south central,
east coast, and west coast in the fall, winter, and spring. (g)
Typhlodromips dillus (DeLeon)-Two collections from sour orange
leaves. Distribution: south central in the spring. (g)
Typhlodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)-Many collections from
scaly leaves and E. sexmaculatus infested fruit, leaves, and
twigs. Muma (1971) stated that although the species is a fac-
ultative predator of six-spotted mites on citrus, its food
habits are not sufficiently known. Distribution: south central
and east coast in fall, winter, and spring. (G)

Family Pyemotidae
Caraboacarus karenae Nickle and Elzinga-One collection from
litter under trees. Distribution: south central in fall. (g)
Pseudopygmephorus tarsalis (Hirst)-Three collections from bark
and litter. Distribution: north central, south central, and west
coast in the summer, fall, and winter. (g)
Siteroptes sp.-Three collections from under L. beckii armors.
Distribution: east coast in summer. (g)

Family Raphignathidae
Raphignathus sp.-Three collections from litter under trees. Dis-
tribution: east and west coasts in winter and summer. (g)

Family Stigmaeidae
Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez-Many collections from citrus
leaves, fruit, and litter. Muma and Selhime (1971) summar-
ized our knowledge of this predator on Florida citrus and con-
cluded that the citrus rust mite was its optimal host but that
it did not have a biological control potential on this host in
this area. Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in all
months. (G)
Agistemus terminalis (Quayle)-Four collections. Distribution: east
coast and central in the spring. (g)
Apostigmaeus sp.-Five collections from scaly citrus leaves. This
mite is orange colored. Distribution: central in the spring and
fall. (g)








Exothorhis caudata Summers-Nine collections from scaly orange
leaves. Distribution: north central and central in spring and
fall. (go)
Ledermuelleria segnis (Koch)-One collection from litter under
trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (g)
Saniosulus nudus Summers-One collection from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: south central in the winter. (g)
Saniosulus sp.-Two collections from citrus leaves. This is an orange
colored mite. Distribution: central and west coast in the fall
and spring. (g)
Stigmaeus scaber Summers-Two collections from litter under trees.
Distribution: north central and central in the winter. (g)
Family Trombidiidae
Atomus sp.-One collection apparently feeding on E. sexmacu-
latus. Distribution: east coast in spring. (go)
Trombidium sp.-One record from Lake of the Hills, Polk County,
on aphids, winter. (USNM)
Class INSECTA
Order COLEOPTERA
Family Coccinellidae

Adalia bipunctata (L)-One record on Citrus sp. Distribution: west
coast in spring. (g)
Adalia sp.-Four records. Distribution: west coast in spring. (g)
Axion tripustulatum (DeG.)-Two records. Distribution: north cen-
tral and east coast in spring. (USNM)
Brachyacantha dentipes Fab.-One collection. Distribution: east
coast in spring. (g)
Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls.-Eleven collections. Distribution: south
central and west coast in all seasons. (C)
Chilocorus stigma (Say)-Many collections. This predator has
been observed feeding on armored scales, soft scales, Piano-
coccus citri -(Risso), aphids, and whiteflies. It is the most
common coccinellid in the groves. Special studies, Muma
(1955), indicate a host preference and an ability to develop and
reproduce more rapidly on certain hosts, but present infor-
mation is incomplete. Distribution: state-wide in all months.
(Go)
Coleomegilla maculata floridana Leng-Three records. Distribu-
tion: central and east coast in winter and spring. (g)









Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls.)-Six collections. Ob-
served feeding on Aphis spiraecola Patch and a lepidopter-
ous larva. Distribution: north central, central, and south
central in all seasons. (go)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.-Many collections. Observed
feeding on P. citri (Risso), Coccus hesperidum (L.), and Pro-
topulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.). Distribution: an introduced
predator; Key West, Monroe County, central and west coasts
in winter, spring, and summer. (Go)
Cycloneda munda (Say)-One record. Distribution: north central
in summer. (USNM)
Cycloneda sanguine (L.)-Many collections. Observed feeding
on aphids, spider mites, P. citri (Risso), and scale insects. More
frequently recorded on aphids. Distribution: state-wide in all
seasons. (GO)
Cycloneda sanguinea immaculate (Fabr.)-Many collections. Dis-
tribution: state-wide in all seasons. (G.)
Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.)-Three collections feeding on P.
citri (Risso). Distribution: central in spring and summer. (g)
Delphastus pallidus (Lec.)-Many collections. Observed feeding
on whiteflies and apparently on P. oleivora. Distribution: cen-
tral, east coast, and west coast in the spring, summer, and
fall. (Go)
Delphastus pusillus (Lec.)-Many collections. Observed feeding
on whiteflies and L. beckii. This is a very common whitefly-
eating coccinellid. Distribution: state-wide, except south central,
in all months. (GO)
Exochomus marginipennis (Lec.)-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on aphids, C. aonidum, L. beckii, P. pyriformis, and Icerya
purchase Mask. Distribution: north central and central in fall,
winter, spring, and summer. (Go)
Hippodamia convergens Guer.-Many collections feeding on aph-
ids. Distribution: north central, east coast, central, west coast,
Gainesville, Alachua County, Homestead, Dade County, and
Paola, Seminole County in winter and spring. (Go)
Hyperaspis signata (Oliv.)-Two collections. Distribution: central
and north central in winter and spring. (go)
Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope)-Many collections.
Observed feeding on aphids. Distribution: an introduced pred-
ator that is more common in the north central, but is occa-
sionally found in the central, in the spring, summer, and fall. (Co)









Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell)-Nine collections feeding on
C. aonidum and L. beckii. Distribution: north central and Mont-
icello, Jefferson County, in the fall and winter. (go)
Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.)-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on L. beckii, Quadraspidiotus perniciosis (Comst.), and
C. aonidum, apparently preferring the last. This predator is
common in heavy scale infestations. Distribution: north cen-
tral, central, east coast, and west coast in all seasons. (GO)
Nephaspis gorhami Csy.-Many collections feeding on Dialeurodes
citrifolii (Morg.), Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), and Aleurothrixus
floccosus (Mask.). This is a very common whitefly predator. Dis-
tribution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (Go)
Olla abdominalis (Say)-Two collections. Distribution; north cen-
tral and central in spring and summer. (g)
OUa abdominalis sobrina Csy.-One collection. Distribution: Hia-
leah in the fall. (g)
Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy.-Many collections. Observed
feeding on aphids, C. hesperidum, C. aonidum, P. citri (Ris-
so), and spider mites, but apparently prefers the last two.
Distribution: state-wide in spring, summer, and fall. (Go)
PsyUobora vigintimaculata (Say)-Eight collections. This species
is believed to be a fungus feeder. Distribution: east coast
and north central in spring and summer. (go)
Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)-Many collections. Observed feeding
on I. purchase. Distribution: this introduced predator is state-
wide in all seasons. (Go.)
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy.-Many collections. Observed on
leaves infested with scales and whiteflies. Two collections
at Davie, Broward County, on Coccus viridis (Green) in the
summer. Distribution: east coast and Miami area in all seasons.
(Go)
Scymnillodes sp.-One collection on orange at Davie in the fall.
(USNM)
Scymnillus aterrimus (Horn)-Two collections, one from a C.
aonidum infestation. Distribution: north central and central
in spring and fall. (g)
Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say-Seven collections, one feeding
on aphids. Distribution: east coast, north central, central, and
west coast in spring, summer, and fall. (go)
Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh.-Many collections. Observed








feeding on C. aonidum, L. beckii, and P. citri (Risso), but is
most common on the last. Distribution: state-wide in- all sea-
sons. (Go)
Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus (Lec.)-Five collections on aphids.
Distribution: west coast, central, and Davie in summer. (g)
Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli (Csy.)-Two collections, one feeding on
A. spiraecola on Temple orange. Distribution: north central in
spring. (o)
Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lec.-Many collections feeding on
aphids. Distribution: east coast, north central, and central in
all seasons. (G)
Scymnus (Pullus) sp. near natchezianus (Csy.)-One record. Dis-
tribution: east coast in spring. (o)
Scymnus sp.-Many collections. Hosts: D. citrifolii, Paraleyrodes
perseae (Quaint.), A. spiraecola, and C. hesperidum. Several
species may be confused here. Distribution: state-wide in all
seasons. (Go)
Stethorus utilis (Horn)-Many collections feeding on E. sexmacu-
latus, one or two on P. citri (McG.). This predator is common in
E. sexmaculatus colonies. Distribution: state-wide, except
south central, in winter, spring, and summer. One collection
from Key West. (Go)


Order DIPTERA
Family Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidini-Many collections of larvae in E. sexmaculatus,
P. oleivora, and L. beckii infestations. Distribution: state-wide
in all seasons. (G)
Lasioptera sp.-One record from Gasteracantha cancriformis (L)
egg case on leaf. Distribution: north central in winter. (USNM)
Mycodiplosis sp.-One record of pupae under C. aonidum armors.
Distribution: east coast in spring. (USNM)

Family Chamaemyiidae
Leucopis sp.-Four collections reared from Toxoptera aurantii
(Fonsc.) infested terminals. Distribution: north central, central,
and west coast in winter, spring, and summer. (go)

Family Dolichopodidae
Condylostylus sp.-One collection feeding on adult whiteflies.
Distribution: north central in fall. (o)
17








Family Phoridae
Phalacrotophora epeirae (Brues)-Many hearings from egg masses of
G. cancriformis on citrus leaves. Distribution: all areas in
winter. (G)

Family Syrphidae
Allograpta obliqua (Say)-Three collections feeding on A. spirae-
cola. Distribution: central and south in spring. (g)
Allograpta sp.-One collection feeding on T. aurantii. Distribu-
tion: central in spring. (g)
Allograpta sp.-One collection at Davie on aphids in the spring. (g)
Baccha clavata (Fab.)-Many collections feeding on A. spiraecola
and other aphids. This is the most common aphid-feeding
syrphid. Distribution: state-wide in spring, summer, and fall.
(Go)
Baccha fuscipennis Say-Five collections feeding on T. aurantii
and two collections feeding on whiteflies. Distribution: central
in the fall. (g)
Metasyrphus americanus (Wied.)-Two collections feeding on T.
aurantii and A. spiraecola. Distribution: central in the spring.
(g)
Metasyrphus sp.-One collection feeding on A. spiraecola. Dis-
tribution: central in the spring. (g)

Family Tachinidae
Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)-Three hearings from Megalopyge oper-
cularis (J. E. Smith). Distribution: north central in the fall. (go)
Ceracia sp. (near dentata [Coq.])-One recorded rearing from Mel-
ano plus femur-rubrum (DeG.) Distribution: north central in the
fall. (USNM)
Euceromasia floridensis Rein.-Four hearings from Platoeceticus
gloveri Pack. Distribution: north central in the winter. (g)
Gonia crassicornis (F.)-Three hearings from Spodoptera frugi-
perda (J. E. Smith) larva and pupa. Distribution: central in
fall. (g)
Lespesia rileyi (Will.)-Eight hearings from Papilio cresphontes
Cram. Distribution: north central and east coast in fall and win-
ter. (go)
Palpexorista einaris (Smith)-One recorded rearing from Sibine
stimulea (Clem.). Distribution: east coast in spring. (USNM)








Trichopoda pennipes (F.)-Two hearings from stinkbugs. Distri-
bution: north central in winter and fall. (o)


Order HEMIPTERA

Family Pentatomidae
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas)-Two collections feeding on P.
cresphontes larvae. Distribution: north central and Gainesville,
Alachua County, in the fall. (go)
Family Phymatidae
Phymata fasciata (Gray) subsp. mystica Evans-One collection
from aphid-infested citrus. Distribution: central in the fall. (g)


Order HYMENOPTERA

Family Bethylidae
Goniozus hubbardi How.-One rearing from Platynota sp. Dis-
tribution: north central in summer. (o)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from P. gloverii. Distribution: north
central in winter. (g)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from Oiketicus abboti Grt. Distribution:
north central in winter. (g)
Family Braconidae
Apanteles empretiae Vier.-Two hearings from S. stimulea. Dis-
tribution: east coast in the summer and fall. (o)
Apanteles sp.-Three hearings from S. stimulea. Distribution:
central, St. Augustine, St. Johns County, and Davie, Broward
County, in fall and winter. (g)
Iphiaulax sp.-Two hearings from 0. abboti. Distribution: north
central in winter and spring. (g)
Iphiaulax sp.-Two specimens emerged from citrus limb infested
with longhorned and metallic woodborers. Distribution: central
in summer. (g)
Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cress.)-Many hearings from A. spirae-
cola and T. aurantii. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Go)
Family Ceraphronidae
' Aphanogmus sp.-Four hearings, two from L. beckii, one from
C. aonidum, and one from P. pyriformis. Although reared from
isolated scales, these records are open to question, as all known








species of this genus are parasites of midge larvae. This list-
ing may include two species but specific identification awaits
specialists' study. Distribution: north central and central in
spring, summer, and fall. (g)
Ceraphron sp.-One rearing from scaly orange leaf, no host re-
corded. Distribution: central in the fall. (g)
Dendrocerus conwentziae var rufus Gah.-Two hearings from Semi-
dalis vicina (Hagen). Distribution: east coast in spring and
summer. (g)


Family Chalcididae
Brachymeria robusta (Cress.)-One rearing on P. cresphontes pu-
pa, one from citrus grove, and one from Steiner trap. Distribu-
tion: central in summer and fall. (g)
Haltichella longicornis Ashm.-One rearing from mealybug infes-
tation, not from mealybugs. Distribution: central in summer.
(USNM)
Spilochalcis igneoides (Kby.)-One collection from orange grove,
no host recorded. Distribution: north central in fall. (g)


Family Cynipidae
Alloxysta sp.-One rearing from aphids. This is a hyperparasite
of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cress.). Distribution: central in the
spring. (g)


Family Encyrtidae
Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.)-Many hearings from P.
citri (Risso), probably hyperparasitic. Distribution: east coast
and central in spring and summer. (Go)
Adelencyrtus sp.-One rearing from C. aonidum infestation. Host
not determined. Distribution: central in summer. (g)
Aphycus eruptor (How.)-One rearing from C. floridensis. Dis-
tribution: central in winter. (g)
Aphycus sp.-One rearing from P. pyriformis and one from C.
hesperidum. Distribution: north central in the spring and
summer. (o)
Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr.)-Many hearings from C. aoni-
dum. This species is a hyperparasite through Pseudhomalo-
poda prima Grlt. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (C)
20








Chalcaspis phenacocci (Ashm.)-One collection from citrus mealy-
bug. Distribution: south central in spring. (g)
Cheiloneurus inimicus Compere-Eight hearings from second and
early third stage Saissetia neglecta DeLotto-McCoy and Sel-
hime (1970) recorded this species as a primary parasite. Dis-
tribution: north central, central, west coast, and east coast
in spring, summer, and winter. (o)
Cheiloneurus sp.-Three hearings, one from P. pyriformis, one
from C. viridis and one from C. floridensis. Probably hyper-
parasitic on Aphycus flavus (How.). Distribution: central in
spring. (G)
Chrysoplatycerus howardi Ashm.-Two hearings from P. citri
(Risso). Distribution: east coast in spring and summer. (USNM)
Chrysoplatycerus splendens (How.)-Eight hearings from P. citri.
Distribution: state-wide, except for the west coast, in spring,
summer, and fall. (g)
Chrysopophagus compressiconis Ashm.-Many hearings from
Chrysopa bicarnea Hagen, Chrysopa rufilabris Burn., and
Chrysopa sp. This is a hyperparasitic species. Distribution: east
coast and central in the spring and summer. (G)
Comperiella bifasciata How.-Many hearings from C. aonidum,
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morg.), and Aonidiella citrina
(Coq.). Although widely distributed, this parasite is not common.
Distribution: state-wide except on the east coast, in the summer,
fall, and winter, (C)
Gahaniella saissetia Timb.-Many collections taken from second
stage nymphs and immature females of black scale in early
June. Distribution: east coast. (0)
Hexacnemus armitagei Timb.-One rearing from mealybug infes-
tation, a parasite of hemerobiids. Distribution: central in summer.
(USNM)
Homalotylus terminalus (Say)-Many hearings from C. sanguine
larvae. Distribution: north central and east coast in the spring
and summer. (Go)
Isodromus iceryae How.-Many rearins from C. bicarnea, Chry-
sopa cubana McCI., Chrysopa clavei Navas, Chrysopa sp., and
Nodita floridana (Banks). Distribu ion: state-wide, except on
the west coast, in spring and summer. (Go)
Leptomastidea abnormis (Grlt.)-Many earings from P. citri (Risso).
This is a common parasite of immat re P. citri (Risso). Distribu-
tion: state-wide, except on the west oast in spring, summer, and
fall. (Go)








Leptomastix dactylopii How.-Many hearings from P. citri (Risso).
This is a common parasite of mature P. citri (Risso). Distribu-
tion: north central, central, and east coast in spring, summer,
and fall. (Go)
Metaphycus flavus How.-Many hearings from C. hesperidum and
Ceroplastes floridensis Comst. This is a common parasite of
immature C. hesperidum. Distribution: east coast, central,
west coast, and Miami, Dade County area in all seasons. (C)
Metaphycus sp.-One rearing from C. floridensis. Distribution: cen-
tral in winter. (g)
Microterys flavus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum, three
from P. pyriformis, one from C. viridis, and one from C. flori-
densis. This is a common parasite of young scales. Distribution:
state-wide in all seasons. (Go)
Ooencyrtus submetallicus (How.)-Nine hearings. No host identifi-
cation. This is a parasite of hemipterous eggs. Distribution:
east coast in summer. (g)
Pseudhomalopoda prima Grlt.-Many hearings from mature female
C. aonidum. Several specimens have been reared from A. cit-
rina. This was a critical Florida red scale parasite prior to the in-
troduction of Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach. Distribution: state-
wide in all seasons. (Go)
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from
Baccha clavata (F.), Baccha fuscipennis (Say), and Metasyrphus
americanus (Wiedmann). Distribution: north central and west
coast in the summer and spring. (Go)

Family Eulophidae
Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from young C. aoni-
dum and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). This is a hyperparasite.
Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (G)
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet)-Many hearings from immature and
male C. aonidum, and immature and mature A. citrina. In-
frequent specimens have also been reared from C. dictyospermi,
U. citri, P. strachani (Cooley), and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Sign.).
This is a common important parasite of yellow scale. Distribu-
tion: state-wide in all seasons. (Co)
Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet)-Many hearings from Parlatoria per-
gandii Comst. This is a common parasite of chaff scale. Distri-
bution: all areas in all seasons. (G)
Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach-Many hearings from C. aonidum,
A. citrina, and occasionally from C. dictyospermi. It is a common
22








important parasite of Florida red scale. Distribution: all areas
in all seasons. (Co)
Aphytis lepidosaphes Coimp.-Many hearings from L. beckii. In-
frequent specimens have also been reared from L. gloverii, A.
citrina, P. pergandii, C. dictyospermi, P. strachani, and P.
aspidistrae. This is a common important parasite of purple
scale. Distribution: state-wide in all months. (GO)
Aphytis lingnanensis Comp.-Several hearings from C. aonidum,
L. gloverii, and U. citri. Distribution: north central in all seasons.
(C)
Aphltis nmtilaspidis (LeB.)-Two hearings from L. beckii. Distri-
bution: north central in the fall. (o)
Aphytis proclia (\Vlkr.)-Reared from leaves and twigs infested
with U. citri and from P. pergandii. Distribution: north central
in the summer and fall. (o)
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw)-Many hearings from L. beckii,
U. citri, L. gloverii, A. citrina, and P. pergandii. This is a com-
mon parasite of immature and male scales. Distribution:
state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (Go)
Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli)-Many hearings
from L. beckii, C. aonidum, and L. gloverii. This is a common
parasite of immature and male scales. Distribution: state-wide
in all seasons. (Go)
Azotus sp.-Eight hearings from C. aonidum infestations. Distri-
bution: central, north central, and west coast in winter, spring,
and summer. (g)
Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum
and S. neglecta. This is a parasite of young to nearly mature
scales. Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in the
fall, winter, and spring, (Go)
Encarsia basicincta Gah.-One rearing from A. floccosus and one
from Tetraleurodes ursorum (Ckll.). Distribution: central and
north central in summer and winter. (o)
Encarsia variegata How.-Eight hearings from A. floccosus and one
from Paraleyrodes perseae (Quaint.). Distribution: central and
east coast in winter, spring, and summer, (g)
Eretmocerus haldemani How.-On A. floccosus at Lake Alfred, Polk
County, in summer. (go)
Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz.-One rearing from A. floccosus.
Distribution: north central in summer. (o)
Eretmocerus sp.-Three hearings from A. floccosus. Distribution:
central and south central in summer and fall.
23








Horismenus sp.-Three hearings from P. gloverii, and one each from
C. bicarnea, C. claveri, and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: state-
wide, except south central, in all seasons. (G)
Prospaltella aurantii (How.)-Many hearings from C. aonidum, sev-
eral from L. beckii, and one from A. citrina. This is a common
parasite of C. aonidum. Distribution: state-wide in the summer,
fall, and winter. (G)
Prospaltela brasilienis (Hempel)-Many hearings from A. floccosus.
Distribution: state-wide, except west coast, in all seasons. (GO)
Prospaltella elongata Doz.-Many hearings from L. gloverii. Dis-
tribution: state-wide, except west coast, in all seasons. (G)
Prospaltella fasciata Mal.-Seven hearings from P. pergandii. Dis-
tribution: central, south, and east coast in the fall, winter,
and spring. (g)
Prospaltella sp.-Many hearings from A. floccosus. Distribution:
central, south central, and east coast in the winter, spring, and
summer. (G)
Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.)-Four hearings from C. bicarnea
and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: north central, central, east coast,
and west coast in the summer and spring. (g)
Tetrastichus melanis Burks-Two hearings from C. sanguine
larva. Distribution: south central and east coast in the spring
and fall. (G)
Tetrastichus minutus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum
(L.), green lacewings, C. sanguine (L.), and P. citri (Risso),
probably hyperparasitic. Distribution: north central, central, east
coast, and west coast in the spring and summer. (Go)
Tetrastichus sp.-One rearing from C. viridis, one from C. floriden-
sis, and many from pupae of Phalacrotophora epeirae (Brues)
in Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.) egg cases on citrus trees.
More than one species are probably represented here. Muma
and Stone (1971) cited biological notes for the species reared
from P. epeirae. Distribution: state-wide in winter and spring. (G)


Family Eupelmidae
Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)-Many hearings from katy-
did eggs, primarily Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.). This
is a common parasite. Distribution: north central, central, and
west coast in all seasons. (Go)
Anastatus sp.-Two hearings from pupal cases of C. bicarnea and
Chrysopa sp. Distribution: central in the summer. (g)
24








Anastatus sp.-Reared from eggs of Automeris io lilith Strck. on
lime. Distribution: Key West, Monroe County, in summer and
fall. (g)
Anastatus sp.-One rearing from Coccus elongatus (Sign.). Dis-
tribution: east coast in summer. (g)
Arachnophaga ferruginea Gahan-Two hearings from egg cases
of Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.) and Argiope aurantia (Lucas)
in citrus trees. Distribution: north central, central, and south
central in fall and winter. (G)
Arachnophaga sp.-Two hearings from Chrysopa sp. Distribution:
east coast in the summer and spring. (g)
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.-Six hearings from C. hesperidum,
S. oleae, and Saissetia coffeae Wlk. This parasite attacks mature
female scales. Distribution: central, east coast, and west coast
in the spring, summer, and fall. (go)



Family Ichneumonidae
Agonocryptus discoidaloides (Viereck)-Two specimens reared
from citrus limbs infested with metallic wood borers. Distribu-
tion: central in summer. (g) and (USNM)
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush.-Many hearings from C. bicarnea,
C. claveri, C. cubana, and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: east coast
and central in the spring and winter. (G)
Chirotica thyridopteryx (Riley)-Many hearings from P. gloverii
and 0. abboti. Distribution: north central in winter and spring.
(Go)
Diadegma sp.-Three specimens reared from a lepidopterous larva
on citrus. Distribution: central in spring. (g)
Dichrogaster bicolor (Cush.)-Three hearings from Chrysopa sp.
Distribution: east coast in the spring. (g)
Dichrogaster crassus chrysopae Ashm.-Many hearings from C.
bicarnea, C. cubana, C. rufilabris, C. claveri, and Chrysopa sp.
Distribution: state-wide in spring, summer, and winter. (Go)
Diplazon laetatorius (Fab.)-One rearing from B. clavata. Distri-
bution: north central, no date. (o)
Labena gralator (Say)-Two specimens reared from citrus limb
infested with metallic wood borers. Distribution: central in sum-
mer. (g)
Lymeon orbus (Say)-Two hearings from P. gloverii. Distribution:
north central in winter. (go)








Family Mymaridae
Alaptus caecilii Grlt.-One rearing from leaves. Probable egg para-
site of psocoptera. Distribution: unknown. (USNM)
Alaptus sp.-Two hearings from leaves. Possible psocoptera egg
parasite. Distribution: north central and east coast in spring. (g)
Camptoptera sp.-Rearings from pupal cases of S. vicina and C.
Cubana. Distribution: central in summer. (g)
Cosmocomoidea morrilli How.-One rearing from pupal case of
S. vicina, one from C. cubana, and one from sharpshooter eggs.
Distribution: central in spring and summer. (g)
Neomymar vierecki Cwfd.-One rearing from leaf. Distribution:
central in winter. (g)

Family Pteromalidae
Pachyneuron allograptae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from syrphids,
including B. clavata. Distribution: west coast, north central, and
central in the spring and summer. (Go)
Scutellista cyanea Mots.-Many hearings from S. neglecta and C.
floridensis. This is an egg predator. McCoy and Selhime (1970)
have shown that this species is a critical predator of black scale.
Distribution: north central, central, and west coast in summer
and fall. (C)
Systasis diplosidis Eckel-One recorded rearing from leaf. Distri-
bution: east coast in winter. (USNM)

Family Scelionidae
Telenomus heliothidis Ashm.-One rearing from unidentified lepi-
dopterous eggs. Distribution: east coast in spring. (g)
Telenomus podisi Ashm.-One recorded rearing from egg cluster
on Temple orange leaf at Fort Pierce, Indian River County, in
the fall. (USNM)
Telenomus sp.-One rearing from unidentified pentatomid eggs.
Distribution: central in fall. (g)
Telenomus sp.-Reared from P. pyriformis on grapefruit leaf. Dis-
tribution: central in spring. (o)

Family-Thysanidae
Thysanus sp.-Two hearings, one from C. aonidum. Distribution:
central and east coast in winter and fall. (g)








Thysanus flavopalliatus Ashm.-Many hearings from C. aonidum
and P. strachani. Hyperparasite through P. aurantii. Distribu-
tion: north central, central, and south central in all seasons. (C)
Thysanus louisianae Doz.-One recorded rearing, host unknown.
Distribution: central in summer. (USNM)
Thysanus niger Ashm.-One rearing, host unknown. Distribution:
unknown. (USNM)
Thysanus occidentalis How.-One recorded rearing from leaves
infested with L. beckii from Archer. Alachua Count\. in the
fall. (USNM)

Family Trichogranmmatidae
Oligosita sanguine (Grlt.)-One rearing from hark infested with
U. citri. Distribution: north central in summer. (g)
Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins)-One rearing from field-col-
lected eggs of Conodonta nutrix (Cramer). Distribution: White
City in the fall. (g)
Trichogramma minutum Riley-One rearing from material on
orange leaf. Distribution: east coast in winter. (o)


Order LEPIDOPTEHA
Family Cosmopterygidae
Sathrolerota rileyi (\Wlsm.)-Many collections on I. purchasi and
P. citri (Risso). This species is thought to be a scavenger. Dis-
tribution: west coast, east coast, north central, and at Peters,
Dade County, in winter, summer, and fall. (Go)

Family Pyralidae
Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.)-Many collections of larvae tunnel-
ing among S. neglecta, C. hesperidum, P. citri (Risso), and I.
purchase on leaves and twigs. Distribution: state-wide the year-
round. (Go)

Order NEUROPTERA
Family Chrysopidae
Allochrysa virginica (Fitch)-One collection from orange tree.
Distribution: central in fall. (g)
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks-Many collections from insect and mite
infestations. This is the most abundant chrysopid. Distribution:
state-wide in all seasons. (G)








Chrysopa claveri Navas-Many collections from insect and mite
infestations. This is a common predator in some groves. Distri-
bution: state-wide, except north central, in fall, winter, and
spring. (G)
Chrysopa cubana Hagen-Many collections from P. citri (Risso),
P. citri (McG.), C. aonidum, E. sexmaculatus, and D. citrifolii
infestations. This predator is common in some groves. Distribu-
tion: state-wide in spring, summer, and fall. (G)
Chrysopa externa Hagen-Four collections from orange trees. Dis-
tribution: north central and central in winter and spring. (g)
Chrysopa rufilabris Burm.-Many collections from insect and mite
infestations. This is the second most abundant chrysopid. Dis-
tribution: state-wide in fall, winter, and spring. (Go)
Nodita callota (Banks)-Four collections from trees. Distribution:
central, south central, and west coast in fall and winter. (g)
Nodita floridana (Banks)-Many collections from trees. Distribu-
tion: central, south central, and west coast in summer, fall, and
winter. (G)
Nodita pavida (Hagen)-Many collections from trees. Distribution:
state-wide, except north central, in fall, winter, and spring. (G)
Family Coniopterygidae
Coniopteryx westwoodi (Fitch)-Five collections from citrus trees.
Adults feed on P. oleivora; larvae on Texas citrus mites. Distri-
bution: east coast and central during winter. (g)
Semidalis vicina (Hagen)-Many collections from trees. Adults
feed on P. oleivora, larvae on whitefly crawlers, scalecrawlers,
spider mites, and rust mites. Muma (1967) reported that this
species attained population peaks coincident with those of white
flies and that white flies were more suitable than other tested
hosts. Distribution: state-wide, except extreme east coast, in
winter, spring, and summer, (G)

Family Hemerobiidae
Hemerobius stigmaterus Fitch-One collection. Distribution: un-
known. (g)
Hemerobius sp.-One collection. Distribution: central in spring. (g)
Micromus posticus (Wlkr.)-Many collections. Laboratory-reared
on T. aurantii. This is a common hemerobiid. Distribution: state-
wide, except north central, in winter, spring, and summer. (Go)
Micromus subanticus (Wlkr.)-Two collections. Distribution: east
coast in spring. (g)








Sympherobius barber (Banks)-Nine collections from P. citri (Ris-
so) infestations. Distribution: state-wide, except east coast, in
spring and summer. (g)

Family Mantispidae
Mantispa sayi Banks-One collection on aphids at Miami, Dade
County, in winter. (g)
Mantispa sp.-One collection from orange leaf at Lake Alfred. Dis-
tribution: central in fall. (g)

Order THYSANOPTERA
Family Phlaeothripidae
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin)-Many collections from C.
aonidum, L. beckii, I. purchase, and whitefly infestations. This
is the most common predatory thrips. Selhime et al (1963)
have shown that this predator can feed and develop on Florida
red scale, purple scale, chaff scale, cloudy-winged whiteflies,
and six-spotted mites. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Go)
Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones)-Collected on L. gloverii and L. beckii
on orange at Citra, Marion County, in the fall. (g)
Leptothrips sp.-Many collections in L. beckii and E. sexmaculatus
infestations. Distribution: north central, central, east coast,
west coast in the spring, summer, and fall. (G)

Family Thripidae
Scolothrips sp. (nr. pallidus Beach)-One collection. Distribution:
north central in spring. (g)
Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.)-Many collections from E. sex-
maculatus colonies. Distribution: north central and central in
winter and spring. (Go)

Class PHYCOMYCETES
Order CHYTRIDIALES
Family Olpidiaceae
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow-This endoparasitic chy-
trid has been recorded from L. beckii, C. aonidum, P. pergandii,
L. gloverii, and A. citrina. Second and third stage scales are
most frequently attacked. Distribution: it is found throughout
the citrus-growing area and is most prevalent during the sum-
mer rainy seasons. (G)








Myiophagus sp.-This chytrid has been taken from all stages
of S. neglecta. Sporangia appear to be identical to those of M.
ucrainicus from armored scale. Distribution: all areas in all
seasons. (o)

Order ENTOMOPHTHORALES
Family Entomophthoraceae
Entomophthora aphidis Hoff.-This fungus has been collected from
an unidentified aphid. Distribution: not known. (g)
Entomophthora floridana Weiser and Muma-This fungus which
attacks E. banks is similar to and may be identical with that
found in P. citri (McG.) Distribution: it occurs wherever the host
mite is found in numbers and when temperature and humid-
ity are high; Selhime and Muma (1966) and Muma (1969A)
have shown that this parasite is capable of reducing Texas cit-
rus mite populations. (GO)
Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski-This fungus has been col-
lected from A. spiraecola. Distribution: nothing is known con-
cerning the geographic and seasonal distribution. (g)
Entomophthora fumosa Speare-This endoparasite attacks late
nymph and adult female P. citri (Risso). Distribution: apparently
in all areas in the late spring and early summer. (g)
Entomophthora sp.-This endoparasitic fungus is known to attack
deutonymph and adult P. citri (McG.). Distribution: it is found
throughout the citrus-growing area and is most prevalent in
heavy infestations during periods of high temperature and hu-
midity. (C)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected several times
from S. neglecta. Distribution: not known. (g)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected twice from C.
hesperidum. Distribution: not known. (g)

Class FUNGI IMPERFECTI DEUTEROMYCETES
Order MONILIALES
Family Moniliaceae
Cephalosporium acraemonium Corda.-One record. Isolated from
second stage S. neglecta. Distribution: central in the fall. (o)
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher-This fungus is known to be associated
with L. beckii and C. aonidum crawlers. Distribution: apparently
in all areas whenever heavy populations of L. beckii crawlers
occur. The distribution is not consistent with C. aonidum
crawlers. (G)








Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been found associated with
P. citri (McC.) infestations in one east coast grove. Only dis-
eased adult females were collected. Distribution: east coast in
early summer. (g)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been collected once associated
with E. banksi. Distribution: north central in winter. (g)
Hirsutela sp.-This fungus has been found associated with E. sex-
maculatus infestations on two occasions. Distribution: central
in the fall and winter. (g)
Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher-This fungus is parasitic on P. oleivora.
It attacks larvae, nymphs, and adults. McCoy et al. (1971) have
shown that this parasitic fungus is capable of reducing rust mite
populations. Distribution: in all areas whenever P. oleivora in-
festations are heavy in the presence of high humidity. (CO)

Family Tuberculariaceae
Aegerita webberi Fawcett-This parasite-saprophyte, known by the
common name brown fungus, attacks D. citri and D. citrifolii
but is more common on the former. Distribution: all areas in the
summer and fall. (g)

Order PHOMALES
Family Zythiaceae
Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber-This parasitic fungus, known com-
monly as the red fungus, attacks nymphs of D. citri and D. citri-
folii. Distribution: in all areas in the summer and fall. (g)
Aschersonia goldiana Saccordo and Ellis-Yellow fungus is the
common name applied to this fungus. It is known to attack both
D. citri and D. citrifolii. Distribution: all areas in the summer
and fall. (g)










CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS


ARMORED SCALES

Aonidiella citrina (Coq.), Yellow scale
INSECrA
*Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach, Aphytis lepi-
dosaphes Comp., Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw), ?Chiocorus stigma (Say),
Comperiella bifasciata How., Prospaltella aurantii (How.), Pseudhomalopoda
prima (Grlt.)

Phycomycetes
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), Florida red scale
ACARINA
?Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer, Lasioseius athias
henriotae DeLeon.

INSECT
Ablerus clisocampae (Ashm.), Adelencyrtus sp., ?Aleurodothrips fasciapennis
(Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., +Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), *Aphytis holo-
xanthus DeBach, Aphytis lingnanensis Comp., Apterencyrtus microphagus
(Mayr.), +Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and P.), Azotus sp., +Chilocorus
stigma (Say), +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Chrysopa claveri Navas, Chrysopa
cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa rufilabris Burm., Comperiella bifasciata How.,
Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Lindorus lophanthae (B.), +Microweisea
coccidivora (Ashm.), Mycodiplosis sp., Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy.,
+Prospaltella aurantii (How.), *Pseudhomalopoda prima (Crlt.), Scymnillus
aterrimus (Horn), Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh., Thysanus flavopal-
liata Ashm., Thysanus sp.

PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

DEUTEROMYCETES
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher


Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Mo-g.), Dictyospermum scale

INSECTA
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach, Aphytis lepid-
osaphes Compere, Comperiella bifasciata How.


Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), Purple scale

Anystis agilis Banks, Bdella distinct Baker and Blalock, Cunaxa setirostris
(Hermann), Iphiseiodes quadriplis (Banks), Siteroptes sp., Typhlodromalus
peregrinus (Muma).










INSECT
+Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., *Aphytis lepi-
dosaphes Comp., Aphytis mytilaspidus (LeB.), Aspidiotiphagus citrinus. (Craw),
+Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli), Cecidomyiidini, +Chilocorus
stigma (Say), Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Exo-
chomus marginipennis Lee., Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), Leptothrips sp.,
Lindorus lophanthae (B), +Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.), Prospaltella
aurantii (How.), Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons (Melsh.), Semidalis vicina
(Hagen), Thysanus occidentalis (How.)

PHYCOMYCETES
*Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

DEUTEROMYCETES
+Hirsutella besseyi Fisher

Lepidosaphes gloverii (Pack.), Glover's scale

ACARINA
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)

INSECTA
Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp., Aphytis lingnanensis Compere, Aspidiotiphagus
citrinus (Craw), Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and P.), Karnyothrips flav-
ipes, *Prospaltella elongata Doz.

PHYCOMYCETES
+Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

Parlatoria pergandii Comst., Chaff scale

ACARNIA
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)

INSECT
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin, 'Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet), Aphytis
lepidosaphes Compere, Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.), Aspidiotiphagus citrinus
(Craw), +Chilocorus stigma (Say), +Prospaltella fasciata Mal.

PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

Unaspis citri (Comst.), Citrus snow scale

ACARINA
Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer

INSECTA
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lingnanensis Comp., Aphytis proc-
lia (Wlkr.),Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw), Oligosita sanguinea (Grlt.)

Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Lesser snow scale

INSECT
Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashm.), Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lepi-
dosaphes Compere, Thysanus flavopalliata (Ashm.)










Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fern scale

INSECT
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp.






UNARMORED SCALES

Ceroplastes floridensis Comst., Florida wax scale

INSECTA
AphytIcs flavt s Ilox., Chi'iloneurts sp., Metaphycits eruptor (I low.), Metaphycu.u
sp., Microterys flavtis (lI( o\.), +Scutellista ciyanea Mots., Tetrastichus sp.

Coccus elongatus Sign., Long soft scale

INSECT
Anastatus sp.

Coccus hesperidum (L.), Brown soft scale

INSECTA
*Aphycus flavus How., Aphycus sp., +Chilocorus stigma (Say), Chrysopa
rufilabris Burm., +Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.), +Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mills.,
Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.), Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm., *Microterys flavus
(How.), Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Scymnus sp., Tetrastichus minutus (How.)

PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.

Coccus viridis (Green), Green scale

INSECT
Cheiloneurus sp., Cycloneda sanguinea(L.), Microterys flavus (How.),
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy., Tetrastichus sp.

Icerya purchase Mask., Cottony-cushion scale

INSECT

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Laetilia
coccidivora (Comst.), *Rodolia cardinalis (Mouls.), Sathrolerota rileyi (\\lsdi.)

Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.), Pyriform scale

INSECT
Aphanogmus sp., Aphycus sp., +Cheiloneurus sp., +Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
Muls., Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Microterys flavus (How.), Telenomus sp.

Saissetia coffeae WIk., Hemispherical scale

INSECTA
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.











Saissetia neglecta DeLotto

INSECT
Cheiloneurus inimicus Compere. Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.), Gahaniella
saissetia Timb., Laetilia coccidirora (Comst.). *Scutellista c!yanatr \ lts

PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora sp.,Myiophagus sp.

DEUTEROMYCETES
Cephalosporium acremonium Corda




NIEALYBUGS

Planococcus citri (Risso), Citrus nnealy bug

ACAHINA
Lasioseius sp.

INSECTA

Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.), Chalcaspis phenacocci (Ashm.), +Chilocorus
stigma (Say), +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks. +Chrysopa cubana IIagen,
Chrysopa claveri Navas, Chrysoplatycerus howardii Ashm., Chrysoplatycerus
splendens (How.), *Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls., Cycloneda san-
guinea (L.), Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.), Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.),
*Leptomastidea abnormis (Grlt.), +Leptomastix dactylopii How.. +Olla
u-nigrrum \rl pilagiata Cs\.. Sathrolerota rileyi (\\lsm.), +Sc!lmnots (Ncphls)
flavifrons Melsh.,+Sympherobius barberi (Banks), Tetrastichus minutus (llo\\.)

PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora fumosa Speare




WHITEFLIES

Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.), Woolly whitefly

INSECTA
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks., Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), +Delphastus pusillus
(Lee.), Encarsia basicincta Gah., +Encarsia variegata How., Eretmocerus
haldemani How., Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz., Eretmocerus sp., +Nephaspis
gorhami Csy., +Prospaltella brasiliensis (Hempel), +Prospaltella sp.

Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), Citrus whitefly

INSECT
+Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), +Delphastus
pusillus (Lec.),+Nephaspis gorhami Csy.

DEUTEROMYCETES
Aegerita webberi Fawcett, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Aschersonia goldiana
Sacc. and Ellis










Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.), Cloudy-winged whitefly

ACARINA
+Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)

INSECT
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Baccha fuscipennis Say, Chrysopa
cubana Hagen, Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), +Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Nephas-
pis gorhami Csy., Scymnus sp.

DEUTEROMYCETES
+Aegerita webberi Fawcett, *Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Aschersonia
goldiana Sacc. and Ellis

Paraleyrodes peseae (Quaint.), Bay whitefly

INSECT
Encarsia variegata How., Scymnus sp.

Tetraleurodes ursorum Ckll.

INSECT
Encarsia basicincta Gah.




APHIDS

Aphis spiraecola Patch, Spirea aphid (green citrus aphid)

INSECT
Allograpta obliqua (Say), Baccha clavata (Fab.), Chilocorus stigma (Say),
+Chrysopa rufilabris Burm., Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls,)
+Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Hippodamia
convergens Guer., Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope), Lysiphlebus
testaceipes (Cress.), Metasyrphus americanus (Weid.), Metasurphus sp.,
Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli Csy., +Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lee., +Scymnus
(Diomus) terminatus Say, Scymnus sp.
PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski


Toxoptera aurantii (Fronsc.), Black citrus aphid

INSECT
Allograpta sp., Baccha fuscipennis Say, Leucopis sp., Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cress.),
Metasyrphus americanus (Weid.), +Micromus posticus (Wlkr.), Olla
v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say










MITES


Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley), Six-spotted mite

ACARINA
+Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Atomus sp., Galendromus annectens (De-
Leon), 'Galendromus floridanus (Muma), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks),
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma), Typhlodromalus limonicus (Carman and
McGregor), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma), Typhlodromina subtropical
Muma and Denmark, Typhlodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)

INSECT
Cecidomyiidini, +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Chrysopa cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa
rufilabris Burm., Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Leptothrips sp., +Scolothrips
sexmaculatus (Perg.), Semidalis vicina (Hagen), *Stethorus utilis (Homr.)

DEUTEROMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

Eutetranychus banks (McG.), Texas citrus mite

ACARINA
Euseius hibisci (Chant.), Galendromus floridanus (Muma), Typhlodromalus
peregrinus (Muma)

INSECT
Coniopteryx westwoodi (Fitch), Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Semi-
dalis vicina (Hagen)
PHYCOMYCETES
*Entomophthora floridana \\ eiser and Muima

DEUTEROMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

* Panonychus citri (McC.), Citrus red mite

ACARINA
Anystis agilis Banks, Galendromus floridanus (Muma), +Typhlodromalus
peregrinus (Muma), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark

INSECT
+Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, +Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Cycloneda sanguine
(L.), +Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Stethorus utilis (Horn)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.

DEUTEROMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.










SPhyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.), Citrus rust mite

ACARINA
+Agistemus floridanus Conzalez

INSECT
Cecidomyiidini, Coniopteryx westuioodi (Fitch). Delphastus (Lee)
Semidalis vicina (Ilagen)

DEUTEROMYCETES
*Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher


SPolyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), Broad mite

ACARINA
Lasioseius sp.



MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS

Automeris io lilith Strck., Io moth

INSECT

Anastatus sp.


Gonodonta nutrix (Cramer), Fruit-piercing moth

INSECT
Trichogramma fasciatun (Perkins)


Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. Smith), Puss caterpillar

INSECT
*Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)


Melanoplus femur-rubrum (DeG.), Red-legged grasshopper

INSECT
Ceracia sp. near dentata (Coq.)


Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.), Broad-winged katydid

INSECT
*Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)


Nezara viridula (L.), Southern green stinkbug

INSECT
+Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.)









O ceticus abboti Grit., Orange bagworm

INSECT
Goniozus sp., +Iphiaulax sp., +Chirotica thyridopteryx (Riley)


Papilio cresphontes Cram., Orange dog

INSECT
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas), Brachymeria robusta (Cress.), Lespesia
rileyi (Will.)


Platoeceticus gloveri Pack., Orange basketworm

INSECT
*Chirotica thyridopteryx (Riley), +Eucerorasia floridensis Rein., Goniozus
sp., Horismenus sp., Lymeon orbus (Say)


Platynota sp., Orange tortrix

INSECTA
Goniozus hubbardi How.


Sibine stimulea (Clem.), Saddleback caterpillar

INSECT
+Apanteles empretiae Vier., Apanteles sp., Palpexorista einaris Smith


Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Fall armyworm

INSECT
Gonia crassicornis (Fab.)


Chrysobothris chrysoela (Illiq), Leptostylus biustus LeConte, Metallic and
Long-horned wood borers

INSECT
Agonocryptus discoidaloides (\iereck), Iphiaulax sp., Labena grallator (Say)


CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS


PREDATORS

Baccha clavata (Fab.)

INSECT

Diplazon laetatorius (Fab.). Pachqneuron allograptae (Ashin.) Syrphophagus
guadrimaculatae (Ashm.)









Baccha fuscipennis Say

INSECTA
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)


Chrysopa bicarnea Banks

INSECTA
Anastatus sp., Arachnophaga sp., Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Chrysopo-
phagus compressicornis Ashm., Dichrogaster bicolor (Cush.), Dichrogaster
crassus chrysopae Ashm., Horismenus sp., Isodromus iceryea How., Tetrastichus
chrysopae (Cwfd.)


Chrysopa cubana Hagen

INSECT
Anastatus sp., Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Camptoptera sp., Chrysopo-
phagus compressicornis Ashm., Cosmocomoidea morrilli How., Dichrogaster
crassa chrysopae Ashm., Horismenus sp., Isodromus iceryae How., Tetrasti-
chus chrysopae (Cwfd.)


Cycloneda sanguinea (L).

INSECTA


Homalotylus terminalus
minutus (How.)


(Say), Tetrastichus melanis Burks, Tetrastichus


Nodita floridana (Banks)

INSECT

Isodromus iceryae How.


Phytoseiidae

ACARINA

Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker)


Metasyrphus americanus (Weidmann)

INSECT

Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)


Semidalis vicina (Hagen)

INSECT
Camptoptera sp., Cosmocomoidea morrilli How., Dendrocerus conwentziae
var rufus Gah.










PARASITES


Aphycus flavus (How.)

INSECT

Cheiloneurus sp.

Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cress.)

INSECT

Alloxysta sp.

Prospaltella aurantii (How.)

INSECT

Thysanus flavopalliata Ashm.

Pseudhomalopoda prima (Crlt.)

INSECT

Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr)





CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS


MITES

Acarids

ACARINA

Blattisocius keegani Fox, Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, Typhlodromalus pere-
grinus (Muma)


SPIDERS

Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.), Spiny-bellied orb weaver

INSECT

Arachnophaga ferruginea Caham, Lasioptera sp., Phalacrotophora epeirae
(Brues), Tetrastichus sp.

Argiope aurantia Lucas, Black and orange garden spider

INSECT

Arachnophaga ferruginea Gahan









INSECTS


Psocids

INSECTA
Alaptus caecilii Grit., Alaptus sp.
FUNGI

Fungus

INSECT
Psyllobora vigintimaculata Say


LITERATURE CITED

SKanavel, R. F., and A. C. Selhime. 1967. Biological studies on Paracheyletia
bakeri (Acarina: Cheyletidae). Fla. Entomol. 50(2): 107-113.

McCoy, C. W., and A. G. Selhime. 1971. Influence of some natural enemies on
blackscale, Saissetia oleae Bern., in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1): 213-217.
McCoy, C. W., and A. C. Selhime. 1970. Cheiloneurus inimicus (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae) a primary parasite of black scale in Florida. Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 63(2): 618-619.

McCoy, C. W., A. G. Selhime, R. F. Kanavel, and A. H. Hill. 1971. Suppression of
citrus rust mite populations with applications of fragmented mycelia of Hirsu-
tella thompsonii. J. Invertebrate Path. 17(2): 270-276.
Muma, Martin H. 1955. Some ecological studies on the twice-stabbed lady beetle,
Chilocorus stigma (Say). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48(6): 493-498.

Muma, Martin H. 1967. Biological notes on Coniopteryx vicinus (Neoroptera: Coni-
opterygidae). Fla. Entomol. 50(4): 285-293.

SMuma, Martin H. 1969A. Coincidence and incidence of Entomophthora flori-
dana with and in Eutetranychus banksi in Florida citrus groves. Fla. Entomol.
52(2): 107-112.

Muma, Martin H. 1969. Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (Acarina: Phyto-
seiidae) on Florida citrus. Proc. 2nd Intl. Congr. Acarology: 135-148.

Muma, Martin H. 1970. The natural control potential of Galendromus floridanus
(Muma) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) on Tetranychidae on Florida citrus trees. Fla.
Entomol. 53(2): 79-88.
Muma, Martin H. 1971. Food habits of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in-
cluding common species on Florida citrus. Fla. Entomol. 54(1): 21-34.
Miuma, Martin II., and A. C. Selhime. 1971. Agistemuns floridanus (Acarina: Stig-
maeidae), A Predatory Mite, on Florida Citrus. Fla. Entomol. 54(3): 249-258.
Selhime, A. G., Martin H. Muma, and D. W. Clancy. 1963. Biological, chemical and
ecological studies on.Aleurodothrips fasciapennis in Florida citrus groves. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56(5): 709-712.

Selhime, A. C., and Martin H. Muma. 1966. Biology of Entomophthora floridana
attacking Eutetranychus banksi. Fla. Entomol. 49(3): 161-168.









INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA, AND COMMON NAMES


Subject


Ablerus ...........................22, 32, 33
Acarids ................ ............... 41
Achrysopophagus .................20, 35
Adalia .................. ................. 14
Adelencvrtus ...................... 20.32
Aegerita ............................ 3, 5. 36
Agistemus .................... 13, 37.3S
Agonocryptus ........................ 25,39
Alaptus ............................... 26.42
Alcaeorrhynchus ................... 19, 39
Aleurodothrips... 29,32.33. 34. 35.36
Aleurothrixus ...........................35
Allochrysa ............. ................ 27
A llograpta ............................. 18, 36
A lloxysta ............................... 20,41
Amblyseiella ............................... 10
Am blyseius ................................. 10
Anastatus ................ 24, 25.34 38.40
Andrechevla ............... ............... 6
Androlaelaps .............................
Anystidae .................................... 4
A nystis .............. ................. 4, 32, 37
Aonidiella ................................. 32
Apanteles ............................ 19, 39
Aphanogmus ............... 19,32,33.34
Aphis ................... .. ..... .......... 36
Aphycus ........................... 20, 34,41
Aphytis .................. 22, 23,32. 33, 34
Apostigmaeus ........................... 13
Apterencyrtus .................. 20,32,41
Arachnophaga ........................25, 41
A reolaspis ..................................... 9
Argiope .................. ................... 41
Asca ......................................... 4
A scidae ............... ..... ...... .......... .. 4
Aschersonia ...................... 31,35,36
Aspidiotiphagus ................ 23,32,33
A tom us ................ ................ 14, 37
A utom eris ................................... 38
A xion ....... .............................. 14
A zotus ................................... 23, 32

B
Baccha ...................... 18,36,39,40
Bay whiteflh............................... 36
Bdella ................. ....... .........5, 32
Bdellidae ................ ..................5
Bdellodes .................................... 5
Bethylidae ................................. 19


Subject Pae,
B im ichaelia ................................ 10
Black and orange garden spider 41
Black citrus aphid .....................36
Blattisocidae ............... ...............5
Blattiscocius ........................... 5, 41
Bonzia ............................... .
Brachyacantha ............................. 14
Brachycyrtus .........................25, 40
Brachymeria ......................... 20, 39
Braconidae ............................... 19
Broad mite ................. ..............38
Broad-winged katydid ................38
Brown soft scale ........................34

C
amptoptera .........................26,40
:araboacarus ............................. 13
(arcelia ...............................18.38
(ecidomyiidae ........................... 17
Cecidomyiidini ........... 17, 33, 37. 38
Cephalosporium ....................30,35
Ceraphron ...............................20
C eracia .................................. 18, 38
Ceraphronidae ......................... 19
Ceroplastes ................ ...............34
Chaff scale ................................. 33
C halcaspis ............................. 21,35
Chalcididae ................................. 20
Chamaemviidae ........................17
Cheiloneurus ..............21,34,35,41
C heiroseius ................................... 5
C helaseius .................................... 10
Cheletogenes ................................ 6
Cheletomimus ............................ 6
Cheyletidae .................................. 6
Chilocorus ......... 14, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
C hirotica ............................... 25, 39
Chrysobothris ........................... 39
Chrysomphalus .........................32
Chrysopa ............... 27,28,32,33,34
35,36,37,40
Chrysopidae ...............................27
Chrysobothris ............................ 39
Chrysoplatycerus .................. 21, 35
Chrysopophagus ...................21,40
Citrus mealybug .......................35
Citrus red mite..........................37
Citrus rust mite .........................38
Citrus snow scale .....................33
Citrus whitefly ...........................35









Subject Page
Clavidromus............................... 10
Cloudy-winged whitefly.............36
Coccinellidae ............................. 14
Coccophagus .................... 23,34,35
Coccus .............................. .... 34
Coleomegilla ......................... 14,36
Comperiella .......................... 21,32
Condylostylus ............................17
Coniopterygidae ........................28
Coniopteryx ................ 28,37,38,40
Cosmocomoidea ...................26,40
Cosmolaelaps ............................... 8
Cosmopterygidae ....................... 27
Cottony-cushion scale ...............34
Cryptognathidae ........................... 7
Cryptognathus ............................. 7
Cryptolaemus .................. 15,34, 35
Cunaxa .................................... 7, 32
Cunaxidae ................................. 7
C unaxoides ............................... 7,8
Cycloneda .........15,34,35,36,37,40
Cynipidae .............................. 20

D
Decadiomus .......................... 15, 35
Delphastus .............15,33,35,36, 38
Dendrocerus .........................20, 40
Dialeurodes ......................... 35, 36
D iadegm a ............................... ... 25
Dichrogaster ......................... 25,40
Dictyospermum scale ..................32
Diplazon ...............................25, 39
Dolichopodidae .........................17
E
Encarsia ......................... 23,35,36
Encyrtidae ................................. 20
Entomophthora ...........30,34,35,36
Entomophthoraceae .................. 30
Eotetranychus ............................37
Eretmocerus .......................... 23,35
Eryngiopus ................................. 10
Euceromasia ......................... 18,39
Eulophidae ............................ ... 22
Eupelmidae .............................. 24
E useius ................................ 10, 37
Eutetranychus ............................37
Exochomus ............ 15,32,33,34,36
Exothorhis ............................ 14

F
Fall armyworm ..........................39
Fern scale ................................. 34


Subject Page
Florida red scale ........................32
Florida wax scale .....................34
Fruit-piercing moth ..................38
Fundiseius ................................ 10
Fungus .................. .................... 42

G

Gahaniella ........................... 21,35
Galendromus .........................11,37
Gamasellodes ............................. 4
Gasteracantha ............................ 41
Clover's scale .............................33
Glyptholaspis ...............................9
C onia ..................................... 18, 39
G oniozus ............................... 9, 39
G onodonta .................................38
G rallacheles ................................ 6
Green citrus aphid .....................36
G reen scale ............................. ... 34

H
H altichella ......................... ..... 20
Hemerobiidae ...........................28
Hemerobius ............................... 28
Hemicheyletia ......................... 6,40
Hemisarcoptes ................... 8, 32,33
Hemisarcoptidae ......................... 8
Hemispherical scale ...................34
Hexacnemus ...............................21
Hippodamia ...........................15,36
Hirsutella ........... 30,31,32,33,37,38
H olotaspella .................................
Homalotylus .......................... 21.40
Horismenus ...................... 24, 39, 40
11yperaspis ............................. ... 15
H ypoaspis ....................................8

I
Icerya ...................................... 34
Ichneumonidae ..........................25
Io m oth ..................................... 38
Iphiaulax ............................... 9, 39
Iphiseiodes .................. 11,32,33,37
Isodromus ............................21,40

K
Karnyothrips ......................... 29,33
K er ............ ....... .. ................ 6

L
Labena ................................25,39
Laelapidae ................................... 8









Subject Page
Laetilia .............................. 27, 34, 35
Lasioptera ............................. 17,41
Lasioseius ......................5,32,35,38
Lecaniobius ........................... 25, 34
Ledermuelleria ........................ 14
L eis ..................................... 15, 36
Lepidosaphes ........................... 32
Leptomastidea ......................21,35
Leptomastix ..........................22,35
Leptostylus ............................... 39
Leptothrips ...................... 29, 33, 37
L esp esia ..................................... 18
Lesser snow scale .................... 33
Leucopis .............................. 17, 36
Lindorus ......................... 16,32,33
Longhorned wood borers ...........39
Long soft scale ........................... 34
Lym eon ................................. 25,39
Lysiphlebus ...................... 19,36,41
M
Macrocheles .............................. 9
Macrochelidae ............................. 9
Mantispa .................................. 29
Mantispidae...............................29
Megalopyge ..............................38
M elanoplus ..................................38
Metallic wood borers ................39
Metaphycus ........................... 22,33
Metasyrphus ................... 18, 36, 40
M execheles ................................ 6
Microcentrum .............................38
Micromus .............................. 28,36
Microterys ............................ 22,34
Microweisea ................... 16, 32,33
Moniliaceae ............................... 30
Mycodiplosis ......................... 17,32
Myiophagus ............29, 30,32,33,35
Mymaridae ................................ 26

N
Neomymar .................................26
Nephaspis ...................... 16,35,36
Neophyllobiidae ..........................9
N eophyllobius ............................... 9
N eoseiulus ................................. I
N ezara ............:......................... 38
Nodele ................................... 6
N odita ... ........ ................. 28, 40
Noeledius .................................. 11

O iketicus ....................................
O iketicus ................................ 39


Oligosita ................................. 27, 33
Olla .................... 16,32,34,35,36,37
O lolaelaps .................... ................9
O lpidiaceae ................................29
Ooencyrtus ...............................22
Orange bagworm .......................39
Orange basketworm ..................39
Orange dog ................................39
Orange tortrix ...........................39
O rientiseius ................................ II
Oudmansicheyla ........................ 7
P
Pachygnathidae .........................10
Pachygnathus ............................10
Pachyneuron ........................ 26,39
Palpexorista ........................... 18,39
Panonvehus ................................37
P ap ilio ........................................ 39
Paraleyrodes .............................. 36
Paraamblyseius .......................... 11
Paraseiulella .............................. 11
Parlatoria ................................... 33
Pentatomidae ............................19
Phalacrotophora.................... 18,41
Phlaeothripidae ..........................29
Phoridae ................................... 18
Phym ata ............................ ..... 19
Phymatidae ................................ 19
Phyllocoptruta .......................... 38
Phytoscutus .......................11,41
Phytoseiidae .......................... 10,40
Phytoseiulus .............................. 11
Pinnaspis ................................ 33,34
Planococcus .................................35
Platoeceticus ..............................39
Platynota ................................... 39
Polyphagotarsonemus ................38
Proctolaelaps .............................5,6
Proprioseiopsis ................11, 12,37
Prosocheyla .................................. 7
Prospaltella ............ 24,32,33,35,41
Protogamasellus ...........................
Protopulvinaria ........................ 34
Pseudhomalopoda ...........22,32,41
Pseudoparasitus ............................9
Pseudopvgmephorus .............. 13
Psocids .......................... .......42
Psyllobora ........................... 16,42
Pteromalidae ............................26
Purple scale ............................... 32
Puss caterpillar ........................... 38
Pvemotidae ................................. 13
Pyralidae ................. .............. 27


Subject


Page









Subject Page
Pyriform scale ...........................34

R
Raphignathidae .......................... 13
Raphignathus ............................. 13
Red-legged grasshopper ...........38
R odolia .................................. 16, 34

S
Saddleback caterpillar ...............39
Saissetia ............................... 34,35
Saniosuls ................................. 14
Sathrolerota ..................... 27,34,35
Scelionidae ................................ 26
Scolothrips ............................ 29,37
Scutellista .......................... 26, 34, 35
Scvmnillodes ......................... 16,34
Sc rym nillus ............................. 16,32
Scymnus ..................... 16,17,32,33
34, 35, 36
Semidalis .................... 28, 33, 37,40
Sibine ...................................... 39
Siteroptes .............................. 13, 32
Six-spotted mite ........................37
Southern green stinkbug ...........38
Spilochalcis ................................20
Spiny-bellied orb weaver ...........41
Spirea aphid ................................ 36
Spodoptera ................................ 39
Stethorus ............................... 7,37
Stigm aeidae ...............................13
Stigmaeus ................................. 14
Sympherobius ......................29,35
Syrphidae ................................. 18
Syrphophagus ..................22,39,40
Systasis ................. ................... 26

T
T achinidae ............................... 18
Telenomus ............................ 26,34
Tetraleurodes ............................. 36
Tetrastichus ............24,34,35,40,41
Texas citrus mite .......................37
T hripidae ............................... ... 29
Thvsanidae .................................26
Thysanoptera .........................29
Thysanus ...............26,27,32,33,41
T oxoptera .................................. 36
Trichogramma ...................... 27,38
Trichogrammatidae ...................27
Trichopoda ........................... 19,38
Trombidiidae .............................14
Trombidium........................... 14
Tuberculariaceae .....................31
Typhlodromalus ..............12,33,36,
37,41


Typhlodromina .................... 2,37
Typhlodromips ............ 12, 13,32,37

U
U naspis ........................... ........... 33

W
Woolly whitefly ........................35

Y
Yellow scale .............................. 32

Z
Zythiaceae ................................ 31




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