• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control and station...
 Introduction
 Climatic restrictions
 Propagation
 Culture
 Species and varieties
 Plant index






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida - 223
Title: Miscellaneous tropical and sub-tropical Florida fruits
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027756/00001
 Material Information
Title: Miscellaneous tropical and sub-tropical Florida fruits
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 88 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Toy, L. R
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Tropical fruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tropical fruit -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harold Mowry and L.R. Toy.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027756
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924070
oclc - 18176359
notis - AEN4674

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Climatic restrictions
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Propagation
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Culture
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Species and varieties
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Plant index
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Bulletin 223


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MISCELLA
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GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA,


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BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
W. B. DAVIS, Perry J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President IDA KEELING CRESAP. Librarian
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Director K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor RACHEL McQUARRIE, Accountant
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Asst. Editor

MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M.S., Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph.D., Associate
G. E. RITCHEY, M.S.A., Assistant*
FRED H. HULL, M.S., Assistant
J. D. WARNER, M.S., Assistant
JOHN P. CAMP, M.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian in
Charge
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Husbandry.
W. M. NEAL, Ph.D., Assistant in Animal
Nutrition
C. R. DAWSON, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Investigations
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph.D., Associate
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant
H. W. WINSOR, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. JONES, B.S., Assistant
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
W. A. CARVER, Ph.D., Assistant
E. F. GROSSMAN, M.A., Assistant
PAUL W. CALHOUN, B.S., Assistant
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Assistant


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. BROOKER, M.S.A., Assistant
JOHN L. WANN, B.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph.D., Head
L. W. GADDUM, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. AHMANN, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M.S., Assistant
H. E. BRATLEY, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. ZIEGLER, B.S., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Horticulturist
HAROLD MOWRY, B.S.A., Associate
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Assistant
A. L. STAHL, Ph.D., Assistant
G. H. BLACKMON, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist
C. B. VAN CLEEF, M.S.A., Greenhouse
Foreman
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph.D., Associate
A. H. EDDINS, Ph.D., Assistant
K. W. LOUCKS, M.S., Assistant
ERDMAN WEST, B.S., Mycologist


BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
L. 0. GRATZ, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist in charge. Tobacco Exp. Sta. (Quincy)
R. R. KINCAID, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Farm Superintendent, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
GEO. D. RUEHLE, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
B. R. FUDGE, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, B.S., Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in charge Everglades Experiment Sta. (Belle Glade)
R. W. KIDDER, B.S., Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. N. LOBDELL, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Belle Glade)
F. D. STEVENS, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist (Belle Glade)
H. H. WEDGEWORTH, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
B. A. BOURNE, M.S., Associate Plant Physiologist (Belle Glade)
J. R. NELLER, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist (Belle Glade)
A. DAANE, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist (Belle Glade)
FRED YOUNT, Office Assistant (Belle Glade)
M. R. BEDSOLE, M.S.A., Assistant Chemist (Belle Glade)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
R. E. NOLEN, M.S.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
C. M. TUCKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
H. S. WOLFE, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist (Homestead)
L. R. TOY, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist (Homestead)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian (West Palm Beach)
M. N. WALKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
W. B. SHIPPY, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
C. C. GOFF, M.., Assistant Entomologist (Leesburg)
J. W. WILSON, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist (Pierson)
*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.







MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL AND

SUB-TROPICAL FLORIDA FRUITS

By
HAROLD MOWRY AND L. R. TOY
Florida, in having a climate which is the nearest approach to
the tropical in the continental United States, is peculiarly fitted
for the production of a wide variety of tropical and sub-tropical
fruits and plants. Its advantageous climatic conditions are not
solely due to its southerly location but in part to the warming
influence of the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico. The nar-
rowness of the peninsula increases the protection given by these
two bodies of water so that the intensity and duration of cold
periods are greatly lessened and in some areas in the south frosts
are of infrequent occurrence.
In those sections that rarely experience heavy frosts the mean
minimum temperatures are high enough that they do not retard
the growth of numerous plants that are tropical in requirements.
This is evidenced not only by the many native species, both
herbaceous and arboreal, that are closely allied to or identical
with the flora of the West Indies, but also by the thrifty growth
of numerous exotic plants from both the New and Old World
tropics.
Several of the fruits common to Northern states do not thrive
in Florida and no attempt is made to grow them in a commer-
cial way. Included among these are apples, cherries, goose-
berries, currants, raspberries, and others. This lack of adapta-
bility in some species possibly is due to the southerly latitude
with its fewer hours of daily sunlight during summer and dif-
ferences in light intensity and quality; the short winter season
with the consequent shortening or lack of the annual period of
dormancy; and a difference in soil conditions. Inability to grow
some of the fruits of colder climates can hardly be considered
as a handicap in that so many tropical or sub-tropical varieties
can be grown in the state that cannot be produced where lower
temperatures prevail.
Wide competition in the production of many of the tender
species does not have to be met, owing to the restricted area
adapted to their culture, and the returns per unit for these fruits
should be greater than for the abundant, commonly-grown varie-
ties of more temperate regions. Strict grading, careful and at-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tractive packing, and intelligent marketing are necessary in
order that top prices may be secured. Many of the tropical or
sub-tropical fruits can be marketed wholly or in part as manu-
factured products in forms such as jellies, marmalades, etc.,
which partially removes the uncertainty connected with the mar-
keting of perishable products.
The general fruit-consuming public is ignorant of the quali-
ties of most of the fruits of the tropics. The banana and pine-
apple, of the tropics, and the citrus fruits, of the sub-tropics,
are now the best known and are considered almost indispensable
in the fruit diet even though fruits of the temperate zone are
available. The avocado and mango are gaining in favor, as is dem-
onstrated by the increased consumption of these fruits. Several
others, as the papaya, cherimoya, lychee, sapote, guava, and
eugenia, are well known and highly prized in various parts of
the tropical world but are scarcely known in the United States
except in those very restricted areas where they are grown.
Some fruits are not desirable for consumption in the fresh
state but they can be utilized to advantage in the making of vari-
ous products such as jellies, jams, marmalades, preserves, and
butters. Such products are now being prepared commercially
but the quantity could be materially increased, since undoubted-
ly there is a wide market for them when properly prepared and
attractively packed.
Citrus fruits and strawberries-the state's two major fruit
crops-and some other fruits which are grown in greater or
lesser quantities, as pineapples, avocados, mangoes, blueberries,
blackberries, grapes, figs, Japanese persimmons, and pears, are
not included in the fruits herein discussed, as bulletins dealing
with most of them are either now available or in the process of
preparation. The list of fruits dealt with is intended to include
those miscellaneous species which by actual trial have shown
their adaptability to the soils and climatic conditions obtaining
in Florida, but most of which are not yet grown in quantity.
CLIMATIC RESTRICTIONS
That portion of Florida south of Palm Beach on the east coast
and Bradenton on the west coast, exclusive of much of the
Everglades section lying between, is considered to be the most
tropical. There are localities outside this area that have the
benefit of higher altitudes or water protection, or both, and sel-
dom experience frosts. Some of these locations will support





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 5

tropical species as well as will areas much to the south. The
periods of cold in many places are of such light degree of inten-
sity and of such short duration that the injury sustained, if any,
is usually slight. There is no frost line in the state; all parts
of the peninsular portion have at some time experienced frost.
A record of minimum temperatures and other climatic data for
the various parts of the state is available in bulletin 200 of this
Station, "The Climate of Florida".'
Tropical plants cannot be expected to thrive in locations which
are often subjected to temperatures below freezing. Many of
them can endure a few degrees of freezing if the cold is not of
sustained duration. Ordinarily there is no pronounced dormant
season with these plants which corresponds to that of plants of
the temperate zones. Some are deciduous, being without foli-
age for short periods, but the time of leaf shedding may be in-
duced more by wet or dry seasons than by temperature alone.
Freedom from cold of an intensity that will cause material
damage, and ample soil moisture-coupled with drainage-are
basic requirements that must be met if tropical plants are to be
successfully grown. When the probable climatic requirements
of a plant are known its adaptability to a given area, insofar as
the temperature factor is concerned, can be determined in a
large measure by a knowledge of the past mean temperatures
of the location in question. It is the sustained minimum tem-
peratures experienced, however, that will decide whether the
plant can withstand the cold of any location. With most spe-
cies, the larger mature plants are less susceptible to cold injury
than are the younger, smaller ones. Several species, if given
protection for the first few years, can be grown without further
attention along this line other than during periods of severe cold
that may occur at rare intervals.
Many species that could not otherwise survive may be grown
to maturity and the range of many plants extended consider-
ably by heating during the few hours of dangerously low tem-
peratures. Natural protection should be chosen primarily; arti-
ficial heating is to be considered only as a form of insurance.
It is not possible actually and definitely to outline the sections
where many species may be grown because of the divergence of
minimum temperatures in the various areas of the state. Not
only latitude, but nearness to large bodies of water, elevation,
'Mitchell, A. J., and M. R. Ensign. The Climate of Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 200. 1928.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and other local topographical influences, as well as proximity
of buildings or other trees, exert a strong effect in the matter
of cold protection. Local environmental conditions in many in-
stances give protection to a location that causes it to be much
less subject to frost hazard than another situation having a
much more southerly latitude. The likelihood of frost damage
is usually lessened in locations closely adjacent to lakes, rivers,
or the coast and also in locations having a greater elevation than
the surrounding territory.
With the species listed, the numeral in parentheses following
the common name is intended to indicate roughly the hardiness
of the plant. Thus those marked (1) are the most susceptible
to cold injury and their planting should be restricted to the most
tropical portions. Plants which are somewhat hardier than those
in the above grouping but at the same time quite subject to
cold injury are indicated by (2). The ones designated by (3)
are considerably more cold-resistant than those in the preced-
ing classifications but not hardy enough for state-wide planting.
Species with the designation (4) are the least subject to cold
injury and may be planted anywhere in the state. Because of
a lack of plantings in widely differing locations it is probable
that errors in this classification will be found. On the whole,
however, a general indication of the temperature requirements
is shown.
PROPAGATION
Most of the plants bearing edible fruits produce viable seed
and can be propagated by this means. The variation in the fruit
of seedling plants is so great in many species, however, that re-
sort must be had to other methods of propagation if the desired
characteristics are to be perpetuated. These methods (termed
asexual) include budding, grafting, layering, and cuttings.
Practically the whole of commercial plantings of fruits of the
temperate zone in America consists of plants asexually propa-
gated. Under such a system of propagation inferior sorts are
discarded and only superior varieties increased and dissemi-
nated. The fruiting quality of seedling trees can be determined
only after they have produced fruit while with asexually pro-
pagated plants there is the assurance that each will produce
fruit identical with that from which the scion was taken. Most
species come into bearing earlier when budded or grafted than
when grown as seedlings.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 7

Seeds. Seeds constitute the easiest means of plant propaga-
tion. Many of the seeds of tropical fruits remain viable but a
short time; to insure a fair percentage of germination they
should be planted as soon as the fruit has matured. Small seeds
are usually planted in flats (small, shallow boxes) where the
soil can easily be kept moist. By placing the flats in a semi-
shaded location less watering is required than when the seeds
are planted in an open seedbed. Flats should be so placed that
dashing rains or the drip from trees will not wash out or un-
cover the seeds.
After attaining a height of a few inches the seedlings are trans-
planted to pots, plant boxes (usually about 6 by 6 by 16 inches),
or the nursery row where they are kept until large enough for
permanent transplanting. Large seeds may be planted directly
in seedbeds, pots, or boxes. There are several species that as
yet are grown only as seedlings, many of them seemingly vary-
ing but little from the parent tree.
Budding. Budding is commonly used when perpetuation of
desirable varieties is wanted. The shield bud is preferred over
other methods and is generally employed, except on plants with
a thick bark. Budding is practiced only when the stock is in
active growth so that bark and wood separate easily. The best
season for budding depends largely on the species and must be
determined by trial. Greater success results from midsummer
budding with some, while with others the percentage of fail-
ures at that season is so high as to require that they be worked
during the cooler and drier months.
Grafting. Grafting is generally done at a time when the
stock is in a dormant condition but dormancy is by no means an
absolute requisite to this operation in numerous species. The
cleft, whip, side, and crown grafts are the most common, the
type of graft depending considerably on the size of the stock
being worked.
Cuttings. Many species may be grown from cuttings. This
is a desirable method unless for some reason a rootstock of an-
other species is wanted. Clean, coarse sand is an excellent root-
ing medium for most species. Flats, provided with several drain-
age holes in the bottoms, are filled with damp sand to a depth
of about four inches. The cuttings are inserted to about half
their length and so spaced that they do not touch each other.
The sand is then firmly tamped about them. Watering is re-
quired about twice daily during warm weather as the sand in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the flats must not be allowed to become dry. Root growth in
many species is more easily induced if a portion of the foliage
near the apex of the cutting is left intact. Cuttings of many
tropical and sub-tropical fruit trees may be more readily rooted
if bottom heat is used in the cutting bed. This method should
be tried out on those species which are difficult to propagate
otherwise.
Layering. Layering consists in laying a branch, still attached
to the plant, horizontally on the ground or on soil in a box, and
partially covering it with the soil but leaving the tip portion
exposed. An oblique cut, partially through the stem on the
under side of the branch to be covered with soil, hastens forma-
tion of roots in some species. Chinese or gootee layering, also
termed marcottage, which is frequently used with the lychee, is
accomplished by cutting a branch partially through and wrap-
ping at that point with a large ball of sphagnum moss or other
water-retaining material. With both forms of layering, the soil
or moss must be kept in a moist condition. As soon as roots of
sufficient size and number have formed within the moisture-
holding medium the branch is severed below the newly formed
roots and the new plant is ready for planting.
Under the discussion of each species the common methods of
propagation are indicated. In the propagation of several spe-
cies the work of Wester2 has been followed.

CULTURE
It is not possible to outline specific cultural directions, based
on Florida experiments, for each of the species of fruits because
of the lack of commercial plantings of most of them. Although
some are being grown on a commercial scale, the majority of the
species are being grown more or less as specimen plants, which
has given little opportunity for comparative methods of culture.
Some of the soils of the area suited to the growing of the
more tropical plants are of a rocky, calcareous formation. Cul-
tivation, as the term is generally understood, is not possible on
such soils. Mulches have proven their worth as a substitute for
cultivation on these soils and they are also of value on marls and
sandy types. Large amounts of decaying organic matter will
tend to correct the highly alkaline reaction of calcareous soils
2Wester, P. J. Plant Propagation and Fruit Culture in the Tropics.
Bul. 32, Bur. of Agr., Govt. Phil. Is., Manila. 1920.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 9

and thus bring about a more favorable condition for the growing
of most fruit trees. A rather heavy mulch of any rough vege-
tation, such as grasses, weeds, and leaves, will reduce soil mois-
ture losses, prevent excessive heating of the soil on the warmer
days of summer, tend to control weed and grass growth and, as
it decomposes, add much-needed organic matter. A cover-crop
grown in the middles will furnish mulching material for the
trees and will be the source of appreciable amounts of nitrogen
if a legume is planted. Cowpeas, velvet beans, Crotalarias, and
pigeon peas are among those planted. Continued deep cultiva-
tion is not usually practiced, although shallow tillage during dry
seasons tends to conserve soil moisture by destroying weed and
grass growth.
All of the fruiting trees and shrubs that are later listed re-
quire some fertilization and either light cultivation or mulching
that the greatest growth and fruit yields may be attained. Or-
ganic fertilizers or those partially composed of organic mate-
rials are generally preferred. Applications of a complete fer-
tilizer (one containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) are
made after the plants are transferred to permanent locations.
At first the fertilizer applications contain a high percentage of
nitrogen and little potash but when fruiting age is reached the
potash content is increased. Stable and poultry manures are of
worth both for their organic content and fertilizer value.
Drainage is essential with most of the species. Some trees
can thrive on soils having a higher water table than can others.
Few can survive water-logged soils or those with water standing
over the surface for even relatively short periods. Higher lands
that do not suffer a deficiency of soil moisture are better adapted
for the majority.
Little pruning is practiced for an increase in fruit production.
Most of this work is mainly for the purpose of shaping up the
tree and for the removal of weak, interfering, or dead branches.
With an increase of plantings greater consideration will neces-
sarily have to be given to pruning practices.
In the warmer months, small plants when first set benefit
greatly by the erection of a shade of any sort that will partially
break the direct rays of the sun. The addition of some muck
and compost of decayed vegetation to the holes in planting will
aid plants in starting into a thrifty growth. Stable manures,
well rotted and thoroughly mixed with soil, are used with good
results.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Few parts of the state are immune from winds which to a
greater or lesser degree are detrimental to the growth of fruit
trees. Spring winds, coming during the driest season, may cause
injury by their desiccating effect. Winds of moderate intensity,
occurring when the trees are carrying a crop, may reduce the
yield appreciably as well as lower the grade of the fruit remain-
ing. These hazards may be materially reduced by windbreaks.


Fig. 1.-The sapodilla tree, Achras sapota. (Photo by A. F. Camp.) '






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 11

Natural hammock growth is the most satisfactory windbreak
but in the absence of heavy native growth resort must be had
to artificial plantings. Trees which are well adapted to this use
in the more tropical areas include the Australian pine (Casua-
rina equisetifolia and C. lepidophloia), the Pongam (Pongamia
pinnata), the native black-olive (Bucida buceras), Eucalyptus,


Fig. 2.-Fruit and foli-
age of the sapodilla,
Achras sapota.


and the woman's tongue tree (Albizzia lebbek). The Australian
silk oak (Grevillea robusta) and the bamboos (Bambusa spp.)
are utilized for this purpose in the central part of the state. The
native cherry-laurel (Laurocerasus caroliniana) is satisfactory
in the northern area.
SPECIES AND VARIETIES
In the following listing will be found most of the fruits, with
exceptions as previously noted, which are being grown in the
state. None have been knowingly included that have not pro-
duced fruit in Florida and all photographs are of plants






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


growing in Florida or of specimens taken from such plants.
To facilitate the finding of a given fruit the arrangement is
alphabetical according to the botanical classification. Such an
arrangement of the common names is not possible, owing to the
multiplicity of these names for many plants. Synonyms are
given in parentheses with the common name or names follow-
ing. The family to which each species belongs is also included.
In gathering information incident to many species free refer-
ence was had to Wilson Popenoe's "Manual of Tropical and Sub-
tropical Fruits" (Macmillan Company, New York, 1920) and
Dr. L. H. Bailey's "Manual of Cultivated Plants" (Macmillan,
1924), as well as publications referred to in footnotes. The
writers are also indebted to the many growers who so freely
furnished both information as to their plantings and materials
for photographic purposes.

Achras sapota L. (Sapota Achras Mill. Sapota zapotilla Cov.).
Sapodilla. Dilly. Sapota. (1). SAPOTACEAE.*
The sapodilla, a tropical American indigene, is grown only in
the extreme southern part of the state. The tree is a handsome,
slow-growing ever-
green. It attains
an immense size,
reaching a height i
of 50 to 60 feet o -
and with its dense,
rounded crown is
of majestic ap-
pearance. (F i g.
1.) Its dark '-
green, thick leaves .
are 2 to 5 inches
in length and clus- .'.
tered at the ends %
of the smaller
branches. This
tree is one of the
species yielding a Fig. 3.-Cross-section of the sapodilla fruit.

*The first name given here is the botanical name. The names in par-
entheses are synonymns. They are followed by common names, a number
indicating the hardiness of the plant [(1) is least hardy; (4) is most
hardy], and the family name of the plant.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 13

white latex from which chicle, the basic substance in the manu-
facture of chewing-gum, is obtained. It is so susceptible to cold
injury, even when a large tree, that it can withstand but a few
degrees of frost.


Fig. 4.-The mamey sapote, Achras zapota.


The season of blossoming on the Keys is irregular, resulting
in a succession of ripening fruit throughout most of the year.
The fruits resemble an apple in shape. They are 2 to 4 inches
in diameter, have a russeted, scurfy, thin skin and a yellowish,
granular pulp. (Figs. 2 and 3.) There are one to several shiny
black, smooth seeds. The flesh, when thoroughly ripe, is soft,
spicy and very sweet. The sapodilla is eaten as a fresh fruit





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and is found in limited quantities on the south Florida markets
during nearly every month of the year. There is considerable
variation among fruits from seedling trees and the better types
should be perpetuated by asexual means of propagation.
Propagation is mainly by seeds, although shield budding,


Fig. 5.-Leaf, flowers, and immature fruit of Achras zapota, the
mamey sapote.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 15

grafting and layering are feasible. May seems to be the most
satisfactory month for budding.
Achras zapota L. (Lucuma mammosa A. DC. Calocarpum mam-
mosum Pierre. Achradelpha mammosa Cook). Sapote.
Mamey Sapote. (1). SAPOTACEAE.
The sapote, a Central American fruit, is tropical in require-
ments which restricts its culture to only the most protected lo-
cations. The tree is normally erect growing and attains a huge
size. The leaves, similar in outline to those of the loquat, are
up to 12 inches in length and 4 inches in breadth. They are a
shining light green above, light brown beneath, and clustered
near the ends of the branches. Flowers are borne severally in
the axils of fallen leaves on the heavier wood. (Fig. 5.)
The fruits, ovate to elliptic in form and 3 to 6 inches in
length, are a russet brown color and have a scurfy surface.
(Fig. 4.) A thick and woody rind encloses a firm pulp which
is of a reddish color, rich, and somewhat spicy. There is usually
but one seed which is elliptical in shape. It is brown, hard,
smooth and shining. The
ripening season is in the sum-
mer and fall months, the fruit
being eaten fresh, in sherbets,
or made into a marmalade.
Propagated by seeds.
Anacardium occidental L.
Cashew. (2). ANACAR-
DIACEAE.
The cashew, a relative of
the mango, is a tropical
American native. It is rare-
ly found in Florida, but bear-
ing trees show that it can be
grown in the more protected
regions. The tree is an ever-
green, of somewhat strag-
gling and spreading habit of
growth, that reaches a height
Fig. 6.--The cashew, Anacardium up to 40 feet. The oblong or
occidental. obovate leathery leaves are 4
to 8 inches long and 2 to 4 inches broad. The fragrant flowers are
in panicles at the ends of young branches.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A fruit of the cashew is of unusual and striking appear-
ance. (Fig. 6.) It is composed of a fleshy portion (an en-
larged receptacle) which is bright yellow or red and about 3
inches long. The kidney-shaped seed (the true fruit) is attached
outside, to the lower end of the receptacle. The fleshy portion
is generally termed the cashew-apple and the seed is called the
cashew-nut. Both are edible. The apple is cooked as a jam or
preserve and the kernel of the nut is eaten only after thor-
ough roasting. It should not be eaten in the raw state.
Propagation is by seed or budding.


Fig. 7.-The cherimoya tree, Annona cherimola.


Annona cherimola Mill. Cherimoya. (2). ANNONACEAE.
The cherimoya, a native of the northern Andes, is found in
many places in the American tropics as well as other tropical
parts of the world. It can endure little frost but seems to thrive
best at relatively high altitudes. A fairly satisfactory growth
has resulted from plantings made in the warmer parts of Flor-
ida but the trees are usually light bearers.
The tree, deciduous for a part of the year, is small and of
variable growth habit. Some trees are spreading while others






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 17

are more erect. (Fig. 7.) Its thin, ovate leaves are pubescent
on the under side and dull green above. They vary from 3 to 6
inches or more in length. The fragrant, yellowish flowers are
about an inch long and form in the leaf axils.
The fruit, which matures in late summer, is variable in ap-
pearance and shape. (Fig. 8.) The form is usually ovoid or heart-
shaped and the size from a few ounces to a pound or more. As
with all annonas, the fruit is compound (syncarp), formed by


Fig. 8.-Fruit and twig of the cherimoya, Annona cherimola.

the fusion of carpels and torus into a fleshy whole. The car-
pels show on the surface of the fruit by areoles which are traced
to a greater or lesser degree by ridges or indented lines. The
color is a light green or yellowish when mature. The dark brown
seeds, varying in number but generally several, are about
an inch in length and easily separated from the pulp. Safford'
classified the cherimoyas under different types, the basis of the
classification being mainly the shape and surface markings.
'Safford, W. E. In Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, pp. 737-38.
Macmillan Company, New York. 1922.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Some have a smooth surface, others are tuberculate or mammil-
late, while some have a surface appearing as if indented with
fingerprints. In Florida the tuberculate form is the most com-
mon. The surface of this type is rough and uneven due to pro-
truding wart-like tubercles.
The cherimoya is eaten as a fresh fruit and is considered by
most persons to be of excellent quality. The pulp is white, aro-
matic, and of a custard-like consistency. The fruit matures in
late summer. A hybrid between the cherimoya and sugar apple,
the atemoya, is of very good quality.



















Fig. 9.-The sugar-apple, Annona squamosa.

Propagation is by seeds, cleft grafting, and shield budding.
The seedling cherimoya is generally used as a rootstock, although
A. squamosa, A. reticulate, and A. glabra, the native pond-apple,
have all been successfully worked. Asexual propagation of the
better varieties is desirable, as much variation is found in the
fruits of seedlings.
Annona squamosa L. Sugar-apple. Sweetsop. (2). ANNONA-
CEAE.
The sugar-apple, from tropical America, is grown to a limited
extent in the southern counties. Its range is restricted mainly
to the lower east and west coasts but the tree has been fruited






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 19

in the central part of the state. The tree is small. The leaves,
which are shed in late winter, are thin and glaucous. They are
3 to 6 inches long and sparsely hairy when young but smooth
at maturity.


Fig. 10.-The guanabana or soursop tree, Annona muricata.


The fruit has a form somewhat resembling a shortened pine
cone (being cordiform or heart-shaped). It is two to three
inches in diameter, yellowish green and usually covered with a
white or bluish bloom. (Fig. 9.) A fruit is made up of numerous
carpels, each of which forms a protuberance. The pulp is gran-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ular, creamy yellow or white, custard-like, very sweet and of
agreeable flavor. Numerous dark brown seeds are embedded in
the pulp. The season begins in midsummer and extends over sev-
eral weeks, the fruits A ripening irregularly. The use
is almost wholly as a fresh fruit. In season, the
fruit may be found on 1 ocal markets in


Fig. 11.-Foliage of the mountain soursop, Annona montana.

southern Florida but on account of its softness when approach-
ing maturity it seldom reaches its destination in good condition
when shipped long distances.
Propagation is by seeds, grafting, and budding.
The soursop or guanabana, Annona muricata L., a small,
shrubby tree of tropical American origin, is a large-fruited an-
nona having many soft spines on the fruit surface. It has fruited






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 21

on the lower east coast. The flesh is white, juicy, and somewhat
acid. It may be eaten fresh but is best for use in the making of
ices or drinks. (Fig. 10.)
The bullock's heart or custard-apple, Annona reticulata L.,
also of the American tropics, is grown in extreme south Florida
but is rarely seen. The fruit is large, heart-shaped and smooth,
with the carpels outlined as rhomboid areas on the surface. Its
quality is decidedly inferior.


Fig. 12.-The jak-fruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The mountain soursop, Annona montana Macfad., of the West
Indies is making a thrifty growth in Dade County. The foliage
resembles that of the guanabana, having the minute pockets
axillary in the leaf veins, but is larger. (Fig. 11.) The fruits
have a fleshy, short, straight prickle protruding from each of
the areoles. The flesh is yellow
and of poor quality. It is used
in the same manner as the
guanabana.
The Ilama, or white annona,
Annona dic(r'sijolia Safford, a
native of the low lands of Cen-
tral America, has been planted
in a few localities in southern


Fig. 13.-Foliage of the jak-fruit tree.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 23

Florida. This species -is of comparatively recent introduction.
The tree will withstand light frosts with no apparent injury. It
seems to be better adapted than is the cherimoya to conditions
in the southern areas. The tree is fairly prolific and the fruit
is of very good quality. Its fruits are heart-shaped and will
weigh up to a pound. The season of maturity is early summer.
Artocarpus integrifolia Forst. (A. integra Merr.). Jak-Fruit.
(1). MORACEAE.
The jak-fruit tree, native to southern India and Malaya, has
in few instances been grown to large size in Florida. It is quite
subject to frost injury but is considered to be some hardier than
the breadfruit (A. incisa).
The tree is of large size, reaching a height of 60 feet, erect
growing, and of decided ornamental value. (Fig. 12.) Its leaves
are firm and leathery, deep green, elliptic to obovate, blunt
pointed and 5 to 8 inches in length. (Fig. 13.) The staminate
and pistillate flowers are borne on separate spikes on the same
tree monoeciouss).
Its immense fruits, weighing as much as 40 pounds, are borne
only on the trunk or larger limbs. They are roughly oblong or
oval in shape and may attain a length of two feet. The outer sur-
face is covered with rough projections or knobs. Botanically, the
fruit is a syncarp, being made up of numerous united carpels.
The pulp is yellowish and soft when the fruit is ripe. It contains
many large white seeds. There are several varieties, the degree
of sweetness as well as size and shape being variable. The pulp
is eaten fresh, dried, or preserved. In some of the tropical coun-
tries the seeds are roasted and served in curries. The ripening
season is in summer. Propagated by seed and cuttings. Seed-
lings preferably should be planted where the trees are desired to
grow as they do not stand transplanting well.
Averrhoa carambola L. Carambola. (1). OXALIDACEAE.
The carambola is of unknown origin but has long been culti-
vated in southeastern Asia. It is quite tropical in requirements
and is severely injured by temperatures under freezing. The
tree attains a height of 25 to 30 feet and is of symmetrical
habit of growth. (Fig. 14.) Its leaves are odd-pinnate, with
5 to 9 leaflets which increase in size toward the leaf tip and are
from 1 to 2 inches long. They are sensitive to touch and light,
folding when touched or in darkness.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Of unique appearance, the fruit is a translucent yellowish
brown color, averaging about 4 inches in length, ovoid, and has
3 to 5 prominent longitudinal angles or ribs. A cross-section of


Fig. 14.-The carambola tree, Averrhoa carambola.


the fruit is distinctly star-shaped. (Fig. 15.) The skin is thin
and smooth. The watery pulp is acid to sweet and of a pleas-
ing fragrance somewhat like that of the quince. It may be eaten





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 25

fresh when ripe but is used mainly for jellies
and preserves. A refreshing drink can be made
from the juice.
Propagated by seed and shield budding.
Blighia sapida Koenig. (Cupania
sapida Voigt.). Akee. (2) .
SAPINDACEAE.
The akee, from Guinea, West Af-
rica, is grown in a limited way, the
susceptibility to frost damage restrict-
ing it to the warmer sections. The tree
is upright growing, reach-
ing a height of 35 feet.
(Fig. 16.) Its large, stiff
leaves are pinnate, with
usually 10 elliptic or ob-
long, short-petioled leaf-
lets. Small, greenish-white
flowers are borne in the
1xils of the leaves. The
blossoming period is in
early spring; occasionally
a light June bloom occurs.
The fruit, ripening in Fig. 15.-Leaf, whole fruit and cross-
summer, is a three-celled section of fruit of the carambola.
capsule, 3 to 4 inches in length, and yellow to red in color. (Fig.
17.) At maturity it splits longitudinally to expose the round,
shiny, black seeds-one in each cell, to each of which is attached
the edible white aril. (Fig. 18.) This aril is firm and irregularly
furrowed. The Spanish name "sesal vegetal" (vegetable brain)
is possibly derived from the brain-like appearance of the arils.
The pink portion lying between the aril lobes is considered by
some to be poisonous. Fresh, ripe fruits only should be eaten.
They are generally considered best when fried in butter. Un-
ripe or overripe fruits should be discarded as they are said to
be poisonous under such conditions.
Propagation is by seed or shield budding.
Calocarpum viride Pittier. Green Sapote. (1). SAPOTACEAE.
The green sapote, a native of some parts of Central America,
has been grown in rare instances in the extreme southern part





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the peninsula. The tree has foliage which resembles that of
the sapote (Achras zapote). The oblong fruit is 3 to 5 inches
in length, greenish in color, and thin-skinned. The cinnamon
colored pulp is sweet, juicy and melting. It is eaten as a fresh
fruit.
Propagation is by seed.


Fig. 16.-The akee tree Bgh da
Fig. 16.--The akee tree, Blighia 8apida.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits


Carica papaya L. Papaya. Pawpaw. (2).
CARICACEAE.
A native of tropical America, the pa-
paya, a small, fast growing herbaceous
tree, is grown in the southern half of the
state. It can withstand some frost with
slight damage but temperatures be-
low freezing cause serious damage.
The plant has a straight, slender, usu-
ally unbranched trunk, which is
prominently marked with leaf
scars and topped with a crown of
large, palmately-lobed leaves.
In many places naturalized pa-
payas are found, the fruit of
these plants being small and
worthless. The wild plants, by
crossing with the cultivated
varieties, will lower the quality
of the latter in later genera-
tions. Because of this, any wild
papayas in close proximity to
domestic plantings should be de-
stroyed before they attain size
enough to produce blossoms.
The flowers of the papaya are Fig.
probably as complex as those
vated plant. The common
mally dioecious, bearing
flowers on one plant and
ones on another. (Fig.


17.-The akee fruit.
of any culti-
papapaya is nor-
the staminate
the pistillate
19 and front
cover.) Of
these, only the
pistillate ones


Fig. 18.-Akee fruit opened
to show edible arils.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 19.-Staminate (male) flowering plant of the papaya, Carica papaya.
Compare with pistillate or female plant on front cover. (Both photos
by Turnage.)





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 29

produce desirable fruits, although fruits are sometimes borne
on the staminate flowering plants. Ordinarily one stami-
nate plant is interplanted to every eight or ten pistillate ones.
A bisexual strain, having perfect
flowers and requiring no cross-
pollination as above, has cre-
ated much interest. Such a
strain is of value only when
a comparatively pure line
has been established
whereby the seedlings will
come true to the parent.
Indiscriminate planting
of seeds, without intelli-
gent breeding and se-
lection, from the bisex-
ual sorts offers consid-
erable chance of varia-
tion a n d disappoint-
ment in the fruit and
flowering habits of the
seedling.
The fruits are borne
on the trunk at the base
of the leaves and are
quite variable in
shape, size, and qual-
ity. They are from
round to ovoid or ob-
long in shape and may
weigh up to 15 or 20
pounds each. The sur-
face is smooth and
green in color, becom-
ing yellow when ripe.
The flesh, of a yellow
to orange tint, is thick
and in appearance and
consistency resembles
that of a cantaloupe or
muskmelon. (Fig. 20.) Fig. 20. Longitudinal cross-section of
i ) papaya fruit.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Great numbers of dark brown or olive-colored, small seeds, each
with a translucent, mucilaginous seed covering, are attached to
the walls of the central cavity. An unpollinated pistillate plant
in the greenhouse of the Experiment Station at Gainesville bore
fruits which were entirely seedless. The flavor varies in dif-
ferent fruits but is definitely characteristic, being agreeable to
most tastes but not always on first trial. Its use is mainly as a
table fruit but it is also utilized in the making of ices, preserves,
jams, pickles, etc.
The popularity of this fruit is increasing and with continued
publicity of its merits and of the many ways of preparing for
use an increase in acreage and consumption will no doubt follow.
Commercial production is limited to the most frost-free sections
where frost hazards are reduced to a minimum. The plant has
fruited in numerous places as far north as Central Florida but in
the latter areas uninterrupted production cannot be expected.
The plant is one that is easily grown if low temperatures do
not interfere. It thrives on soils ranging from sands to marls,
provided drainage is good and considerable organic matter is
added. Complete commercial fertilizers are required in fairly
large quantities. Planting distances vary from about 6 x 6 feet
to 10 x 10 feet, with many variations. The plants are usually
first grown in seedbeds, transferred later to boxes and when
eight to twelve inches high transplanted to the field. The plants
should mature fruit within twelve months from the time of
planting the seed. Four years is about the maximum fruiting
life of the plant but in some areas replanting must be done an-
nually. The season of ripening is mainly from midwinter to
June.
A method of asexual propagation has been developed but has
not as yet been generally adopted in a commercial way. The
procedure consists in topping a large plant and cleft grafting
small seedlings, using as scions the shoots which form in the
leaf axils of the topped plant. The papaya has also been suc-
cessfully propagated by cuttings, the shoots or young branches
being utilized for this purpose.
Papain, a digestive enzyme, is obtained from the milky juice
or latex of the fruit and plant in India and the East Indies. No
effort has been made to commercialize this product in Florida.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 31

Carissa grandiflora A. DC. Natal-Plum. Carissa. Amatungulu.
(3). APOCYNACEAE.
The carissa, a native of South Africa, is quite at home on a
wide variety of Florida soils. It is used extensively in the south-
ern half of the state as an ornamental shrub for foundation,
specimen, and hedge planting. When planted as a hedge it forms
an almost impenetrable barrier.


N-N
1: |

















Fig. 21.-The natal-plum, Carissa grandiflora.
Shrubby and dense in habit of growth, the plant does not at-
tain a tree shape even though a height of 15 feet may be at-
tained. (Fig. 21.) The foliage is dark green and leathery and
the branches are heavily armed with strong two-pointed spines.
The fragrant flowers are in evidence several months of the
year. They are white, solitary, about two inches across and very
conspicuous against the background of deep green foliage.
The dark red fruits, maturing in summer, are nearly ovoid in
shape and 1 to 2 inches in length. (Fig. 22.) The skin is very
thin, enclosing a firm, reddish pulp in which numerous small
seeds are embedded. When bruised or cut, the-pulp exudes white






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


droplets of a gummy juice. The fruits are eaten fresh, in salads,
and as a sauce. The flavor is vaguely suggestive of the rasp-
berry.
Carissa arduina Lam. is occasionally seen. In appearance the
plant is much like the above but both fruit and flowers are small-
er. The dark purple fruits contain but 1 or 2 seeds instead of
many.
The plant of another species, C. carandas L., the karanda, re-
sembles C. grandiflora strongly except that many of the spines



















Fig. 22.-Fruit, flowers, and foliage of the natal-plum.
are not forked and the fruit is smaller, becoming almost black
at maturity.
Propagation is mostly by seeds but layering is successful.
Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex. White Sapote. Mexican-Apple.
(3). RUTACEAE.
The white sapote, a native of Mexico and Central America,
has proven itself adapted to Florida's soils where frosts are
not too severe. It is commonly grown in the more frost-free
sections but has matured fruit in a protected location in Volusia
County.
The tree as seen in Florida is usually of a medium size,
although some quite large specimens are found. (Fig. 23.) Its
leaves are digitate, having 3 to 7 leaflets, but usually 5. They






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 33

are 3 to 5 inches long, lanceolate to ovate in outline, shiny green
above and dull beneath. The flowers are greenish-yellow and
inconspicuous.
The fruit, which begins ripening in May, is gray to yellow-


Fig. 23.-The white sapote, Casimiroa edulis.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


green in color, the shape subglobose, resembling the tomato in
shape and size. (Fig. 24.) There is a wide variation in the size
and flavor of the fruits from different seedling trees. The skin
is thin and the yellowish flesh soft and sweet in desirable varie-
ties. The oblong seeds, 1 to 5 in number but usually 3, are large
and very hard. The fruit is eaten fresh. A seedling grown by
Mr. H. W. Johnson at Homestead and by him called the "Golden


Fig. 24.-Leaf, fruits, and seed of the white sapote.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 35

Sapote" is a very superior sort having small seeds and little or
none of the bitter flavor found in some seedling fruits. It is
very sweet.
Propagated by seed and budding.


Fig. 25.-The trumpet tree, Cecropia palmata.


Cecropia palmata Willd. Trumpet Tree. (2). MORACEAE.
The Cecropia is a native of the West Indies. It cannot endure
much frost. Specimens of large size are to be seen in the south-
ern area of Florida, and a few trees are growing in a well-
protected location in southeastern Polk County. The tree, of
striking and decidedly tropical aspect, is tall-growing and has a
single, hollow, thin stem smooth and pale green that is
branchless except near its apex. (Fig. 25.) The trunk appears
something like that of the papaya but is less sturdy. A white
felt covers the under surface of the large peltate, palmately






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lobed, long-petioled leaves. Each leaf is
divided into 7 to 11 lobes. The foliage is
not evenly distributed but is clustered
near the branch ends.
The tree is dioecious, the staminate
and pistillate flowers being borne on
separate individuals.
The fruits are clustered slender
spikes, several inches in length,
which are composed of one-seed-
ed nuts. (Fig. 26.) When the
fruits are ripe the consistency of
the flesh is somewhat like that
of the fig and to a degree re-
sembles that fruit in flavor.
Propagated by seed and cut-
tings.

Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star-
Apple. Caimito. (2).
SAPOTACEAE.
The star-apple, a native of
the American tropics, attains a
height of 25 to 30 feet or more
and is of value both as an orna-
mental and for its fruit. (Fig.
27.) The leaves are of striking
appearance. They are oval to
oblong in shape, 3 to 5 inches in
length, deep green and glabrous
above and covered beneath with
a lustrous satiny golden-brown
or coppery pubescence. The tree
is quite subject to frost injury
and can be grown only in well
protected locations. This spe-
cies is of the same genus as the
wild satinleaf (C. olivaeforme
L.) of the hammocks of the
lower east coast. It is also of
the same family as the sapodilla
and egg-fruit.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 37

The fruit, of a globular, apple-like shape, is 2 to 4 inches in
diameter, smooth, of a green or purplish color, and has a soft
whitish pulp that is quite sweet when mature. The interior of
a transverse section of the fruit suggests a star, the position
of the brown seeds and the seed cores presenting such an appear-
ance. The ripening season is in late spring or early summer.
Propagation is by seed or budding.
Dovyalis caffra Warb. (Aberia caffra Harv. & Sonder). Kei-
Apple. Umkokolo. (2). FLACOURTIACEAE.


Fig. 27.-The star-apple tree, Chrysophyllum cainito.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The kei-apple, of South Africa, is a dense, thorny shrub
or small tree that can be grown in the south half of the state.
The plant makes a quick recovery if frozen back and it is pos-


Fig. 28.-The ketembilla, Dovyalis hebecarpa.


sible for it to fruit the next season after being severely cold-
injured.
At maturity the kei-apple reaches a height of 15 to 20 feet but
by pruning it can be grown as a hedge plant. The leaves are
shiny green, about 2 inches long, and usually clustered. They





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 39

are armed with a long, sharp spine in each of the axils. As the
staminate and pistillate blossoms are normally borne on sepa-
rate plants it is necessary to plant those of both sexes to insure
fruiting.
The fruits, resembling a miniature apple in appearance, ripen
in late summer. They are golden yellow or greenish in color,
acid to the taste, and about an inch in diameter. The flavor of
the pulp is strongly suggestive of the cranberry. Its use is
mainly for the preparation of sauces or preserves.
Propagated by seeds, layers, and buds.
Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb. (Aberia gardneri Clos.) Ketembilla.
Ceylon-Gooseberry. (2). FLACOURTIACEAE.
An introduction from Ceylon, the ketembilla has grown very
satisfactorily on sandy soils in Florida. It possesses a degree
of hardiness that makes it possible to grow the plant as far north
as Polk County and possibly farther, in protected locations.
The plant, a shrubby tree with upright spiny branches, reaches
a height of about 15 feet. (Fig. 28.) Its foliage is light green,
the individual leaves are oval-shaped and 3 to 4 inches long.
Though the plants are normally dioecious staminatee and pis-
tillate flowers on separate plants), an occasional isolated plant
is found producing fruit, showing the presence of perfect flow-
ers on some. If seedlings are planted several plants should be
set out, rather than only one or two, to insure fruiting. Nor-
mally the plants are quite prolific.
The velvet-coated fruit is purple or lilac in color, inside and
out, and resembles the gooseberry in shape and size. It is sweet
and juicy and is utilized for jellies and preserves.
Propagated by seeds and shield buds. Buds should be taken
from an isolated plant which is known to produce fruit.
Elaeagnus philippensis Perr. Lingaro. (2). ELAEAGNA-
CEAE.
This species of Elaeagnus, from the Philippine Islands and
there called the lingaro, is a climbing evergreen shrub that re-
cently has been introduced into Florida. The plant is making a
remarkably vigorous growth in Dade County. The leaves are
small, oblong, pointed, and silvery beneath, the new growth an
attractive russet or bronze color. In appearance the plant close-
ly resembles the more common Elaeagnus pungens which is
grown as an ornamental in many of the southern states.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The fruits, pink or pale red, are about the shape and size of a
small olive. They are smooth and contain a single seed. The
flavor is rather tart, the fruit being of value only for making of
a highly-colored jelly.
Propagation is by seed and cuttings.


Fig. 29.-The loquat tree, Eriobotrya japonica.

Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Photinia japonica Gray.). Loquat.
Japanese Medlar. Japan-Plum. (4). ROSACEAE.
The loquat, native to China, is grown as an ornamental or
garden tree and being quite hardy is found in limited numbers
throughout the state. The fruit is seldom matured in the sec-
tions north of Ocala, as it is on the tree during the winter
months and is damaged by temperatures slightly below freezing.
The tree thrives on numerous soil types which demonstrates that





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 41

it is not exacting in soil requirements. Good drainage, however,
is essential. The chief obstacle in growing the loquat is the
tree's susceptibility to a blight which kills back whole branches
and even the entire tree.
The tree is a symmetri-
cal evergreen, attains a
height of about 25 feet and
has a fairly dense crown.
(Fig. 29.) Its large leaves,
8 to 12 inches in length
with sharply dentate mar-
gins, are glossy on the up-
per surface and rusty-to-
mentose beneath. The


Fig. 30.-Loquat foliage and fruit.


smaller branches, like the lower leaf surfaces, are covered with
a rusty tomentum. The dingy white flowers, quite fragrant,
are borne in terminal panicles. They appear mainly in late fall,
although a second blossoming is not unusual.
The fruit is firm-fleshed and juicy. It ripens in late winter




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


or early spring. The color varies from pale yellow to orange and
the form from spherical to pear-shape. (Fig. 30.) The size is
small, an average length being about 2 inches. The seeds, usu-
ally 2 or 3 to the fruit, are large, smooth, and brown, flat on the
sides where more than one are in the same fruit. The fruit is
eaten fresh or may be utilized in the making of jellies, preserves,
etc. Loquat jelly is of superior quality.


Fig. 31.-Foliage and fruit of the grumichama, Eugenia dombeyi.
There are many varieties which are divided into two groups-
the Japanese and the Chinese. The groups are differentiated by
shape, color, flavor, and ripening date. In the Japanese group-
ing the fruits are larger, firmer, pear-shaped, more acid, and
deeper colored. Although most trees are seedlings there are
several varieties being grown in Florida, among them the Ad-


ti
A p-
hok





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 43

vance, Champagne, Early Red, Olivier, Pineapple, Premier,
Tanaka, and Thales.
Propagation is by seeds, budding, or grafting. Seedling lo-
quats, for budding or grafting, are used exclusively in Florida
as rootstocks. If budding is practiced a long shield bud inserted
in late fall, as a dormant bud, is used; growth being forced.by
lopping the stock early the next spring. Grafting seemingly


Fig. 32.-The jambolan, Eugenia jambolana.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


gives better results than budding. The cleft or whip grafts are
satisfactory, early spring being the preferred season for the
work.
Eugenia dombeyi Skeels. (E. brazilensis Lam.). Grumichama.
(3). MYRTACEAE.
The grumichama, a Brazilian fruit, is little known in Florida
but is deserving of wider cultivation. The tree is attractive and


Fig. 33.-Jambolan twig with fruit and foliage.


the fruit an excellent substitute for the cherry. Its hardiness is
probably comparable to that of the surinam-cherry.
The tree is evergreen, having large glossy oval to obovate-ob-
long leaves 4 to 5 inches in length and 2 to 21/ inches in breadth.
The fruit, on slender stems 11/ to 2 inches long, is scarlet to
black in color and has 4 large persistent sepals at the apex.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 45

(Fig. 31.) It strongly resembles the cherry in size, appearance,
and flavor. The seeds, 1 to 3 in number, are nearly round. The
ripening season is in May and June, there being a lapse of but
a few weeks between the time of blossoming and the ripening of
the fruit.
Propagated by seeds.
Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Syzygium jambolanum DC.). Jam-
bolan. Java-Plum. (2). MYRTACEAE.
The jambolan, a native of southeastern Asia and East Indies,
makes a vigorous growth in the warmer sections of the state.


Fig. 34.-A young rose-apple tree, Eugenia jambos.


The tree is of large size and, due to its whitish branches and
clean foliage, is of attractive appearance. (Fig. 32.) The
leaves, broadly oval, broad at apex or acuminate, lighter below
than above, are 3 to 8 inches in length. The midrib is prominent
with numerous closely spaced lateral veins.
The fruit is small, oval in shape, and of a deep reddish color.
(Fig. 33.) It is quite acid and in quality is not comparable to
the grumichama or surinam-cherry. The season of maturity is
early summer.
Propagated by seed.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Eugenia jambos L. Rose-Apple. (2). MYRTACEAE.
The rose-apple is indigenous to India and Malaya. It is a
handsome, evergreen, spreading tree reaching a height of 30
feet or more. (Fig. 34.) Its foliage is thick and shining, the
leaves being oblong-lanceolate in outline and up to 8 inches in
length. The new flush of growth is wine-colored, resembling
like growth in the mango.
The fruit is nearly spherical, 11/2 to 2 inches in diameter, pale
yellow to pinkish white, with a crisp pulp that has a sweetish
rose odor and flavor. (Fig. 35,) The large cavity is only par-


Fig. 35.-Foliage and fruit of the rose-apple.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 47

tially filled by the 1 to 3 brown seeds. The fruit may be eaten
fresh, candied and preserved, and used for jelly and sirups. The
ripening season begins in May.
It is grown only in the southern part of the state, owing to
its susceptibility to frost injury. Trees have been observed there
growing well and fruiting under conditions of neglect which
many other introduced species could not withstand.


























Fig. 36.-Fruit and foliage of the surinam-cherry, Eugenia uniflora.
Propagated by seeds, which are polyembryonic (having more
than one embryo in a seed, which results in two or more plants
from each seed).
Eugenia uniflora L. (E. micheli Lam.). Surinam-Cherry. Pi-
tanga. (3). MYRTACEAE.
The surinam-cherry, a Brazilian indigene, is grown extensive-
ly in the southern half of the state as an ornamental shrub or
hedging plant. It is well adapted to such use. Under optimum





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


growing conditions it has reached a height exceeding 20 feet.
The foliage is evergreen, glossy, and green to reddish in color.
The ribbed fruits, pendent on a slender stem, are about an inch
in diameter. (Fig. 36.) They seldom contain over one seed
which is large in proportion to the size of the fruit. The ripen-
ing season begins in May or earlier. There are two distinct var-
ieties; one having a deep crimson colored fruit and the other
an almost black fruit at maturity. It is possible that the black-
fruited one is E. apiculata. The spicy flavored pulp is juicy and
deep red in color, the black-fruited variety being the more acid


Fig. 37.-The feijoa, Feijoa sellowiana.


to the taste. It is eaten as a fresh fruit and used in making
jellies and sherbets. In season, the fruit is found in small quan-
tity on the markets in the southern half of the state.
Propagated by seed and cleft grafting.
Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Feijoa. Pineapple Guava. (4). MYRTA-
CEAE.
The feijoa, brought from the South American sub-tropics, ap-
parently is hardy throughout Florida. It has withstood tem-
peratures of 140 F. without injury. In Florida the plant is val-
ued as an ornamental. It lends itself admirably to this use as





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 49

the growth is slow and the plant exceptionally free of injurious
insects or diseases.
The feijoa is a shrubby plant that attains a height of about
15 feet and does not assume a tree form but branches from the


Fig. 38.-Feijoa foliage and blossoms.


ground. It usually has a spread which is as great as or greater
than the height. (Fig. 39.) The foliage and bark are grayish-
the leaves small, not over 21/2 inches in length, light, shiny green
on the surface and gray tomentose beneath. The flowers, emerg-
ing in late April, are striking in appearance. The white, thick
petals, which are edible, have a purplish tinge on the inner side





50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and are in strong contrast to the numerous crimson stamens.
(Fig. 38.)
The fruit, oblong to round in shape and gray-green in color,


Fig. 39.-Feijoa foliage and fruit.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 51

ripens in August and September. (Fig. 39.) It falls to the
ground with maturity. A maximum size is about 3 inches in
length. The flavor is good, resembling to a degree that of a
blend of strawberry and pineapple. Numerous very small seeds
are embedded in the white pulp. Like that of the common guava
the fruit is eaten fresh or utilized in jelly making.


Fig. 40.-The governor's-plum, Flacourtia ramontchi.
There are some named varieties, as the Andre, Coolidge,
Choice, and Superba, but most grown are seedlings. In some in-
stances plants have failed to bear fruit despite profuse bloom-
ing. This may be due to a lack of pollination and seemingly can





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


be overcome by interplanting of varieties or of seedlings from
different sources.
Propagation is mainly by seeds which germinate within two
to three weeks. Cuttings and layers can be used but both are
very slow. Grafting on seedling stock is the best method of
perpetuating varieties.


Fig. 41.-The kafir-plum, Harpephyllum caffrum.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 53

Flacourtia ramontchi L'Her. (F. indica Merr.). Governor's-
Plum. Ramontchi. Batoko-Plum. (2). FLACOURTIACEAE.
The governor's-plum, an indigene of Madagascar and southern


Fig. 42.-Leaf and immature fruit of the kafir-plum.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Asia, is well adapted to Florida locations experiencing little
frost. At maturity the plant may attain a height of about 25
feet. It is shrubby in growth habit. By reason of its fruitful-
ness and growth habits it may be utilized as a dual-purpose
plant-as a hedge and for the fruit. The branches are sparsely
armed with sharp axillary spines which are up to an inch in
length. The foliage is quite heavy, deep-green, and shiny; the
leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, oblong-obovate, with dentate-ser-
rate edges.
The fruits resemble small plums or crabapples in shape. They
are a deep dull red to purple in color when ripe and about an
inch in diameter. (Fig. 40.) The seeds are small, thin and up
to 14 in number. Considerable variation is apparent in the
flavor of fruits from seedling plants which varies from sweet
to acid. An excellent jelly can be made of the fruit.
To insure fruitfulness, several plants should be planted to-
gether to effect cross-pollination, as the species is dioecious.
Propagated by seed.
Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. Kafir-Plum. (1). ANACAR-
DIACEAE.
The kafir-plum, from South Africa, is rarely found in Florida
but specimens growing on the lower east coast demonstrate its
adaptability to that region. The tree is tall growing and could
be advantageously included in ornamental plantings. (Fig. 41.)
Its foliage is thick and shiny. The pinnate leaves, usually with
11 leaflets, attain a length of about 12 inches.
The fruits, borne in clusters on long stems, resemble those of
a large olive in shape and size. (Fig. 42.) They ripen in late
summer. The seed, large and irregularly fissured and pitted, is
surrounded with a thin layer of subacid, edible pulp.
Propagated by seed.
Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose. (H. tricostatus Britt. & Rose.
Cereus tricostatus Goss. C. triangularis Haw.) Night-
Blooming Cereus. Pitaya. Strawberry-Pear. (1). CACTA-
CEAE.
The night-blooming cereus, a Mexican native, is grown in the
warmer sections as a popular ornamental. It has extremely
large flowers, opening at night, and heavy, three-angled stems.
(Fig. 43.) Because of its scrambling habit of growth it is well
suited for growing on low walls where ample room may be given.































61.f


Fig. 43.-The pitaya, Hylocereus undatus. (Photo by Turnage.)


ijjr







dl


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The oval, red fruits, about 3 inches in diameter, contain an
edible, white, juicy flesh. (Fig. 44.)
Propagation is by cuttings.
Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Nephelium Litchi Cambess). Lychee.
Litchi. Leechee. (2). SAPINDACEAE.
The lychee is indigenous to south China. A comparison of
mean temperatures of southern Florida points and those of Can-


Fig. 44.-The pitaya, Hylocereus undatus, in blossom. (Photo by Turnage.)

ton would indicate that the tree should be able to undergo the
mean minimum temperatures obtaining in the area south of
Eustis. This does not hold true, however, as there are few lychee
trees growing anywhere in the state without cold protection
of some kind. A notable exception is a small planting, some
seven years of age and now bearing, in south Polk County that
has the benefit of excellent lake protection. It is quite probable
that the cold damage sustained by this tree in Florida is due to






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 57

a lack of dormancy occasioned by the small percentage of cloudy
or foggy days in the winter months, coupled with relatively high
mean minimum temperatures. The tree under those conditions
is then severely injured by a few hours of temperatures below

1.B


Fig. 45.-The lychee, Litchi chinensis.
freezing. With protection by heating during the rare cold pe-
riods the lychee can probably be grown to maturity in many
locations.
Observations of trees growing under alkaline and acid soil
conditions show that those planted in an acid soil make a much
thriftier growth. This is in agreement with pot experiments of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Coville,' who showed also the presence of root tubercles filled
with a mycorhizal fungus on the acid-soil plants. This would
strongly indicate that the fungus is beneficial and that its pres-
ence can be had only under acid soil conditions.
The lychee in China has a low spreading crown and heavy
trunk and attains a height of 40 to 50 feet. (Fig. 45.) It is
evergreen. The foliage is a deep, glossy green, the newer flush


Fig. 46.-Lychee fruit and foliage.


of an orange color. The leaves are 5 to 8 inches long, abruptly
pinnate, with usually 5 to 7 leaflets. The pale green flowers
are borne on long terminal panicles.
In China the lychee is one of the most important and highly
prized of commercial fruits. Considerable quantities of the dried
fruit are shipped from that country to the United States, the
Chinese population of America offering a ready market. The
fruits are oval to round and about 11/2 inches in diameter. (Fig.

'Coville, F. V. The Lychee-A Mycorhizal Plant. In the Lychee and
Lungan. G. W. Groff. Appendix VI. Orange Judd Co., New York. 1921.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 59

46.) They have a thin, tough, bright red outer skin which is
covered with rough tubercles. A white, jelly-like flesh encloses
the single brown seed. The skin becomes hard and brittle on
drying. The flavor is excellent either as a fresh fruit or dried.
There are numerous varieties, Groff' listing 49 as growing in
China. The season of ripening is in early summer.
Propagation is by seed, Chinese air-layering, inarching, and
grafting. The lychee or the lungan, Euphoria longana Lam., may


Fig. 47.-A young egg-fruit tree, Lucuma nervosa.


be used as rootstocks. Goucher of the United States Department
of Agriculture devised a method of growing from cuttings where-
by the cuttings, with most of the foliage intact, were tied to pot
labels so that the base of the cutting just came in contact with
the rooting medium. The rooting medium was composed of a
sand and muck mixture, the whole enclosed in a propagating
case.

"Groff, G. W. Op. cit.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Lucuma nervosa A. DC. Egg-Fruit. Canistel. Ti-es. (2). SAPO-
TACEAE.
The egg-fruit, usually a small tree, is a native of the South
and Central American tropics and has become naturalized to a
slight extent on some of the Florida keys. (Fig. 47.) It is not
very hardy and probably cannot be successfully grown to fruit-
ing size in any but the well pro-
tected parts of the state. A large
tree is growing in St. Peters-
burg. Its leaves, bright green
and shiny, are 5 to 8
inches in length and ob-
long to oblanceolate in
outline.
The fruit normally ma-
tures in late summer but
sometimes, if the crop is
a light one, a second
bloom appears in early
summer. The fruit of the
second crop ripens in No-
vember a n d December.
The individual fruits are
round or ovoid in shape,
of an orange-yellow color,
and 2 to 4 inches long.
(Figs. 48 and 49.) The Fig. 48.-The egg-fruit.


Fig. 49.-The egg-fruit, Lucuma nervosa, in cross-section.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 61

orange-colored flesh is pasty in texture and of a sweetish flavor.
Its seeds, seldom over 3 to the fruit, are dark brown, hard, and
3/4 to 1 inch in length.
Propagation is by seeds.
Malpighia glabra L. Barbados-Cherry. (2). MALPIGHIACEAE.
The Barbados-cherry is a native of the West Indies and of the
area from northern South America to southern Texas. It is


Fig. 50.-Foliage of the Barbados-cherry, Malpighia glabra.


grown in a limited way in the southern counties of Florida but
is too tender for the northern section.
The plant is a spreading, slender-branched shrub, reaching a
height of 6 to 8 feet. Its leaves are shiny, ovate, and 1 to 3
inches in length. (Fig. 50.) The small, thin-skinned fruits
ripen early in the summer season. They are cherry-like, red in





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


color, acid, and contain 3 crested seeds. (Fig. 51.) Jams and
preserves are made from the fruit.
Propagated by seed and cuttings.
Mammea americana L. Mamey. Mammee-Apple. (1). GUTTI-
FERAE.
The mamey, a native of the West Indies and Northern South
America, is grown to a very limited extent in the warmest parts



























Fig. 51.-Fruit and seeds of the Barbados-cherry. (Twice natural size.)

of the state. The tree is of value as an ornamental as well as
for its fruit. It attains a height of 50 to 60 feet. The branches
are heavy and the crown of foliage dense. The leaves are a deep
shining green, leathery, oblong-obovate, 4 to 8 inches long, usu-
ally blunt at the apex. (Fig. 52.) The white flowers are quite
fragrant.
The fruits, 4 to 7 inches in diameter, are almost round with a





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 63

slight nipple at the tip and have a skin that is thick, russet-col-
ored and somewhat rough. A yellow to reddish firm flesh en-
closes from 1 to 4 large seeds. The flavor varies in fruits from
different trees from sweet to sub-acid. The latter are of indif-


Fig. 52.-Foliage of the mammee-apple, Mammea americana.

ferent quality. The fruits are eaten fresh or cooked in the form
of preserves and jams.
Propagation is by seed.
Melicocca bijuga L. (Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq.). Spanish-Lime.
Mamon. Mamoncillo. Genip. (1). SAPINDACEAE.
The Spanish-lime, native to tropical America, thrives in the
warmer parts of Florida. Trees are growing at Fort Myers,
Palm Beach and other places on the mainland, but it seems to
fruit most prolifically at Key West.
The tree is of large size, erect in habit of growth, and is said
to be slow-growing. Its shining green leaves are abruptly pin-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


I
Fig. 53.-Leaf of the Spanish-lim
Melicocca bijuga.


Fig. 54.-The ceriman, Monstera
deliciosa. (Photo by A. F.
Camp.)


nate. Each leaf
has two pairs of
elliptic oblong
leaflets, the lower
pair being much
reduced in size.
(Fig. 53.) The fra-
grant, greenish-
white, inconspicu-
ous flowers are
Sborne in terminal
panicles. The flow-
ers are unisexual,
though the tree ap-
parently is polyga-
mous. In those
which are bisexual
the anthers seem
to be functionless.
Some trees fail to
set fruit, possibly
e or mamon, due to a preponder-
ance of either stam-
inate or pistillate blossoms, in
the latter instance through a
lack of pollination.
The fruits, nearly round and
about an inch in diameter, con-
tain one large round seed embed-
ded in an agreeably flavored,
juicy, acid, whitish pulp. The
skin is thick, green, and tough.
As a fresh fruit it is held in
high esteem. It ripens during
the summer months.
Propagated by seed.
Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Ceri-
man. (1). ARACEAE.
This Mexican aroid is grown
in the more protected locations
not only as an unusual orna-





Bulletin 228, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 65

mental vine but also for its fruit. The plants are vigorous,, strag-
gling climbers having immense, broad, long-petioled, perforated
and scalloped leaves that attain a length of two feet or more.
(Fig. 54.) It clings to its support (any rough surface being sat-
isfactory) by heavy aerial roots.


Fig. 55.-Fruit and foliage of the ceriman.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Large cone-like fruits, 8 to 10 inches long, develop from the
spadix. (Fig. 55.) It is not unusual for a period of 7 to 10
months to elapse between the setting and maturity of the fruit.
These fruits are edible, having a delicate pineapple-banana odor
and an agreeable flavor. The fruit is not liked by everyone, due
to the presence of calcium oxalate spicules or crystals which
cause a slight irritation of the throat or tongue in some indi-
viduals. Occasionally seen on the local markets, the fruit brings
good prices.
Propagation is by long stem cuttings, each having one or more
buds or eyes, planted where the vine is wanted, or by seeds.
Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum Kuntz. (Musa sapientum L.)
Common Banana. (3). MUSACEAE.
Bananas, natives of India and China but now widely culti-
vated in the tropics, are grown mainly in the south half of the
peninsula but scattered plantings consisting of a few plants are
found as far as the northern border. The plant is seriously dam-
aged by temperatures of 250 F. but is not killed outright unless
the cold is of long duration. Sustained cold much below freez-
ing is fatal. When only the tops are frozen back a new growth
from the underground portion puts forth with the return of
warmer weather. Fruiting is almost entirely prevented if the
foliage is severely damaged by cold. The presence of a growing
plant does not necessarily indicate that fruit can be produced
in that area.
The banana is a large herbaceous plant, the height varying
with variety and species but usually from 10 to 20 feet. Each
stalk produces fruit but once. New stalks, arising as suckers
from the base, give a succession of ripening fruit, although the
rapidity of production and time of ripening is dependent on
both soils and climatic conditions. The old stalks are cut to the
ground after fruiting and generally not more than 3 to 5 suckers
allowed to grow from the base at one time. Porous, moist but
well-drained soils containing considerable organic matter are
best suited. A heavy mulch, continually renewed as it decays, is
especially beneficial.
The Lady-Finger is a popular tall-growing variety. Others
occasionally grown include the Orinoco (horse-banana) and the
Apple. The Cavendish or Chinese banana (M. cavendishi Lamb)
is of Chinese origin. (Fig. 56.) It is a stout-stemmed, dwarfed
sort that reaches a height of but 5 to 7 feet at maturity. This





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 67

species is considered by some as being the hardiest and is prob-
ably grown to greater extent in the state than any other. There
are numerous banana varieties in the tropics but the above com-


4 'I


Fig. 56.-The Cavendish banana, Musa cavendishi.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pose the larger portion of Florida plantings. The Gros Michel,
the chief commercial variety of the tropics, is grown to little
extent in the state.
Propagation is by sucker plants which may be planted entire
or their "bulbs" cut into wedge-shaped pieces, each having an
outer surface of 4 to 8 or 10 square inches.


Fig. 57.-The Otaheite-gooseberry, Phyllanthus acidus.


Phyllanthus acidus Skeels. (P. distichus Muell. Cicca disticha L.)
Otaheite-Gooseberry. Gooseberry-Tree. (2). EUPHORBIA-
CEAE.
The Otaheite-gooseberry, a native of Madagascar and India, is
occasionally found growing wild as an escape in the southern
part of the state. The tree is small but erect growing and of





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 69

value as an ornamental. (Fig. 57.) Its leaves, ovate and acute,
2 to 3 inches long, are arranged in rows on the smaller lateral
branches giving the ap-
pearance of long, pinnate
foliage.
The fruit is round,
slightly angled or ribbed,
pale green, and about 3/t of
an inch in diameter. (Fig.
58.) It is quite acid and is
used for preserving. :
Propagation is by seed
or shield budding.
Psidium cattleianum Sa-
bine. Cattley Guava.
Strawberry G uava.
(3). MYRTACEAE.
This species, from Bra-
zil, is considerably more
cold-resistant t h a n the
common guava. Tempera-
tures of short duration of
250 F. or even lower are
withstood with little dam-
age.
The plant bears little or
no resemblance to the com-
mon guava. It is shrubby
in habit of growth but may
reach a height of 20 feet.
(Fig. 59.) Its growth is Fig. 58.-The Otaheite-gooseberry.
relatively slow. The deep
green, leathery leaves are obovate to elliptic in shape and usu-
ally less than 4 inches in length. Because of the attractive foli-
age the plant is used to some extent in ornamental plantings.
It is free of scale-insects and diseases. The plants fruit quite
regularly in spite of cultural neglect.
The fruit, ripening in late July and for several weeks there-
after, is small-seldom over 1/._ inches long-of a red to reddish-
purple color, and contains several fairly large, nut-like seeds.
(Fig. 60.) A yellow-fruited variety, lucidum, commonly termed





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the Yellow Cattley guava, is somewhat sweeter but differs mainly
in the color of the mature fruit. The fruit of both varieties are
utilized for jelly making as well as fresh. Neither sort is grown
to anything like the extent of the common guava.


In .. ..
Fig. 59.-The Cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum.

In field plantings a spacing of about 10 x 10 feet is used.
Propagation is almost wholly by seeds, there being little variation
evident in the seedling plants.






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 71

Psidium guajava L. Guava. (3). MYRTACEAE.
The guava is a native of tropical America that has become nat-
uralized through many parts of southern Florida. Unfortunately,
a large proportion of the wild stock bears fruit of an inferior


Fig. 60.-Cattley guava fruit and foliage.


quality. The plant has shown itself to be adapted to a wide range
of soils as it thrives on high sands, marls, and on the heavier
types. It is quite subject to frost injury, a few degrees below
freezing usually causing damage, but even if killed to the ground






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


new growth appears with warmer weather and within a couple
of seasons a bearing size is again attained.
Ordinarily growing as a large shrub, the guava under favor-
able conditions can be grown in tree form. (Fig. 61.) It attains
a height of about 25 feet with an equal spread. The foliage is a
light green, the leaves oblong-elliptic to oval, 3 to 6 inches in


Fig. 61.-The common guava, Psidium guajava.

length, with the veins prominently impressed above and raised
below. The branchlets are four-angled. The white flowers, borne
singly or two and three together, appear intermittently, begin-
ning in late spring. The fruit, containing many stone-like seeds,
varies greatly in shape, size, and flesh coloration, according to
variety. (Fig. 62.) All varieties have the characteristic guava






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 73

odor. The season of fruit maturity begins in late June and ex-
tends for several weeks.
Several unnamed varieties are grown. These are differenti-
ated mainly according to flesh color-white or pink, and degree


Fig. 62.-Fruit and foliage of the common guava. (Photo by Turnage.)

of acidity-sweet or sour. There are also differences in the
shape of the fruit which varies from globose to pyriform.
The Brazilian guava, P. guineense Sw., has been noted as mak-
ing a thrifty growth in Polk County and on the lower east coast.
This species differs from the former in having round teretee)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


instead of four-angled, leaves without the impressed venation,
and rather insipid fruits with large numbers of smaller seeds.
In planting, various spacing distances are used. These vary
from 10 x 15 feet to 25 x 25 feet. Any spacing closer than 15 x
15 feet will normally result in crowding of mature plants. Com-
plete commercial fertilizers are used with material benefit. Both
clean culture with cultivation and mulching systems are success-
fully practiced, the type of culture giving the best results de-
pending to some extent on the soil type. Good drainage is desir-
able but at the same time an ample supply of soil moisture
throughout the growing and fruiting season is required for max-
imum growth and fruit yield.
Guavas are used extensively fresh and in the making of jellies,
marmalades, preserves, etc. Manufactured guava products are
being produced in a commercial way and it is probable that the
demand for these will continue to increase steadily.
Propagation is mainly by seeds, which germinate readily,
root cuttings, budding, or grafting. With seeds, only those from
large choice fruits should be planted. Root cuttings are made
of any except very large or very small roots. They are cut into
lengths of 5 to 8 inches, laid flat in a seedbed and covered with
soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches. The soil is kept moist but not
wet. A simple method of obtaining plants from roots is to
sever roots from large plants at a distance of 2 or 3 feet from
the main trunk. A sharp spade is used so that the soil and the
roots are disturbed as little as possible. Sprouts will spring up
from the severed roots and may be transplanted when they have
attained the desired size. Both shield and patch budding are
possible but it is difficult to get a reasonable percentage to live.
The work is done in winter on small stock plants; budwood that
is far enough advanced to have lost the green color in the bark
should be used. The Morris slot graft has proved successful on
guavas.
Punica granatum L. Pomegranate. (4). PUNICACEAE.
The pomegranate, originating in southern Asia, is now com-
mon in both the tropics and sub-tropics. It is well adapted to
diverse soil types and seemingly is unaffected by any extremes of
temperatures throughout Florida. It is grown as an ornamental
and a home fruit but not in a commercial way in the state.
The plant, if unpruned, is a shrubby tree attaining a height of
15 to 20 feet. (Fig. 63.) It is deciduous. The leaves are a shin-






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 75

ing green and seldom over 21/2 inches in length. Large blossoms,
deep orange-red in color, are in evidence for several weeks dur-
ing the spring. (Fig. 64.) The plant is quite attractive when in
foliage and accompanied by either the red flowers or fruits.


^.- j.-,'1.4-.:
:]^; fc '.^Aaf-


f/ *{-
4. 3'.1'


Fig. 63.-The pomegranate, Punica granatum.


The fruits are variable in size, ranging from 2 to 4 inches in
diameter, nearly round, with heavy tubular calyx persistent, and
yellowish to bright red in color. (Figs. 65 and 66.) The edible






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


portion consists of the juicy pulp contained in sacs about each
seed. It is eaten out of hand or the juice used in the prepara-
tion of drinks and sirups. The season of ripening begins in July
and August and extends over several weeks. There are numer-


Fig. 64.-Foliage and blossoms of the pomegranate, Punica granatum.


A,





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 77
ous varieties, the variation having to do with the size of the
plant as well as differences in characteristics of the fruits.
Propagation is by seeds, cuttings, or layers.


Fig. 65.-Pomegranate fruit and foliage.


7N






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Spondias cytherea Sonn. (S. dulcis Forst.). Ambarella. Vi. Ota-
heite-Apple. (1). ANACARDIACEAE.
A native of the Society Islands, this fruit of the South Seas
is grown in a limited way in the most frost-free part of Florida.
Under optimum condi-
tions the tree grows to
a height of 60 feet. Its
pinnate leaves, clustered
near the branch ends,
are 8 to 15 inches in
length. The leaflets, 11
to 13 in number, oval-
oblong and acuminate,
are about 3 inches long.
The whitish flowers are
borne in long panicles. B
The fruits, ripening in
winter, are oval to ob-
long in outline and some-
what resemble a large
plum. (Fig. 67.) They Fig. 66.- Pomegranate fruit in cross-
section.
are yellow in color when
ripe, and 2 to 3 inches long. The yellow pulp is firm and juicy.
It varies from acid to sweet in flavor, according to variety.
There are several varieties. The single large seed is beset with
numerous spines which prevent ready removal of the pulp. The
fruit is considered by many to be of indifferent quality. It is
used to some extent for preserves.
Propagation is by seeds and by shield budding.
Spondias lutea L. (S. mombin Jacq.). Yellow Mombin. Hog-
Plum. Jobo. (2). ANACARDIACEAE.
The yellow mombin, usually a tall growing tree but of vari-
able shape, is widely distributed in the tropics. Its leaves are
pinnate, up to 12 inches in length, with 7 to 17 leaflets which
are from 3 to 4 inches long. The flowers, tinged with yellow, are
borne in long panicles. The ovoid fruits are yellow, from 1 to
11/2 inches long, with the flavor varying from sweet to subacid.
The season of fruit maturity is late summer.
The Spanish-plum or red mombin, Spondias purpurea L. (S.
mombin L.), is found in Key West and is probably suited to the
same range as the yellow mombin.
Propagation is by seeds and long cuttings.





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 79

Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind. (1). LEGUMINOSAE.
The tamarind, an African indigene, thrives in the soils of the
southern areas and because of its susceptibility to cold injury
its culture is confined to that region.
The tree is of an immense size. (Fig. 68.) Its great spread-


Fig. 67.-The amberella, Spondias cytherea.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ing branches and finely pinnate foliage give it a decided orna-
mental value. The fruit, maturing in summer, is a slightly
curved, plump, brown pod, 3 to 5 inches long, with a brittle shell.
(Fig. 69.) The large glossy seeds are imbedded in a brown
pulp which is the edible portion. This pulp is of pleasing acid
flavor, although the sugar content may run as high as over 20
percent. It is used for flavoring preserves, in the preparation
of beverages and, in the Orient, as a fish-preserving brine.


Fig. 68.-The tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica.


Propagation is usually by seed but desirable fruited sorts
may be shield budded on small stock plants of the same species.

Triphasia trifolia P. Wils. (T. aurantiola Lour.). Chinese-Lime.
Myrtle-Lime. Lime-Berry. Limoncito. (2). RUTACEAE.
The lime-berry, a citrus relative, is presumably a native of
southern China or of Malaya. It has but recently been grown
in Florida to any extent and is now coming into favor as a low
hedging or border plant. Of slow growth, it is desirable for this





Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 81

use. Its hardiness is uncertain but quite probably it is suited to
only the southern areas.
Shrubby and fairly dense in habit of growth, it is doubtful
that the plant at maturity will ever exceed a height of 10 or 12
feet. The deep green leaves, 1 to 2 inches long, glandular dot-
ted, are three-foliate, the terminal one being much the largest.
Small, slender, very sharp spines are borne in pairs in the leaf
axils. (Figs. 70 and 71.)
























Fig. 69.-Fruit pods of the tamarind.

The fruit matures during the summer months. It is ovate in
shape, about 1/2 inch in diameter, and dark red in color. The
pulp is sweetish and quite sticky, containing from 1 to 3 green
seeds which are quite large in comparison to the size of the
fruit. The fruits are preserved or candied.
Propagated by seed or by budding.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. sativa Gaert. Z. vulgaris Lam.). Ju-
jube. Chinese-Date. (4). RHAMNACEAE.
Trees growing thriftily in Key West, Pensacola, and Gaines-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ville demonstrate the adaptability of the jujube to the varying
soils and temperature extremes of widely separated points in
Florida. Neither the plant nor blossoms are injured by low tem-
peratures experienced anywhere in the state.
The jujube is a Chinese fruit that has long been grown in
southeastern Asia and in Europe, and has been in the Southern
States for probably 75 years, but never widely cultivated. The


Fig. 70.-The lime-berry, Triphasia trifolia.


lack of popularity is partially due to a lack of knowledge on
the part of the grower or potential consumer as to the methods
of best utilizing the fruit.
The tree is usually upright in habit of growth, particularly
when young. It attains a height of 25 to 30 feet in maturity and
with its deep green, shiny foliage is of worth as an ornamental.
(Fig. 72.) It is deciduous, shedding not only its leaves but
from one to ten of the small fruiting branches at each node.
Most of the trees are armed with sharp, slender spines at the






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 83

nodes. The leaves, 1 to 3 inches long, are prominently three-
nerved from the base.
Ripening from July to September, the fruit is variable in
both shape and size, be-
ing from 1 to 2 inches
in diameter and from
subglobose to oblong or *
even pear -shaped in
outline. A single hard
seed is contained in
each fruit, i ts shape
also varying with var-
iety. Before maturity
the fruit is a shining
green which on ripen-
ing turns to a deep
brown. The flesh is
crisp, whitish in color,
and varies from sweet
to sub-acid. They are
eaten fresh, dried, can-
died, and preserved.
Many varieties have
been introduced into
America by the Office
of Foreign Plant Intro-
duction of the United
States Department of
Agriculture. Of these,
C. C. Thomas' of that
office e, recommends
four varieties above
the others: Mu Shing
Hong FPI No. 22684,
Lang FPI No. 22686,
Sui Men FPI No. 38245,
and Li FPI No. 38249. Fig. 71.-A fruiting twig of the lime-berry.
(Figs. 73 and 74.)
The Indian jujube Z. mauritiana L. (Z. Orthacantha DC.), is
a vigorous-growing, small tree with widespread lateral branches

'Thomas, C. C. The Chinese Jujube. U.S.D.A. Dept. Bul. 1215. 1924.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


bearing numerous sharp small spines. It is subject to frost in-
jury and is suited to only the warmer sections. Its leaves are
small, almost round, and covered on the under surface with a


Fig. 72.-The jujube, Ziziphus jujuba.


felty tomentum. The fruits are round, red in color when ripe,
and do not exceed an inch in diameter.
Ziziphus mistol Griseb. is intermediate in hardiness between


R.rr






Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 85


Fig. 73.-Foliage and immature fruit of the Li variety of jujube.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the above species. The tree is quite spiny; the leaves about an
inch in length. Its fruit is black and very small-almost berry-
like.
Another Ziziphus of undetermined species, called the Malay
jujube, is being grown in the southern part of the state. The
tree is evergreen and prolific, bearing two heavy crops annually.


Fig. 74.-Fruit of the Lang variety of jujube.


The fruit is utilized in the making of jelly, butter, and other
products.
Propagation is by seed and whip grafting.







Bulletin 223, Misc. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 87

PLANT INDEX


PAGE
Aberia caffra .................................. 37
Aberia gardneri ............................ 39
Achradelpha mammosa ................ 15
Achras sapota ................................ 12
Achras zapota ................................ 15
Akee ................................................ 25
Albizzia lebbek .............................. 11
Amatungulu .................................... 31
Ambarella ...................................... 78
Anacardium occidental .............. 15
Annona cherimola .......................... 16
Annona diversifolia ...................... 22
Annona glabra ............................. 18
Annona montana ............................ 22
Annona muricata .......................... 20
Annona reticulata ....................18, 21
Annona squamosa ........................ 18
Annona, white ................................ 22
Artocarpus inctsa ........................ 23
Artocarpus integra ...................... 23
Artocarpus integrifolia ................ 23
Australian pine ............................ 11
Australian silk oak ........................ 11
Averrhoa carambola ...................... 23

Bamboo ............................................ 11
Banana ............................................ 66
Banana, Chinese ............................ 66
Barbados-cherry ............................ 61
Batoko-plum .................................... 53
Black-olive ...................................... 11
Blighia sapida ................................ 25
Bucida buceras .............................. 11
Bullock's heart .............................. 21

Caimito .......................................... 36
Calocarpum mammosum .............. 15
Calocarpum viride ........................ 25
Canistel .............................-........... 60
Carambola ...................................... 23
Carica papaya ................................ 27
Carissa ........................................... 31
Carissa arduina ............................ 32
Carissa carandas .......................... 32
Carissa grandiflora ...................... 31
Cashew ..................................... ... 15
Casimiroa edulis ............................ 32
Casuarina equisetifolia ................ 11
Casuarina lepidophloia ................ 11
Cecropia palmata ........................ 35
Cereus, night-blooming ................ 54
Cereus triangularis ...................... 54
Cereus tricostatus .......................... 54
Ceriman ......................................... 64
Ceylon-gooseberry ........................ 39
Cherimoya ...............-...---- ......-- ... 16
Cherry-laurel .................................. 11
Chinese-date ................-..............- 81
Chinese lime .................................. 80
Chrysophyllum cainito .................. 36


PAGE
Chrysophyllum olivaeforme ........ 36
Cicca disticha ................................ 68
Cupania sapida .............................. 25
Custard-apple ................................ 21

Dilly ................................................ 12
Dovyalis cafra .............................. 37
Dovyalis hebecarpa ...................... 39

Egg-fruit ........................................ 60
Elaeagnus philippensis ................ 39
Elaeagnus pungens ...................... 39
Eriobotrya japonica ...................... 40
Eucalyptus ...................................... 11
Eugenia apiculata ........................ 48
Eugenia brazilensis ...................... 44
Eugenia dombeyi ............................ 44
Eugenia jambolana ........................ 45
Eugenia jambos ............................ 46
Eugenia micheli ............................ 47
Eugenia uniflora .......................... 47
Euphoria longana .......................... 59

Feijoa ............................................. 48
Feijoa sellowiana .......................... 48
Flacourtia indica .......................... 53
Flacourtia ramontchi .................... 53
Genip ............................................... 63
Gooseberry-tree ............................ 68
Governor's-plum ............................ 53
Grevillea robusta .......................... 11
Grumichama .................................. 44
Guanabana ...................................... 20
Guava ........................................... 71
Guava, Brazilian ............................ 73
Guava, Cattley .............................. 69
Guava, Pineapple .......................... 48
Guava, Strawberry ........................ 69
Harpephyllum caffrum ................ 54
Hog-plum ...................................... 78
Hylocereus tricostatus .................. 54
Hylocereus undatus ...................... 54

Ilama .............................................. 22

Jak-fruit .......................................... 23
Jambolan ........................................ 45
Japan-plum .................................... 40
Japanese medlar ............................ 40
Java-plum ..................................... 45
Jobo .......................-- ...... ..... 78
Jujube ............................-- ..-...... .... 81
Jujube, Indian .............................. 83
Jujube, Malay .............................. 86

Kafir-plum ................................... 54
Kei-apple ....................................... 37
Ketembilla ................................. 39






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PAGE
Laurocerasus caroliniana ............ 11
Leechee ........................................... 56
Lime-berry ...................................... 80
Limoncito ----........................................ 80
Lingaro .......................................... 39
Litchi .............................................. 56
Litchi chinensis ............................ 56
Loquat ............ ...............-- .............. 40
Lucum a mammosa ........................ 15
Lucuma nervosa ........................... 60
Lungan ........................................... 59
Lychee ........................................6, 59

M alpighia glabra --...........----.......- 61
M amey ............................................. 62
M amey sapote ................................ 15
M ammea am ericana ...................... 62
M ammee-apple ....--......................... 62
M amon ................................ ........-- 63
M amoncillo ...................................... 63
M elicocca bijuga ............................ 63
M eliococcus bijugatus .................. 63
M exican-apple ................................ 32
M ombin, yellow .............................. 78
M ombin, red .................................... 78
M onstera deliciosa ........................ 64
M usa cavendishi ............................ 66
M usa paradisiaca .......................... 66
M usa sapientum ............................ 66
M yrtle-lime .................................... 80

Natal-plum ...................................... 31
N ephelium litchi ............................ 56

Otaheite-apple ................................ 78
Otaheite-gooseberry ...................... 68

Papaya .......................................... 27
Pawpaw .......................................... 27
Photinia japonica .......................... 40
Phyllanthus acidus ........................ 68
Phyllanthus distichus .................. 68
Pitanga ............................................ 47
Pitaya ............................................. 54
Pomegranate .................................. 74
Pongam ............................................ 11
Pongamia pinnata ........................ 11
Psidium cattleianum .................... 69


PAGE
Psidium guajava ............................ 71
Psidium guineense ........................ 73
Punica granatum .......................... 74

Ramontchi ...--.................................. 53
Rose-apple ...........................-- ......... 46

Sapodilla ....................................... 12
Sapota ...........-- .............................. 12
Sapota Achras ................................ 12
Sapota zapotilla ............................ 12
Sapote ......................................... -15
Sapote, green ...............-.................. 25
Sapote, white ................................. 32
Soursop ............................................ 20
Soursop, mountain ........................ 22
Spanish-lime ..................--------....... 63
Spondias cytherea ........................ 78
Spondias dulcis .............................. 78
Spondias lutea ................................ 78
Spondias mombin .......................... 78
Spondias purpurea ........................ 78
Star-apple ...................................... 36
Strawberry-pear ............................ 54
Sugar-apple .................................... 18
Surinam-cherry .............................. 47
Sweetsop .......................................... 18
Syzygium jambolanum .................. 45

Tamarind ........................................ 79
Tamarindus indica ...................... 79
Ti-es ................................................ 60
Triphasia aurantiola .................... 80
Triphasia trifolia ........................ 80
Trumpet-tree .................................. 35

Umkokolo .....--................................. 37

Vi .................................................. 78

W oman's tongue tree .................... 11

Ziziphus jujuba .............................. 81
Ziziphus mauritiana .................... 83
Ziziphus mistol .............................. 84
Ziziphus Orthacantha .................. 83
Ziziphus sativa .............................. 81
Ziziphus vulgaris .......................... 81




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