• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Map
 Key to symbols
 Systematic list of predators and...
 Check list of injurious specie...
 Check list of beneficial speci...
 Check list of incidental speci...
 Literature cited
 Index to families, genera, and...






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida - 634A
Title: An annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027760/00001
 Material Information
Title: An annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Florida citrus
Series Title: Bulletin Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 48 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muma, Martin H ( Martin Hammond ), 1916-
Selhime, Allen G
Denmark, Harold A., 1921-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 44).
Statement of Responsibility: Martin H. Muma, Allen G. Selhime, and Harold A. Denmark.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July 1971."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027760
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000927383
oclc - 24327206
notis - AEN8101

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Map
        Page 4
    Key to symbols
        Page 5
    Systematic list of predators and parasites
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Check list of injurious species
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Check list of beneficial species
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Check list of incidental species
        Page 43
    Literature cited
        Page 44
    Index to families, genera, and common names
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







,ulletin 634A


An Annotated List of

PREDATORS AND PARASITES

Associated with Insects and Mites
on Florida Citrus





Martin H. Muma, Allen G. Selhime,
and Harold A. Denmark

HUME. LIBRARY

SEP 111972


I.F.A.S. U i. o Florida


Agricultural Experiment Station
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
J. W. Sites, Dean for Research


July 1971













CONTENTS


Page

INTRODUCTION 3

MAP _- .-_________________ 4

KEY TO SYMBOLS .....-. .. ........ 5

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES __ ------- 6

CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES -------------- ---- ----..._ -.. .... ,34

CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES 41

CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES _-------- 43

LITERATURE CITED -.--_----.....--..-.._ ...-.... --------- 44

INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA, AND COMMON NAMES 45













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Mrs. Helen

Louise Greene in the organization and validation of records, and

proofreading and correcting this manuscript.









AN ANNOTATED LIST OF PREDATORS AND
PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH INSECTS
AND MITES ON FLORIDA CITRUS
MARTIN H. MUMA,1 ALLEN G. SELHIME,2
and HAROLD A. DENMARK3

INTRODUCTION

This systematic list of predators and parasites of insects and mites
associated with Florida citrus has been compiled from files and ref-
erence collections located at the University of Florida, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred; the United States
Department of Agriculture, Citrus Insects Investigations Laboratory,
Orlando; and the State of Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. Records
used are confined to those specimens actually taken on citrus or in
litter beneath the trees. As a matter of convenience, the citrus-
producing area has been divided into the five geographical sections
shown on the map. Records outside these locations are given to the
nearest town. Evaluation of importance, seasonal abundance, and
distribution are given on the basis of records to date.
Reference identifications have been made largely by specialists
of the Entomology Research Division, USDA, located at the United
States National Museum. In a few instances, entomologists of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division
of Plant Industry, Bureau of Entomology, and authorities at other
institutions have also been consulted. The latter include Dr. E. A.
Chapin, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
(deceased); Dr. Warren T. Atyeo, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Georgia, Athens; Dr. Francis M. Summers, Department of
Entomology and Parasitology, University of California at Davis; Mr.
Harold Compere, University of California Citrus Experiment Station
at Riverside; Dr. William E. Bickley, Department of Entomology,
University of Maryland at College Park; Mr. Ellis G. MacLeod,
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana; Dr.
G. W. Krantz, Department of Entomology, Oregon State University,
'Professor (Entomologist), University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake
Alfred.
'Entomologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Division, *Citrus Insects Investigations, Orlando.
'Chief Entomologist, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. Contribution No. 215.








Corvallis; Mr. Stanley F. Bailey, Department of Entomology,
University of California at Davis; Dr. E. E. Lindquist, Entomology
Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada; Dr. M. K. P. Meyer, Plant Pro-
tection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; Dr. P. E. Hunter,
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens; Dr. Gisela
Rack, Zoologisches Staatsinstitut u. Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg,
Germany; and Dr. Roberto H. Gonzalez, College of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Chile, Santiago. Later identifications have been made by
the authors using the reference material.
Cross-reference check lists of predators and parasites of injurious
species, beneficial species, and incidental species are also included.





















KEY TO SYMBOLS


Subject Symbol

Systematic list of predators and parasites

Following symbols or combination of symbols indicate
10 or more specimens at:

Lake Alfred (Agricultural Research and Education Center) .-. L
Gainesville (Florida Division of Plant Industry) ----- G
Orlando (USDA, Citrus Insects Investigations) O.__.--- 0

One to nine specimens at:
Lake Alfred -
Gainesville g-- ------
Orlando -- o
Specimens retained at United States National Museum --- USNM

Check list of injurious species

Predatory or parasitic habit questionable -- ------ -- ?
Important predator or parasite ---.-- -------- -
Common predator or parasite -- ---------- +








SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PREDATORS AND PARASITES
Class ARACHNIDA
Order ACARINA

Family Anystidae
Anystis agilis Banks-Many collections from scaly orange leaves. This
predator has been observed feeding on Lepidosaphes beckii
(Newm.) crawlers and Panonychus citri (McG.). Distribution:
north central, central, and east coast in fall and winter. (L)
Family Ascidae
Asca citri Hurlbutt-Many collections from citrus leaves and fruit.
Distribution: state-wide in winter and spring. (L)
Asca duosetosa Fox-Many collections from litter and scaly leaves.
No feeding records. Distribution: north central and east coast the
year round. (Lo)
Asca garmani Hurlbutt-Seven collections from citrus litter. Distri-
bution: north central, central, and east coast in the spring and
fall. (1)
Asca muma Hurlbutt-Many collections from citrus litter, leaves, and
bark. Distribution: state-wide in winter and spring. (L)
Asca- mumata DeLeon-Three collections from citrus bark and litter.
Distribution: east and west coast in winter, spring, and summer.
(1)
Asca tarsialis DeLeon-Two collections from citrus leaves. Distribu-
tion: south central in fall. (1)
Gamasellodes rectiventris Lindquist-One collection from citrus litter.
Distribution: east coast in the fall. (1)
Gamasellodes sp. near rectiventris Lindquist-Three collections from
citrus litter. Distribution: north central and south central in winter
and summer. (1)
Protogamasellus primitivus Karg-Sixteen collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: all areas in the summer, fall, and winter. (L)
Protogamasellus sp. near massula Athias-Henriot-Five collections from
citrus litter. Distribution: north central, central, and west coast
in the summer and fall. (1)
Family Bdellidae
Bdella distinct B. and B.-Five collections from scaly leaves and








under L. beckii. Distribution: east coast and central in summer
and fall. (1)
Bdella longicornis (L.)-Two collections from litter under trees. Dis-
tribution: north central in winter. (1)
Bdella mexicana B. and B.-Three collections on orange leaves. Dis-
tribution: central and north central in summer and winter. (lo).
Bdellodes longirostris (Hermann)-Two collections from litter under
trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (1)

Family Blattisocidae
Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese)-One collection from litter. Distri-
bution: south central in summer. (1)
Blattisocius keegani (Fox)-Eight collections from leaves. Distribu-
tion: north central, central, south central, and east coast in all
seasons. (L)
Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese)-Five collections from rotten fruit and
insect cultures. Distribution: central in fall and winter. (1)
Cheiroseius floridianus (DeLeon)-One collection from litter. Distri-
bution: south central in summer. (1)
Cheiroseius jamaicensis (Evans and Hyatt)-Three collections from
litter. Distribution: south central and east coast in the fall. (1)
Lasioseius athiashenriotae DeLeon-Many collections from insect and
mite infested leaves and fruit. Distribution: statewide in all
seasons. (L)
Lasioseius sp. dentatuss group)-One collection. Distribution: cen-
tral in summer. (1)
Lasioseius krantzi Chant-One collection from litter. Distribution:
central in summer. (1)
Lasioseius scapulatus Kennett-Several collections from leaves and
litter. Distribution: north central, central, south central, and east
coast in all seasons. (L)
Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram-One collection from rotting grapefruit.
Distribution: central in fall. (1)
Proctolaelaps longipilis (Chant)-Six collections from leaves and litter.
Distribution: central and east coast in summer and fall. (1)
Proctolaelaps nemathrix Krantz-One collection from fruit. Distribu-
tion: east coast in fall. (1)
Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Miller) (=hypudaei Oud.)-Many collec-








tions from leaves and litter. Distribution: central, south central,
and east coast in winter and summer. (L)
Proctolaelaps sp. (nr. orientalis [Chant])-One record from litter.
Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Proctolaelaps regalis DeLeon-Eight collections from fruit leaves,
bark, and litter. Distribution: central, south central, and east coast
in all seasons. (1)

Family Cheyletidae
Andrecheyla scutellata (DeLeon)-One collection from Tice, Florida
on calamondin. Distribution: south central in the spring. (g)
Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago)-One collection from
orange fruit. Distribution: central in spring. (1)
Cheletomimus duosetosus Muma-One collection from litter under
trees. Distribution: north central in winter. (1)
Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon-Three collections from citrus leaves,
fruit, and bark. Distribution: north central, central, and south
central during the summer and fall. (1)
Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara)-Six records from citrus seedlings and
litter feeding on six-spotted mites and citrus flat mites. Kanavel
and Selhime (1967) have shown that this species is parthenogenic
and has a wide host range. Distribution: north central and central
during the spring, summer, and fall. (L)
Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker)-Many collections have been made
from leaves and twigs infested with scales and mites. To date,
this predator has been observed feeding only on phytoseiid mites.
It refused other food under laboratory conditions. Distribution:
north central, central, south central, east coast, west coast, and
Archer, Alachua County, in fall, winter, and spring. (Lo)
Ker palmatus Muma-Two collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
east coast and south central in the summer and fall. (1)
Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker)-One collection from an orange leaf
on the shore of Lake Okeechobee near Canal Point. Distribution:
south Florida in the winter. (1)
Nodele calamondin Muma-Two collections from calamondin. Dis-
tribution: west coast in the spring. (g)
Oudmansicheyla denmarki Yunker-Many records from citrus fruit,
leaves, and litter. Distribution: central, south central, and west
coast in the winter, summer, and fall. (L)








Prosocheyla buckneri (Baker) -Eight records from citrus leaves. Dis-
tribution: north central, south central, east coast, and west coast
in the winter, spring, and summer. (1)

Family Cryptognathidae
Cryptognathus cucurbitae Berlese-Two collections from litter under
trees. Distribution: east coast and central in winter. (1)

Family Cunaxidae
Bonzia bdelliformis Atyeo-Two collections from litter beneath the
trees. Distribution: north central in summer and fall. (1)
Cunaxa boneti Baker and Hoffman-One collection of many specimens
from litter. Distribution: north central in fall. (L)
Cunaxa capreolus (Berl.)-One collection from twigs. Distribution:
east coast in spring. (1)
Cunaxa mexicana Baker and Hoffman-Six collections from litter under
trees. Distribution: north central, central, and east coast in winter
and summer. (1)
Cunaxa setirostris (Hermann)-One collection from L. beckii infested
leaves at Archer in November. (1)
Cunaxa simplex Ewing-Many collections from litter. Distribution:
statewide in all seasons except spring. (L)
Cunaxa taurus Kramer-Many collections from scaly leaves and litter.
This predator has not been observed feeding and its hosts have not
been determined. Distribution: state-wide in all months. (L)
Cunaxa womersleyi Baker and Hoffman-Two collections of many
specimens from litter. Distribution: north central and east coast
in winter and fall. (L)
Cunaxoides andrei Baker and Hoffman-Many collections from litter,
two from scaly orange leaves. Distribution: the year round. (L)
Cunaxoides pectinatus Ewing-One collection from litter under trees.
Distribution: east coast in winter. (1)
Cunaxoides pectinellus Muma-One collection from litter. Distribu-
tion: north central in winter. (1)
Cunaxoides whartoni Baker and Hoffman-One collection from bark.
Distribution: south west in summer. (1)

Family Hemisarcoptidae
Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer-Nine collections feeding on Chrysom-
phalus aonidum (L.) eggs and crawlers, one collection feeding on








Unaspis citri (Comst.). Distribution: north central, central, and
east coast in fall, winter, and spring. (lo)

Family Laelapidae
Androlaelaps queenslandicus Womersley-One collection from citrus
litter. Distribution: north central in summer. (1)
Androlaelaps sp. #1-Fourteen collections from citrus leaves, bark,
and litter; 12 collections are from litter. Distribution: all areas ex-
cept east coast, in winter, spring, and summer. (L)
Androlaelaps sp. #2-Seven collections from citrus litter. Distribu-
tion: east coast, west coast, and south central in winter and sum-
mer. (1)
Androlaelaps sp. #3-Two collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
south central in fall. (1)
Androlaelaps sp. #4-Two collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
east and west coasts in summer. (1)
Cosmolaelaps sp. #l-Six collections from citrus leaves and litter. Dis-
tribution: north central in winter. (1)
Cosmolaelaps sp. #2-Three collections from citrus litter. Distribu-
tion: south central and west coasts in fall. (1)
Hypoaspis mumai Hunter and Glover-Nine collections from citrus
litter. Distribution: east coast, west coast, north central, and south
central in winter, spring, and summer. (1)
Hypoaspis picketti Hunter and Glover-Three collections from citrus
litter. Distribution: east coast in summer. (1)
Hypoaspis sp. #l-Nine collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
all areas except south central, in winter and spring. (1)
Hypoaspis sp. #2-Three collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
north central in winter. (1)
Hypoaspis sp. #3-One collection from citrus litter. Distribution:
south central in fall. (1)
Hypoaspis sp. #4-One collection from C. sinensis at Welaka, 8/10/61.
(g)
Ololaelaps sp. #1-Twelve collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
east coast, west coast, and north central in summer, fall, and winter.
(L)
Ololaelaps sp. #2-Five collections from citrus litter. Distribution:
east coast in the spring. (1)









Pseudoparasitus sp. #l--One collection from citrus litter. Distribu-
tion: north central in summer. (1)

Family Macrochelidae
Areolaspis sp.-Two collections from citrus litter. Distribution: north
central and central in summer and fall. (1)
Glyptholaspis americana (Berl.)-Two collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: south central in summer. (1)
Glyptholaspis fimicola (Berl.) -Two collections from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: north central and south central in summer and fall. (1)
Holotaspella bifoliata (Trag.)-Nineteen collections from citrus bark
and litter. Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (L)
Macrocheles insignitus (Berl.)-One collection from citrus litter. Dis-
tribution: west coast in the winter. (1)
Macrocheles merdarius (Berl.)-Four collections, two from litter and
two from scaly orange leaves. Distribution: north central, central,
and west coast in spring, summer, and fall. (1)
Macrocheles n. sp., near muscaedomesticae (Scopoli)-Four collec-
tions from old citrus fruit. Distribution: north central in sum-
mer. (1)
Macrocheles robustulus (Berl.)-Ten collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: all areas except west coast, in spring, summer, and
fall. (L)

Family Neophyllobiidae
Neophyllobius equalis DeLeon-One collection. Distribution: central
in winter. (1)
Neophyllobius mexicanus McG.-Three collections from scaly leaves.
Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Neophyllobius sp. nr. texanus McG.-One collection. Distribution:
north central in winter. (1)
Neophyllobius sp.-Seven collections of immatures on scale infested
orange leaves. Distribution: north central, central, and east coast
in all seasons. (1)

Family Pachygnathidae
Bimichaelia sp.-One collection from citrus litter. Distribution: north
central in the summer. (1)








Eryngiopus sp. #1-One collection from fruit. Distribution: west
coast in fall. (1)
Eryngiopus sp. #2-Two collections from leaves. Distribution: cen-
tral in the summer and winter. (1)
Pachygnathus sp.-Three collections from bark and litter. Distribu-
tion: central and east coast in the fall and winter. (1)

Family Phytoseiidae
Amblyseiella setosa Muma-Several collections from citrus litter. One
collection from orange leaves infested with scales and mites. Dis-
tribution: west coast in spring. (Ig)
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)-Many collections from leaves infested
with scales and mites. No feeding observed. Distribution: all areas
the year round. (Log)
Amblyseius deleoni Muma, and Denmark-Many collections from
leaves infested with scales or mites. This is the common long spined
mite on citrus. Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (Log)
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)-Six collections from citrus leaves.
This species has been confused with A. deleoni in the past. Dis-
tribution: east coast, west coast, and Keys in the spring. (lg)
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)-Three collections from litter and bark.
Distribution: north central, south central, and east coast in sum-
mer, fall, and winter. (lo)
Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt)-Four collections from leaves.
Distribution: east coast and south central in spring, summer, and
fall. (Ig)
Euseius hibisci (Chant)-Many collections from leaves infested with
scales or mites. Feeding has not been observed under grove condi-
tions but in the laboratory it has been collected from a Eutetrany-
chus banksi (McG.) colony. Distribution: north central and west
coast in winter, spring, and summer. (Log)
Fundiseius cesi (Muma)-One collection from citrus leaves. Distribu-
tion: central in spring. (lg)
Galendromus annectens (DeLeon)-Three collections from E. sexma-
culatus infestations. This predator is closely related to Galendromus
floridanus (Muma). Distribution: east coast in spring. (1)
Galendromus floridanus (Muma)-Many collections from E. sexma-
culatus colonies. This predator has been observed feeding on E. sex-
maculatus and P. citri (McG.) eggs. Grove studies show an inverse
relationship with E. sexmaculatus infestations, Muma (1970). In








the laboratory, the species has controlled P. citri (McG.) and E.
banksi infestations. Distribution: all areas in winter, spring, and
summer. (Log)
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)-Many collections from leaves. This
predator accepted and fed on L. beckii, Lepidosaphes gloverii
(Pack.), and C. aonidum eggs and crawlers in the laboratory but
rejected P. citri (McG.). On one or two occasions, it has appeared
to be feeding on E. sexmaculatus in groves. Distribution: statewide
the year round. (Log)
Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma)-Three collections, two from citrus litter
and one from Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy on citrus. Distribu-
tion: central and south central in the spring. (1)
Neoseiulus marinellus (Muma)-Many collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: all areas in all seasons. (L)
Neoseiulus planatus (Muma)-Six collections from citrus fruit and
litter. Distribution: north and south central in the spring. (1)
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)-Three collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: north central and east coast in the summer. (1)
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant)-This species has been introduced onto
Florida citrus, but establishment has not been proved. Distribu-
tion: introductions have been made in all of the central districts.
(L)
Paraamblyseius lunatus Muma-Six collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: south central in the fall and winter. (L)
Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon)-Two collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: extreme south (Coral Gables) in spring. (g)
Paraseiulella elliptica (DeLeon)-Two collections from seedling cit-
rus. Distribution: central in the fall. (1)
Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma-Nine collections from leaves infested with
acarids. This predator is invariably associated with or feeding on
acarids. Distribution: north central, central, and south central in
spring, summer, and fall. (log)
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)-Two collections from leaves infested
with spider mites. Distribution: east coast and central in spring.
(1)
Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant)-Many collections from citrus litter.
Distribution: south central and east coast in winter, spring, and
summer. (Lg)








Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma)-Seven collections from citrus lit-
ter and bark. Distribution: all areas except east coast, in winter,
spring, and summer. (1)
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma)-Five collections from citrus bark and
litter. Distribution: north central and south central in winter and
spring. (lg)
Proprioseiopsis clausae (Muma)-Two collections from citrus bark
and litter. .Distribution: east coast and south central in winter and
spring. (1)
Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma)-One collection from citrus bark in
Turnbull Hammock. Distribution: east coast in the winter. (1)
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma)-Many collections from scaly leaves
and Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley) infestations. Distribution:
all areas in all seasons. (L)
Proprioseiopsis lepidus (Chant)-One collection from citrus litter.
Distribution: north central in the spring. (1)
Proprioseiopsis macrosetae (Muma)-Two collections from litter un-
der trees. Distribution: east coast in winter and spring. (1)
Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma)-Nine collections from citrus litter.
Distribution all areas except west coast, in winter, spring, and sum-
mer. (1)
Typhlodromalus limonicus (Gar. and McG.)-Many collections from
leaves infested with scales and E. sexamaculatus. Distribution: east
coast in winter and spring. (Lg)
Typhlodronalus peregrinus (Muma)-Many collections from leaves
infested with scales and E. sexmaculatus. This predator is the most
common phytoseiid on the trees. Grove studies indicate that the
species is inversely associated with P. citri (McG.) infestations. In
the laboratory, it feeds readily on scale eggs but in groves has been
observed to feed on P. citri (McG.) and E. sexmaculatus. Muma
(1969) has concluded that this is not a critical species. Distribu-
tion: statewide the year round. (LoG)
Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma)-Two collections from citrus leaves.
Distribution: south central and east coast in fall and winter. (1)
Typhlodromips dentilis (DeLeon)-Six collections from citrus leaves
and litter. Distribution: north central, south central, east coast,
and west coast in the fall, winter, and spring. (Ig)
Typhlodromips dillus (DeLeon)-Two collections from sour orange
leaves. Distribution: south central in the spring. (1)








Typhlodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)-Many collections from scaly
leaves and E. sexmaculatus infested leaves and twigs. This predator
is not closely related to other members of the genus. Distribution:
south central and east coast in fall, winter, and spring. (L)
Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark-Many collections
from leaves infested with scales or mites and from litter. Has been
observed feeding on E. sexmaculatus and P. citri eggs, but is be-
lieved to feed primarily on other hosts. Distribution: state-wide,
except south central, in winter, spring, and summer. (L)

Family Pyemotidae
Caraboacarus karenae Nickel and Elzinga-One collection from litter
under trees. Distribution: south central in fall. (1)
Pseudopygmephorus tarsalis (Hirst)-Three collections from bark and
litter. Distribution: north central, south central, and west coast
in the summer, fall, and winter. (1)
Siteroptes sp.-Three collections from under L. beckii armors. Distri-
bution: east coast in summer. (1)
Family Raphignathidae
Raphignathus sp.-Three collections from litter under trees. Distri-
bution: east and west coasts in winter and summer. (1)
Family Stigmaeidae
Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez-Many collections from leaves infested
with E. sexmaculatus and scales, fruit, and litter. Under grove con-
ditions, this yellow to strawberry-red predator has been observed
feeding on the eggs of E. sexmaculatus, tydeids, and Fungitarso-
nemus pereginnus (Beer). It has also been observed feeding on
Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.) and nymphs of Tydeus. In the lab-
oratory, it feeds readily on rust mites, six-spotted mites, Texas
citrus mites, and scale crawlers. Distribution: state-wide, except
south central, in all months. (Lo)
Agistemus terminialis (Quayle)-Four collections. Distribution: east
coast and central in the spring. (1)
Apostigmaeus sp.-Five collections from scaly citrus leaves. This mite
is orange colored. Distribution: central in the spring and fall. (L)
Exothorhis caudata Summers-Nine collections from scaly orange
leaves. Distribution: north central and central in spring and fall.
(lo)
Ledermuelleria segnis Koch-One collection from litter under trees.
Distribution: north central in winter. (1)








Saniosulus nudus Summers-One collection from citrus litter. Distri-
bution: south central in the winter. (1)
Saniosulus sp.-Two collections from citrus leaves. This is an orange
colored mite. Distribution: central and west coast in the fall and
spring. (I)
Stigmaeus scaber Summers-Two collections from litter under trees.
Distribution: north central and central in the winter. (1)
Family Trombidiidae
Atomus sp.-One collection apparently feeding on E. sexmaculatus.
Distribution: east coast in spring. (lo)
Trombidium sp.-One record from Lake of the Hills, Polk County, on
aphids, winter. (USNM)

Class INSECTA
Order COLEOPTERA
Family Coccinellidae
Adalia bipunctata L.-One record on Citrus sp. Distribution: west
coast in spring. (g)
Adalia sp.-Four records. Distribution: west coast in spring. (g)
Axion tripustulatum (DeG.)-Two records. Distribution: north cen-
tral and east coast in spring. (USNM)
Brachyacantha dentipes F.-One collection. Distribution: east coast
in spring. (1)
Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls.-Eleven collections. Distribution: south
central and west coast in all seasons. (G)
Chilocorus stigma (Say)-Many collections. This predator has been
observed feeding on armored scales, soft scales, Planococcus citri
(Risso), aphids, and whiteflies. It is the most common coccinellid
in the groves. Special studies, Muma (1955), indicate a host pref-
erence and an ability to develop and reproduce more rapidly on
certain hosts, but present information is incomplete. Distribution:
state-wide in all months. (LoG)
Coleomegilla maculata floridana Leng-Three records. Distribution:
central and east coast in winter and spring. (g)
Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls.)-Six collections. Observed
feeding on Aphis spiraecola Patch and a lepidopterous larva. Dis-
tribution: north central, central, and south central in all seasons.
(log)








Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on P. citri (Risso), Coccus hesperidum (L.), and Protopulvi-
naria pyriformis (Ckll.). Distribution: an introduced predator;
Key West, Monroe County, central and west coasts in winter,
spring, and summer. (Log)
Cycloneda munda (Say)-One record. Distribution: north central in
summer. (USNM)
Cycloneda sanguine (L.)-Many collections. Observed feeding on
aphids, spider mites, P. citri (Risso), and scale insects. More fre-
quently recorded on aphids. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons.
(LOG)
Cycloneda sanguine immaculate (Fabr.)-Many collections. Distri-
bution: state-wide in all seasons. (G)
Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.)-Three collections feeding on P. citri
(Risso). Distribution: central in spring and summer. (Ig)
Delphastus pallidus (Lee.)-Many collections. Observed feeding on
whiteflies and apparently on P. oleivora. Distribution: central, east
coast, and west coast in the spring, summer, and fall. (Lo)
Delphastus pusillus (Lec.)-Many collections. Observed feeding on
whiteflies and L. beckii. This is a very common whitefly-eating
coccinellid. Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in all
months. (LgO)
Exochomus marginipennis Lec.-Many collections. Observed feeding
on aphids, C. aonidum, L. beckii, P. pyriformis, and Icerya purchase
Mask. Distribution: north central and central in fall, winter,
spring, and summer. (Lgo)
Hippodamia convergens Guer.-Many collections feeding on aphids.
Distribution: north central, east coast, central, west coast, Gaines-
ville, Alachua County, Homestead, Dade County, and Paola, Semi-
nole County in winter and spring. (1Go)
Hyperaspis signata (Oliv.)-Two collections. Distribution: central
and north central in winter and spring. (lo)
Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope)-Many collections.
Observed feeding on aphids. Distribution: an introduced predator
that is more common in the north central, but is occasionally found
in the central, in the spring, summer, and fall. (LGo)
Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell)-Nine collections feeding on C. aoni-
dum and L. beckii. Distribution: north central and Monticello,
Jefferson County, in the fall and winter. (lo)









Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.)-Many collections. Observed feed-
ing on L. beckii, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comst.), and C.
aonidum, apparently preferring the last. This predator is common
in heavy scale infestations. Distribution: north central, central,
east coast, and west coast in all seasons. (LgO)
Nephaspis gorhami Csy.-Many collections feeding on Dialeurodes
citrifolii (Morg.), Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), and Aleurothrixus
floccosus (Mask.). This is a very common whitefly predator. Dis-
tribution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (Lo)
Olla abdominalis Csy.-Two collections. Distribution: north central
and central in spring and summer. (g)
Olla abdominalis sobrina Csy.-One collection. Distribution: Hialeah
in the fall. (g)
Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy.-Many collections. Observed feeding
on aphids, C. hesperidum, C. aonidum, P. citri (Risso), and spider
mites, but apparently prefers the last two. Distribution: state-wide
in spring, summer, and fall. (Lo)
Psyllobora vigintimaculata Say-Eight collections. This species is be-
lieved to be a fungus feeder. Distribution: east coast and north
central in spring and summer. (lo)
Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)-Many collections. Observed feeding on
I. purchase. Distribution: this introduced predator is state-wide
in all seasons. (1Go)
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy.-Many collections. Observed on leaves
infested with scales and whiteflies. Two collections at Davie,
Broward County, on Coccus viridis (Green) in the summer. Dis-
tribution: east coast and Miami area in all seasons. (Lgo)
Scymnillodes sp.-One collection on orange at Davie in the fall.
(USNM)
Scymnillus aterrimus Horn-Two collections, one from a C. aonidum
infestation. Distribution: north central and central in spring and
fall. (1)
Scymnus (Diomus)terminatus Say-Seven collections, one feeding on
aphids. Distribution: east coast, north central, central, and west
coast in spring, summer, and fall. (lo)
Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh.-Many collections. Observed
feeding on C. aonidum, L. beckii, and P. citri (Risso), but is most
common on the last. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus Lec.-Five collections on aphids. Distri-








bution: west coast, central, and Davie in summer. (g)
Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli Csy.-Two collections, one feeding on A.
spiraecola on Temple orange. Distribution: north central in spring.
(o)
Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lec.-Many collections feeding on aph-
ids. Distribution: east coast, north central, and central in all sea-
sons. (L)
Scymnus (Pullus) sp. near natchezianus Csy.-One record. Distribu-
tion: east coast in spring. (o)
Scymnus sp.-Many collections. Hosts: D. citrifolii, Paraleyrodes per-
seae (Quaint.), A. spiraecola, and C. hesperidum. Several species
may be confused here. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Stethorus utilis (Horn)-Many collections feeding on E. sexmaculatus,
one or two on P. citri (McG.). This predator is common in E. sex-
maculatus colonies. Distribution: state-wide, except south central,
in winter, spring, and summer. One collection from Key West.
(LOg)
Order Dn'TERA
Family Chamaemyiidae
Leucopis sp.-Four collections reared from Toxoptera aurantii
(Fonsc.) infested terminals. Distribution: north central, central,
and west coast in winter, spring, and summer. (lo)
Family Dolichopodidae
Condylostylus sp.-One collection feeding on adult whiteflies. Distri-
bution: north central in fall. (o)
Family Cecidomyiidae
Itonidini-Many collections of larvae in E. sexmaculatus, P. oleivora,
and L. beckii infestations. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons.
(L)
Lasioptera sp.-One record from Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.)
egg case on leaf. Distribution: north central in winter. (USNM)
Mycodiplosis sp.-One record of pupae under C. aonidum armors.
Distribution: east coast in spring. (USNM)
Family Larvaevoridae
Achaetoneura rileyi (Will.)-Eight hearings from Papilio cresphontes
Cram. Distribution: north central and east coast in fall and win-
ter. (lo)








Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)-Three hearings from Megalopyge opercularis
(J. E. Smith). Distribution: north central in the fall. (lo)
Ceracia sp. (near dentata Coq.)-One recorded rearing from Melano-
plus femur-rubrum (DeG.) Distribution: north central in the fall.
(USNM)
Eucromasia floridensis Rein.-Four hearings from Platoeceticus gloveri
Pack. Distribution: north central in the winter. (1)
Gonia crassicornis (F.)-Three hearings from Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith) larva and pupa. Distribution: central in fall. (1)
Phorocera einaris Smith-One recorded rearing from Sibine stimulea
(Clem.). Distribution: east coast in spring. (USNM)
Trichopoda pennies (F.)-Two hearings from stinkbugs. Distribu-
tion: north central in winter and fall. (o)
Family Phoridae
Phalacrotophora epeirae (Brues)-Many hearings of egg masses of G.
cancriformis on citrus leaves. Distribution: all areas in winter. (L)
Family Syrphidae
Allograpta obliqua (Say)-Three collections feeding on A. spiraecola.
Distribution: central and south in spring. (lg)
Allograpta sp.-One collection feeding on T. aurantii. Distribution:
central in spring. (1)
Allograpta sp.-One collection at Davie on aphids in the spring. (g)
Baccha clavata (F.)-Many collections feeding on A. spiraecola and
other aphids. This is the most common aphid-feeding syrphid.
Distribution: state-wide in spring, summer, and fall. (Lgo)
Baccha fuscipennis Say-Five collections feeding on T. aurantii. Dis-
tribution: central in fall. (1)
Baccha lugens Lw.-Two collections feeding on whiteflies. Distribu-
tion: central in the fall. (1)
Metasyrphus americanus (Wied.)-Two collections feeding on T. au-
rantii and A. spiraecola. Distribution: central in the spring. (1)
Metasyrphus sp.-One collection feeding on A. spiraecola. Distribu-
tion: central in the spring. (1)

Order HEMIPTERA
Family Pentatomidae
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) -Two collections feeding on P. cres-








phontes larvae. Distribution: north central and Gainesville, Alachua
County, in the fall. (go)

Family Phymatidae
Phymata acutangula (Guer.)-One collection from aphid-infested cit-
rus. Distribution: central in the fall. (1)

Order HYMENOPTERA
Family Bethylidae
Goniozus hubbardi How.-One rearing from Platynota sp. Distribu-
tion: north central in summer. (o)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from P. gloverii. Distribution: north cen-
tral in winter. (1)
Goniozus sp.-One rearing from Oiketicus abboti Grt. Distribution:
north central in winter. (1)
Family Braconidae
Apanteles empretiae Vier.-Two hearings from S. stimulea. Distribu-
tion: east coast in the summer and fall. (o)
Apanteles sp.-Three hearings from S. stimulea. Distribution: central,
St. Augustine, St. Johns County, and Davie, Broward County, in
fall and winter. (g)
Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)-Many hearings from A. spiraecola and
T. aurantii. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (LGo)
Iphiaulax sp.-Two hearings from 0. abboti. Distribution: north
central in winter and spring. (L)
Iphiaulax sp.-Two specimens emerged from citrus limb infested with
longhorned and metallic woodborers. Distribution: central in sum-
mer. (I)

Family Ceraphronidae
Aphanogmus sp.-Four hearings, two from L. beckii, one from C.
aonidum, and one from P. pyriformis. Although reared from iso-
lated scales, these records are open to question, ~s all known species
of this genus are parasites of midge larvae. This listing may include
two species but specific identification awaits specialists' study. Dis-
tribution: north central and central in spring, summer, and fall.
(lo)
Ceraphron sp.-One rearing from scaly orange leaf, no host recorded.
Distribution: central in the fall. (1)








Dendrocerus conwentziae var rufus Gah.-Two hearings from Semi-
dalis vicina (Hagen). Distribution: east coast in spring and sum-
mer. (1)
Family Chalcididae
Brachymeria robusta (Cress.)-One rearing on P. cresphontes pupa,
one from citrus grove, and one from Steiner trap. Distribution:
central in summer and fall. (Ig)
Haltichella longicornis Ashm.-One rearing from mealybug infes-
tation, not from mealybugs. Distribution: central in summer.
(USNM)
Spilochalcis igneoides (Kby.)-One collection from orange grove, no
host recorded. Distribution: north central in fall. (1)
Family Cynipidae
Charips sp.-One rearing from aphids. This is a hyperparasite of
Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.). Distribution: central in the spring.
(1)
Family Encyrtidae
Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.)-Many hearings from P. citri
(Risso), probably hyperparasitic. Distribution: east coast and cen-
tral in spring and summer. (Lo)
Adelencyrtus sp.-One rearing from C. aonidum infestation. Host not
determined. Distribution: central in summer. (1)
Aphycus flavus How.-Many hearings from C. hesperidum and Cero-
plastes floridensis Comst. This is a common parasite of immature
C. hesperidum. Distribution: east coast, central, west coast, and
Miami, Dade County area in all seasons. (L)
Aphycus sp.-One rearing from P. pyriformis and one from C. hes-
peridum. Distribution: north central in the spring and summer.
(o)
Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr.) -Many hearings from C. aonidum.
This species is a hyperparasite through Pseudhomalopoda prima
Grit. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (L)
Chalcaspis phenacocci (Ashm.)-One collection from citrus mealy-
bug. Distribution: south central in spring. (1)
Cheiloneurus inimicus Compere-Eight hearings from second and early
third stage Saissetia oleae (Bern.)-McCoy and Selhime (1970)
recorded this species as a primary parasite. Distribution: north
central, central, west coast, and east coast in spring, summer, and
winter. (o)








Cheiloneurus sp.-Three hearings, one from P. pyriformis, one from C.
viridis and one from C. floridensis. Probably hyperparasitic on
Aphycus flavus (How.). Distribution: central in spring. (L)
Chrysoplatycerus howardi Ashm.-Two hearings from P. citri (Risso).
Distribution: east coast in spring and summer. (USNM)
Chrysoplatycerus splendens (How.)-Eight hearings from P. citri.
Distribution: state-wide, except for the west coast, in spring, sum-
mer, and fall. (1)
Chrysopophagus conpressiconis Ashm.-Many hearings from Chrysopa
bicarnea Hagen, Chrysopa rufilabris Burn., and Chrysopa sp. This
is a hyperparasitic species. Distribution: east coast and central
in the spring and summer. (L)
Comperiella bifasciata How.-Many hearings from C. aonidum, Chry-
somphalus dictyospermi (Morg.), and Aonidiella citrina (Coq.).
Although widely distributed, this parasite is not common. Distri-
bution: state-wide except on the east coast, in the summer, fall,
and winter. (L)
Hexacnemus armitagei Timb.-One rearing from mealybug infesta-
tion, a parasite of hemerobiids. Distribution: central in summer.
(USNM)
Homalotylus terminalus (Say)-Many hearings from C. sanguine
larvae. Distribution: north central and east coast in the spring
and summer. (Lo)
Isodromus iceryae How.-Many hearings from C. bicarnea, Chrysopa
cubana McC1., Chrysopa claveri Navas, and Chrysopa sp. Distri-
bution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (L)
Leptomastidea abnormis (Grlt.)-Many hearings from P. citri (Risso).
This is a common parasite of immature P. citri (Risso). Distribu-
tion: state-wide, except on the west coast, in spring and summer.
(Lo)
Leptomastix dactylopii How.-Many hearings from P. citri (Risso).
This is a common parasite of mature P. citri (Risso). Distribution:
north central, central, and east coast in spring, summer, and fall.
(Lo)
Metaphycus eruptor (How.)-One rearing from C. floridensis. Dis-
tribution: central in winter. (1)
Metaphycus sp.-One rearing from C. floridensis. Distribution: cen-
tral in winter. (1)
Microterys flavus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum, three
from P. pyriformis, one from C. viridis, and one from C. floridensis.








This is a common parasite of young scales. Distribution: state-
wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Ooencyrtus submetallicus (How.)-Nine hearings. No host identifica-
tion. This is a parasite of hemipterous eggs. Distribution: east
coast in summer. (1)
Pseudhomalopoda prima Grlt.-Many hearings from mature female
C. aonidum. Several specimens have been reared from A. citrina.
This is a critical Florida red scale parasite. Distribution: state-wide
in all seasons. (Lo)
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from Baccha
clavata (F.), Baccha lugens Lw., and Metasyrphus wiedmanni
(John.). Distribution: north central and west coast in the summer
and spring. (Lo)

Family Eulophidae
Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashm.)-Many hearings from young C. aoni-
dum and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). This is a hyperparasite.
Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in all seasons. (L)
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet)-Many hearings from immature and
male C. aonidum, and immature and mature A. citrina. Infrequent
specimens have also been reared from C. dictyospermi, U. citri, P.
strachani (Cooley), and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Sign.). This is a
common important parasite of yellow scale. Distribution: state-
wide in all seasons. (Lo)
Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet)-Many hearings from Parlatoria pergan-
dii Comst. This is a common parasite of chaff scale. Distribution:
all areas in all seasons. (L)
Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach-Many hearings from C. aonidum, A.
citrina, and occasionally from C. dictyospermi. It is a common im-
portant parasite of Florida red scale. Distribution: all areas in all
seasons. (Lo)
Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp.-Many hearings from L. beckii. Infre-
quent specimens have also been reared from L. gloverii, A. citrina,
P. pergandii, C. dictyospermi, P. strachani, and P. aspidistrae. This
is a common important parasite of purple scale. Distribution: state-
wide in all months. (LO)
Aphytis lingnanensis Comp.-Several hearings from C. aonidum, L.
gloverii, and U. citri. Distribution: north central in all seasons. (L)
Aphytis mytilaspidis (LeB.)-Two hearings from L. beckii. Distribu-
tion: north central in the fall. (o)








Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.)-Reared from leaves and twigs infested with
U. citri and from P. pergandii. Distribution: north central in the
summer and fall. (o)
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw)-Many hearings from L. beckii, U.
citri, L. gloverii, A. citrina, and P. pergandii. This is a common
parasite of immature and male scales. Distribution: state-wide,
except south central, in all seasons. (Lo)
Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and P.)-Many hearings from L.
beckii, C. aonidum, and L. gloverii. This is a common parasite of
immature and male scales. Distribution: state-wide in all sea-
sons. (Lo)
Azotus sp.-Eight hearings from C. aonidum infestations. Distribu-
tion: central, north central, and west coast in winter, spring, and
summer. (1)
Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum
and one rearing from S. oleae. This is a parasite of young to nearly
mature scales. Distribution: state-wide, except south central, in
the fall, winter, and spring. (Lo)
Encarsia basicincta Gah.-One rearing from A. floccosus and one from
Tetraleurodes ursorum (Ckll.). Distribution: central and north
central in summer and winter. (o)
Encarsia variegata How.-Eight hearings from A. floccosus and one
from Paraleyrodes perseae (Quaint.). Distribution: central and
east coast in winter, spring, and summer. (1)
Eretmocerus haldemani How.-On A. floccosus at Lake Alfred, Polk
County, in summer. (go)
Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz.-One rearing from A. floccosus. Dis-
tribution: north central in summer. (o)
Eretmocerus sp.-Three hearings from A. floccosus. Distribution: cen-
tral and south central in summer and fall. (1)
Horismenus sp.-Three hearings from P. gloverii, and one each from
C. bicarnea, C. claveri, and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: state-wide,
except south central, in all seasons. (L)
Prospaltella aurantii (How.)-Many hearings from C. aonidum, sev-
eral from L. beckii, and one from A. citrina. This is a common par-
asite of C. aonidum. Distribution: state-wide in the summer, fall,
and winter. (L)
Prospaltella brasiliensis (Hempel)-Many hearings from A. floccosus.
Distribution: state-wide, except west coast, in all seasons. (LO)








Prospaltella elongata Doz.-Many hearings from L. gloverii. Distri-
bution: state-wide, except west coast, in all seasons. (L)
Prospaltella fasciata Mal.-Seven hearings from P. pergandii. Distri-
bution: central, south, and east coast in the fall, winter, and
spring. (1)
Prospaltella sp.-Many hearings from A. floccosus. Distribution: cen-
tral, south central, and east coast in the winter, spring, and sum-
mer. (L)
Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.)-Four hearings from C. bicarnea and
Chrysopa sp. Distribution: north central, central, east coast, and
west coast in the summer and spring. (lo)
Tetrastichus melanis Burks-Two hearings from C. sanguinea larva.
Distribution: south central and east coast in the spring and fall. (L)
Tetrastichus minutus (How.)-Many hearings from C. hesperidum,
green lacewings, C. sanguinea, and P. citri (Risso), probably hyper-
parasitic. Distribution: north central, central, east coast, and west
coast in the spring and summer. (Lo)
Tetrastichus sp.-One rearing from C. viridis and one from C. flori-
densis. Distribution: central and east coast in spring and win-
ter. (1)
Family Eupelmidae
Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)-Many hearings from katydid
eggs, primarily Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.). This is a
common parasite. Distribution: north central, central, and west
coast in all seasons. (Lgo)
Anastatus sp.-Two hearings from pupal cases of C. bicarnea and
Chrysopa sp. Distribution: central in the summer. (1)
Anastatus sp.-Reared from eggs of Automeris io lilith Strck. on lime.
Distribution: Key West, Monroe County, in summer and fall. (g)
Anastatus sp.-One rearing from Coccus elongatus (Sign.). Distribu-
tion: east coast in summer. (1)
Arachnophaga ferruginea Gahan-Two hearings from egg cases of
Argiope aurantia (Lucas) in citrus trees. Distribution: north cen-
tral in fall. (1)
Arachnophaga sp.-Two hearings from Chrysopa sp. Distribution:
east coast in the summer and spring. (1)
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.-Six hearings from C. hesperidum, S.
oleae, and Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.). This parasite attacks
mature female scales. Distribution: central, east coast, and west
coast in the spring, summer, and fall. (lo)








Family Ichneumonidae
Agonocryptus discoidaloides (Viereck)-Two specimens reared from
citrus limbs infested with metallic wood borers. Distribution: cen-
tral in summer. (1) and (USNM)
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush.-Many hearings from C. bicarnea, C.
claveri, C. cubana, and Chrysopa sp. Distribution: east coast and
central in the spring and winter. (L)
Diadegma sp.-Three specimens reared from a lepidopterous larva
on citrus. Distribution: central in spring. (1)
Diplazon laetatorius (F.)-One rearing from B. clavata. Distribution:
north central, no date. (o)
Labena grallator (Say)-Two specimens reared from citrus limb in-
fested with metallic wood borers. Distribution: central in sum-
mer. (1)
Lymeon orbum (Say)-Two hearings from P. gloverii. Distribution:
north central in winter. (lo)
Otacustes bicolor (Cush.)-Three hearings from Chrysopa sp. Distri-
bution: east coast in the spring. (1)
Otacustes crassus chrysopae Ashm.-Many hearings from C. bicarnea,
C. cubana, C. rufilabris, C. claveri, and Chrysopa sp. Distribution:
state-wide in spring, summer, and winter. (Lo)
Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)-Many hearings from P. gloverii and
0. abboti. Distribution: north central in winter and spring. (Lo)

Family Mymaridae
Alaptus caecilii Grlt.-One rearing from leaves. Probable egg parasite
of psocids. Distribution: unknown. (USNM)
Alaptus sp.-Two hearings from leaves. Possible psocid egg parasite.
Distribution: north central and east coast in spring. (1)
Camptoptera sp.-One rearing from pupal case of S. vicina. Distri-
bution: central in summer. (1)
Cosmocomoidea morrilli How.-One rearing from pupal case of S.
vicina and one from sharpshooter eggs. Distribution: central in
spring and summer. (1)
Neomymar vierecki Cwfd.-One rearing from leaf. Distribution: cen-
tral in winter. (1)
Family Pteromalidae
Pachyneuron syrphi (Ashm.)-Many hearings from syrphids, includ-








ing B. clavata. Distribution: west coast, north central, and central
in the spring and summer. (Lo)
Pachyneuron allograptae Ashm.-One rearing from syrphid pupae in
citrus aphid colony. Distribution: central in spring. (1)
Scutellista cyanea Mots.-Many hearings from S. oleae and C. flori-
densis. This is an egg predator. McCoy et al (1970) have shown
that this species is a critical predator of black scale. Distribution:
north central, central, and west coast in summer and fall. (Lg)
Systasis diplosidis Eckel-One recorded rearing from leaf. Distribu-
tion: east coast in winter. (USNM)
Family Scelionidae
Telenomus heliothidis Ashm.-One rearing from unidentified lepidop-
terous eggs. Distribution: east coast in spring. (1)
Telenomus podisi Ashm.-One recorded rearing from egg cluster on
Temple orange leaf at Fort Pierce, Indian River County, in the fall.
(USNM)
Telenomus sp.-One rearing from unidentified pentatomid eggs. Dis-
tribution: central in fall. (1)
Telenomus sp.-Reared from P. pyriformis on grapefruit leaf. Distri-
bution: central in spring. (o)
Family Thysanidae
Signiphora sp.-Two hearings, one from C. aonidum. Distribution:
central and east coast in winter and fall. (1)
Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)-Many hearings from C. aonidum
and P. strachani. Hyperparasite through P. aurantii. Distribution:
north central, central, and south central in all seasons. (L)
Thysanus louisianae Doz.-One recorded rearing, host unknown. Dis-
tribution: central in summer. (USNM)
Thysanus niger (Ashm.)-One rearing, host unknown. Distribution:
unknown. (USNM)
Thysanus occidentalis (How.)-One recorded rearing from leaves in-
fested with L. beckii from Archer, Alachua County, in the fall.
(USNM)
Family Trichogrammatidae
Oligosita sanguinea (Grlt.)-One rearing from bark infested with
U. citri. Distribution: north central in summer. (1)
Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins)-One rearing from field-collected
eggs of Gonodonta nutrix (Cramer). Distribution: White City in
the fall. (g)









Trichogramma minutum Riley-One rearing from material on orange
leaf. Distribution: east coast in winter. (o)

Order LEPIDOPTERA
Family Cosmopterygidae
Pyroderces rileyi (Wals.)-Many collections on I. purchase and P.
citri (Risso). This species is thought to be a scavenger. Distribu-
tion: west coast, east coast, north central, and at Peters, Dade
County, in winter, summer, and fall. (Go)
Family Phycitidae
Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.)-Many collections of larvae tunneling
among S. oleae, C. hesperidum, P. citri (Risso), and I. purchase on
leaves and twigs. Distribution: state-wide the year-round. (Go)

Order NEUROPTERA
Family Chrysopidae
Allochrysa virginica (Fitch)-One collection from orange tree. Dis-
tribution: central in fall. (1)
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks-Many collections from insect and mite in-
festations. This is the most abundant chrysopid. Distribution:
state-wide in all seasons. (L)
Chrysopa claveri Navas-Many collections from insect and mite infes-
tations. This is a common predator in some groves. Distribution:
state-wide, except north central, in fall, winter, and spring. (L)
Chrysopa cubana Hagen-Many collections from P. citri (Risso), P.
citri (McG.), C. aonidum, E. sexmaculatus, and D. citrifolii infes-
tations. This predator is common in some groves. Distribution:
state-wide in spring, summer, and fall. (L)
Chrysopa externa Hagen-Four collections from orange trees. Distri-
bution: north central and central in winter and spring. (1)
Chrysopa rufilabris Burm.-Many collections from insect and mite in-
festations. This is the second most abundant chrysopid. Distribu-
tion: state-wide in fall, winter, and spring. (Lo)
Nodita callota (Banks)-Four collections from trees. Distribution:
central, south central, and west coast in fall and winter. (1)
Nodita floridana (Banks)-Many collections from trees. Distribution:
central, south central, and west coast in summer, fall, and winter.
(L)









Nodita pavida (Hagen)-Many collections from trees. Distribution:
state-wide, except north central, in fall, winter, and spring. (L)
Family Coniopterygidae
Coniopteryx westwoodi (Fitch)-Five collections from citrus trees.
Adults feed on P. oleivora; larvae on Texas citrus mites. Distribu-
tion: east coast and central during winter. (1)
Semidalis vicina (Hagen)-Many collections from trees. Adults feed
on P. oleivora, larvae on scale crawlers and spider mites. Distribu-
tion: state-wide, except extreme east coast, in winter, spring, and
summer. (Lg)
Family Hemerobiidae
Hemerobius stigmaterus Fitch-One collection. Distribution: un-
known. (1)
Hemerobius sp.-One collection. Distribution: central in spring. (g)
Micromus posticus (Wlkr.)-Many collections. Laboratory-reared on
T. aurantii. This is a common hemerobiid. Distribution: state-
wide, except north central, in winter, spring, and summer. (Lo)
Micromus subanticus (Wlkr.)-Two collections. Distribution: east
coast in spring. (Ig)
Sympherobius barberi (Banks)-Nine collections from P. citri (Risso)
infestations. Distribution: state-wide, except east coast, in spring
and summer. (1)
Family Mantispidae
Mantispa sayi Banks-One collection on aphids at Miami, Dade Coun-
ty, in winter. (g)
Mantispa sp.-One collection from orange leaf at Lake Alfred. Distri-
bution: central in fall. (1)

Order THYSANOPTERA
Family Phlaeothripidae
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin)-Many collections from C.
aonidum, L. beckii, I. purchase, and whitefly infestations. This is
the most common predatory thrips. Selhime et al (1963) have
shown that this predator can feed and develop on Florida red scale,
purple scale, chaff scale, cloudy-winged whiteflies, and six-spotted
mites. Distribution: state-wide in all seasons. (LGo)
Haplothrips merrilli Watson-Collected on L. gloverii and L. beckii
on orange at Citra, Marion County, in the fall. (g)









Leptothrips sp.-Many collections in L. beckii and E. sexmaculatus
infestations. Distribution: north central, central, east coast, west
coast in the spring, summer, and fall. (L)
Family Thripidae
Scolothrips sp. (nr. pallidus Beach)-One collection. Distribution:
north central in spring. (g)
Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.)-Many collections from E. sexmac-
ulatus colonies. Distribution: north central and central in winter
and spring. (Lo)

Class PHYCOMYCETES
Order CHYTRIDIALES
Family Olpidiaceae
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow-This endoparasitic chytrid
has been recorded from L. beckii, C. aonidum, P. pergandii, L. glov-
erii, and A. citrina. Second and third stage scales are most fre-
quently attacked. Distribution: it is found throughout the citrus-
growing area and is most prevalent during the summer rainy sea-
sons. (L)
Order ENTOMOPHTHORALES
Family Entomophthoraceae
Entomophthora aphidis Hoff.-This fungus has been collected from an
unidentified aphid. Distribution: not known. (1)
Entomophthora floridana Weiser and Muma-This fungus which at-
tacks E. banksi is similar to and may be identical with that found
in P. citri (McG.) Distribution: it occurs wherever the host mite
is found in numbers and when temperature and humidity are high;
Selhime and Muma (1966) and Muma (1969A) have shown that
this parasite is capable of reducing Texas citrus mite populations.
(LO)
Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski-This fungus has been collected
from A. spiraecola. Distribution: nothing is known concerning the
geographic and seasonal distribution. (1)
Entomophthora fumosa Speare-This endoparasite attacks late nymph
and adult female P. citri (Risso). Distribution: apparently in all
areas in the late spring and early summer. (1)
Entomophthora sp.-This endoparasitic fungus is known to attack
deutonymph and adult P. citri (McG.). Distribution: it is found









throughout the citrus-growing area and is most prevalent in heavy
infestations during periods of high temperature and humidity. (L)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected several times from
S. oleae. Distribution: not known. (1)
Entomophthora sp.-This fungus has been collected twice from C.
hesperidum. Distribution: not known. (1)

Class BASIDIOMYCETES
Order AGARICALES
Family Clavariaceae
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher-This fungus is known to be associated with
L. beckii and C. aonidum crawlers. Distribution: apparently in all
areas whenever heavy populations of L. beckii crawlers occur. The
distribution is not consistent with C. aonidum crawlers. (L)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been found associated with P. citri
(McG.) infestations in one east coast grove. Only diseased adult
females were collected. Distribution: east coast in early sum-
mer. (1)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been collected once associated with
E. banksi. Distribution: north central in winter. (1)
Hirsutella sp.-This fungus has been found associated with E. sex-
maculatus infestations on two occasions. Distribution: central in
the fall and winter. (1)
Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher-This fungus is consistently associated
with P. oleivora. It attacks deutonymphs and adults. McCoy et al.
(1970A) have shown that this parasitic fungus is capable bf reducing
rust mite populations. Distribution: in all areas whenever P. oleivora
infestations are heavy in the presence of high humidity. (L)

Class DEUTEROMYCETES
Order PHOMALES
Family Zythiaceae
Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber-This parasitic fungus, known com-
monly as the red fungus, attacks nymphs of D. citri and D. citrifolii.
Distribution: in all areas in the summer and fall. (1)
Aschersonia goldiana Saccordo and Ellis-Yellow fungus is the com-
mon name applied to this fungus. It is known to attack both D.
citri and D. citrifolii. Distribution: all areas in the summer and
fall. (1)









Order MONILILES
Family Tuberculariaceae
Aegerita webberi Fawcett-This parasite-saprophyte, known by the
common name brown fungus, attacks D. citri and D. citrifolii but
is more common on the former. Distribution: all areas in the sum-
mer and fall. (1)









CHECK LIST OF INJURIOUS SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS
ARMORED SCALES

Aonidiella citrina (Coq.), Yellow scale
INSECTA
*Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach, Aphytis lepi-
dosaphes Comp., Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) Pseudhomalopoda prima
(Grit.), Comperiella bifasciata How., Prospaltella aurantii (How.), +Chilo-
corus stigma (Say)
PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow
Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), Florida red scale
ACAMNA
+Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer, Lasioseius
sp.
INSECTA
Ablerus clisocampae (Ashm.), Adelencyrtus sp., +Aleurodothrips fascia-
pennis (Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., +Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet),
*Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach, Aphytis lingnanensis Comp., Apterencyrtus
microphagus (Mayr.), +Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and P.), Azotus sp.,
+Chilocorus stigma (Say), Chrysopa cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa bicarnea
Banks, +Chrysopa rufilabris Burm., Chrysopa claveri Navas, Comperiella
bifasciata How., Exochomus marginipennis Lee., Lindorus lophanthae (B.),
+Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.), Mycodiplosis sp., Olla v-nigrum var
plagiata Csy., +Prospaltella aurantii How., *Pseudhomalopoda prima (Grit.),
Scymnillus aterrimus Horn., Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh., Thysanus
flavopalliatus (Ashm.), Signiphora sp.
PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella besseyi Fisher
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morg.), Dictyospermum scale
INSECTA
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, Aphytis
holoxanthus DeBach, Comperiella bifasciata How.
Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), Purple scale
ACARINA
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
Anystis agilis Banks, Bdella distinct B. and B., Siteroptes sp., Cunaxa seti-
rostris (Hermann).
INSECTA
+Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Aphanogmus sp., *Aphytis lepi-
dosaphes Comp., Aphytis mytilaspidus (LeB.), Aspidiotiphagus citrinus
(Craw), +Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and B.), +Chilocorus stigma
(Say), Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Semidalis vicina (Hagen), Delphastus










pusillus (Lec.), Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Haplothrips merrilli Watson,
Itonidini, Leptothrips sp., Lindorus lophanthae (B.), +Microweisea cocci-
divora (Ashm.), Prospaltela aurantii (How.), Scymnus (Nephus) flaoifrons
Melsh., Thysanus occidentalis (How.)
PHYCOMYCETES
*Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow
BASIDIOMYCETES
+Hirsutella besseyi Fisher

Lepidosaphes gloverii (Pack.), Glover's scale
ACARINA
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
INSECT
Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp., Aphytis lingnanensis Cbmpere, Aspidiotiphagus
citrinus (Craw), Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (B. and B.), Haplothrips mer-
rilli Watson, *Prospaltella elongata Doz.
PHYCOMYCETES
+Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

Parlatoria pergandii Comst., Chaff scale
ACARINA
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
INSECT
*Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet), Aphytis proclia (Wlkr.), Aphytis lepidosaphes
Compere, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw), +Chilocorus stigma (Say),
+Prospaltella fasciata Mal., +Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin
PHYCOMYCETES
Myiophagus ucrainicus (Wise) Sparrow

Unaspis citri (Comst.), Citrus snow scale

ACARINA
Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer

INSECTA
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lingnanensis Comp., Aphytis proc-
lia (Wlkr.), Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw), Oligosita sanguine (Grit.)

Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Lesser snow scale

INSECTA
Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Ablerus
clisiocampae (Ashm.) Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)

Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fern scale

INSECT
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp.










UNARMORED SCALES


Ceroplastes floridensis Comst., Florida wax scale
INSECT
Aphycus flavus How., Cheiloneurus sp., Metaphycus eruptor (How.), Meta-
phycus sp., +Scutellista cyanea Mots., Tetrastichus sp., Microterys flavus
(How.)

Coccus elongatus Sign., Long soft scale
INSECTA
Anastatus sp.

Coccus hesperidum (L.), Brown soft scale
INSECTA
*Aphycus flaus How., Aphycus sp., +Chilocorus stigma (Say), Chrysopa
rufilabris Burm., +Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.), +Cryptolaemus montrou-
zieri Muls., Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.), Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.,
*Microterys flavus (How.), OUla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Scymnus sp.,
Tetrastichus minutus (How.)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.

Coccus viridis (Green), Green scale
INSECTA
Cheiloneurus sp., Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Microterys flavus (How.),
Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy., Tetrastichus sp.

Icerya purchase Mask., Cottony-cushion scale
INSECTA
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Exochomus marginipennis Lec.,
Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.), ?Pyroderces rileyi (Wals.), *Rodolia cardinalis
(Muls.)

Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.), Pyriform scale
INSECTA
Aphanogmus sp., Aphycus sp., +Cheiloneurus sp., +Cryptolaemus mon-
trouzieri Muls., Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Microterys flavus (How.),
Telenomus sp.

Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.), Hemispherical scale
INSECTA
Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm.

Saissetia oleae (Bern.), Black scale
INSECT
Cheiloneurus inimicus Compere, Coccophagus lycimnia (Wlkr.), Laetilia
coccidivora (Comst.), Lecaniobius cockerelli Ashm., *Scutelista cyanea Mots.
PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora sp.









MEALYBUGS

Planococcus citri (Risso), Citrus mealybug
ACARNA
Lasioseius sp.
INSECTA
Achrysopophagus dactylopii (How.),+Chilocorus stigma (Say), +Chrysopa
cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Chrysopa claveri Navas, Chry-
soplatycerus howardii Ashm., Chrysoplatycerus splendens (How.), *Crypto-
laemus montrouzieri Muls., Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Decadiomus baha-
micus (Csy.), Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.),*Leptomastidea abnormis
(Grit.), +Leptomastix dactylopii How., -Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy.,
?Pyroderces rileyi (Wals.), +Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons Melsh., +Sym-
pherobius barberi (Banks), Tetrastichus minutus (How.), Chalcaspis phe-
nacocci (Ashm.)
PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora fumosa Speare

WHITEFLIES

Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.), Woolly whitefly
INSECTA
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks., Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), +Delphastus pusil-
lus (Lec.), Encarsia basicincta Gab., +Encarsia variegata How., Eretmocerus
haldemani How., Eretmocerus portoricensis Doz., Eretmocerus sp., +Neph-
aspis gorhami Csy., +Prospaltella brasiliensis (Hempel), +Prospaltella sp.
Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), Citrus whitefly
INSECTA
+Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Delphastus pallidus (Lee.),
+Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), +Nephaspis gorhami Csy.
DEUTEROMYCETES
Aegerita webberi Fawcett, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Aschersonia
goldiana Sacc. and Ellis
Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.), Cloudy-winged whitefly
ACARINA
+Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
INSECTA
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Chrysopa cubana Hagen, Delphastus
pallidus (Lec.), +Delphastus pusillus (Lec.), Nephaspis gorhami Csy.,
Scymnus sp., Baccha lugens Lw.
DEUTEROMYCETES
+Aegerita webberi Fawcett, *Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber, *Aschersonia
goldiana Sacc. and Ellis
Paraleyrodes perseae (Quaint.), Bay whitefly
INSECTA
Scymnus sp., Encarsia variegata How.










Tetraleurodes ursorum Ckll.
INSECTA
Encarsia basicincta Gah.

APHIDS

Aphis spiraecola Patch, Spirea aphid (green citrus aphid)
INSECTA
Allograpta obliqua (Say), Baccha clavata (F.), Metasyrphus americanus
(Weid.), Metasyrphus sp., Chilocorus stigma (Say), +Chrysopa rufilabris
Burm., Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Muls.), +Cycloneda sanguine
(L.), Exochomus marginipennis Lec., Hippodamia convergens Guer., Leis
dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope), Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli Csy.,
+Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis Lee., +Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say,
Scymnus sp., Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)
PHYCOMYCETES
+Entomophthora fresenii Nowakowski
Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsc.), Black citrus aphid
INSECTA
Allograpta sp., Baccha fuscipennis Say, Metasyrphus americanus (Weid.),
Leucopis sp., +Micromus posticus (Wlkr.), Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy.,
Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus Say, Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)

MrrES

Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley), Six-spotted mite
ACARINA
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), Typhlo-
dromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor), Typhlodromalus peregrinus
(Muma), Typhlodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon), Atomus sp., Galendro-
mus annectens (DeLeon), *Galendromus floridanus (Muma), +Agistemus
floridanus Gonzalez, Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark
INSECTA
Chrysopa cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, +Chrysopa rufilabris
Burm., Cycloneda sanguine (L.), Itonidini, Leptothrips sp., +Scolothrips
sexmaculatus (Perg.), Semidalis vicina (Hagen), *Stethorus utilis (Horn.)
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.
Eutetranychus banks (McG.), Texas citrus mite
ACARINA
Euseius hibisci (Chant.), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma), Galendromus
floridanus (Muma)
INSECTA
Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Coniopteryx westwoodi (Fitch), Semidalis
vicina (Hagen)
PHYCOMYCETES
*Entomophthora floridanus Weiser and Muma
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.










Panonychus citri (McG.), Citrus red mite
ACARINA
-Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma), Anystis agilis Banks, Galendromus
floridanus (Muma), Typhlodromina subtropical Muma and Denmark
INSECTA
+Chrysopa cubana Hagen, +Chrysopa bicarnea Banks, Cycloneda san-
guinea (L.), +Olla v-nigrum var plagiata Csy., Stethorus utilis (Horn)
PHYCOMYCETES
Entomophthora sp.
BASIDIOMYCETES
Hirsutella sp.

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.), Citrus rust mite

ACARINA
+Agistenus floridanus Gonzalez
INSECTA
Coniopteryx westwoodi (Fitch), Delphastus pallidus (Lec.), Itonidini, Semi-
dalis vicina (Hagen)
BASIDIOMYCETES
*Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher

Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), Broad mite
ACARINA
Lasioseius sp.

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS

Automeris io lilith Strck., lo moth

INSECTA
Anastatus sp.

Gonodonta nutrix (Cramer), Fruit-piercing moth

INSECTA
Trichogramma fasciatus (Perkins)

Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. Smith), Puss caterpillar

INSECTA
*Carcelia lagoae (Tns.)

Melanoplus femur-rubrum (DeG.), Red-legged grasshopper
INSECTA
Ceracia sp. near dentata Coq.

Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.), Broad-winged katydid
INSECTA
'Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh and Riley)

39










Nezara viridula (L.), Southern green stinkbug
INSECT
+Trichopoda pennipes (F.)

Oiketicus abboti Grlt., Orange bagworm
INSECTA
Goniozus sp., +Iphiaulax sp., +Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)

Papilio cresphontes Cram., Orange dog
INSECTA
*Achaetoneura rileyi (Will.), Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas), Brachy-
meria robusta (Cress.)

Platoeceticus gloveri Pack., Orange basketworm
INSECTA
-Eucromasia floridensis Rein., Goniozus sp., Horismenus sp., Lymeon orbum
(Say), *Phobetes thyridopteryx (Riley)

Platynota sp., Orange tortrix
INSECTA
Goniozus hubbardi How.

Sibine stimulea (Clem.), Saddleback caterpillar
INSECTA
-Apanteles empretiae Vier., Apanteles sp., Phorocera einaris Smith

Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), Fall armyworm
INSECTA
Conia crassicornis (F.)

Chrysobothris chrysoela (Illiq), Leptostylus biustus LeConte, Metallic and Long-
horned wood borers
INSECT
Iphiaulax sp., Agonocryptus discoidaloides (Viereck), Labena grallator (Say)










CHECK LIST OF BENEFICIAL SPECIES


WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS
PREDATORS
Baccha clavata (F.)
INSECTA
Diplazon laetatorius (F.), Pachyneuron syrphi (Ashm.) Syrphophagus quad-
rimaculatae (Ashm.)

Baccha lugens Lw.
INSECT
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)
Chrysopa bicarnea Banks
INSECTA
Anastatus sp., Arachnophaga sp., Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Chrysopoph-
agus compressicornis Ashm., Horismenus sp., Isodromus iceryae How., Ota-
custes bicolor (Cush.), Otacustes crassus chrysopae Ashm., Tetrastichus
chrysopae (Cwfd.)
Chrysopa cubana Hagen
INSECTA
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cush., Isodromus iceryae How., Otacustes crassus
chrysopae Ashm., Chrysopophagus compressicornis Ashm., Horismenus sp.,
Tetrastichus chrysopae (Cwfd.), Anastatus sp., Camptoptera sp., Cosmoco-
modea morrilli How.
Cyoloneda sanguinea (L).
INSECTA
Homolotylus terminalus (Say), Tetrastichus minutes (How.), Tetrastichus
melanis Burks
Nodita floridana (Banks)
INSECTA
Isodromus iceryae How.
Phytoseiidae
ACARINA
Hemicheyletia wellsi Baker
Metasyrphus wiedmanni (John.)
INSECT
Syrphophagus quadrimaculatae (Ashm.)
Semidalis vicina (Hagen)
INSECTA
Camptoptera sp., Cosmocomoidea morrilli How., Dendrocerus conwentziae
var rufus Gah.

PARASITES
Aphidius testaceipes (Cress.)
INSECTA
Charips sp.
Aphycus flavus (How.)
INSECTA
Cheiloneurus sp.










Prospaltella aurantii How.
INSECTA
Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.)

Pseudhomalopoda prima (Grlt.)
INSECTA
Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr)










CHECK LIST OF INCIDENTAL SPECIES

WITH THEIR PARASITES AND PREDATORS

MITES

Acarids
ACAmuNA
Blattisocius keegani Fox, Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, Typhlodromalus pere-
grinus (Muma)

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer)
ACAINA
Agistemus sp.

Tydeus sp.

ACARINA
Agistemus sp.

SPIDERS
Gasteracantha cancriformis (L.), Spiny-bellied orb weaver
INSECTA
Lasioptera sp., Tetrastichus sp., Phalacrotophora epeirae (Brues), Arachno-
phaga ferruginea Gaham

Argiope aurantia (Lucas), Black and orange garden spider
INSECT
Arachnophaga ferruginea Gahan

INSECTS
Psocids
INSECTA
Alaptus caecilii Grit., Alaptus sp.

FUNGI
Fungus
INSECTA
Psyllobora vigintimaculata Say

Sphaerostilbe aurantiicola (Berk. and Br.) Petch, Red-headed fungus
ACARINA
Proctolaelaps hypudaei (Oud.)









LITERATURE CITED


Kanavel, R. F., and A. G. Selhime. 1967. Biological studies on Paracheyletia
baker (Acarina: Cheyletidae). Fla. Entomol. 50(2): 107-118.
McCoy, C. W., and A. G. Selhime. 1971. Influence of some natural enemies on
blackscale, Saissetia oleae Bern., in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1): 213-217.
McCoy, C. W., and A. G. Selhime. 1970. Cheiloneurus inimicus (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae) a primary parasite of black scale in Florida. Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 63(2): 618-619.
McCoy, C. W., A. G. Selhime, R. F. Kanavel, and A. H. Hill. 1970A. Microbial
control of the citrus rust mite, Phllocoptruta oleivora with Hirsutella thomp-
sonii I. Initial field studies using fragmented vegetative mycelium as inoculum.
J. Invertebrate Pathol. (In press).
Muma, Martin H. 1955. Some ecological studies on the twice-stabbed lady bee-
tle, Chilocorus stigma (Say). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48(6): 493-498.
Muma, Martin H. 1969A. Coincidence and incidence of Entomophthora flori-
dana with and in Eutetranychus banksi in Florida citrus groves. Fla. Entomol.
52(2): 107-112.
Muma, Martin H. 1969. Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (Acarina: Phyto-
seiidae) on Florida citrus. Proc. 2nd Intl. Congr. Acarology: 135-148.
Muma, Martin H. 1970. The natural control potential of Galendromus floridanus
(Muma) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) on Tetranychidae on Florida citrus trees.
Fla. Entomol. 53(2): 79-88.
Selhime, A. G., Martin H. Muma, and D. W. Clancy. 1963. Biological, chemical
and ecological studies on Aleurodothrips fasciapennis in Florida citrus groves.
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56(5): 709-712.
Selhime, A. G., and Martin H. Muma. 1966. Biology of Entomophthora flori-
dana attacking Eutetranychus banksi. Fla. Entomol. 49(3): 161-168.









INDEX TO FAMILIES, GENERA, AND COMMON NAMES
Subject Page Subject


A
Ablerus ......................... 24, 34, 35
Acarids ................................... 43
Achaetoneura ..................... 19, 40
Achrysopophagus .............. 22, 37
A dalia .............. .............. 16
Adelencyrtus ..................... 22, 34
Aegerita ....................32, 37
Agistemus ............... 15, 38, 39, 43
Agonocryptus ..................... 27, 40
Alaptus ..................... 27, 43
Alcaeorrhynchus ............ ...20,40
Aleurodothrips ............... 30, 34, 35
36, 37
Aleurothrixus ........................ 37
Allochrysa ................ ..... 29
Allograpta ....................... 20, 38
Amblyseiella ..................... 12
Amblyseius .. .................... 12
Anastatus .............. 26, 36, 39, 41
Andrecheyla ................. ..... 8
Androlaelaps ............................. 10
Anystidae ......................... .. 6
Anystis ......................... 6, 34 ,39
Aonidiella ....................... 34
Apanteles ....................... 21, 40
Aphanogmus ................. 21, 34, 36
Aphidius .................... 21, 8, 41
Aphis ..................... 38
Aphycus ........................ 22, 36, 41
Aphytis .............. 24, 25, 34, 35
Apostigmaeus ............. 15
Apterencyrtus .............. 22, 34, 42
Arachnophaga ............... 26, 41, 43
Areolaspis .................. 11
Argiope ................... ......... 43
A sca ...................................... 6
Ascidae .................................. 6
Aschersonia .................... 32, 37
Aspidiotiphagus ............. 25, 34, 35
Atomus ......................... 16, 38
Automeris ......................... 39
A xion ............................... 16
Azotus ............................... 25, 34

B
Baccha ................20, 37, 38, 41
Bay whitefly ............................. 37


Bdella ............................... 6, 7, 34
Bdellidae ................. ............. 6
Bethylidae ................................ 21
Bim ichaelia .............................. 11
Black and orange garden spider 43
Black citrus aphid .................... 38
Black scale ........................... 36
Blattisocidae ............................ 7
Blattiscocius ....................... 7, 43
Bonzia .. ....................... 9
Brachyacantha ....................... 16
Brachycyrtus ..................... 27, 41
Brachymeria ........................ 22, 40
Braconidae ............................... 21
Broad mite .. ....................... 39
Broad-winged katydid ............. 39
Brown soft scale ...................... 36

C
Camptopte'ra ...................... 27, 41
Caraboacarus ....................... 15
Carcelia ....................... 20, 39
Cecidomyiidae ......................... 19
Ceraphron ......................... 21
Ceracia ................. 20, 39
Ceraphronidae ....................... 21
Ceroplastes .......................... 36
Chaff scale ............................ 35
Chalcaspis .......................... 22, 37
Chalcididae ............................ 22
Chamaemyiidae ................... 19
Charips ............... 22, 41
Cheiloneurus ......... 22, 23, 36, 41
Cheiroseius ............................ 7
Chelaseius ............................. 12
Cheletogenes ........................... 8
Cheletomimus ................... 8
Cheyletidae ............................. 8
Chilocorus ............... 16, 34, 35, 36
37, 38
Chrysobothris ...................... 40
Chrysomphalus .................. 34
Chrysopa .......... 29, 34, 36, 37
38, 39, 41
Chrysopidae .......................... 29
Chrysoplatycerus ................ 23, 37
Chrysopophagus .................. 23, 41
Citrus mealybug ........................ 37









Subject Page

Citrus red mite ......................... 39
Citrus rust m ite ......... ........... .... 39
Citrus snow scale ...................... 35
Citrus whitefly .................... 37
Clavariaceae .............................. 32
Clavidrom us ....... .................... 12
Cloudy-winged whitefly ............ 37
Coccinellidae ...... ................. 16
Coccophagus ................. 25, 36
Coccus ..... ............ 36
Coleomegilla .................... 16, 38
Com periella .......................... 23, 34
Condylostylus ......... ......... 19
Coniopterygidae ........ ...... 30
Coniopteryx ................. 30, 38, 39
Cosmocomoidea .................. 27, 41
Cosmolaelaps ........................ 10
Cosmopterygidae ...................... 29
Cottony-cushion scale .............. 36
Cryptognathidae ...................... 9
Cryptognathus ........................... 9
Cryptolaemus ................ 17, 36, 37
Cunaxa ............................. 9, 34
Cunaxidae .............. ................. 9
Cunaxoides ......................... 9
Cycloneda .............. 17, 36, 37, 38
39, 41
Cynipidae ................. ............. 22

D
Decadiomus ...................... 17, 37
Delphastus .............. 17, 34, 37, 39
Dendrocerus ........................ 22, 41
Dialeurodes ............. .............. .. 37
D iadegm a ..................... .......... 27
Dictyospermum scale ................ 34
Diplazon ... ................ 27, 41
Dolichopodidae ........................ 19

E
Encarsia ....................... 25, 37, 38
Encyrtidae ................. 22
Entomophthora ........ 31, 32, 36, 37
38, 39
Entomophthoraceae ............ 31
Eotetranychus ..................... 38
Eretm ocerus ........................ 25, 37
Eryngiopus ...................... 12
Eucromasia ..................... 20, 40
Eulophidae .............................. 24


Subject Page

Eupelm idae ........................... 26
Euseius ...... ................. 12, 38
Eutetranychus ........................ 38
Exochomus ............. 17, 34, 35
36, 38
Exothorhis .................... ..... 15

F
Fall armyworm ........................ 40
Fern scale ............................. 35
Florida red scale .................... 34
Florida wax scale ................ 36
Fruit-piercing moth ................. 39
Fundiseius ....................... 12
Fungitarsonemus ...................... 43
Fungus ........ ................... 43

G
Galendromus .................. 12, 38, 39
Gam asellodes .............................. 6

Subject Page
Gasteracantha ......................... 43
Glover's scale ...................... 35
Glyptholaspis .................. 11
Gonia ............ .... 20, 40
Goniozus ............... ......... 21, 40
Gonodonta .................... ..... 39
Grallacheles .... ..................... 8
Green citrus aphid ............... 38
G reen scale .............................. 36

H
H altichella .................... ..... 22
Haplothrips ............ .......... 30, 35
Hem erobiidae ........................ 30
Hemerobius .................... 30
Hemicheyletia .................. 8, 41
Hemisarcoptes ............. 9, 34, 35
Hemisarcoptidae .............. 9
Hemispherical scale ............. 36
Hexacnemus ................. 23
Hippodamia ............. 17,38
Hirsutella ........ .......... 32, 34, 35
38, 39
Holotaspella ........ ......... 11
Homalotylus ............. 23, 41
Horismenus ............... 25, 40, 41
Hyperaspis ...................... 17
Hypoaspis ..... .......... ......... 10









Subject


Icerya .. ...... ................... 36
Ichneumonidae ......................... 27
o1 moth ................... ....... 39
Iphiaulax .................... 21, 40
Iphiseiodes ........ ...... 13, 34, 35, 38
Isodromus ........................ 23, 41
Itonidini ............... ......... 19, 39

K
K er ......... ... .. ............... 8

L
Labena .......................... 27, 40
Laelapidae .................. 10
Laetilia ................... 29, 36, 37
Larvaevoridae ................... 19
Lasioptera ................. 19, 43
Lasioseius ..................... 7, 34, 37
Lecaniobius ........................ 26, 36
Ledermuelleria ................. 15
Leis ................... 17, 38
Lepidosaphes ..................... 34, 35
Leptomastidea ................... 23, 37
Leptomastix ...................... 23, 37
Leptostylus .................. 40
Leptothrips .......... 31, 35, 38
Lesser snow scale ............ 35
Leucopis .......... 19, 38
Lindorus ........ 17, 34, 35
Longhorned wood borers ...... 40
Long soft scale ................. 36
Lymeon ............................ 27, 40

M
Macrocheles .......................... 11
Macrochelidae ........................ 11
Mantispa ....................... 30
Mantispidae .......................... 30
Megalopyge .......................... 39
Melanoplus .......... 39
Metallic wood borers .......... 40
Metaphycus ...................... 23, 36
Metasyrphus ................ 20, 38, 41
M execheles ........................... 8
Microcentrum ...................... 39
Micromus .......................... 30, 38
Microterys ......................... 23, 36
Microweisea .............. 18, 34, 35
Mycodiplosis .................... 19, 34


Subject- Page

Myiophagus ................... 31, 34, 35
Mymaridae ........................ 27

N
Neomymar ............................. 27
Nephaspis ......................... 18, 37
Neophyllobiidae .................... 11
Neophyllobius ......................... 11
Neoseiulus .......................... 13
N ezara .................. ............. ... 40
Nodele ............................- 8
Nodita ......................... 29, 30, 41
Noeledius ......... ................. .. 13

0
Oiketicus ............................ .. 40
Oligosita ....................... 28, 35
Olla ...................... 18, 34, 36, 37
38, 39
Ololaelaps ............................ 10
Olpidiaceae .......................... 31
Ooencyrtus ..................... 24
Orange bagworm .................. 40
Orange basketworm ................ 40
Orange dog ............................ 40
Orange tortrix ........................ 40
Orientiseius ...................... 13
Otacustes ....................... ... 27, 41
Oudmansicheyla .................... 8

P
Pachgnathidae ...................... 11
Pachgnathus ................. 12
Pachyneuron ................ 27, 28, 41
Panonychus ............................. 39
Papilio ........ .................. ... 40
Paraleyrodes .......................... 37
Paraamblyseius ...................... 13
Paraseiulella ........................... 13
Parlatoria ............................ 35
Pentatomidae .................... 20
Phalacrotophora ................ 20, 43
Phlaeothripidae ................ 30
Phobetes ....................... 27, 40
Phoridae ........................... 20
Phorocera .......................... 20, 40
Phycitidae ........................... ... 29
Phymata ............................... 21
Phymatidae ............................ 21
Phyllocoptruta ........................ 39









Subject Page

Phytoscutus ........................ 13, 43
Phytoseiidae ........................ 12, 41
Phytoseiulus ............................ 13
Pinnaspis ............................. 13
Planococcus ................... 37, 40
Platoeceticus .......................
Platynota ............................ 40
Polyphagotarsonemus ....... 39
Proctolaelaps ..................... 7, 8, 43
Proprioseiopsis ............ 13, 14, 38
Prosocheyla ............ 9
Prospaltella ............ 25, 26, 34, 35
37, 42
Protogamasellus ................. 6
Protopulvinaria ............... 36
Pseudhomalopoda .......... 24, 34, 42
Pseudopygmephorus .............. 15
Pseudoparasitus ........................ 11
Psocids .............................. 43
Psyllobora ..................... 18, 43
Pteromalidae .......................... 27
Purple scale ....................... 34
Puss caterpillar ..................... 39
Pyemotidae ......................... 15
Pyriform scale ............... 36
Pyroderces .................... 29, 36, 37

R
Raphignathidae ................ 15
Raphignathus ......................... 15
Red-headed fungus .................. 43
Red-legged grasshopper ...... 39
Rodolia ............................ 18, 36

S
Saddleback caterpillar ...... 40
Saniosulus ........................... ... 16
Saissetia .............................. .. 36
Scelionidae .......................... 28
Scolothrips ..................... 31, 38
Scutellista .......................... 28, 36
Scymnillodes .................. ... 18, 36
Scymnillus ........................ 18, 34
Scymnus .............. 18, 19, 34, 35
36, 37, 38
Semidalis ....................... 30, 34, 38
39, 41
Sibine ................................... ... 40
Signiphora ................... .... 28, 34


Subject

Siteroptes ......................... 15,
Six-spotted mite ..................... 38
Southern green stinkbug .......... 40
Sphaerostilbe ............................ 43
Spilochalcis ........................... 22
Spiny-bellied orb weaver ..... 43
Spirea aphid ................. 38
Stethorus ........................ 19, 38, 39
Spodoptera ......... .......... 40
Stigmaeidae ..................
Stigmaeus .................. ....
Sympherobius .................... 3C
Syrphidae ........ ..............
Syrphophagus .................. 2.
Systasis .......... ...............

T
Telenomus ....................... 28,
Tetraleurodes ..................
Tetrastichus .................... 26, 36, 3.
41, 43
Texas citrus mite ................. 38
Thripidae .................... ........ 31
Thysanidae ................ ..... .. 28
Thysanus ................. 28, 34, 35, 42
Toxoptera ..................... 38
Trichogramma ................ 28, 29, 39
Trichogrammatidae ......... 2'
Trichopoda ...................... 20, 4
Trom bidiidae ............................ 1
Trombidium .................... .... 1
Tuberculariaceae ...................... 3
Tydeus ....................... 43
Typhlodromalus ...... 14, 34, 35, 37
38, 39, 4,
Typhlodromina ............. 15, 38, 3
Typhlodromips ............... 14, 15, f

U
U naspis ............. ...... ............. 3,

W
Woolly whitefly .................... :

Y
Yellow scale .....................

Z
Zythiaceae .......... .............




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