• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control and station...
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Minerals supplements for cattl...
 Sources of minerals
 I. Minerals for dairy cattle
 II. Mineral consumption by cattle...
 III. Relation of copper and molybdenum...
 IV. Recommended mineral mixtur...
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida - no. 513
Title: Minerals for dairy and beef cattle
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027754/00001
 Material Information
Title: Minerals for dairy and beef cattle
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 51 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Minerals in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: R.B. Becker ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027754
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926027
oclc - 18269596
notis - AEN6686

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Minerals supplements for cattle
        Page 5
    Sources of minerals
        Page 6
    I. Minerals for dairy cattle
        Page 7
        Mineral consumption by dairy heifers
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Mineral consumption by dairy cows
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Mineral consumption during feeding trials
            Page 16
        Palatability or phosphorus supplements
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Defluorinated phosphate
                Page 18
                Tests in Central Florida
                    Page 18
                Tests near brackish water
                    Page 18
            Disodium phosphate
                Page 19
            Fused superphosphate
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
    II. Mineral consumption by cattle on Florida ranges
        Page 22
        Mineral elements deficient in Florida range forage
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Mineral content of range forages
            Page 24
        Mineral mixtures
            Page 25
        Yearly mineral consumption
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Monthly consumption of minerals
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
    III. Relation of copper and molybdenum to cattle nutrition
        Page 32
        Symptoms of copper deficiency in cattle and sand soils
            Page 33
        Response to copper therapy
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Copper deficiency among cattle on peat soils
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Occurrence of copper deficiency in cattle
            Page 38
        Forms of copper in animal feeding
            Page 39
            Copper sulfate
                Page 39
            Copper chloride
                Page 39
            Copper oxide
                Page 40
            Metalic copper
                Page 40
            Basic copper sulfate
                Page 40
        Copper toxicity
            Page 40
        Interrelationship of copper, molybdenum, phosphorus and cobalt
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Methods of treatment and prevention of copper deficiency on muck soils
            Page 43
        Salt content of well waters
            Page 44
        Treatment of individual animals
            Page 45
            Page 46
    IV. Recommended mineral mixtures
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Factors affecting mineral consumption
            Page 49
            Page 50
    Acknowledgement
        Page 51
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







February 1953


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle

R. B. BECKER, P. T. DIX ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS
and R. W. KIDDER



I. Minerals for Dairy Cattle

II. Mineral Consumption by Cattle on Florida Ranges

III. Relation of Copper and Molybdenum to Cattle
Nutrition


IV. Recommended Mineral Mixtures


Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 513









BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink. Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred 1. duPont, Jacksonville
Georue W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. PF. Poers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. reekenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.8
Gee. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist a
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alle"er, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke. M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate a
W. K. McPherson. M.S., Economist :
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Ae'r. Economist a
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
.1. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens. B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineerla
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Assistant 0
Myron G. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Hush.' 3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist a
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb. a
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D.. Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Natri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb."
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
E. F. Johnston, M.S., Asst. An. Hush. 3
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D,, Asst. Biochemist

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Teeh.'
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Hush.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.s
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush. 3
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech. :
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech. 3
James M. Wine, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hussb.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor3
L. Odell Griffith. I.A.J., Asst. Editor
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor s
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist '
L.. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. ratley, M.S.A.., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waits, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

IOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abhott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Lt. B. French. Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H1. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist I
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist 8'
Albert I'. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Short.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford D. Thompson, M.S.A., Aist. Hort.
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hurt.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist 1
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and
Botanist 3
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D.. Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Melrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. 3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist"'
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 2
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemists'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M. S., Asst. Soil Surveyor3
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue. Ph.D.. Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist 3
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicists
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M.. Veterinarian 1
M. W. Emnlel, T.V.M., Veterinarian :
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist 3
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)









BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, MIS.. Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., A st. An. Hub.
T. E. Wehb, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D.. Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M1. Pratt, Ph.D Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst in Ent.-Path.
W. A. Simantou, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D.. Asso. Horticulturist
C. D'. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D.. Asst. Chem.
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
J. B. Weeks, B.S.. Ast. Ento.-Path.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., A st. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem.
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
Marion F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Physiologist
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S.. Asso. Animal Husb.
C. C. Seale. Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S.. At. Hor ticulturist
W. H. Thames, .S., As-t. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D. Asst. Plant Path.
W. G. r P A.. Asst. Entomologist
Frank '., : .,, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Robert J. Alten, Ph.D., Asst, Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., A-st. Agronomist
J, F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A.. Asst. Chem.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage I...
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr.. Ph.D., -
Chem.


SUB-TROPICAL STATION. HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenharger, Ph.D., Entomologist
i'rancic B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Rohlirt A. Conover, Ph.D.. Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
P. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin. Ph.D., Asst. Hor.t
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
A3. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Con-ervationist i

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
F. 3. Peacock, M.S., Asat. Animal Hu.lh.

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Ei : '
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., i
Hen. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
W. R. Langford, Ph.D.. Asst. Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge

GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E G, Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson. Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist


FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon. Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. 1. Crall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Path-
ologist Acting in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. It. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. MI. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Pecans--Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John 1. Large. eI.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Wasmen 0. Johnson, B.S Mleerolo-i t in
Chg. '

1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
4 On leave









CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ...........................-... -- .. --- --- -- ----------- 5
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR CATTLE ..--..---...---- -- ------------. --. 5
SOURCES OF MINERALS .....................------------------------....------------- 6

I. MINERALS FOR DAIRY CATTLE ..........-........ .............. 7
MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY DAIRY HEIFERS .........---..----.---....-- ------. 7
MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY DAIRY COWS .........----.....----------------------------. 10
MINERAL CONSUMPTION DURING FEEDING TRIALS .-.............--....--.-----.-.--. 16
PALATABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS SUPPLEMENTS ...............------. ---------------- 16
Defluorinated Phosphate .......................- ----..-.-- ----------- 18
Tests in Central Florida ......--.....-.........----..-..---- -------- 18
Tests Near Brackish Water -..........-......---------------- 18
Disodium Phosphate .........-- ------------..........------- --- 19
Fused Superphosphate -.....-..-...........---. -----.-------... 19
SUMMARY ................-... ... .........- ---------- --------... ------. 22

II. MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY CATTLE ON FLORIDA
RANGES ............................... ........ -- --------- -- ----- 22
MINERAL ELEMENTS DEFICIENT IN FLORIDA RANGE FORAGE ........-............. 22
MINERAL CONTENT OF RANGE FORAGES .-..--..............-----..---------------- 24
MINERAL MIXTURES .-......-..-----.......--.....--- ----- ------ ------------ 25
YEARLY MINERAL CONSUMPTION ......-.-....-..------.---------.-------...---. 26
MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF MINERALS ............ --.....----------------- 28

III. RELATION OF COPPER AND MOLYBDENUM TO
CATTLE NUTRITION .......................---------------------- 32
SYMPTOMS OF COPPER DEFICIrNY IN CATTLE ON SAND SOILS ..............-.-....... 33
RESPONSE TO COPPER THERAPY .......................------..........-- --------- 33
COPPER DEFICIENCY AMONG CATTLE ON PEAT SOILS ..-.......-...-...----..------------. 35
OCCURRENCE OF COPPER DEFICIENCY IN CATTLE ...--...-......--------...----------- 38
FORMS OF COPPER IN ANIMAL FEEDING ....-......-----.. --.. -------------- 39
Copper Sulfate .....-...---------- ---------------........------- 39
Copper Chloride ......-.........-................ -----. ------ 39
Copper Oxide ............... -------------- ------------ ------. 40
Metalic Copper .....----- ------.. ...-.............. ....--. -.. -- -- ------- 40
Basic Copper Sulfate --..........-.............. .. ..--.- -. --- --- 40
COPPER TOXICITY ........-- .......-- ..-.. .............--- ..---- ---------------- ----- -------- 40
ITERRELATIONSHIP OF COPPER, MOLYBDENUM, PHOSPHORUS AND COBALT- 41
METHODS OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF COPPER DEFICIENCY ON
MUCK SOILS ...........-.......-..-.---.--- --- -- ------------- 43
SALT CONTENT OF WELL WATERS .......-- ...-..-..-- ------------------... .. 44
TREATMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS ........-....--.--------. --------------- 45

IV. RECOMMENDED MINERAL MIXTURES ................----- ----------.... 47
FACTORS AFFECTING MINERAL CONSUMPTION .........-----------------..--------- 49
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................-------------------- -------- --...... 51









Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle

INTRODUCTION
Mineral elements present in the bodies of cattle include calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine (com-
mon salt), manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, sulfur, iodine, fluor-
ine, aluminum, zinc and traces of 11 others. Some of these
are present as structural or functional parts of the body, while
some may occur because they were present in feed or water
consumed.
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR CATTLE
Some of the essential mineral elements are stored in consider-
able quantity during periods of adequate intake. These are
drawn on later to meet requirements during periods of shortage.
Others no less essential must be supplied regularly because stor-
age in the body is limited. Life cannot exist without mineral
matter, as many of the important functions of the body depend
upon mineral compounds. The skeleton-which supports the
other body tissues and protects the vital organs-and the teeth
contain the largest percentages of mineral matter of any body
tissues.
Some of the vital functions of the body dependent upon mineral
compounds are automatic heart beat, respiration, nerve tone,
digestion, osmotic pressure of body fluids, and buffer action of
blood and lymph. Milk contains nearly all of the mineral ele-
ments essential for early growth of animals. The daily re-
quirements for minerals are in addition to the energy and protein
of the feed and cannot substitute for them.
The mineral requirements of animals are relatively low for
body maintenance, but these needs vary with age and with func-
tion. For example, iron, copper and cobalt are needed in slightly
larger amounts during growth and gestation than for mainte-
nance. These minerals are needed to produce the increasing
amounts of blood, muscle tissues and vital organs of the body.
More calcium and phosphorus are required during growth and
lactation than for body maintenance alone. Phosphorus also
plays a part in conversion of foods into body fat. Iodine is a
component of the hormone thyroxine which is produced by the
thyroid gland and regulates the rate of body metabolism. Com-
mon salt is in all body fluids such as milk and perspiration; it









Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle

INTRODUCTION
Mineral elements present in the bodies of cattle include calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine (com-
mon salt), manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, sulfur, iodine, fluor-
ine, aluminum, zinc and traces of 11 others. Some of these
are present as structural or functional parts of the body, while
some may occur because they were present in feed or water
consumed.
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR CATTLE
Some of the essential mineral elements are stored in consider-
able quantity during periods of adequate intake. These are
drawn on later to meet requirements during periods of shortage.
Others no less essential must be supplied regularly because stor-
age in the body is limited. Life cannot exist without mineral
matter, as many of the important functions of the body depend
upon mineral compounds. The skeleton-which supports the
other body tissues and protects the vital organs-and the teeth
contain the largest percentages of mineral matter of any body
tissues.
Some of the vital functions of the body dependent upon mineral
compounds are automatic heart beat, respiration, nerve tone,
digestion, osmotic pressure of body fluids, and buffer action of
blood and lymph. Milk contains nearly all of the mineral ele-
ments essential for early growth of animals. The daily re-
quirements for minerals are in addition to the energy and protein
of the feed and cannot substitute for them.
The mineral requirements of animals are relatively low for
body maintenance, but these needs vary with age and with func-
tion. For example, iron, copper and cobalt are needed in slightly
larger amounts during growth and gestation than for mainte-
nance. These minerals are needed to produce the increasing
amounts of blood, muscle tissues and vital organs of the body.
More calcium and phosphorus are required during growth and
lactation than for body maintenance alone. Phosphorus also
plays a part in conversion of foods into body fat. Iodine is a
component of the hormone thyroxine which is produced by the
thyroid gland and regulates the rate of body metabolism. Com-
mon salt is in all body fluids such as milk and perspiration; it






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


particularly provides chlorine for the gastric juice in the stomach.
Minerals most frequently lacking in cattle feeds are common
salt, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper and cobalt. Iodine is
deficient in some soils that are old geologically, but not in soils
of the Coastal Plains. Magnesium deficiency is associated with
grass tetany in limited areas during the first 10 days after cows
are turned from dry winter feeds into lush young pastures.
Calcium and phosphorus function together in bone and
milk, but serve separately in some other uses. Milk fever in
cows recently fresh is a temporary paralysis caused by severe
calcium shortage-due to the sudden heavy demands for milk
production after calving-and affects nervous control. In chron-
ic or long-continued calcium or phosphorus shortage, cows with-
draw mineral matter from the skeleton to such extent that the
bones become weakened and may be fractured in slight accidents.
The cows may appear in medium to high condition, but milk
yields are low, despite large feed intake.
Iron, copper and cobalt are associated together with relation
to blood formation and respiratory functions. Cobalt is in-
volved in the red bone marrow in production of new red blood
cells. Vitamin B12 contains 4 percent of cobalt, and cobalt also
may be a part of a suspected but unnamed vitamin. It functions
also in connection with a cow's appetite for feed. Copper aids
in metabolism of iron into the respiratory pigment, hemoglobin,
as well as in certain protective functions of the skin, and in color
of hair coat. Iron is the primary mineral element in the respira-
tory pigment, hemoglobin. It is found also in bile from the liver,
which contributes to intestinal digestion.

SOURCES OF MINERALS
In general, cattle obtain minerals from two main sources, either
alone or in combination. These are from minerals contained in
feeds and forages and from specific mineral supplements.
Feed crops depend on the soil and upon fertilizer additions for
their mineral contents.' Some plants have higher mineral re-
quirements than do others, and in turn provide more of these
elements for livestock. The leaf and stem portions of plants
are sources of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper
and some common salt. Grains and seeds generally are rich in
phosphorus. Wheat bran and most high-protein oilseed meals
are good sources of phosphorus.
Crops grown on good soils generally are adequate for livestock






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


in most mineral elements, when such feeds are combined in
proper proportions. On soils deficient in one or more elements-
and particularly when using home-grown feeds-it is desirable
to provide the particular mineral elements needed, either as a
palatable mineral supplement in a box (Fig. 1) or as part of the
mixed feed supply. Mineral nutrients needed as a supplement
to meet animal requirements vary considerably according to the
soil area on which the feed crops are produced.


Fig. 1.-A typical three-compartment mineral box. It is partially shel-
tered from the weather, low to the ground for access by calves, and sub-
stantially constructed.
I. MINERALS FOR DAIRY CATTLE
R. B. BECKER and P. T. DIX ARNOLD
MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY DAIRY HEIFERS
Consumption of mineral matter by dairy cattle varies widely,
depending on the composition of soils upon which roughage feeds
have been grown, upon age of animals, reproduction, rate of
milk production and feeding practices during different seasons
of the year. At the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
consumption of supplemental minerals have been recorded with


I

b-






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


in most mineral elements, when such feeds are combined in
proper proportions. On soils deficient in one or more elements-
and particularly when using home-grown feeds-it is desirable
to provide the particular mineral elements needed, either as a
palatable mineral supplement in a box (Fig. 1) or as part of the
mixed feed supply. Mineral nutrients needed as a supplement
to meet animal requirements vary considerably according to the
soil area on which the feed crops are produced.


Fig. 1.-A typical three-compartment mineral box. It is partially shel-
tered from the weather, low to the ground for access by calves, and sub-
stantially constructed.
I. MINERALS FOR DAIRY CATTLE
R. B. BECKER and P. T. DIX ARNOLD
MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY DAIRY HEIFERS
Consumption of mineral matter by dairy cattle varies widely,
depending on the composition of soils upon which roughage feeds
have been grown, upon age of animals, reproduction, rate of
milk production and feeding practices during different seasons
of the year. At the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
consumption of supplemental minerals have been recorded with


I

b-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


animals of various ages and under several feeding conditions.
Results of these trials are presented.
In the early 1930's two-compartment mineral boxes were used.
One compartment contained steamed bonemeal known to supply
calcium and phosphorus in safe form. The second compartment
contained a trace-mineral supplement with salt mixed in the
following proportions:

Prior to late 1937 No. 1 "Salt Sick" mineral
1938 and later
Common salt ...-----------.--. 100 lbs. 100 lbs.
Red oxide of iron ------ 25 lbs. 25 Ibs.
Copper sulfate --.---.-.--..-... 1 lb. 1 lb.
Cobalt sulfate ---------....... none 1 oz.

Dairy heifers, grazing on acid low-lime sand soils, received
limited amounts of corn and sorghum silages and a 16 percent
crude protein mixed concentrate during periods of pasture short-
age. These particular pastures were deficient in iron and/or
copper, as shown by the fact that nutritional anemia developed
in several pregnant heifers prior to use of the first supplement
listed. The local pastures were adequate in cobalt, since growing
and pregnant heifers did not develop nutritional anemia when
allowed free access to the iron-copper supplement. Addition of
cobalt sulfate subsequently made no difference on this particular
area in growth and welfare of dairy heifers.
During 1936-1938 records of mineral consumption were kept
with weaned dairy calves and open and bred heifers. These
consumption rates per month by animals of different ages were
as follows:

Iron-copper supplement Steamed bonemeal
May 1936 to 1937- May 1936 to 1937-
March 1937 1938* March 1937 1938*
Calves 4 to 8 mo. ---.. 0.44 lbs. 0.41 lbs. 0.11 Ibs. 0.12 lbs.
Heifers 8 to 14 mo.-... 0.89 lbs. 0.47 lbs. 0.15 lbs. 0.12 lbs.
Bred Heifers -------.....- 0.88 lbs. 1.21 lbs. 0.10 Ibs. 0.41 lbs.
Cobalt sulfate was added to the iron-copper supplement late in 1937.

Records of mineral consumption were separated into those
obtained during the grazing period and those during the winter
period with additional supplemental feed. The supplemental
feeds consisted of sorghum silage, cowpea hay, ground snapped
corn and cottonseed meal. The respective monthly rates of min-
eral consumption per animal follow:








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle 9

Iron-copper supplement Steamed bonemeal
1936-1937 1937-1938* 1936-1937 1937-1938*
During pasture season


Calves 4 to 8 mo.-_
Heifers 8 to 14 mo..
Bred Heifers -----



Calves 4 to 8 mo._
Heifers 8 to 14 mo..
Bred Heifers ----..


0.41 Ibs.
0.15 lbs. -
0.73 lbs. 1.05 lbs. 0.09 lbs.


0.16 lbs.
0.48 Ibs.
0.51 lbs.


With supplemental sorghum silage, cowpea hay,
ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal


-0.41 lbs.
0.67 lbs.
1.05 lbs. 1.68 lbs.


0.16 lbs.
0.17 lbs.
0.11 lbs. 0.42 lbs.


* Cobalt sulfate was added to the iron-copper supplement late in 1937.


Fig. 2.-Three-compartment mineral box used after June 1941. The sepa-
rate compartments held common salt, steamed bonemeal and the iron-cop-
per-cobalt supplement.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Two-compartment mineral boxes were continued in use until
June 11, 1941, when three-compartment boxes (see Fig. 2) were
installed. Common salt was placed in the third compartment.
The heifers were changed from one pasture to another irrespec-
tive of access to any one mineral box, hence records of consump-
tion during late 1938 to 1942 represent total young stock of the
Station dairy herd from weaning to freshening age.
Mineral consumption were computed at the rate eaten per
head over nearly a three-year period. Record of separate intake
of common salt was from June 11, 1941, to February 28, 1942.
Variations in monthly consumption of mineral supplements
during this period are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-AVERAGE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION PER HEIFER OF THE IRON-
COPPER-COBALT SUPPLEMENT, STEAMED BONEMEAL (1938-1942) AND
COMMON SALT.


Iron-copper-cobalt
Supplement


0.61 lbs.
1.02 Ibs.
1.19 lbs.
0.65 Ibs.
0.64 lbs.
0.76 lbs.
0.71 lbs.
0.54 lbs.
0.85 Ibs.
0.73 Ibs.
0.95 lbs.
1.08 lbs.


Steamed Common
Bonemeal Salt*

0.17 lbs. 0.36 lbs.
0.35 lbs. 0.41 lbs.
0.31 lbs. **
0.14 lbs. .. **
0.07 lbs. **
0.20 lbs. 0.62 lbs.
0.08 Ibs. 0.60 lbs.
0.07 Ibs. 0.45 lbs.
0.06 Ibs. 0.43 lbs.
0.02 lbs. 1.02 lbs.
0.05 lbs. 1.54 lbs.
0.13 lbs. 1.74 lbs.


Common salt was offered in addition to the salt in the iron-copper-cobalt supplement,
starting June 11. 1941.
** Offered in larger amounts, which rendered illogical the computation of a "monthly"
consumption rate.

MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY DAIRY COWS

Dairy cows in the Station herd prior to 1929 received non-
legume grass pastures, corn or sorghum silages grown on unlimed
acid sand soils, and home-mixed concentrates purchased largely
from the market. Forages grown on these lands were below


Month


January -..--------
February ..--------
March _.----- --
April -.----
May --. ---
June -.. ----
July -. -----------
August ---
September ----
October
November
December


i







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


normal in calcium contents. Although concentrates were fed
heavily and the cows were reasonably fat, milk yields were below
expectations.
Some 218 lactations on two milkings daily, computed to a uni-
form age basis for comparison, averaged 4,856 pounds of milk.
Hips and ribs of some cows were broken by "accidents" (see
Fig. 3), apparently facilitated by weakness due to depletion
of the skeleton in mineral matter. The femurs and humeri from
cow No. 59 that had fractured a pelvis had an average breaking
strength of 335 pounds (see Table 2).


Fig. 3.-This cow had both hips "knocked down" (broken) during the
period on low-calcium rations.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Two percent of steamed bonemeal and 1 percent of common
salt were added to the mixed concentrates early in 1929 and the
cows given free access to additional salt and steamed bonemeal
in a two-compartment mineral box. A limited amount of alfalfa
hay, or cowpea hay, was used in the winter periods. Cows on
rations adequate in calcium' (according to Kellner's and Well-
man's standards) averaged 7,084 pounds of milk in 73 lactations
computed to uniform age base for comparison. Milk production
declined less rapidly on the supplemented rations than when the
herd received low-calcium rations. A comparison of the rate
of milk production under the low- and adequate-calcium feeding
is shown in Figure 4.

The upper curve is the average of 73 lactations
on rations adequate in calcium.
The lower curve is the average of 218 lactations
on low-calcium rations.
















Dire !a milk
40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320

Fig. 4.-Average daily milk yields of Jersey cows in the Florida Station
dairy herd before and during the use of steamed bonemeal as a supple-
ment to low-calcium rations. Lactations were computed to a uniform ma-
ture age basis for comparison.

Marble dust2 became available for feeding purposes about 1930,
at an economical price. A safe source of calcium, it was low in
impurities. The mineral additions to mixed concentrates for
the dairy cows were changed on January 21, 1938, to include 1
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 262.
2 Marble dust (nearly pure calcium carbonate) is merchandised under
the trade name of "Kalsite".





TABLE 2.-AVERAGE BREAKING STRENGTH OF 165 LEG BONES FROM FLORIDA DAIRY COWS UNDER DIFFERENT FEEDING
CONDITIONS.


Supplement in Mixed
Concentrates




Unsupplemented


Average Breakin
Radius
and
Humerus Femur Ulna
Pounds Pounds Pounds


g Strength of Heavy Leg


Tibia
and
Fibula
Pounds


Fore
Cannon
Pounds


No bonemeal available


340b


Bcnes

Rear Average
Cannon
Pounds Pounds


335


Two percent of bonemeal in concentrates
Guernsey
297 .------- Bonemeal 1 mo. 3,470 3,440
Dutch Belted
229 ----.- .. Bonemeal 29 mo. 3,535 3,645 3,710 3,240 3,255 3,868
Jersey
81,120,195,225 Bonemeal 19-27 mo. 3,244 3,636* 2,848 3,299 2,228 3,302
177, 188, 218 _-- Bonemeal 13-23 mo. -- -- 2,700 3,788
One percent each of bonemeal and marble dust in concentrates
Jersey Changed Supplement
443 ---- 17 mo. 2,008 2,670
214, 264, 360, Changed Supplement
361, 375, 520 17-51 mo. 3,253 2,867 3,889 3,560 2,478 3,348
One and one-half percent of marble dust in concentrates
Jersey Changed supplement
401 5% mo.t 2,728 2,700** 2,128 2,960** 1,905 2,335


span, the bones being


Breed and
Cow Number


Jersey
59


330a


3,455

3,542

3,037
3,244


2,339

3,232


2,459


a A 5-inch span, and (b) a 7-inch span with Cow No. 59; all other bones were broken with a 6-inch
placed horizontally with weight applied in the middle from above.
One femur of Cow No. 195 not available.
** One bone only; weighted average computed as if for two bones.
t One percent of salt, 1V percent of marble dust, after bonemeal became unavailable.


I 330a






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


percent each of marble dust, steamed bonemeal and common salt.
The same pastures and the same kinds of silage were used with
limited amounts of legume hay-either alfalfa or cowpea-when
available.
Milk production persisted at satisfactory levels, as shown in
Table 3 by a summary of lactation records obtained from seven
cows under both feeding practices. These records were of lacta-
tions up to 305 days in length, computed to a uniform age basis
for comparison. Although the weighted average lactation period
of the cows during the time on steamed bonemeal was four days
shorter, the average daily milk yield was not appreciably differ-
ent under the two feeding practices.
Thirty-three lactations, weighted by cows, averaged 6,261
pounds of milk in 300 days on the rations with 2 percent of
steamed bonemeal supplement, as compared with 16 subsequent
lactations by the same cows averaging 6,704 pounds of milk in
304 days while marble dust replaced one-half of the steamed
bonemeal in the concentrates. The 16 lactations were at more
advanced age, and consequently a lower average butterfat per-
centage was to be expected.
The shaft bones from the legs of six cows were tested for
breaking strengths, after the cows were removed from the herd
at the end of their useful lifetime. Only the cannon bones were
tested from the seventh cow. These bones had an average
breaking strength of 3,232 pounds (see Table 2). The four
cannon bones had a breaking strength of 2,339 pounds each.
These records indicated a continued good availability of calcium
and phosphorus from the combined bonemeal and marble dust,-
enough for lactation and skeletal storage.
During World War II steamed bonemeal was not available.
For six months the mixed concentrates fed to the dairy cows
contained 1.0 percent of common salt and 1.5 percent of marble
dust. Cottonseed meal and wheat bran sometimes were un-
available. Some soybean meal was substituted when it could
be obtained. The home-mixed concentrates varied widely in
proportions and quality, and were regarded often as poor feed
generally for milking cows.
After a six-months period on such feeds, Cow No. 401 was
removed from the dairy herd. The long shaft bones from her
legs broke at an average strength of 2,459 pounds, as compared
with above 3,000 pounds for similar bones from other Jersey
cows. This would suggest, in part at least, that some bonemeal









TABLE 3.-COMPARISON OF AVERAGE PRODUCTION BY JERSEY COWs RECEIVING CONCENTRATES SUPPLEMENTED WITH BONEMEAL,
OR WITH BONEMEAL AND MARBLE DUST.:


Number of
w Lactations


4 6
1
0 5
3
.1 7
3
5 4
2
'1 5
3
3 4
1
i0 2
3

Weighted average
(by cows)


Average
Length

Days
304
305
297
303
303
305
301
305
303
302
293
305
297
305
300
304


Average daily milk yield

All records are for lactations up to 305 days
American Jersey Cattle Club.


Production During Use of Supplemented Concentrates


Steamed Bonemeal


Milk
Pounds
4,574

5,423

7,234

7,874

6,095

5,381

7,245

6,261

20.87


Percent
4.87

5.50

4.91

5.45

5.19

5.05

5.18

5.17


2%
Butterfat
Pounds
223

298

355

429

316

272

375

324


Bonemeal 1%, Marble D


Test
Percent

4.49

4.86

4.63

5.40

4.76

4.39

5.17

4.87


ust 1%
Butterfat
Pounds

194

305

311

438

304

277

456

326


in length, computed to uniform age base for comparison, using the 1952 conversion factors of the


Milk
Pounds

4,321

6,280

6,703

8,118

6,392

6,306

8,808

6,704
22.05






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


or its equivalent would have been desirable. A case of mastitis
which occurred during this last lactation of 4,574 pounds of milk
in 365 days made it undesirable to use this milk record as a
measure of mineral adequacy, and it is not included in Table 3.
Mention should be made that the cows were in the open, or in
partly shaded pastures, during all except the milking hours.
No vitamin D supplement was used or deemed necessary. The
very limited amount of legume hay offered was suncured. Acci-
dents resulting in broken bones have averaged less than one per
three-year period on supplemented rations, although the milking
herd increased from 28 cows in 1929 to more than 60 in 1950.

MINERAL CONSUMPTION DURING FEEDING TRIALS
Nine 90-day double-reversal feeding trials have been conducted
at the Florida Station during recent years. The special mixed
concentrates fed to dairy cows to supplement the roughages con-
tained no mineral additions. However, common salt and steamed
bonemeal were offered free choice in a two-compartment mineral
box in the dry lot where the animals were held between milking
hours. Mineral supplements consumed during these feeding
trials are listed in Table 4.
In each of the double-reversal feeding trials, the ration for each
cow was balanced for digestible crude protein and total digest-
ible nutrients at the start of each 30-day period. The majority
of the cows had passed the peak of lactation and some were quite
advanced, but had to be used to provide the number of individuals
required for the trials. When offered free choice, the monthly
rates of consumption of common salt and steamed bonemeal gave
an indication of the average requirements for these minerals.

PALATABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS SUPPLEMENTS
When feeding-grade steamed bonemeal become unavailable
locally during World War II it was necessary to seek other safe
phosphorus supplements. Natural deposits of phosphates con-
tain fluorine in amounts and proportions known to be toxic to
cattle over long feeding periods. A safe type of defluorinated
phosphate3 was developed in Florida with a fluorine content of
0.14 to 0.17 percent, well within the minimum of 0.2 percent
regarded safe for feeding purposes.

3 The product known then as defluorinated superphosphate was used
in these experiments. The current product is defluorinated phosphate.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


or its equivalent would have been desirable. A case of mastitis
which occurred during this last lactation of 4,574 pounds of milk
in 365 days made it undesirable to use this milk record as a
measure of mineral adequacy, and it is not included in Table 3.
Mention should be made that the cows were in the open, or in
partly shaded pastures, during all except the milking hours.
No vitamin D supplement was used or deemed necessary. The
very limited amount of legume hay offered was suncured. Acci-
dents resulting in broken bones have averaged less than one per
three-year period on supplemented rations, although the milking
herd increased from 28 cows in 1929 to more than 60 in 1950.

MINERAL CONSUMPTION DURING FEEDING TRIALS
Nine 90-day double-reversal feeding trials have been conducted
at the Florida Station during recent years. The special mixed
concentrates fed to dairy cows to supplement the roughages con-
tained no mineral additions. However, common salt and steamed
bonemeal were offered free choice in a two-compartment mineral
box in the dry lot where the animals were held between milking
hours. Mineral supplements consumed during these feeding
trials are listed in Table 4.
In each of the double-reversal feeding trials, the ration for each
cow was balanced for digestible crude protein and total digest-
ible nutrients at the start of each 30-day period. The majority
of the cows had passed the peak of lactation and some were quite
advanced, but had to be used to provide the number of individuals
required for the trials. When offered free choice, the monthly
rates of consumption of common salt and steamed bonemeal gave
an indication of the average requirements for these minerals.

PALATABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS SUPPLEMENTS
When feeding-grade steamed bonemeal become unavailable
locally during World War II it was necessary to seek other safe
phosphorus supplements. Natural deposits of phosphates con-
tain fluorine in amounts and proportions known to be toxic to
cattle over long feeding periods. A safe type of defluorinated
phosphate3 was developed in Florida with a fluorine content of
0.14 to 0.17 percent, well within the minimum of 0.2 percent
regarded safe for feeding purposes.

3 The product known then as defluorinated superphosphate was used
in these experiments. The current product is defluorinated phosphate.











TABLE 4.-CONSUMPTION OF COMMON SALT AND STEAMED BONEMEAL BY COWS IN ADVANCING LACTATION DURING DOUBLE-
REVERSAL FEEDING TRIALS ON NEW FEEDS.

Monthly consumption
Number Average Average Daily per cow
Feeds being compared of Cows Body Weight Milk Yields Salt Bonemeal
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds

Soybean silage vs alfalfa hay 8 918 14.0 2.25 0.71
Soybean silage vs alfalfa hay 8 836 10.6 2.33 0.66
Soybean silage vs alfalfa hay 8 867 15.2 3.73* 1.89*

Crotalaria** silage vs alfalfa hay 8 848 10.7 3.67 0.96
Crotalaria silage vs alfalfa hay 8 857 12.6 3.20 0.88
Crotalaria silage vs alfalfa hay 8 859 14.5 3.55 0.50

Dried citrus pulp vs dried beet pulp 8 863 14.6 4.15 0.85
Dried citrus pulp vs dried beet pulp 8 829 15.4 3.34 0.95t
Dried citrus pulp vs dried beet pulp 8 861 19.8 2.14 0.40t

Below average rainfall during the preceding pasture season may have affected mineral contents of pastures during the summer, as well as of
the soybean and corn silages fed during the winter feeding trials.
** Crotalaria intermedia Kotschy.
SUse of calcium compounds in processing citrus pulp increased the calcium content of dried citrus pulp fed during the second and third trials.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE
Tests in Central Florida.-Palatability trials extending from
August 9 to December 4, 1943, were conducted with 24 dairy
heifers on pastures at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion4 in Gainesville, some 50 miles from salt water. The Bahia,
Bermuda, Carpet, Centipede and mixed grass pastures had re-
ceived an application of "complete" fertilizer in the spring.
Defluorinated phosphate was mixed in different proportions
with common salt and placed in a five-compartment sheltered
mineral box to which the Jersey heifers had free access. In an
additional three-compartment box the animals continued to have
access to common salt and the No. 1 iron-copper-cobalt supple-
ment (see below) to which they were accustomed. The mixtures
and order in which the heifers consumed the largest amounts of
them were as follows:
Supplement:- C D E F G
Common salt, pounds ---- 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated phosphate, pounds.-- 3 4 5 6 7
Order of preference 1.--- --- st 2nd 3rd (tied for 4th)

The heifers consumed nearly all of Supplement C before be-
ginning on Supplement D. Supplement E was easily third
choice, yet Supplements F and G were eaten ultimately. As
autumn advanced these heifers consumed increasing amounts of
salt and the iron-copper-cobalt supplement from the supply in
their regular box.
Tests Near Brackish Water.-Because brackish waters affect
palatability of minerals containing salt, a test was begun on
November 27, 1943, at the dairy of the Florida School for the
Deaf and Blind near St. Augustine, where the pastures adjoin
the salt marsh along the North River and have been covered by
excessively high tides on occasions. Two tests were conducted
with a mixed herd of milking and dry cows on these pastures.
The cows had access to common salt, steamed bonemeal and the
No. 1 formula of iron-copper-cobalt supplement in a three-com-
partment mineral box. Two similar boxes were set adjacent to
the regular box (see Figure 5), with salt and defluorinated phos-
phate mixtures in the proportions as listed:-


4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 401.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE
Tests in Central Florida.-Palatability trials extending from
August 9 to December 4, 1943, were conducted with 24 dairy
heifers on pastures at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion4 in Gainesville, some 50 miles from salt water. The Bahia,
Bermuda, Carpet, Centipede and mixed grass pastures had re-
ceived an application of "complete" fertilizer in the spring.
Defluorinated phosphate was mixed in different proportions
with common salt and placed in a five-compartment sheltered
mineral box to which the Jersey heifers had free access. In an
additional three-compartment box the animals continued to have
access to common salt and the No. 1 iron-copper-cobalt supple-
ment (see below) to which they were accustomed. The mixtures
and order in which the heifers consumed the largest amounts of
them were as follows:
Supplement:- C D E F G
Common salt, pounds ---- 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated phosphate, pounds.-- 3 4 5 6 7
Order of preference 1.--- --- st 2nd 3rd (tied for 4th)

The heifers consumed nearly all of Supplement C before be-
ginning on Supplement D. Supplement E was easily third
choice, yet Supplements F and G were eaten ultimately. As
autumn advanced these heifers consumed increasing amounts of
salt and the iron-copper-cobalt supplement from the supply in
their regular box.
Tests Near Brackish Water.-Because brackish waters affect
palatability of minerals containing salt, a test was begun on
November 27, 1943, at the dairy of the Florida School for the
Deaf and Blind near St. Augustine, where the pastures adjoin
the salt marsh along the North River and have been covered by
excessively high tides on occasions. Two tests were conducted
with a mixed herd of milking and dry cows on these pastures.
The cows had access to common salt, steamed bonemeal and the
No. 1 formula of iron-copper-cobalt supplement in a three-com-
partment mineral box. Two similar boxes were set adjacent to
the regular box (see Figure 5), with salt and defluorinated phos-
phate mixtures in the proportions as listed:-


4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 401.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE
Tests in Central Florida.-Palatability trials extending from
August 9 to December 4, 1943, were conducted with 24 dairy
heifers on pastures at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion4 in Gainesville, some 50 miles from salt water. The Bahia,
Bermuda, Carpet, Centipede and mixed grass pastures had re-
ceived an application of "complete" fertilizer in the spring.
Defluorinated phosphate was mixed in different proportions
with common salt and placed in a five-compartment sheltered
mineral box to which the Jersey heifers had free access. In an
additional three-compartment box the animals continued to have
access to common salt and the No. 1 iron-copper-cobalt supple-
ment (see below) to which they were accustomed. The mixtures
and order in which the heifers consumed the largest amounts of
them were as follows:
Supplement:- C D E F G
Common salt, pounds ---- 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated phosphate, pounds.-- 3 4 5 6 7
Order of preference 1.--- --- st 2nd 3rd (tied for 4th)

The heifers consumed nearly all of Supplement C before be-
ginning on Supplement D. Supplement E was easily third
choice, yet Supplements F and G were eaten ultimately. As
autumn advanced these heifers consumed increasing amounts of
salt and the iron-copper-cobalt supplement from the supply in
their regular box.
Tests Near Brackish Water.-Because brackish waters affect
palatability of minerals containing salt, a test was begun on
November 27, 1943, at the dairy of the Florida School for the
Deaf and Blind near St. Augustine, where the pastures adjoin
the salt marsh along the North River and have been covered by
excessively high tides on occasions. Two tests were conducted
with a mixed herd of milking and dry cows on these pastures.
The cows had access to common salt, steamed bonemeal and the
No. 1 formula of iron-copper-cobalt supplement in a three-com-
partment mineral box. Two similar boxes were set adjacent to
the regular box (see Figure 5), with salt and defluorinated phos-
phate mixtures in the proportions as listed:-


4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 401.







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


Iron-copper-cobalt
supplements
Supplement No. No. 1 No. 2 C D E F G
Common salt, pounds 100 50 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated phosphate,
pounds ----. _- -- 50 3 4 5 6 7
Red oxide of iron, pounds ..... 25 25
Copper sulfate, pounds --. 1 1 -
Cobalt sulfate, ounces --- 1 1 -

(Not in Tied practically Tied for
Order of preference -- trial) for first choice 6th 5th first

This test was repeated during the winter (a total of four
months' observations) with identical results. Four supplements
were regarded as tied for first choice.
Based on reactions of cattle on two types of locations, it is
recommended that when defluorinated phosphate is used in a
mineral box, it be mixed with common salt in the proportion of
1 to 2 for inland areas and 2 of phosphate to 1 of salt on pastures
adjacent to high-salt waters.

DISODIUM PHOSPHATE

Disodium phosphate (Na2HP04.12 H20) became available
for tests from May 10 to September 14, 1945. This permitted
one palatability trial with eight Jersey heifers in the Station

Fig. 5.-These mineral boxes were used to provide the No. 1 supple-
ment, steamed benemeal and common salt, and the six experimental min-
eral mixtures and mineral supplements to cows on pasture at the Florida
School for the Deaf and Blind dairy near brackish water. Relative palat-
ability of several proportions of phosphorus compounds and salt were tested
in these with dairy cows.







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


Iron-copper-cobalt
supplements
Supplement No. No. 1 No. 2 C D E F G
Common salt, pounds 100 50 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated phosphate,
pounds ----. _- -- 50 3 4 5 6 7
Red oxide of iron, pounds ..... 25 25
Copper sulfate, pounds --. 1 1 -
Cobalt sulfate, ounces --- 1 1 -

(Not in Tied practically Tied for
Order of preference -- trial) for first choice 6th 5th first

This test was repeated during the winter (a total of four
months' observations) with identical results. Four supplements
were regarded as tied for first choice.
Based on reactions of cattle on two types of locations, it is
recommended that when defluorinated phosphate is used in a
mineral box, it be mixed with common salt in the proportion of
1 to 2 for inland areas and 2 of phosphate to 1 of salt on pastures
adjacent to high-salt waters.

DISODIUM PHOSPHATE

Disodium phosphate (Na2HP04.12 H20) became available
for tests from May 10 to September 14, 1945. This permitted
one palatability trial with eight Jersey heifers in the Station

Fig. 5.-These mineral boxes were used to provide the No. 1 supple-
ment, steamed benemeal and common salt, and the six experimental min-
eral mixtures and mineral supplements to cows on pasture at the Florida
School for the Deaf and Blind dairy near brackish water. Relative palat-
ability of several proportions of phosphorus compounds and salt were tested
in these with dairy cows.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


herd located inland at Gainesville and two trials with Jersey cows
in the dairy herd of the Florida School for Deaf and Blind
near brackish water. The cattle at both locations had access
(in separate boxes) to common salt, steamed bonemeal and the
No. 1 iron-copper-cobalt supplement. The proportions of in-
gredients in the phosphate-and-salt mixtures were similar to
those of previous trials, as shown below:

Station heifers: No. 2 C D E F G
Disodium phosphate, pounds........ 7 6 5 4 3
Common salt, pounds .---------- -- 3 4 5 6 7
Order of choice by heifers (not in trial) 1st 2nd 3rd (tied for 4th)
Florida School for Deaf and Blind, dairy cows:
Disodium phosphate, pounds ..--- 5 7 6 5 4 3
Common salt, pounds --.------ .- 5 3 4 5 6 7
Red oxide of iron, pounds ------- 2.5 -.
Copper sulfate, ounces..--------- 1.6 -.-
Cobalt sulfate, ounces ------- 0.1 --
Order of choice by cows: (tied (tied
First trial* ._------------------ 6th 5th 4th for 2nd) 1st for 2nd)
Second trial* -.._....--------- 6th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
The first and second trials near brackish water were conducted in summer when the
needs are low for iron-copper-cobalt, while cows are on lush young pastures.

Apparently, the disodium phosphate-and-salt mixtures lacked
about equally in palatability to cattle near the brackish water.
At the inland area, the palatability was in proportion to phos-
phorus contents of the supplement. This particular disodium
phosphate tended to absorb moisture and form into lumps. Also,
disodium phosphate contained only 8.7 percent of phosphorus,
due to the large amount of "water of crystallization" in the
molecule. Steamed bonemeal ordinarily contains 12.5 to 14.0
percent of phosphorus.
The disodium phosphate, because of its lower phosphorus con-
tent, would have to sell for 70 percent of the price of steamed
bonemeal to provide phosphorus at the same price per pound as
that in bonemeal.
A significant observation connected with these trials during
June and July was that the cows tended to consume little of the
iron-copper-cobalt No. 2 supplement. It must be kept in mind
that cattle use less of these elements from a mineral box in the
late spring and summer while grass is lush, than in the fall,








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


winter and early spring when cattle are on more mature grass
pastures.

FUSED SUPERPHOSPHATE
A special fused superphosphate, produced experimentally by
the Tennessee Valley Authority, was tested over a three-months
period with eight yearling Jersey heifers on the Station pasture.
It was also tested in four trials at the dairy of the Florida School
for Deaf and Blind, starting in August and finishing in November
1945. The proportions of the salt-phosphate mixtures were as
follows:
Supplements
No. 2 C D E F G
Station heifers:
Fused superphosphate, pounds-- -- 7 6 5 4 3
Common salt, pounds .--.---- 3 4 5 6 7

Order of choice by heifers-_-- -- 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Florida School for Deaf and Blind, dairy cows:
Fused superphosphate, pounds -- 5 7 6 5 4 3
Common salt, pounds ...~~_-- 5 3 4 5 6 7
Red oxide of iron, pounds -_-- 2.5
Copper sulfate, ounces -----. 1.6 --
Cobalt sulfate, ounces .-------- 0.1 -
Order of choice:
First trial .---------------------- 4th 6th 5th 3rd 1st 2nd
Second trial ---- ---- 2nd 5th 6th 4th 3rd 1st
Third trial ..... -. -------- 3rd 6th 5th 2nd 4th 1st
Fourth trial ----- 5th 4th 6th 3rd 2nd 1st

When observations with the iron-copper-cobalt supplement are
disregarded, in most instances the choice of the cows pasturing
near brackish water was for the mixtures low in content of fused
superphosphate. The rate of consumption of the fused super-
phosphate mixtures was low in comparison with that in previous
trials in which other forms of phosphorus compounds were used.
This particular form of fused superphosphate has not been pro-
duced commercially for feeding purposes.
With advancing season dairy cows near brackish water tended
to select the iron-copper-cobalt supplement in early preference.
It ranked sixth during the June and July trials and advanced
from fifth to second in preference during the August-November
trials.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SUMMARY
Dairy animals of all ages should be given access to the mineral
supplements found appropriate to the area in which they are
located and with the feeding practices. Experimental results
indicate that the average mineral consumption will come near
to meeting the requirements of most individuals in commercial
herds.
In most areas it is well to include some minerals in mixed dairy
concentrates. Animals with requirements above the average
should be allowed to satisfy these by free access to the separate
kinds of minerals in a three-compartment box. The box may
contain (a) common salt, (b) steamed bonemeal or a salt-de-
fluorinated phosphate mixture, and (c) an iron-c6pper-cobalt sup-
plement with salt on areas deficient in one or more of these
elements.

II. MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY CATTLE ON
FLORIDA RANGES
W. G. KIRK
Mineral deficiencies show up in beef cattle in a variety of ways.
Rough hair, sweeny or staggers, down-in-the-back, bone chew-
ing and general unthriftiness indicate to the observing cattleman
that the animals may not be getting all the minerals they need.
It has been recognized for years that Florida range cattle need
supplemental minerals, but the kind, amount and palatability are
practical problems under investigation. Records of mineral
consumption obtained at the Range Cattle Station since July 1,
1942, bear directly on these questions.

MINERAL ELEMENTS DEFICIENT IN
FLORIDA RANGE FORAGE
The mineral elements essential to adequate nutrition of cattle
which require special attention include calcium, phosphorus,
sodium, chlorine, iron, copper and cobalt. Table 5 shows the
elements which may be lacking in range forage, symptoms of
deficiency, method of supplementation and the approximate
yearly needs.
Several other minerals are indispensable for good growth
and normal body functions of cattle but are necessary in only
small amounts, and are provided largely in natural feeds. Iodine







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SUMMARY
Dairy animals of all ages should be given access to the mineral
supplements found appropriate to the area in which they are
located and with the feeding practices. Experimental results
indicate that the average mineral consumption will come near
to meeting the requirements of most individuals in commercial
herds.
In most areas it is well to include some minerals in mixed dairy
concentrates. Animals with requirements above the average
should be allowed to satisfy these by free access to the separate
kinds of minerals in a three-compartment box. The box may
contain (a) common salt, (b) steamed bonemeal or a salt-de-
fluorinated phosphate mixture, and (c) an iron-c6pper-cobalt sup-
plement with salt on areas deficient in one or more of these
elements.

II. MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY CATTLE ON
FLORIDA RANGES
W. G. KIRK
Mineral deficiencies show up in beef cattle in a variety of ways.
Rough hair, sweeny or staggers, down-in-the-back, bone chew-
ing and general unthriftiness indicate to the observing cattleman
that the animals may not be getting all the minerals they need.
It has been recognized for years that Florida range cattle need
supplemental minerals, but the kind, amount and palatability are
practical problems under investigation. Records of mineral
consumption obtained at the Range Cattle Station since July 1,
1942, bear directly on these questions.

MINERAL ELEMENTS DEFICIENT IN
FLORIDA RANGE FORAGE
The mineral elements essential to adequate nutrition of cattle
which require special attention include calcium, phosphorus,
sodium, chlorine, iron, copper and cobalt. Table 5 shows the
elements which may be lacking in range forage, symptoms of
deficiency, method of supplementation and the approximate
yearly needs.
Several other minerals are indispensable for good growth
and normal body functions of cattle but are necessary in only
small amounts, and are provided largely in natural feeds. Iodine





TABLE 5.-MINERAL ELEMENTS WHICH MAY BE DEFICIENT IN FLORIDA RANGE FORAGE.


Element

Calcium



Phosphorus







Sodium
Chloride



Iron


Function in Body

Bones and teeth; normal
blood clotting; regular
heart action and muscular
activity.
Bones and teeth; essential
part of every cell and
blood; chemical activity in
release of body energy.




Sodium regulates cell re-
action. Chlorine constitu-
ent of gastric juice; aids
digestion; in all body
fluids.
Hemoglobin formation; es-
sential for oxygen trans-
fer in cell respiration.


Copper Hemoglobin formation;
catalyst for iron; hair pig-
mentation.


Cobalt Rumen function; red blood
cell formation; reduces
pathogenic organisms in
rumen; vitamin B,, syn-
thesis.


Gross Deficiency Symptoms

Poor growth and bone development;
lowered milk production. Not de-
ficient for low milk producers on
most Florida ranges.
Poor utilization of feed; slow
growth; low milk production; ab-
normal appetite as chewing bones;
bones fragile and easily broken;
stiffness; poor calves and repro-
ductive failure; general weakness
of body; (susceptibility to diseases
and parasites.)
Marked salt hunger; loss of appe-
tite; weight loss; breakdown of
body functions.


Salt sickness (anemia) ; low hemo-
globin.


Salt sickness (anemia); failure of
hemoglobin formation; depraved
appetite; severe scouring; loss in
weight; moves with difficulty; hair
coat fades.
Salt sickness; low hemoglobin; loss
of appetite and flesh; rough hair
coat; reproduction failure.


Supplemental
Source

Steamed bonemeal;
defluorinated phos-
phate; marble dust.

Steanted bonemeal;
defltorinated phos-
phate, di- and mono-
phosphate salts.




Common salt. Cattle
on pasture near salt
water require less
than those inland.

Red oxide of iron;
ferric ammonium ci-
trate (soluble) ; fer-
rous sulfate.
Bluestone (copper
sulfate) ; copper ox-
ide.


Cobalt either as
chloride, sulfate or
carbonate.


Requirements of
Mature Cattle

0.23 to 0.30 percent
of dry ration; 16 to
20 pounds per year.

Minimum 0.13 per-
cent of dry ration;
9 to 12 pounds per
year.




24 to 36 pounds per
year.



0.01 percent of dry
ration; 0.55 to 0.75
of pound soluble iron
per year.
9 parts per million
of copper in dry
feed; 0.12 pound cop-
per sulfate yearly.

1 part of cobalt in
10,000,000 of dry
feed; 0.23 gram of
cobalt or 0.5 of gram
cobalt chloride year-
ly.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


regulates the secretion of the thyroid gland and basal body metab-
olism. The iodine deficiency symptoms most frequently ob-
served are enlarged necks in young cattle, commonly known as
goiter, and poor hair development. No section of Florida has
been shown to lack iodine, nor has evidence been found of nu-
tritional deficiency among cattle in Florida resulting from an
insufficiency of fluorine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sul-
fur or zinc.

MINERAL CONTENT OF RANGE FORAGES
Analyses of wiregrass at the Range Cattle Station show an
average calcium content of 0.54 percent and phosphorus of 0.08
percent. Unburned wiregrass from the sand hills of west Florida
had 0.22 percent calcium and 0.04 percent phosphorus.6 Black
and coworkers6 stated that 0.23 percent of calcium and 0.13 per-
cent of phosphorus in the feed on the dry-matter basis have
been accepted generally as the minimum requirements of these
two elements, but it is believed now that larger amounts are
necessary for growing cattle and nursing cows.7 It is estimated
that a cow weighing 750 pounds requires from 16 to 20 pounds
of calcium and 9 to 12 pounds of phosphorus per year. Thus
cattle obtaining all their feed from wiregrass grown on a fairly
good soil had an adequate supply of calcium but less than one-half
of the phosphorus requirements.
Samples of fertilized Carpet and Common Bahia grass ob-
tained from March to October at the Range Cattle Station con-
tained 0.19 to 0.27 percent of phosphorus, apparently sufficient
to meet animals' needs in those months. Steers on these pas-
tures, however, consumed an average of 0.04 pounds of bone-
meal daily. Steers and heifers on Carpet-clover pasture, gaining
from 1.5 to 2.5 pounds daily, consumed a similar amount of bone-
meal. The fact that the average gain of these cattle on the
fertilized Carpet-clover pasture was above 1.5 pounds daily in-
dicated the quality of the forage, yet these animals ate sub-
stantial amounts of mineral supplement. Steers on adjoining
fields of unfertilized Carpet grass ate an average of 0.11 pounds
daily of bonemeal, approximately three times as much as those
on fertilized pasture.

5 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 264 (out of print).
6 United States Department of Agriculture Tech. Bulletin 856.
7 United States Department of Agriculture Yearbook of Agriculture,
Food and Life 1939. Pages 519-543.






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


MINERAL MIXTURES

Since 1942 several mineral mixtures have been prepared at
the Range Cattle Station in an attempt to combine the elements
deficient in the forage of the area, to improve its keeping qualities
and to increase palatability. The mineral mixtures now rec-
ommended for the range areas of Florida are given in Table 6.

TABLE 6.-MINERAL MIXTURES FOR RANGE CATTLE IN CENTRAL FLORIDA.

Complete Modified "Salt
Mineral Sick" Mineral

Steamed bonemeal -..- ...... 29.00 pounds
Defluorinated phosphate ..... 29.00 pounds
Modified "salt sick" mineral 38.00 pounds ---.....
Common salt. 100.00 pounds
Red oxide of iron ... 10.00 pounds
Copper sulfate ... .-------..- ---- 2.00 pounds
Cobalt chloride or sulfate*- ......-. 2.00 ounces
Cane molasses ......... 2.00 pounds
Cottonseed meal .2.00 pounds

Cobalt carbonate could be used in place of the chloride or sulfate, by reducing the
amount to 1.00 ounce in this formula.

The salt in the complete mineral supplement prevents spoil-
age of bonemeal in damp weather, while the combination of salt
and molasses retains sufficient moisture to reduce wind losses.
Cane molasses and high protein meal improve the palatability
of the mineral. The addition of more molasses than that given
in Table 6 usually results in higher consumption, perhaps above
the amount which some animals may require.
The modified "salt sick" mineral makes up 38 percent of the
complete Range Cattle Station mineral. This mineral mixture
is used along with steamed bonemeal and common salt in a three-
compartment box in all the experimental grazing trials at the
Range Cattle Station.
Since 1943 defluorinated phosphate has been used to replace
one-half the bonemeal in the complete mineral. It is being used
now because it is available and costs less than bonemeal. The
use of defluorinated phosphate has been outlined previously.,

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 401.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


It contains from 12.5 to 14.5 percent of phosphorus, while steamed
bonemeal has 15 percent. The calcium content ranges from 25 to
28 percent, whereas bonemeal contains 32 percent. Bonemeal
is more palatable than the defluorinated phosphate and therefore
more mineral may be consumed when it is used in the mixture.
Either product is satisfactory.

YEARLY MINERAL CONSUMPTION
Average mineral consumption by groups of cows on unim-
proved native pasture and on partially improved pasture are
given in Table 7. The 46 cows on the unimproved pasture were
together from April through October. Then they were sepa-
rated into five lots and placed in separate fields for supplemental
winter feeding. The mineral consumption for the 46 cows was
the same for the seven months while they were together-the
difference in yearly intake being the result of the treatment of
pastures and supplemental feeding for the five months from
November to March inclusive.
The mineral intakes of the five lots of cows on unimproved
pasture increased from 1943 to 1947, as seen from Table 7,
but there was no appreciable difference in 1948 over the previous
year. It is not known whether or not this leveling off repre-
sented the optimum requirement after several years of learning
to eat mineral and becoming accustomed to a constant supply, or
whether other factors were involved.
It is estimated that cows on unburned pasture in the winter
(Lot 1) eating 75.65 pounds of mineral in 1945-46, obtained 11.90
pounds of calcium, 5.30 pounds of phosphorus, 25.6 pounds of
common salt, 2.57 pounds of red oxide of iron, 0.52 pounds of
copper sulfate and 0.03 pounds of cobalt chloride from the min-
eral supplement. The 5.30 pounds of phosphorus obtained from
the mineral, plus the estimated amount from the range forage
(4.09 pounds) give a total of 9.39 pounds, which was only slightly
above the minimum yearly phosphorus requirement of a dry cow.
In July 1946 both the bonemeal and defluorinated phosphate
were increased by 3 percent of the mixture, while the molasses
and cottonseed meal each were reduced a like amount. The
mineral intake per cow in Lot 1 was 93.95 pounds in 1946-47
and 94.63 pounds in 1947-48. The increased consumption of
the amended mixture during these two years supplied the phos-
phorus needs more adequately. The intakes of common salt,







TABLE 7.-AVERAGE YEARLY MINERAL

Lot Pasture Treatment and
No. Winter Supplements
1943-44*

Unimproved Pasture**

1 Unburned
2 One-half burned yearly 25.43
3 One-half burned yearly
plus cane molassest 17.48
4 One-half burned yearly
plus fresh sugarcanet 18.32
5 One-half burned yearly
plus cottonseed pellets 17.93

Average ... .. 19.79

Partially Improved Pasture

6 One-fourth improved, /3
to / of unimproved pas-
ture burned each year

7 One-sixth improved, /4 to
% of unimproved pasture
burned each year

Average


CONSUMPTION BY COWS ON DIFFERENT PASTURES.

Minerals Consumed Yearly per Cow, Pounds

1944-45 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48


46.29 75.68 93.95 94.63


33.1

28.92

26.40

27.53

32.57


12.40


62.50

54.71

52.87

45.21

58.19


11.03


84.83

76.94

82.83

76.13

82.94





14.64


10.03

12.34


b76.99

68.33

83.87

81.04

80.97


18.50


18.05

18.28


SMineral consumption for 1943-44 not used in arriving at averages.
*, Lots 1 and 2, 20 acres range per cow in winter; Lots 3, 4 and 5, 16 acres.
fLot 3, fed an average of 4.8 pounds daily of cane molasses for 130 days each winter; Lot 4,
41 percent cottonseed meal pellets.


7.7 pounds fresh surgarcnne; Lot 5, 1.1 pounds of


Average


77.64
64.51

57.23

61.49

57.48

63.67




14.14


14.04

14.09






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


iron, copper and cobalt were enough to make up for any de-
ficiency of these elements in the range forage.

MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF MINERALS
The average monthly intake of minerals in 1945-46 by cows
on unimproved, unburned pasture, with no supplemental feed,
and those on partially improved pasture for the same year are
shown in Table 8 and Figure 6.
TABLE 8.-AVERAGE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENT BY
Cows DURING 1945-46.

Unimproved Range with One-fourth Pasture Im-
no Burning or Supple- proved; /2 Unimproved
Month mental Feed Pasture Burned and
(Lot 1, Table 7) /2 Unburned
(Lot 6, Table 7)
Pounds Pounds
July, 1945 1.68 0.48
August --....- 2.41 0.66
September 2.70 0.98
October 5.04 1.53
November --- 6.82 2.49
December 11.39 1.26
January, 1945 12.22 1.19
February 11.04 0.65
March 9.33 0.54
April .....-- 4.61 0.41
May 3.92 0.36
June -._...- 4.52 0.48

Total Yearly
Consumption 75.68 11.03

A five-year wintering test just discussed, with cows on unim-
proved pastures, was completed in November 1948. A second
trial with 60 cows was started using different animals (Lots 1
to 5) and supplemental feeds. The cows had access to 800 acres
of native range from April to November, when they were divided
into five lots of 12 cows each and placed in 160-acre pastures for
the winter period. The treatment of pastures, area per cow,
supplements fed and mineral consumption for eight lots of cows
for three years are given in Table 9.








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


It is seen from Table 9 that the mineral consumption by cows
in Lot 1 on unimproved range (one-half of which was burned
during the winter) was 53.88 pounds in 1948-49, 31.89 pounds
in 1949-50 and 45.06 pounds in 1950-51, the three-year average
being 43.61 pounds. This is 20.90 pounds lower consumption
than the yearly average from July 1, 1944, to June 30, 1948, for
cows on the same pasture, as shown in Table 7.

On Unimproved pasture ..... -
Pasture partly improved,
Spasturrty burbuned*d d. te

12.2












12pasture (Lots 7 and 8) was 2.29 pounds per cow higher for
in 1 9505. 33
L I4




Sept. Nov. Jan., March MAY

1945 1946
Average conunburtion p re month by cos on unlmproled pasture ioth no buanin or iupplamantgl feed
Areraee consuamtion per month by cown on pasetue one-fourth improved; one-hai f of the nmimprove.
pasture was y urne during the winter.

Fig. 6.-Average monthly consumption of mineral supplement by range
cows during 1945-46.

The average intake of mineral for cattle on partially improved
pasture (Lots 7 and 8) was 2.29 pounds per cow higher for
the period ending June 30, 1948, than for the next three years.
The average amount eaten by the cows on these pastures was
about one-fourth as much as by cows on native range.
Cows on unburned native range and having access only to
common salt ate an average of 46.2 pounds in 1948-49, 49 pounds
in 1949-50 and 57.58 pounds in 1950-51. Analyses of 10 sam-
ples of unburned wiregrass collected from an adjoining field
during a year showed that the phosphorus content ranged from
0.06 to 0.10 percent, with an average of 0.08 percent. The only







TABLE 9.-AVERAGE YEARLY MINERAL CONSUMPTION BY COWs DURING 1948-49, 1949-50 AND 1950-51.


Lot
No.



1
2

3

4


5




6



7


8


Pasture Type and
Supplements Fed

Unimproved Pasture

One-half burned yearly
One-half burned yearly
plus cranges
One-half burned yearly
plus grapefruit
One-half burned yearly
plus grapefruit and
cottonseed pellets
One-half burned yearly
plus citrus pellets*

Average

No burning**

Partially Improved Pasture
One-fourth of area improved,
controlled burning on native
range
One-fourth of area improved,
controlled burning on native
range

Average


Minerals Consumed Yearly
per Cow, Pounds


Acres
per Cow



13.3

13.3

13.3


13.3

13.3



14.6




8.0


5.7


1948-49

53.88

47.30

46.13


42.39

55.05

48.95

46.20




14.27


6.89

10.58


1949-50

31.89

39.22

35.05


24.07

31.72

32.39

49.00




12.26


10.28

11.27


1950-51

45.06

43.98

42.31


37.31

43.64

42.46

57.58




6.30


20.81

13.56


* Citrus pellets consisted of 40 parts citrus fines, 35 parts citrus molasses and 25 parts of cottonseed meal.
** Common salt was the only mineral offered in Lot 6; the remainder received complete mineral supplement.


Average

43.61

43.50

41.16


34.59

43.47

41.27

50.93




10.94


12.66

11.80








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


source of phosphorus available to these cattle was that in the
native forage. This did not meet body requirements.


TABLE 10.-AVERAGE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENT
BY Cows DURING 1949-50.

One-fourth Pasture Im-
Unimproved Range, 12 proved, /z Unimproved
Month Pasture Burned in Winter Pasture Burned and 1/2
(Lot 1, Table 9) Unburned
(Lot 8, Table 9)

Pounds Pounds
July, 1949 2.00 0.39
August -.. --3.07 0.52
September 4.63 0.67
October .87 1.54
November 4.17 1.78
December 3.50 1.26
January, 1950 1.08 1.14
February 1.00 0.70
March -- 3.00 0.63
April 2.05 0.61
May 1.17 0.81
June ... 1.35 0.23
Total Yearly
ConsumptionI 31.89 10.28



It is seen from Table 10 that cattle ate much larger amounts
of mineral supplement from October to January than during the
next two months. The winter of 1949-50 was mild with little
rain. The lowest temperatures (33 to 36 F.) occurred on
February 17, March 3 and April 8 and the lack of moisture
resulted in little growth of grass during these months. Conse-
quently there was a much larger consumption of mineral supple-
ment by cattle on native range in March and April than in the two
preceding months. The type of mineral box used in these studies
is shown in Figure 7.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


III. RELATION OF COPPER AND MOLYBDENUM TO
CATTLE NUTRITION
GEORGE K. DAVIS, R. W. KIDDER and R. B. BECKER

Symptoms of nutritional anemia, partly caused by the defi-
ciency of copper, have been observed in cattle on many of the
white and gray mineral soils. On the peat or muck soil areas
lack of copper has been particularly acute. Special attention
wiiFbe given to the part which copper deficiency plays in cattle
production.
Widespread existence of either borderline or acute copper
deficiency led to inclusion of a copper compound as an ingredient
of mineral supplements since 19319 .or the use of copper com-
pounds in fertilizers10, which since has been found to protect
cattle on muck pastures from lack of this element. Since re-
quirements of cattle for copper are extremely small, its presence
is measured in "parts per million," which often is abbreviated as
p.p.m. for convenience.

9 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 231.
1o Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 190.


Fig. 7.-This type of mineral box was used in studies at the Range
Cattle Station.






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


SYMPTOMS OF COPPER DEFICIENCY IN
CATTLE ON SAND SOILS
Copper deficiency in cattle on white and gray sand soil areas
is characterized by a retarded growth rate, failure to fatten,
rough coarse hair which sheds slowly, fading of the hair color
and development of severe anemia in extreme cases. Copper is
associated with iron and cobalt" in the formation of blood, red
cells and hemoglobin of the body tissues and vital organs.
This condition of anemia and associated symptoms occurs most
often in young animals and is particularly severe in animals
between weaning and breeding age, as shown in Figure 8A. It
has been observed repeatedly in cows and may become acute
under the requirements of reproduction and lactation. It has
been observed that copper deficiency symptoms will develop in
some animals wherever the copper content of the forage drops
below 5 p.p.m., and this involves most of the native pastures on
sand soils.
RESPONSE TO COPPER THERAPY
Cattle respond rapidly to administration of copper salts, either
as part of a drench or in the mineral supplement, or to fertiliza-
tion of their improved pastures with small amounts of copper
compounds.
Administration of 3 grams of copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H20)
in 6 ounces of water as a drench at 10-day intervals has been
successful in preventing simple copper deficiency in cattle on
sand soil areas. Three successive doses at weekly intervals
usually have been sufficient to meet the needs temporarily, pro-
vided a copper compound is included in the mineral supplement
to which the animals have free access.
Animals which are not in a severe stage of copper deficiency
will respond to a mineral mixture containing 1 percent of copper
sulfate, providing they consume as much as one-half ounce of
the mineral supplement daily. Records reveal that most animals
showing deficiency symptoms will consume more than this amount
at first, particularly during the winter season when symptoms
of nutritional anemia are most likely to occur.
In establishing new or maintaining old improved pastures on
deficient soils it has been found advisable to apply from 10 to 20
pounds of copper sulfate per acre in the fertilizer to promote

11 Journal of Dairy Science 20; 737-753. 1937.






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


SYMPTOMS OF COPPER DEFICIENCY IN
CATTLE ON SAND SOILS
Copper deficiency in cattle on white and gray sand soil areas
is characterized by a retarded growth rate, failure to fatten,
rough coarse hair which sheds slowly, fading of the hair color
and development of severe anemia in extreme cases. Copper is
associated with iron and cobalt" in the formation of blood, red
cells and hemoglobin of the body tissues and vital organs.
This condition of anemia and associated symptoms occurs most
often in young animals and is particularly severe in animals
between weaning and breeding age, as shown in Figure 8A. It
has been observed repeatedly in cows and may become acute
under the requirements of reproduction and lactation. It has
been observed that copper deficiency symptoms will develop in
some animals wherever the copper content of the forage drops
below 5 p.p.m., and this involves most of the native pastures on
sand soils.
RESPONSE TO COPPER THERAPY
Cattle respond rapidly to administration of copper salts, either
as part of a drench or in the mineral supplement, or to fertiliza-
tion of their improved pastures with small amounts of copper
compounds.
Administration of 3 grams of copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H20)
in 6 ounces of water as a drench at 10-day intervals has been
successful in preventing simple copper deficiency in cattle on
sand soil areas. Three successive doses at weekly intervals
usually have been sufficient to meet the needs temporarily, pro-
vided a copper compound is included in the mineral supplement
to which the animals have free access.
Animals which are not in a severe stage of copper deficiency
will respond to a mineral mixture containing 1 percent of copper
sulfate, providing they consume as much as one-half ounce of
the mineral supplement daily. Records reveal that most animals
showing deficiency symptoms will consume more than this amount
at first, particularly during the winter season when symptoms
of nutritional anemia are most likely to occur.
In establishing new or maintaining old improved pastures on
deficient soils it has been found advisable to apply from 10 to 20
pounds of copper sulfate per acre in the fertilizer to promote

11 Journal of Dairy Science 20; 737-753. 1937.

























































Fig. 8.-Three pictures of this calf show (top) an advanced case of
"salt sick" or nutritional anemia with rough hair coat, muscular emaciation,
lack of fill, and a blood reading of 5.2 grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml.
of blood. Ferric ammonium citrate and copper sulfate were provided.
(Center) After 56 days the hemoglobin reading had increased to 12.0
grams, regarded as normal, and appetite was good., (Lower) By 157 days
the animal appeared fully recovered. Bonemeal also was provided since
the sand soil was low in phosphorus.







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


more rapid establishment of the pastures and to provide forage
which will be adequate in copper to meet the needs of the cattle.
Forage grown on such copper-fertilized pastures usually contains
12 to 20 p.p.m. of copper, which is adequate to meet the needs
of cattle on all of the soil areas observed in Florida to date, except
muck soils or those containing molybdenum.
If the copper is to be supplied through a mineral supplement,
then a mineral mixture which contains about 1 percent of copper
sulfate, along with other essential elements, has been adequate
in the past for cattle on the sand soil areas observed. This level
is recommended for continued use on such areas.

COPPER DEFICIENCY AMONG CATTLE ON PEAT SOILS
In most, if not all, peat and muck soils in Florida, copper is not
available in amounts sufficient to promote normal plant growth.
However, the majority of plants will thrive even when their
copper content is inadequate to meet the needs of grazing ani-
mals. To complicate this problem further, many or most of the
plants grown on these highly organic soils may contain varying
amounts of molybdenum which is toxic to cattle under certain
conditions. 'Some copper added to the diet of grazing animals
tends to counteract the toxic effects of molybdenum.












4,






Fig. 9.-This animal received the same treatment and care as the cows
in Fig. 10, except for the-addition of copper sulfate. She appeared normal
in hair coat, blood composition, skeleton and thrift.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Often symptoms of copper deficiency develop more acutely in
livestock on the highly organic soils than in animals on sand
soils. Typical copper deficiency can be prevented by judicious
use of a copper supplement, as shown with the cow in Figure 9.
Most cases of copper deficiency start with a severe diarrhea
and are followed by a more or less rapid loss in weight or cessa-
tion of growth, with no abnormal appetite. The rough, coarse,
bleached hair coat which develops in copper-deficient cattle, along
with an anemia, is shown in Figure 10.






S. .. ..











J'Fi. -u.--iacue suffering from copper deficiency on an unfertilized (cop-
per) sawgrass muck pasture of St. Augustine grass showed rough, bleached
hair coats, emaciation, anemia, diarrhea and skeletal changes.

A rickets-like condition due to the failure of normal bone ossi-
fication develops in cattle from 2 to 15 months of age. A readily
noticed characteristic of this condition is a swelling of the ends
of the leg bones, especially above the pasterns, as shown in Figure
11 in a calf and foal. The bones become very fragile, often re-
sulting in multiple fractures of ribs, femur or humerus. Osteo-
malacia develops in mature cattle. Cows in a copper-depleted
condition may fail to conceive or have difficulty at calving,
sometimes accompanied by retained placenta, or may give birth
to calves with congenital rickets.
At times an animal develops a gait resembling that of a pacing
horse, and the cartilage in the joints becomes affected. This
condition among cattle (Fig. 12) on organic soils has been called







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle 37


"paces" by local cattlemen. It may be corrected by moving
affected animals to pastures on mineral soils. Possibly both
muscular and nerve tissues are involved in this condition. Af-
fected cattle recover rapidly when they are given a mineral sup-
plement that contains copper and cobalt.


Fig. 11.-Swellings may be observed at the joints of the legs in a copper-
deficient calf (above) and foal (below).


~rl'"::; ~:
... c~i~r~i
; x,.i;
'~~~5~ 1~
:.. .
*":''ri,.. .
?-r ~~
''Y ':-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 12.-This animal is suffering from "paces," a neuro-muscular dis-
order in which both legs on one side are moved simultaneously, similar to
the movements of a pacing horse. Usually the animal is in considerable
pain. This condition, associated with copper deficiency and molybdenum
toxicity, has been corrected by supplements containing copper, cobalt, iron
and phosphorus.

OCCURRENCE OF COPPER DEFICIENCY IN CATTLE
Copper deficiency has been observed in cattle on many of the
muck or marshy areas of Central and South Florida and on some
marshes in West Florida. The Everglades, Fellsmere, Oklawaha,
Zellwood, Lake Istokpoga, Lake Apopka and other muck areas,
where the presence of molybdenum in the soil and forage accen-
tuates the situation, are the types of soils on which the cattle
need more copper than do animals grazing on most of the sand
soils.
The copper and molybdenum contents of several forages grown
on sawgrass and custard apple muck soils are shown in Table
11. There appear to be differences in the amounts of these
elements that are taken from the soil by separate kinds of grasses
and legumes, but the composition of the soil and applications of
trace minerals affect the amounts substantially. Forages with
less than 5 p.p.m. of copper in the absence of molybdenum are
insufficient to meet the needs of growing cattle for this element.
Cattle tolerate small amounts of molybdenum, less than 1 p.p.m.,







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


but excesses of it are toxic and cause chronic diarrhea as well
as unthriftiness, and losses of phosphorus from the body.

TABLE 11.-SOME VALUES FOR COPPER AND MOLYBDENUM IN PASTURE
FORAGES*: GROWN ON DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOIL AREAS.

Organic IRanges in Composition**
soil Area Forages*
soil Area F_ S Copper Molybdenum

p.p.m. p.p.m.
Sawgrass Everglades St. Augustine 1.0- 3.0 0.0- 25.0
muck:
Fellsmere Dallis, Bermuda 1.0- 4.0 1.0- 16.0
Oklawaha Pangola, Dallis,
Alyce clover 3.0- 9.0 12.0- 86.0
Zellwood- Pangola, Fescue,
Apopka White Dutch
clover 1.0- 7.0 15.0-160.0
Custard Moore Para, Pangola,
Apple muck: Haven St. Augustine 2.5-12.0 5.0-300.0t

All forages listed are species cf grasses, unless specifically stated to be clovers.
** Copper and molybdenum contents are given on the dry matter basis.
t One sample of Para grass analyzed more than 400 p.p.m. of molybdenum on the dry
matter basis.

FORMS OF COPPER IN ANIMAL FEEDING

Animals can obtain their required copper from several com-
pounds. Five forms of copper compounds have been tested with
cattle.
Copper Sulfate.-Applications of 100 pounds of copper sulfate
(CuSO4.5H0) per acre to sawgrass peat produced forage which
prevented copper deficiency in cattle over a two-year period.
This heavy application was uneconomical.
Copper sulfate has been used successfully as a drench to cor-
rect copper deficiency. The amount required varied almost di-
rectly with molybdenum content of the forage. When forage
contained 1 to 80 p.p.m. of molybdenum, cattle weighing 300 to
1,000 pounds were protected with daily intakes of 0.5 to 2.0 grams
of copper sulfate. The amounts varied with age and size of the
animal as well as with severity of the deficiency. This is the
range to be used as a guide when treating groups of animals on
peat soils with copper sulfate in their forage, feed or drinking
water.
Copper Chloride.-Copper chloride solution has been used suc-
cessfully as an intravenous injection, using 100 milligrams of







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


but excesses of it are toxic and cause chronic diarrhea as well
as unthriftiness, and losses of phosphorus from the body.

TABLE 11.-SOME VALUES FOR COPPER AND MOLYBDENUM IN PASTURE
FORAGES*: GROWN ON DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOIL AREAS.

Organic IRanges in Composition**
soil Area Forages*
soil Area F_ S Copper Molybdenum

p.p.m. p.p.m.
Sawgrass Everglades St. Augustine 1.0- 3.0 0.0- 25.0
muck:
Fellsmere Dallis, Bermuda 1.0- 4.0 1.0- 16.0
Oklawaha Pangola, Dallis,
Alyce clover 3.0- 9.0 12.0- 86.0
Zellwood- Pangola, Fescue,
Apopka White Dutch
clover 1.0- 7.0 15.0-160.0
Custard Moore Para, Pangola,
Apple muck: Haven St. Augustine 2.5-12.0 5.0-300.0t

All forages listed are species cf grasses, unless specifically stated to be clovers.
** Copper and molybdenum contents are given on the dry matter basis.
t One sample of Para grass analyzed more than 400 p.p.m. of molybdenum on the dry
matter basis.

FORMS OF COPPER IN ANIMAL FEEDING

Animals can obtain their required copper from several com-
pounds. Five forms of copper compounds have been tested with
cattle.
Copper Sulfate.-Applications of 100 pounds of copper sulfate
(CuSO4.5H0) per acre to sawgrass peat produced forage which
prevented copper deficiency in cattle over a two-year period.
This heavy application was uneconomical.
Copper sulfate has been used successfully as a drench to cor-
rect copper deficiency. The amount required varied almost di-
rectly with molybdenum content of the forage. When forage
contained 1 to 80 p.p.m. of molybdenum, cattle weighing 300 to
1,000 pounds were protected with daily intakes of 0.5 to 2.0 grams
of copper sulfate. The amounts varied with age and size of the
animal as well as with severity of the deficiency. This is the
range to be used as a guide when treating groups of animals on
peat soils with copper sulfate in their forage, feed or drinking
water.
Copper Chloride.-Copper chloride solution has been used suc-
cessfully as an intravenous injection, using 100 milligrams of







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


but excesses of it are toxic and cause chronic diarrhea as well
as unthriftiness, and losses of phosphorus from the body.

TABLE 11.-SOME VALUES FOR COPPER AND MOLYBDENUM IN PASTURE
FORAGES*: GROWN ON DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOIL AREAS.

Organic IRanges in Composition**
soil Area Forages*
soil Area F_ S Copper Molybdenum

p.p.m. p.p.m.
Sawgrass Everglades St. Augustine 1.0- 3.0 0.0- 25.0
muck:
Fellsmere Dallis, Bermuda 1.0- 4.0 1.0- 16.0
Oklawaha Pangola, Dallis,
Alyce clover 3.0- 9.0 12.0- 86.0
Zellwood- Pangola, Fescue,
Apopka White Dutch
clover 1.0- 7.0 15.0-160.0
Custard Moore Para, Pangola,
Apple muck: Haven St. Augustine 2.5-12.0 5.0-300.0t

All forages listed are species cf grasses, unless specifically stated to be clovers.
** Copper and molybdenum contents are given on the dry matter basis.
t One sample of Para grass analyzed more than 400 p.p.m. of molybdenum on the dry
matter basis.

FORMS OF COPPER IN ANIMAL FEEDING

Animals can obtain their required copper from several com-
pounds. Five forms of copper compounds have been tested with
cattle.
Copper Sulfate.-Applications of 100 pounds of copper sulfate
(CuSO4.5H0) per acre to sawgrass peat produced forage which
prevented copper deficiency in cattle over a two-year period.
This heavy application was uneconomical.
Copper sulfate has been used successfully as a drench to cor-
rect copper deficiency. The amount required varied almost di-
rectly with molybdenum content of the forage. When forage
contained 1 to 80 p.p.m. of molybdenum, cattle weighing 300 to
1,000 pounds were protected with daily intakes of 0.5 to 2.0 grams
of copper sulfate. The amounts varied with age and size of the
animal as well as with severity of the deficiency. This is the
range to be used as a guide when treating groups of animals on
peat soils with copper sulfate in their forage, feed or drinking
water.
Copper Chloride.-Copper chloride solution has been used suc-
cessfully as an intravenous injection, using 100 milligrams of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


copper chloride in 10 milliliters of water at 10-day intervals. It
was necessary to make the injections slowly to avoid shock.
Complete recoveries from copper deficiency by this method re-
quired 8 to 12 weeks, but the animal was protected for com-
paratively long periods of time (up to a year).
Copper Oxide.-A mixture of cuprous and cupric oxides (in a
black powder form) is insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acid
or alkali. It contains a higher percentage of copper than does
copper sulfate and was effective in correcting copper deficiency
when given orally in a No. 000 capsule to both young and mature
cattle. However, responses were slower than with copper sul-
fate.
Metallic Copper.-A single experimental animal (a steer calf)
received 0.1 gram of metallic copper daily (one gram every 10
days) while grazing on copper-deficient muck pasture. It con-
tinued to live but failed to appear normal until 10 milligrams of
cobalt sulfate was added to each 10-day treatment. With this
treatment the steer has continued to develop normally for more
than four years.
Basic Copper Sulfate.-When administered to cattle in a cap-
sule and in proportion to its copper content, basic copper sulfate
was effective in correcting copper deficiency that developed in
cattle grazing St. Augustine grass pastures on sawgrass muck.
This form of copper is insoluble in water but became available
in contact with fluids in the digestive tract.

COPPER TOXICITY
Of the five forms of copper tested, only copper sulfate and
copper oxide are used commonly in commercial mineral supple-
ments. Copper sulfate was toxic in excessive amounts. When
five grams of copper sulfate were fed daily to a 500-pound steer,
symptoms of toxicity became evident at 102 days and death oc-
curred in 122 days. In three additional animals fed at this
level, hemolysis of the blood was observed when whole blood was
centrifuged and free hemoglobin was found to be present in the
blood serum. When the copper sulfate was withdrawn on the
first appearance of hemolysis, lack of appetite and listlessness
disappeared and the animals recovered. Autopsy of an animal
dying of copper toxicity revealed bloody urine, hemolysis, an
icterus (jaundice), a yellowish liver, thick bile, dark kidneys and
a "blackberry jam" spleen. The spleen changed from a normal






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


copper chloride in 10 milliliters of water at 10-day intervals. It
was necessary to make the injections slowly to avoid shock.
Complete recoveries from copper deficiency by this method re-
quired 8 to 12 weeks, but the animal was protected for com-
paratively long periods of time (up to a year).
Copper Oxide.-A mixture of cuprous and cupric oxides (in a
black powder form) is insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acid
or alkali. It contains a higher percentage of copper than does
copper sulfate and was effective in correcting copper deficiency
when given orally in a No. 000 capsule to both young and mature
cattle. However, responses were slower than with copper sul-
fate.
Metallic Copper.-A single experimental animal (a steer calf)
received 0.1 gram of metallic copper daily (one gram every 10
days) while grazing on copper-deficient muck pasture. It con-
tinued to live but failed to appear normal until 10 milligrams of
cobalt sulfate was added to each 10-day treatment. With this
treatment the steer has continued to develop normally for more
than four years.
Basic Copper Sulfate.-When administered to cattle in a cap-
sule and in proportion to its copper content, basic copper sulfate
was effective in correcting copper deficiency that developed in
cattle grazing St. Augustine grass pastures on sawgrass muck.
This form of copper is insoluble in water but became available
in contact with fluids in the digestive tract.

COPPER TOXICITY
Of the five forms of copper tested, only copper sulfate and
copper oxide are used commonly in commercial mineral supple-
ments. Copper sulfate was toxic in excessive amounts. When
five grams of copper sulfate were fed daily to a 500-pound steer,
symptoms of toxicity became evident at 102 days and death oc-
curred in 122 days. In three additional animals fed at this
level, hemolysis of the blood was observed when whole blood was
centrifuged and free hemoglobin was found to be present in the
blood serum. When the copper sulfate was withdrawn on the
first appearance of hemolysis, lack of appetite and listlessness
disappeared and the animals recovered. Autopsy of an animal
dying of copper toxicity revealed bloody urine, hemolysis, an
icterus (jaundice), a yellowish liver, thick bile, dark kidneys and
a "blackberry jam" spleen. The spleen changed from a normal






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


copper chloride in 10 milliliters of water at 10-day intervals. It
was necessary to make the injections slowly to avoid shock.
Complete recoveries from copper deficiency by this method re-
quired 8 to 12 weeks, but the animal was protected for com-
paratively long periods of time (up to a year).
Copper Oxide.-A mixture of cuprous and cupric oxides (in a
black powder form) is insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acid
or alkali. It contains a higher percentage of copper than does
copper sulfate and was effective in correcting copper deficiency
when given orally in a No. 000 capsule to both young and mature
cattle. However, responses were slower than with copper sul-
fate.
Metallic Copper.-A single experimental animal (a steer calf)
received 0.1 gram of metallic copper daily (one gram every 10
days) while grazing on copper-deficient muck pasture. It con-
tinued to live but failed to appear normal until 10 milligrams of
cobalt sulfate was added to each 10-day treatment. With this
treatment the steer has continued to develop normally for more
than four years.
Basic Copper Sulfate.-When administered to cattle in a cap-
sule and in proportion to its copper content, basic copper sulfate
was effective in correcting copper deficiency that developed in
cattle grazing St. Augustine grass pastures on sawgrass muck.
This form of copper is insoluble in water but became available
in contact with fluids in the digestive tract.

COPPER TOXICITY
Of the five forms of copper tested, only copper sulfate and
copper oxide are used commonly in commercial mineral supple-
ments. Copper sulfate was toxic in excessive amounts. When
five grams of copper sulfate were fed daily to a 500-pound steer,
symptoms of toxicity became evident at 102 days and death oc-
curred in 122 days. In three additional animals fed at this
level, hemolysis of the blood was observed when whole blood was
centrifuged and free hemoglobin was found to be present in the
blood serum. When the copper sulfate was withdrawn on the
first appearance of hemolysis, lack of appetite and listlessness
disappeared and the animals recovered. Autopsy of an animal
dying of copper toxicity revealed bloody urine, hemolysis, an
icterus (jaundice), a yellowish liver, thick bile, dark kidneys and
a "blackberry jam" spleen. The spleen changed from a normal






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


copper chloride in 10 milliliters of water at 10-day intervals. It
was necessary to make the injections slowly to avoid shock.
Complete recoveries from copper deficiency by this method re-
quired 8 to 12 weeks, but the animal was protected for com-
paratively long periods of time (up to a year).
Copper Oxide.-A mixture of cuprous and cupric oxides (in a
black powder form) is insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acid
or alkali. It contains a higher percentage of copper than does
copper sulfate and was effective in correcting copper deficiency
when given orally in a No. 000 capsule to both young and mature
cattle. However, responses were slower than with copper sul-
fate.
Metallic Copper.-A single experimental animal (a steer calf)
received 0.1 gram of metallic copper daily (one gram every 10
days) while grazing on copper-deficient muck pasture. It con-
tinued to live but failed to appear normal until 10 milligrams of
cobalt sulfate was added to each 10-day treatment. With this
treatment the steer has continued to develop normally for more
than four years.
Basic Copper Sulfate.-When administered to cattle in a cap-
sule and in proportion to its copper content, basic copper sulfate
was effective in correcting copper deficiency that developed in
cattle grazing St. Augustine grass pastures on sawgrass muck.
This form of copper is insoluble in water but became available
in contact with fluids in the digestive tract.

COPPER TOXICITY
Of the five forms of copper tested, only copper sulfate and
copper oxide are used commonly in commercial mineral supple-
ments. Copper sulfate was toxic in excessive amounts. When
five grams of copper sulfate were fed daily to a 500-pound steer,
symptoms of toxicity became evident at 102 days and death oc-
curred in 122 days. In three additional animals fed at this
level, hemolysis of the blood was observed when whole blood was
centrifuged and free hemoglobin was found to be present in the
blood serum. When the copper sulfate was withdrawn on the
first appearance of hemolysis, lack of appetite and listlessness
disappeared and the animals recovered. Autopsy of an animal
dying of copper toxicity revealed bloody urine, hemolysis, an
icterus (jaundice), a yellowish liver, thick bile, dark kidneys and
a "blackberry jam" spleen. The spleen changed from a normal







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


healthy reddish-gray color to a somewhat purplish color. These
swellings and the darker discoloration are shown in Figure 13.













Fig. 13.-A "blackberry jam" spleen is one of the conditions typical of
copper toxicity in cattle affected by excessive copper intakes. In addition
to jaundice, a most typical symptom is the abnormal spleen, which has
some swelling and a purplish color giving a characteristic appearance of
blackberry jam.

When two steers weighing about 500 pounds each were fed
daily doses of copper oxide, containing copper equivalent to that
in 5 grams of copper sulfate, no toxicity was observed in 15
months. The animals appeared normal when slaughtered for
experimental study.

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF COPPER,
MOLYBDENUM, PHOSPHORUS AND COBALT
One symptom of copper deficiency among cattle on a sawgrass
peat soil in the Everglades was an abnormal ossification of the
bones. The condition was more pronounced in cattle grazing
on forage low in phosphorus. Some mature animals, in good
flesh and health but depleted in both copper and phosphorus, have
died suddenly under exertion, before showing the usual chronic
copper deficiency symptoms such as emaciation, bleaching of hair
color and diarrhea. This is believed to be the condition known
by cattlemen in New Zealand as "falling disease" and may be a
condition affecting the heart and circulatory system. The only
gross symptom of autopsy has been surface hemorrhages of the
heart. The heart muscles were abnormally large and turgid.
Histological sections have shown heart muscle degeneration.
Experiments have shown that cattle can retain the copper from
forages more completely while receiving cobalt. For this reason







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


it appears that a trace of cobalt in the ration or supplement aids
in the process of copper metabolism in the body.


Fig. 14.-After receiving the equivalent of 300 p. p. m. of molybdenum
in the feed as ammonium molybdate by drench for 28 days, this heifer
showed diarrhea, rough hair coat, emaciation, a dejected attitude and
sloughing of patches of skin. She was receiving a low-copper ration.

Molybdenum in pasture forage accentuates the copper defi-
ciency symptoms and interferes with phosphorus metabolism.
Simple copper deficiency does not cause the severe bone changes
and diarrhea observed with the presence of molybdenum. The
influence of high levels of molybdenum is shown in Figure 14.
This cow was kept in a dry lot on a low copper ration and re-
ceived as a drench the equivalent of 300 p.p.m. of molybdenum
as ammonium molybdate in the feed for 28 days. She lost
weight, rapidly developed diarrhea, and there were skin changes
in which some of the hair was lost in patches. These were cor-
rected only when 0.3 grams of copper sulfate were supplied daily
for the first week and 2.1 grams weekly thereafter (Fig. 15).
Additional studies with radioactive phosphorus and molybde-
num have shown that molybdenum causes a loss of phosphorus
from the animal as well as a failure to utilize feed phosphorus if
copper is not supplied in the ration.







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


s ..'..i tt'HiI

Fig. 15.-The same animal shown in Fig. 14 recovered to this condition
in 100 days upon receiving 0.3 grams of copper sulfate in solution daily
for one week and 2.1 grams weekly thereafter.

METHODS OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF
COPPER DEFICIENCY ON MUCK SOILS
Since forages grown on nearly all of the peat soil areas have
given increased yields of green forages upon application of copper
to the soil, it is recommended that some copper be applied in the
fertilizer. Since insufficient phosphorus intakes have aggra-
vated copper deficiency in cattle, fertilizers on such soils should
contain adequate amounts of phosphorus. Much growth re-
sponse of forages on peat soils appeared to result from potassium
applications. In general, an 0-8-24 fertilizer containing 10 per-
cent of copper sulfate (or equivalent as copper oxide) may
be applied to peat soils at the rate of 500 pounds per acre. Two
hundred to 300 pound applications annually are desirable to main-
tain forage yields thereafter.
Rates of consumption of mineral supplements containing com-
mon salt are affected inversely to the salt content of the local
water supply. This situation and the level of molybdenum, as
well as the copper content of forages grown on low-copper soils,
affect the proportion of copper needed in a mineral supplement







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


for use with cattle grazing on muck pastures. This mineral sup-
plement should contain copper sufficient to counteract the amount
of excess molybdenum present. If the sulfate form is used, care
should be taken to avoid copper toxicity. Obviously, the copper
content must be based on rates of mineral consumption and care-
ful observation of animal responses.
Feeding trials at the Everglades Station (Bulletins 391 and
456) have shown that 600- to 800-pound steers consumed volun-
tarily about 2.5 pounds of mineral supplement in 120 days, or
about 0.02 pounds (close to 10 grams) per day. At this rate
of intake it would be necessary to include 5 percent of copper
sulfate or its equivalent as copper oxide in the mineral supple-
ment, if the cattle require 0.5 gram of copper sulfate per day.
Hence a mineral mixture for cattle on the Everglades sawgrass
peat soil area has been recommended at this level. This does
not apply to mineral soils low in molybdenum content.
Where mineral supplements containing this amount of copper
have been used with cattle on peat soil, the number of animals
affected with copper deficiency has been low. No cases of copper
toxicity have been reported from following this recommendation
under these conditions. Since copper oxide was relatively non-
toxic at these copper levels, most of the mineral mixtures have
at least one-half of the copper in the oxide form. Because of
these and other observations, the recommended mineral mixture
for cattle on the sawgrass peat soil areas has contained the equiv-
alent of 5 percent of copper sulfate.

SALT CONTENT OF WELL WATERS
Many shallow wells used for watering stock in southern Florida
contain comparatively high amounts of salt. Cattle have a toler-
ance for some salt in their drinking water. However, when they
take salt in the water they consume less of high-salt mixtures
that contain essential mineral elements and consequently may
suffer from deficiencies of copper, cobalt or phosphorus. Often
animals become unthrifty when refusing minerals containing
much salt.
Water from some wells not more than 50 feet apart and of the
same depth have been observed to have salt contents differing
widely. The influence of salt content of well water on mineral
consumption may have a wider application than on the Ever-
glades area and may include some sandy range lands. Several






Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


wells in use have been found to have total salts contents ranging
from 2,000 to 5,000 p.p.m. in the water.
This amount is within the limit of salt tolerance of cattle,
but reduces voluntary consumption of mineral mixtures contain-
ing the usual amounts of salt. When the water from a well con-
tains 800 to 1,200 p.p.m. of total salts cattle readily consume a
mineral mixture which is basically equal parts of salt and feeding
grade steamed bonemeal. The Range Cattle Station formula and
the No. 2 "salt sick" mineral are of this general composition.
Range cattle voluntarily consume little salt in southern Florida
and other coastal areas.

TREATMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS
In large herds of cattle a few animals may not go to the mineral
boxes, and so develop copper deficiency when most of the other
animals appear normal. These individuals may require special
treatment. A mineral drench developed with cattle on the Ever-
glades (particularly on custard apple muck soil) is called popu-
larly "red, white and blue." It consists of 0.5 ounce of cobalt


g agmmmmmmglmi
Fig. 16.-This condition of rough hair coat, emaciation and unthriftiness
occurred in a cow on sawgrass muck pasture of St. Augustine grass. She
had received aluminum sulfate for three months under controlled feeding
without improvement.


37-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


sulfate, 2.0 ounces of aluminum sulfate and 2 to 4 ounces of
copper sulfate in 1 gallon of water.
The dose for any animal above 300 pounds in weight is six
fluid ounces once weekly for three or four weeks. Tests with
aluminum sulfate separately for three months with animals on
the sawgrass peat gave no response (see Figure 16), whereas
almost complete recovery resulted when copper sulfate was ad-
ministered for four months subsequently (see Figure 17). In-
clusion of aluminum sulfate is optional.


Fig. 17.-This is the animal on sawgrass muck in Fig. 16 four months
after aluminum sulfate had been replaced with copper sulfate solution,
under the same controlled feeding conditions.

For use with animals on white or gray mineral soils (often
low in iron) a drench dubbed locally "Green River drench" is
in common use. It contains iron-copper-cobalt salts in the for-
mula: 0.5 pound of ferric ammonium citrate, 10 grams of copper
sulfate, 10 grams of cobalt sulfate in 1 gallon of water. Three







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


fluid ounces are used with a calf, or six ounces with yearlings or
mature animals in three successive doses at weekly intervals.

IV. RECOMMENDED MINERAL MIXTURES
NO SINGLE MINERAL SUPPLEMENT OR MIXTURE WILL
MEET REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE EFFICIENTLY ON ALL
TYPES OF MINERAL SOILS, SAWGRASS AND CUSTARD
APPLE MUCK OR PEAT SOILS. Improvements have been
made with regard to ingredients, palatability to cattle, and physi-
cal characteristics. If cattle consume more pounds of a supple-
ment, the percentage of trace mineral elements-cobalt, copper
and iron--can be reduced. When cattle get part of their require-
ments from saline or brackish waters, they need less salt from
the mineral supplement.
Two standard formulas used over 20 years on the mineral soils
of Florida are the No. 1 and No. 2 formulas. The No. 1 formula
is offered along with bonemeal and common salt in a three-com-
partment box, while the No. 2 mixture is used more widely in
coastal or high salt areas. The No. 1 and No. 2 formulas con-
sist of the following ingredients:
No. 1 No. 2
Common salt .-- --- -- 100 pounds 50 pounds
Steamed bonemeal ...--. ------ none 50 pounds
Red oxide of iron -....... ---- 25 pounds 25 pounds
Pulversized copper sulfate 1-- pound 1 pound
Cobalt sulfate* ...... ------------- 1 ounce 1 ounce
If cobalt carbonate is used, one-half ounce may replace one ounce of cobalt chloride or
sulfate.
It is recommended that mixed concentrates for dairy cattle
contain 1.0 percent each of common salt, marble dust (calcium
carbonate) and either steamed bonemeal or defluorinated phos-
phate. In addition, dairy cattle will need access to a three-com-
partment mineral box with common salt, steamed bonemeal and
the No. 1 or No. 2 supplement containing iron-copper-cobalt in
addition to salt.
Defluorinated phosphate may be used to replace part or all of
the steamed bonemeal in mineral supplements or in a mineral
box. To improve the palatability of the defluorinated phosphate,
it may be mixed with common salt in the proportions recom-
mended on page 19.
A separate formula was developed at the Range Cattle Station
especially to provide a more palatable supplement for use as a







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


complete mineral in a single-compartment box. The Range
Cattle Station complete mineral formula, together with the modi-
fied "salt sick" mineral portion to go into it, are given below.
The modified "salt sick" mineral also is fed along with bonemeal
and common salt in a three-compartment box to cattle on some
experimental pastures.
Complete Modified "Salt
Mineral Sick" Mineral**
Steamed bonemeal ..........----------- 29 pounds
Defluorinated phosphate ....----------- 29 pounds
Modified "salt sick" mineral -- 38 pounds
Common salt -------- --- 100 pounds
Red oxide of iron --------- 10 pounds
Copper sulfate, pulverized ------ 2 pounds
Cobalt sulfate* --------. -- 2 ounces
Cane Molasses ------ 2 pounds
Cottonseed meal ----- 2 pounds
Since the basic soils and forage crops grown on organic soils
(peat and muck) vary widely in trace element contents, a for-
mula developed and recommended at the Everglades Station for
use with cattle on organic soils follows:
Steamed bonemeal .. .------- 50.0 pounds
Common salt ---- 44.7 pounds
Pulverized copper sulfate..- 2.5 pounds
Copper oxide -- -- 0.8 pounds
Aluminum sulfate -- 2.0 pounds
Cobalt carbonate* -- 1.0 ounce
If cobalt sulfate or chloride is used, 2 ounces will be required, or it may be replaced
by 1 ounce of cobalt carbonate.
** The modified "salt sick" formula is mixed and then 38 pounds are added to the other
ingredients in making the complete mineral.
t Copper oxide currently available contains 50% copper and should be included at the
rate of 1.25 pounds.
Optional ingredient.
The Everglades Station formula is not adapted for use with
cattle on low-iron mineral soils. A mineral formula which com-
plies with these recommendations should contain 1.25 percent of
copper. The calcium and phosphorus would be in the ratio of
about 2 to 1. Bonemeal that has been ground very finely causes
a mineral supplement to be dusty and less palatable to cattle.
From 2 to 4 percent of molasses may be substituted for part of
the salt to improve the physical condition and palatability of the
supplement. Common salt preserves the bonemeal by retarding
mold growth and reducing spoilage.
Mineral deficiency symptoms have not been observed in cattle
in the Experiment Station herds while using these respective
mineral supplements, except in the expected few individuals







Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


among large numbers that do not go to the mineral box.
Slaughtered animals from the beef and dairy herds have had
strong bones.
Animals that have become infested with intestinal parasites
may be treated for both mineral deficiency and parasites by use
of single treatments of the trace mineral elements and pheno-
thiazine, either in a capsule or as a drench.
Copper often is applied as a fertilizer to pastures by a dusting
plane, at rates from 8 to 35 pounds of copper sulfate per acre.
This method can be used when entire herds need to be given addi-
tional copper. In treating groups of cattle through drinking
water, only copper sulfate should be used, as some other forms
of copper are insoluble in water. The copper sulfate should be
dissolved in water and then stirred into the drinking water at
the rate of 1 ounce of copper sulfate for every 25 animals once or
twice a week for not longer than three to four weeks. This is not
effective in metal troughs, because the copper may react chemi-
cally and not remain in solution. Precautions must be taken to
avoid toxicity from excessive intakes of copper.

FACTORS AFFECTING MINERAL CONSUMPTION
If a single "complete" mineral supplement is to be used, select
one that is palatable and does not tend to spoil in wet weather.
Bonemeal tends to mold when it becomes damp, unless the supply
is renewed in small amounts frequently or it is mixed with a small
amount of common salt. A good mineral formula contains no
filler, such as excess salt, calcium carbonate or other unnecessary
and sometimes expensive ingredients. A few animals in any
large herd may not go near a mineral box; they must be recog-
nized and managed individually.
Bonemeal pulverized too finely is dusty and unpalatable and is
subject to larger wind losses by being blown from the mineral
box.
The salt content of local drinking water is a deciding factor
when considering the proportion of salt in mineral supplements.
The seasonal consumption of mineral supplements by dairy
and beef cattle have been shown in Tables 1, 8 and 10 and Fig.
6. The factor most affecting mineral consumption is the quality
of the pasture as it reflects the soils and fertilization. The poorer
the pasture the larger is the amount of mineral supplement
eaten from the box. Cattle grazing recently-burned native range






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


or recently-fertilized improved pastures eat little, if any, min-
eral supplement.
As the grasses on either native or improved pastures mature
there is an increase in the minerals consumed. Fertilization of
pastures increases the mineral content of the forage, and con-
sequently cattle require smaller quantities from the mineral box.
Over-grazing of pastures also results in greater mineral con-
sumption.
It has been shown that only a small amount of mineral sup-
plement is eaten in the spring when pastures are growing rapidly.
A gradual increase in the amount eaten occurs during the sum-
mer and early autumn, with the largest amount during the
winter.
A regular supply of fresh mineral supplement renewed at fre-
quent intervals increases mineral consumption. Cattle go to a
fresh supply of minerals regularly. Protection from the weather
keeps the minerals palatable, and less is wasted from spoilage or
by being blown away. Cattle go to the mineral boxes more fre-
quently when they are located at a convenient place near where
the cattle rest or go for water. It has been observed that little
mineral is eaten where cattle had to travel more than one-half
mile to a box. There should be at least one box for each pasture,
section of range, or each 50 cows.
Supplemental feeding reduces the amount of minerals eaten
from a box. Many purchased feeds contain more of the essen-
tial mineral elements than do mature native grasses. Feeds sup-
plemented with minerals further reduce consumption from the
mineral box.
Calves begin to eat mineral supplements at an early age, so
boxes should be low enough to give young animals ready access.
Cattle learn to like mineral supplements, and eat more as they
become accustomed to them.








Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

During 27 years of research involving mineral nutrition of cattle, many
members of the staff of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
have contributed to the present knowledge and practices. In addition,
many county agricultural agents, teachers of vocational agriculture, veteri-
narians and others have contributed directly and indirectly. Without co-
operation of cattlemen and dairymen in all portions of the state, much of
the information reported here could not have been obtained.
Among the Station workers who contributed substantially were the
following: A. L. Shealy, C. R. Dawson, W. M. Neal, O. C. Bryan, D. A.
Sanders, L. L. Rusoff, L. W. Gaddum, C. F. Ahmann, L. H. Rogers, Paul
Camp, J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, C. L. Comar, R. L. Shirley, Kather-
ine M. Boney, F. H. Skipper, J. N. Henson, M. A. Jeter, L. R. Arrington,
Riley D. Owens, Dorothy Nodine Speers, L. Singer, E. R. Felton, H. J.
Fulford, E. M. Kelly, A. D. Dawson, H. E. Henderson, H. C. Howze, Betty
Mosley Gause, E. M. Hodges, D. W. Jones, T. C. Erwin, D. W. Beardsley,
Roy A. Bair, W. T. Forsee, Jr., Herbert L. Chapman, Jr., R. V. Allison,
J. R. Neller and others. From time to time many students assisted in care
of the animals and in the laboratories.




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