• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Board of control and station...
 Clover tests
 Grass tests
 Results of zephyrhills test
 Callahan test
 Range cattle station
 Summary and conclusions
 Practical considerations






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida - 384
Title: Minor elements stimulate pasture plants
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027755/00001
 Material Information
Title: Minor elements stimulate pasture plants a preliminary report
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Killinger, G. B ( Gordon Beverly ), 1908-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Clover -- Field experiments   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Field experiments   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of minerals on   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G.B. Killinger ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027755
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925187
oclc - 18232319
notis - AEN5833

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 2
    Clover tests
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Grass tests
        Page 6
    Results of zephyrhills test
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Callahan test
        Page 10
    Range cattle station
        Page 10
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 11
    Practical considerations
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 384


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
-WILMOiN' NE WELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




MINOR ELEMENTS STIMULATE

PASTURE PLANTS

A Preliminary Report

By
G. B. KILLINGER, R. E. BLASER, E. M. HODGES and W. E. STOKES


Fig. 1.-Healthy and Boron-Deficient Clover Plants. Left, normal Cali-
fornia Bur clover which received 10 pounds of borax per acre. Right, dis-
torted California Bur clover deficient in boron (no borax applied).



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


March, 1943







EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz. Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.*
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor"
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor3
Jefferson Tnomas. Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Fusiness Manager3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stakes, M S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leuke,1 Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fr2d H. Hull, Ph.D., Aaronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killin"er, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialists 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinar:an
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Ve:erinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist *
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
P. T. Dix Arnold. M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.h
Geo. K. Davis, Ph.D., Nutrition Tech.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
J. E. Pace, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
ECONOMICS. AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologista
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes. Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1 3
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.s
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist1 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chem.
J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chem.
T. C. Erwin, Asst. Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson. M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist4
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
Thos. Whitehead, J.r. M.S.A., Asst.
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor4
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyors


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whi ehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A.. Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reev6s, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Motile Unit, Milton
Ralph L Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist4
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. 0. Sterling. B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
J. W. Sites, M.S., Asso. Hort.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist 4
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.'
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D.. Asso. Truck Hort.4
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D'., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S A., Asst. Entomologist
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husb. in Chargez
RANGE CATTLE STA.. ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
R. A. Fulford, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge"
Plant City
A. N. Brooks. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Hort. in Chg.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 6
Harry Armstrong, Asso. Meteorologist2

Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SIn Military Service.
5 On leave.


Gift of Issuing Office









MINOR ELEMENTS STIMULATE

PASTURE PLANTS

By
G. B. KILLINGER, R. E. BLASER, E. M. HODGES and W. E. STOKES

CONTENTS
Page
Clover Tests ........... 3
Grass Tests ...................... 6
Results of Zephyrhills Test 7
Callahan Test ......... .... ......... 10
Range Cattle Station ..... ..... 10
Summary and Conclusions ......... ........ ... 11
Practical Considerations ................. 12
Growth of pasture plants on many Florida soils is limited by
lack of nutrients necessary for normal growth. Tests conducted
with various clovers show that sandy soils generally must be
treated with lime, phosphorus and potassium for success with
these legumes.1 The growth of grasses in Florida is increased
greatly by supplying calcium, phosphorus, potassium and nitro-
gen. Recent tests show marked growth responses of pasture
plants on some soils when minor elements are supplied in addi-
tion to the ordinary fertilizer materials.

CLOVER TESTS
In November, 1941, an experiment was started near Gaines-
ville on a Leon fine sand, with pH 4.6, to test California Bur and
Louisiana White Dutch clover responses to various minor ele-
ments. The site selected was virgin Leon soil typical of flat pine
woods soils. Native vegetation consisted of palmetto, wiregrass,
gallberry and small pine trees. The trees were removed, the vege-
tation was burned, and the residue was then incorporated into
the soil with a disk harrow. Plots 7x25 feet were laid off and
fertilized uniformly with 2,000 pounds of ground calcic lime-
stone, 600 pounds of 20 percent superphosphate, and 200 pounds
of 50 percent muriate of potash per acre. By light disking this
lime and fertilizer was incorporated with the surface two inches
of soil.
Compounds of 14 minor elements including copper, zinc, man-
ganese, magnesium, iron, boron, cobalt, molybdenum, alumi-

SBlaser, R. E., and F. T. Boyd. Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular
Florida. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 351. 1940; also, Blaser, R. E., Pasture
Clover Studies. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 325. 1938.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


num, nickel, iodine, chromium, lead and tin were selected as most
likely to give responses on the basis of their solubilities, chemical
behavior, and responses from other crops (Table 1). These com-
pounds were used singly and in combinations, making a total of
20 treatments which were replicated three times in randomized
blocks. Rates used in this test were arbitrary, since little or no
previous research with minor elements for clover has been re-
ported. Minor elements were surface broadcast by hand and not
incorporated into the soil, to avoid contamination from the use
of machinery.

TABLE 1.-MINOR ELEMENTS AND RATES AS APPLIED ON CLOVER
EXPERIMENTS.


Treatment


Copper sulfate (Cu SOM 5 HO0) .................................
Iron sulfate (Fe SO4 7 H.1O) .................. ........- ..........-
Manganese sulfate (Mn SO .4 H.O) ................................
Zinc sulfate (Zn SO4 6 H .O) ..- -........ .~.. .............. .......
Magnesium sulfate (Mg SO4 7 HO1 ) ..................................
Cobaltous chloride (Co Cl 6 H1O) .............-..............
Borax (NaB40 10 H11O) .......... ............ ...... ....... ....
Copper, iron, manganese, zinc, magnesium, cobalt and
b oron ..... ....... ..... ......... ......................... .......
Copper, iron, manganese, zinc and magnesium ...................
Copper, iron, manganese, zinc and magnesium ...................
Copper, iron, manganese, zinc and magnesium ....................
64-element commercial mineral mixture .............................
Sodium molybdate (Na2MoO1 2 H=0) ............................
Aluminum sulfate (Al, (SO) 18 H0O) ...............................
Nickel sulfate (Ni SOi 6 HO) .................... ................
Potassium iodide (K I) ........ ............-- ... .... .... .....- -
Chromium sulfate (Cr, (S0)a 18 H1O) .............................
Lead nitrate (Pb (N O,)2) .................................. ..... ....
Stannous chloride (Sn Cl 2 H1O) ............. .........-....-


Pounds per Acre


50
75
75
10
75
10
10
Standard
2 Standard
Y2 Standard
Standard
150
2
2
2
2
2
2
2


Standard = elements combined at same rate as individual elements.

Inoculated California Bur and a Louisiana strain of White
Dutch clover were seeded in a 40:60 mixture at the rate of 12
pounds per acre. Subsequent rains washed the seed into the soil,
resulting in good germination and stand of clover on all plots.
In their early growth stages neither clover displayed deficiency
symptoms from malnutrition. However, a definite boron response
on California Bur clover was observed just previous to blooming,
while the White Dutch clover displayed no apparent responses
at this time.
California Bur clover plots treated with lime and fertilizer,
plus 10 pounds of borax per acre, and 10 pounds of borax in com-






Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants


bination with copper, zinc, manganese, iron, magnesium, and co-
balt made normal growth. A third treatment consisting of a 64-
element commercial mixture probably containing a trace of boron
also produced normal California Bur clover plants when applied
at the rate of 150 pounds per acre.
California Bur clover on the remaining 51 plots variously
treated, but without boron, all exhibited boron deficiency symp-
toms. The boron-deficient plants were dwarfed in growth and
the apex leaves were contorted, thickened and curled as compared
with the normal
plant (Fig. 1). 1
The boron-defici- -7
ent California
Bur clover plants *
did not set seed -
satisfactorily, and
many of the
blooms aborted.
The treatment
containing six
other elements
besides boron,
mostly sulfates,
did not support
as good California 8
Bur growth as
the other two
boron treatments.
Explaining t h e
retarded growth
was the high con-
centration of sul-
fates which ap-
parently increas-
ed soil acidity to
which California
Bur clover is sen-
sitive.
L o u i s i a n a Fig. 2.-Response of Clover to Borax. Top, Louis-
iana White Dutch clover growth in July on check
White Dutch plot with standard fertilizer treatment. Below,
clover gave in- White Dutch clover growth in July on plot receiving
standard fertilizer treatment with borax added at
creased late sea- the rate of 10 pounds per acre.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


son growth when treated with boron, but did not exhibit any
characteristic deficiency symptoms without boron. Figure 2
illustrates a typical late season growth of White Dutch clover
which received a standard fertilizer treatment with and without
boron. White Dutch clover on the boron-treated plots survived
high summer temperatures better than plants not receiving
borax. This survival of clover during the summer improved
the quality of feed due to the presence of a legume, and may be
expected to furnish earlier winter and spring grazing in the
subsequent season.
Preliminary observations made on California Bur clover at
the North Florida Station, Quincy, West Central Florida Station,
Brooksville, and the Range Cattle Station, Ona, revealed similar
deficiency symptoms. Annual sweet clovers and Black Medic
showed similar symptoms at Gainesville and Brooksville.

GRASS TESTS

Two identical experiments dealing with the effect of various
minor elements on carpet, Texas bahia, dallis, and common ber-
muda grasses were started in the early summer of 1942. These
experiments were located on Leon fine sand, a soil typical of range
land near Zephyrhills and Callahan, Florida. Soil reactions at
the start of these two experiments showed a pH of 4.3 at both
places.
On the area near Zephyrhills native vegetation consisting of
saw palmetto, wiregrass and other plants was chopped once with
a heavy rolling chopper and disked twice with a medium weight
cutaway double disk harrow. The heavy chopper was not used
on the Callahan area. Instead, this area was cut three times with
a disk harrow of similar type. Plots 20x30 feet were laid off and
1/2 of each received a basic treatment of 2,000 pounds of ground
high calcic limestone, 500 pounds of an 8-16-8 fertilizer2 per acre
and the minor element treatment. The remaining half of each
plot received the minor element treatment without complete fer-
tilizer and lime. Seven minor elements were used singly, in com-
binations, and at rates shown in Table 2.
Four grasses-carpet, dallis, Texas bahia and commercial ber-
muda-were seeded in five-foot strips lengthwise through each
plot. An equal mixture of heavily inoculated Kobe and common
2 This lime and heavy fertilizer rate was applied so the elements calcium,
phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen would not be limiting growth factors.






Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants


TABLE 2.-MINOR ELEMENT TREATMENTS APPLIED ON GRASS EXPERIMENTS.

Treatment Pounds per Acre


Copper sulfate (Cu SO, 5 H2O) ....................
Ircn sulfate (Fe SO 7 H O0) .................. ..........
Manganese sulfate (Mn SO4 4 H2O) ................
Zinc sulfate (Zn SO 6 H2O) ---------...--
Magnesium sulfate (Mg SO 7 H2O) ................
Cobaltous acetate (CO (C2H302)2 4 HO) ............-
Borax (Na2BlO 10 HO) ..................................
All the above compounds... ...........---.......
All the above compounds.............. ...... ......
All the above compounds.....-- -.......................
Copper, iron, borax, manganese, zinc and cobalt.
Copper, iron, borax, manganese and zinc.....-...........
Copper, iron, borax and manganese.............-..
Copper, iron and borax .............. ...... --- ..
Copper and iron -............... ..................... ....
No minor elements..- ....................


25
50
50
10
50
1
10
Standard
2 Standard
2 Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard


StanJard is the same rate as listed for individual elements.

lespedeza was seeded over the entire experiment at the rate of 20
pounds per acre.
On both tests the lime and complete fertilizer were disked in
lightly, then seeded and rolled with a heavy steel packer. The
minor elements were mixed with a small quantity of soil and
then surface broadcast. This technique gave a minimum con-
tamination with minor elements between the variously treated
plots.

RESULTS OF ZEPHYRHILLS TEST

Rapid germination and excellent stands resulted because of
favorable weather conditions following fertilization and seeding.
Within six weeks after seeding very marked growth responses
of grasses were noted on plots treated with certain minor ele-
ments. Shown in Fig. 3 are typical growth responses of dallis,
carpet and Texas bahia grasses treated with lime and a complete
fertilizer; with lime, complete fertilizer, and seven minor ele-
ments; and with all minor elements without lime and fertilizer.
The growth of carpet, dallis and Texas bahia for the eight-week
period, when treated with seven minor elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg,
Zn, Co, B), as compared to the growth of grass treated with lime
and fertilizer but without minor elements, is shown in Fig. 4.
Grasses responded primarily to compounds of copper, zinc and
manganese, and secondarily to boron. No response on any of
the grasses treated with the iron compound was observed and


~..~.......
----~------
----------i


















































Fig. 3.-Response of Grasses to Fertilizer and Minor
.5' ".lt*










jN '













Elements. Upper left, carpet grass seedlings. Upper
right, Texas bahia seedlings. Below, dallis grass seedlings.
Seedlings on left in each picture received a complete fer-
tilizer; center received complete fertilizer and all minor
clements at standard rate; right, all minor elements at
s andard rate but no complete fertilizer.

only slight responses to magnesium were noted. The /2 standard
rate mixture of seven minor elements gave responses as satisfac-
tory as the standard rate, while the double rate mixture of minor
elements did not produce growth as satisfactory as the lighter
rates.
rates.






Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants


? s ~flC htaF


Carpet Grass


Dallis Grass


Texas Bahia Grass
Fig. 4.-Response of Grasses to Minor Elements. Left, treated with
seven minor elements, complete fertilizer and lime. Right, treated only with
complete fertilizer and lime.

Grasses not limed and fertilized with the 8-16-8 mixture made
very little growth and gave no response to any minor elements
(Fig. 5). This indicated that the elements supplied by lime and
complete fertilizer are of first importance in grass fertilization,
and that after these have been supplied minor elements may be-
come limiting growth factors.
The common and Kobe varieties of lespedeza did not display
appreciable growth responses when treated with minor elements.
Lespedeza growth was normal for late season planting, although
it had considerable competition from the heavily fertilized grass.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 5.-Grass Response to Minor Elements in Addition to Fertilizers.
Bermuda, dallis, bahia and carpet grass seedlings two months old. Left,
minor elements without complete fertilizer. Right, minor elements with
complete fertilizer.

CALLAHAN TEST

In the Callahan test grass responses from the application of
minor elements were not as pronounced as in the Zephyrhills
test. Satisfactory growth resulted without minor elements. How-
ever, distinct growth increases resulted from minor element treat-
ments, the most .outstanding response being from copper. The
growth increases for other minor elements were similar to those
from the Zephyrhills test. Little or no grass growth resulted
when minor elements were used in the absence of lime and com-
plete fertilizer.

RANGE CATTLE STATION
A portion of the pasture test at the Range Cattle Station near
Wauchula on typical range land (Immokalee fine sand) consists
of four 5-acre pastures, of which two were treated'with a mix-
ture of seven minor elements, complete fertilizer and lime, and
the other two with only fertilizer and lime. These pastures with
and without minor elements were included in a large scale pas-
ture layout to measure the relative value of forage as determined






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 5.-Grass Response to Minor Elements in Addition to Fertilizers.
Bermuda, dallis, bahia and carpet grass seedlings two months old. Left,
minor elements without complete fertilizer. Right, minor elements with
complete fertilizer.

CALLAHAN TEST

In the Callahan test grass responses from the application of
minor elements were not as pronounced as in the Zephyrhills
test. Satisfactory growth resulted without minor elements. How-
ever, distinct growth increases resulted from minor element treat-
ments, the most .outstanding response being from copper. The
growth increases for other minor elements were similar to those
from the Zephyrhills test. Little or no grass growth resulted
when minor elements were used in the absence of lime and com-
plete fertilizer.

RANGE CATTLE STATION
A portion of the pasture test at the Range Cattle Station near
Wauchula on typical range land (Immokalee fine sand) consists
of four 5-acre pastures, of which two were treated'with a mix-
ture of seven minor elements, complete fertilizer and lime, and
the other two with only fertilizer and lime. These pastures with
and without minor elements were included in a large scale pas-
ture layout to measure the relative value of forage as determined






Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants


by cattle with and without mineral supplements. On the two
minor element pastures smaller plots within the 5-acre lots were
treated with various rates and combinations of elements.
The two pastures in the first replication were fertilized and
then seeded to carpet grass in June. Six weeks after seeding there
was a good stand
of rapidly grow-
ing carpet grass
on the pasture
treated with min-
or elements while
the plot not treat-
ed with minor
elements made
the usual slow
growth (Fig. 6).
The growth and
stand of carpet
grass on both lots
were superior to
those of unfertil-
ized grass.
Sub-plots with-
in the 5-acre tests
indicate that cop-
per, manganese
and zinc gave
best growth re-
bsponses, wt -h Fig. 6.-Response of Carpet Grass to Minor Ele-
sponse s, with ments. Left, treated with minor elements, complete
magnesium and fertilizer and lime. Right, treated only with com-
boron being ofplete fertilizer and lime. Pictures taken 8 weeks
boron being of after seeding.
secondary im-
portance. Iron and cobalt treatments did not stimulate carpet
grass growth in this early stage of the test.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Preliminary experiments on three virgin soils showed that
minor elements give appreciable growth increases to grasses only
in the presence of lime and complete fertilizer.
Growth of dallis, carpet, bermuda, and bahia grass was greatly
increased on one virgin Leon soil and appreciably on another
when certain minor elements were supplied in addition to






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lime and complete fertilizer. Carpet grass growth was also in-
creased greatly in another location when grown on an Immokalee
soil. Copper appeared to give best growth responses, with man-
ganese, zinc, boron and magnesium next in importance. Little
or no growth response was observed when grasses were treated
with compounds of iron and cobalt.
A minor element test established on a Leon fine sand was
seeded to White Dutch and California Bur clovers. California
Bur clover was distinctly boron-deficient in the absence of boron
fertilization. Boron deficiency symptoms occurred on several
other soils. White Dutch clover did not display boron deficiency
symptoms, but better summer survival occurred in response to
boron application. The clovers did not respond appreciably to
treatment with other minor elements.
The effect of minor elements on composition of feed has not
yet been measured, but it is likely that minor elements will in-
crease the grazing value of forage.
Due to little or no previous research with minor elements on
forage plants in Florida, the most desirable rates of application
and combinations are not known. Tests to determine rates and
combinations of minor elements are in progress.

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
A balanced fertilizer must be supplied to obtain best growth
and quality of forage in grasses and clovers. If any one element
is deficient in the soil, an abundance of other elements will not
increase the growth.
The elements calcium, phosphorus and potassium should gen-
erally be supplied for legumes before treating with minor ele-
ments. For grasses, nitrogen should be added to the phosphorus,
potassium, and calcium treatment before minor elements are
applied.
On soil types similar to those used in these experiments it
appears desirable to use borax at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds per
acre for legumes. Grass may respond to 10 to 20 pounds per acre
of copper sulfate and manganese sulfate and 5 to 10 pounds of
zinc sulfate and borax, with the copper being most likely to give
the greatest response.




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