• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Calcium and phosphorus
 Sodium and chlorine
 Iodine
 Copper
 Molybdenum
 Cobalt
 Iron
 Manganese
 Zinc
 Magnesium
 Potassium
 Sulfur
 Selenium
 Fluorine
 Mineral composition of some Florida...
 Compounds of some Florida...
 Some recommended mineral mixtures...
 Factors affecting mineral consumption...
 Salt and mineral for controlling...
 Effect of salt content of water...
 Mineral feeders for cattle
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited
 Acknowledgement














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 683
Title: Minerals for beef cattle in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027753/00001
 Material Information
Title: Minerals for beef cattle in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 60 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cunha, T. J ( Tony Joseph ), 1916-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Minerals in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 59-60.
Statement of Responsibility: T.J. Cunha ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027753
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929267
oclc - 18354575
notis - AEP0043

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Calcium and phosphorus
        Page 3
        Calcium
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Phosphorus
            Page 4
        Calcium and phosphorus in forages and concentrates
            Page 4
        Calcium to phosphorus ratio
            Page 7
        Recommendations and observations
            Page 8
    Sodium and chlorine
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Iodine
        Page 10
    Copper
        Page 11
        Deficiency symptoms
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Recommended levels in mineral mixtures
            Page 15
        Sources
            Page 15
        Toxicity
            Page 16
    Molybdenum
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Cobalt
        Page 18
        Deficiency symtoms
            Page 18
        Sources
            Page 19
        Recommended levels in mineral mixtures
            Page 19
        Copper interrelationship
            Page 19
    Iron
        Page 19
    Manganese
        Page 20
    Zinc
        Page 21
    Magnesium
        Page 22
    Potassium
        Page 22
    Sulfur
        Page 23
    Selenium
        Page 23
        Deficiency symptoms
            Page 24
        Levels which have been used
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Fluorine
        Page 26
        Toxicity
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Toxic levels in water, forages, and feeds
            Page 28
        Safe levels in water, forages, and feeds
            Page 29
    Mineral composition of some Florida feedstuffs
        Page 30
    Compounds of some Florida feedstuffs
        Page 30
    Some recommended mineral mixtures to use in Florida
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Factors affecting mineral consumption in Florida
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44-45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Salt and mineral for controlling intake of protein supplement
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Effect of salt content of water on cattle performance
        Page 50
    Mineral feeders for cattle
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Literature cited
        Page 59
    Acknowledgement
        Page 60
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




Bulletin 683


~ 'U
C,,
-; -


MINERALS FOR

BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA

T. J. Cunha, R. L. Shirley
H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman
G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, J. F. Hentges, Jr.



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. Beckenbach, Director, Gainesville










CONTENTS


Page

Introduction ......------------- 3
Calcium and Phosphorus --- ---......... -- 3
Calcium------------ ........ ........ 4
Phosphorus -----.... 4
Calcium and phosphorus in forages and concentrates .. 4
Calcium to phosphorus ratio......-... 7
Recommendations and observations -- --- 8
Sodium and Chlorine ...----- 8
Iodine .. .. .. .... .. ---- 10
Copper --.. ..----... -.... .. ... ... ...- 11
Deficiency symptoms ---------- 11
Recommended levels in mineral mixtures ---- 15
Sources -----------------15
Toxicity -- ------ -- 16
Molybdenum ... ...... .......--........ .... 16
Cobalt ........ ... ..... .... ..... 18
Deficiency symptoms --...... .. ...... ..-- --- --18
Sources .........- ......- ............... .... .. 19
Recommended levels in mineral mixtures. ---------- 19
Copper interrelationship ...................- ..---- .- 19
Iron ------------ --- .-- ---------- ----- ------ -------..-- ------------------ -.----- ----------- 19
Iron .. .... ........ .... .... .... .. ..1 ... .... 19
Manganese 20
Zinc --- -------- ---- 21
Magnesium ......... .--. .... ............ .. ..--- 22
Potassium ....------... ................ ..-- ----- ----- 22
Sulfur -- .- --.. .. ......-.. .. ..--...-.. 23
Selenium ....--- -- --... .... .. ........... ----- --- 23
Deficiency symptoms .--.. ---.......---.--------------- 24
Levels which have been used ..---------------------- 24
Sources .........--- .... ----------26
Toxicity .. .----- ..--- .....-.......--. ... ----26
Fluorine ....- ....------------- ..--- -... ~ ........ 26
Toxicity .. ---------------- --------- ----26
Toxic levels in water, forages, and feeds......----------------- 28
Safe levels in water, forages, and feeds ---------- 29
Mineral Composition of Some Florida Feedstuffs ------ 30
Compounds and Substances That Are Sources of Mineral Elements--. 30
Some Recommended Mineral Mixtures to Use in Florida----- 31
Factors Affecting Mineral Consumption in Florida ..---- 40
Salt and Mineral for Controlling Intake of Protein Supplement- ---- 48
Effect of Salt Content of Water on Cattle Performance----- 50
Mineral Feeders for Cattle ...... ..------------------- 51
Summary and Conclusions .... ....------------------------ 56
Literature Cited ........ --------------- ------- 59
Acknowledgments ...---------------------- -60










Minerals for Beef Cattle

in Florida
T. J. Cunha, R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman,
G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, and J. F. Hentges, Jr.'

INTRODUCTION
In 1962 the Florida Department of Agriculture reported that
14,555 tons of mineral and vitamin supplements were sold in
Florida. This tonnage did not include salt and the mineral in-
gredients which were purchased by feeders who mix their own
feed. Aggregate tonnage of minerals, including salt, fed to live-
stock and poultry in Florida in 1962 is estimated to be at least
30,000 tons. These statistics show the importance of mineral
supplementation in Florida.
It is very important that beef cattle obtain adequate mineral
nutrition in order to perform at their maximum. Pasture for-
ages grown on most Florida soils do not contain sufficient
amounts of several essential mineral elements to meet the dietary
needs of beef cattle, and thus, mineral supplementation is needed
to supply them. The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize
and bring up-to-date the data on mineral needs and how these
minerals can be supplied to beef cattle.

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Calcium and phosphorus have a vital function in almost all
tissues in the body and must be available to cattle in the proper
ratio and amount. They make up over 70 percent of the total
mineral elements (ash) in the body. They are important in the
skeleton, since 99 percent of the calcium and 80 percent of the
phosphorus of the entire body are found in the bones and teeth.
Adequate intake of these two elements is necessary for good
skeletal development and maintenance.
1Cunha: Animal Nutritionist and Head, Animal Science Department,
Gainesville.
Shirley: Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Chapman: Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade.
Ammerman: Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Davis: Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Kirk: Vice-Director in Charge, Range Cattle Station, Ona.
Hentges: Associate Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.










Minerals for Beef Cattle

in Florida
T. J. Cunha, R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman,
G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, and J. F. Hentges, Jr.'

INTRODUCTION
In 1962 the Florida Department of Agriculture reported that
14,555 tons of mineral and vitamin supplements were sold in
Florida. This tonnage did not include salt and the mineral in-
gredients which were purchased by feeders who mix their own
feed. Aggregate tonnage of minerals, including salt, fed to live-
stock and poultry in Florida in 1962 is estimated to be at least
30,000 tons. These statistics show the importance of mineral
supplementation in Florida.
It is very important that beef cattle obtain adequate mineral
nutrition in order to perform at their maximum. Pasture for-
ages grown on most Florida soils do not contain sufficient
amounts of several essential mineral elements to meet the dietary
needs of beef cattle, and thus, mineral supplementation is needed
to supply them. The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize
and bring up-to-date the data on mineral needs and how these
minerals can be supplied to beef cattle.

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Calcium and phosphorus have a vital function in almost all
tissues in the body and must be available to cattle in the proper
ratio and amount. They make up over 70 percent of the total
mineral elements (ash) in the body. They are important in the
skeleton, since 99 percent of the calcium and 80 percent of the
phosphorus of the entire body are found in the bones and teeth.
Adequate intake of these two elements is necessary for good
skeletal development and maintenance.
1Cunha: Animal Nutritionist and Head, Animal Science Department,
Gainesville.
Shirley: Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Chapman: Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade.
Ammerman: Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Davis: Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.
Kirk: Vice-Director in Charge, Range Cattle Station, Ona.
Hentges: Associate Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Calcium
Approximately 1 percent of the body calcium is not in the
skeleton and is widely distributed in the soft tissues with the
largest concentration in blood plasma (normally 10 to 12 milli-
grams (mg) per 100 milliliters (ml) of blood plasma in yearling
and older cattle.)
Calcium is essential for quick blood clotting, rhythmic heart
action, neuromuscular excitability, enzyme activation, and per-
meability of membranes. An inadequate intake of calcium may
cause weakened bones (see Figure 1), slow growth, low milk
production, and tetany (convulsions) in severe deficiencies.

Phosphorus
The 20 percent of phosphorus in the body which is not in the
skeleton is distributed throughout the soft tissues, being espe-
cially concentrated in red blood cells, muscle, and nervous tissues.
In addition to skeleton formation, phosphorus is also essential
for: 1, proper functioning of rumen microorganisms, especially
those which digest plant cellulose; 2, utilization of energy from
feeds; 3, buffering of blood and other fluids; 4, many enzyme
systems; and 5, protein metabolism. Normal blood phosphorus
levels of cows and calves in Florida vary from 5 to 8 mg of
inorganic phosphorus per 100 ml of blood. A phosphorus level
below 5 mg per 100 ml of blood plasma in cows is a reason for
suspecting a deficiency (Table 4).
Symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency are usually borderline
and not easily recognized except in severe cases when fragile
bones, general weakness, weight loss, emaciation, stiffness, fail-
ure of milk production, and the chewing of wood, rocks, bones,
and other objects may be noticed. Abnormal chewing of objects
may occur, however, with other dietary deficiencies. A phos-
phorus deficient animal is shown in Figure 2. In borderline
cases, phosphorus deficiency may not be observed in cows until
after calving and during lactation.

Calcium and Phosphorus in Forages and Concentrates
The calcium and phosphorus content of pasture grass and
other forage will vary with fertility of soil, fertilizer practices,
forage species, season of the year, moisture level, and other
factors. For example, mature wiregrass on flatwoods soils in
the winter may have a content as low as 0.22 percent calcium







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Figure 1.-Both hips of cow shown above were broken (knocked down)
as a result of a low-calcium ration. Here skeletal reserve of calcium was
depleted to the point that her weakened bones were broken easily. The
pelvic bone at lower right is from cow above. Note breaks at points indi-
cated by arrows. (Courtesy R. B. Becker, University of Florida)

and 0.04 percent phosphorus, whereas fertilized grass-clover
herbage may exceed 0.46 percent calcium and 0.33 percent phos-
phorus on a moisture-free basis. Wiregrass, after a fresh burn
in the spring, may contain levels as high as 0.4 percent calcium







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 2.-Native cow in a phosphorus-deficient Florida range cow
area. Note the thin condition and crippled right shoulder (sweeny) as
result of inadequate phosphorus in her ration. This cow exhibited a
depraved appetite and chewed objects continually; her rumen contained
rags, pieces of inner tube, shoe nails, metal, oyster shells, etc. Her blood
phosphorus level was 2.0 mg/100 ml. The lower photograph shows the
severely eroded humerus and scapula bones from her right shoulder.
"A" shows a hole worn in the articular surface of the proximal end of the
humerus bone. (Courtesy R. B. Becker)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Calcium
Approximately 1 percent of the body calcium is not in the
skeleton and is widely distributed in the soft tissues with the
largest concentration in blood plasma (normally 10 to 12 milli-
grams (mg) per 100 milliliters (ml) of blood plasma in yearling
and older cattle.)
Calcium is essential for quick blood clotting, rhythmic heart
action, neuromuscular excitability, enzyme activation, and per-
meability of membranes. An inadequate intake of calcium may
cause weakened bones (see Figure 1), slow growth, low milk
production, and tetany (convulsions) in severe deficiencies.

Phosphorus
The 20 percent of phosphorus in the body which is not in the
skeleton is distributed throughout the soft tissues, being espe-
cially concentrated in red blood cells, muscle, and nervous tissues.
In addition to skeleton formation, phosphorus is also essential
for: 1, proper functioning of rumen microorganisms, especially
those which digest plant cellulose; 2, utilization of energy from
feeds; 3, buffering of blood and other fluids; 4, many enzyme
systems; and 5, protein metabolism. Normal blood phosphorus
levels of cows and calves in Florida vary from 5 to 8 mg of
inorganic phosphorus per 100 ml of blood. A phosphorus level
below 5 mg per 100 ml of blood plasma in cows is a reason for
suspecting a deficiency (Table 4).
Symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency are usually borderline
and not easily recognized except in severe cases when fragile
bones, general weakness, weight loss, emaciation, stiffness, fail-
ure of milk production, and the chewing of wood, rocks, bones,
and other objects may be noticed. Abnormal chewing of objects
may occur, however, with other dietary deficiencies. A phos-
phorus deficient animal is shown in Figure 2. In borderline
cases, phosphorus deficiency may not be observed in cows until
after calving and during lactation.

Calcium and Phosphorus in Forages and Concentrates
The calcium and phosphorus content of pasture grass and
other forage will vary with fertility of soil, fertilizer practices,
forage species, season of the year, moisture level, and other
factors. For example, mature wiregrass on flatwoods soils in
the winter may have a content as low as 0.22 percent calcium







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Calcium
Approximately 1 percent of the body calcium is not in the
skeleton and is widely distributed in the soft tissues with the
largest concentration in blood plasma (normally 10 to 12 milli-
grams (mg) per 100 milliliters (ml) of blood plasma in yearling
and older cattle.)
Calcium is essential for quick blood clotting, rhythmic heart
action, neuromuscular excitability, enzyme activation, and per-
meability of membranes. An inadequate intake of calcium may
cause weakened bones (see Figure 1), slow growth, low milk
production, and tetany (convulsions) in severe deficiencies.

Phosphorus
The 20 percent of phosphorus in the body which is not in the
skeleton is distributed throughout the soft tissues, being espe-
cially concentrated in red blood cells, muscle, and nervous tissues.
In addition to skeleton formation, phosphorus is also essential
for: 1, proper functioning of rumen microorganisms, especially
those which digest plant cellulose; 2, utilization of energy from
feeds; 3, buffering of blood and other fluids; 4, many enzyme
systems; and 5, protein metabolism. Normal blood phosphorus
levels of cows and calves in Florida vary from 5 to 8 mg of
inorganic phosphorus per 100 ml of blood. A phosphorus level
below 5 mg per 100 ml of blood plasma in cows is a reason for
suspecting a deficiency (Table 4).
Symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency are usually borderline
and not easily recognized except in severe cases when fragile
bones, general weakness, weight loss, emaciation, stiffness, fail-
ure of milk production, and the chewing of wood, rocks, bones,
and other objects may be noticed. Abnormal chewing of objects
may occur, however, with other dietary deficiencies. A phos-
phorus deficient animal is shown in Figure 2. In borderline
cases, phosphorus deficiency may not be observed in cows until
after calving and during lactation.

Calcium and Phosphorus in Forages and Concentrates
The calcium and phosphorus content of pasture grass and
other forage will vary with fertility of soil, fertilizer practices,
forage species, season of the year, moisture level, and other
factors. For example, mature wiregrass on flatwoods soils in
the winter may have a content as low as 0.22 percent calcium







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida 7

and 0.2 percent phosphorus. Because the minimum daily re-
quirements of cows nursing calves are 0.3 percent calcium and
0.25 percent phosphorus (air-dry feed basis), it can be seen that
wiregrass is grossly deficient throughout most of the year,
whereas the fertilized grass-clover pasture herbage is adequate
in calcium and phosphorus content.
It is recommended for Florida that unless forages have a
minimum of 0.30 percent calcium and 0.20 percent phosphorus
(on a moisture-free basis), supplements should be supplied for
good cattle performance. Table 2 shows the mineral content of
many Florida forages and other feeds.
The vegetative parts of plants contain higher levels of cal-
cium, while seeds contain higher levels of phosphorus. For this
reason, supplemental calcium is often needed for cattle fed ra-
tions high in corn or other grains, while supplemental phos-
phorus is often needed where pasture herbage, hay, or silage
provides most of the feed. It should be noted that citrus pulp
and molasses are different from other high energy concentrates,
being high in calcium (0.7 to 3.6 percent) and low in phos-
phorus (0.07 to 0.10 percent) content. It is recommended, that
feed mixtures containing citrus products be formulated to in-
clude mineral supplements in quantities needed to provide a
balanced ration.
Calcium to Phosphorus Ratio
The ratio of calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) in the ration,
unlike that for nonruminant animal species, can be wider than
1.5:1 without reducing performance. It is recommended, how-
ever, that Ca:P ratios in mineral mixtures be kept as close as
practical to 2.0:1, although ratios as wide as 4:1 may not cause
trouble with full fed cattle in drylot, provided the phosphorus
intake meets minimum requirements. Mineral mixtures high
in calcium and low in phosphorus make it difficult to provide an
optimum calcium to phosphorus ratio in the diet. Generally
speaking, it is recommended that mineral mixtures for Florida
beef cattle contain a minimum of 7 to 8 percent phosphorus.
Table 1 gives data on the quantity of phosphorus used in the
United States in 1962 from each source. The most widely used
feed sources of supplemental calcium and phosphorus in the
United States are shown in Table 3.
Steamed bonemeal has decreased in supply from 120,000
tons in 1951 to 40,000 tons in 1962, a drop of 66 percent. Table







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


1 shows that bonemeal supplied about 5 percent of all the phos-
phorus feed supplements used in 1962.


Table 1.-Estimated Annual Tonnage of Phosphorus Feed Supplements
in 1962 (from "Trends in Phosphorus Feed Supplements", by
Henry Highton, Smith Douglass Co., Inc., Norfolk, Virginia).

Defluorinated phosphate 300,000 tons*
Dicalcium phosphate 250,000 tons
Imported rock phosphate 150,000 tons
Steamed bonemeal 40,000 tons
Soft rock phosphate 50,000 tons
Other 10,000 tons
Total tonnage 800,000 tons

Tonnage figures are based on a 13 percent phosphorus equivalent.

Recommendations and Observations
1. Inorganic phosphate sources have certain advantages over
foreign bonemeal. Nutritionally, they are excellent sources of
calcium and phosphorus, and they do not have the disadvantage
of possibly carrying disease organisms, as does foreign bone-
meal, which was blamed for the 1952 anthrax outbreak in
Florida. Economical sources of inorganic phosphates are readily
available in Florida.
2. Following are the suggested minimum recommended levels
for calcium and phosphorus for Florida beef cattle:

Air dry ration* Air dry ration*
calcium, percent phosphorus, percent
Growing 0.35 0.30
Fattening 0.30 0.25
Gestating 0.30 0.20
Lactating 0.30 0.25

This assumes about 10 percent moisture in the feeds.

SODIUM AND CHLORINE

Sodium and chlorine occur principally in the fluids and soft
tissues of the animal body. They are involved in water metab-
olism and in controlling the passage of nutrients into cells. A
dietary deficiency of these elements causes loss of appetite, de-
creased growth, unthrifty appearance, decreased milk produc-
tion, and loss of weight. Figure 3 shows a salt deficient animal.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


1 shows that bonemeal supplied about 5 percent of all the phos-
phorus feed supplements used in 1962.


Table 1.-Estimated Annual Tonnage of Phosphorus Feed Supplements
in 1962 (from "Trends in Phosphorus Feed Supplements", by
Henry Highton, Smith Douglass Co., Inc., Norfolk, Virginia).

Defluorinated phosphate 300,000 tons*
Dicalcium phosphate 250,000 tons
Imported rock phosphate 150,000 tons
Steamed bonemeal 40,000 tons
Soft rock phosphate 50,000 tons
Other 10,000 tons
Total tonnage 800,000 tons

Tonnage figures are based on a 13 percent phosphorus equivalent.

Recommendations and Observations
1. Inorganic phosphate sources have certain advantages over
foreign bonemeal. Nutritionally, they are excellent sources of
calcium and phosphorus, and they do not have the disadvantage
of possibly carrying disease organisms, as does foreign bone-
meal, which was blamed for the 1952 anthrax outbreak in
Florida. Economical sources of inorganic phosphates are readily
available in Florida.
2. Following are the suggested minimum recommended levels
for calcium and phosphorus for Florida beef cattle:

Air dry ration* Air dry ration*
calcium, percent phosphorus, percent
Growing 0.35 0.30
Fattening 0.30 0.25
Gestating 0.30 0.20
Lactating 0.30 0.25

This assumes about 10 percent moisture in the feeds.

SODIUM AND CHLORINE

Sodium and chlorine occur principally in the fluids and soft
tissues of the animal body. They are involved in water metab-
olism and in controlling the passage of nutrients into cells. A
dietary deficiency of these elements causes loss of appetite, de-
creased growth, unthrifty appearance, decreased milk produc-
tion, and loss of weight. Figure 3 shows a salt deficient animal.







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Figure 3.-Extreme salt deficiency, illustrating gaunt appearance after
large loss in body weight. (Courtesy S. E. Smith, Cornell University)

There is a regular dietary need for sodium and chlorine due to
limited body storage. This need can be met by providing salt
free-choice in a mineral supplement or mixed with the ration.
The salt requirement of full-fed cattle is usually adequately
met by 0.5 percent salt in the total ration. Salt consumption will
vary depending upon the quality and quantity of feed available
and upon milk production of cows.
Salt is commonly used as a major ingredient in mixed mineral
supplements. In these supplements it acts not only as an essen-
tial nutrient but also as a preservative and as a condiment to
encourage free-choice consumption of the mineral mixture which
might otherwise prove unpalatable.
Salt is also widely used for controlling supplemental feed
intake with as much as 20 to 35 percent of the total protein
supplement consisting of salt (see page 48). These large quanti-
ties of salt have proved relatively safe, and there is little danger
of toxicity if the salt is fed continuously either as a part of a
mineral mixture or as a part of the supplemental protein feed
and provided there is an ample supply of good quality drinking
water.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


There are special considerations with regard to feeding salt
in Florida because of coastal brackish waters. On ranches lo-
cated in such areas it may be necessary to limit the amount of
salt used in mineral mixtures or pasture supplements to assure
adequate intake of minerals or supplement (see pages 40 and 51).

IODINE
Iodine is an essential component of the hormone thyroxine,
which controls the metabolic rate of the animal body. Thyroxine
is produced by the thyroid gland, and a dietary deficiency of
iodine results in a deficiency of the hormone. When a deficiency
occurs in cattle, it is usually observed in the young at birth as a
result of a shortage of iodine in the cow's ration during gesta-
tion. The young are born weak or dead and with enlarged
thyroid glands giving rise to the term "big neck" (see Figure 4).
The need for supplemental dietary iodine for cattle exists
primarily in areas where the soil is low in this element. Iodine
deficiencies have not been reported in Florida-raised cattle,
but iodine may be added to the mineral mixtures designed
for cattle in the state. The requirement of iodine by cattle is


Figure 4.-Goiter or "big neck" resulting from an iodine deficiency
in the ration of the dam during gestation. (Courtesy J. W. Kalkus, Wash-
ington Agricultural .Experiment Station)






Miverals for Beef Cattle in Florida


met by adding 0.01 percent potassium iodide or 0.0076 percent
iodine to the salt. Several chemical forms of iodine including
potassium iodide, sodium iodide, calcium iodate, and 3, 5-diiodo-
salicylic acid have been used satisfactorily as a source of iodine,
with the most important consideration being that of stabiliza-
tion. Iodine should always be included in a stablized form, since
unstabilized iodized salts are subject to decomposition and loss
of iodine. The level of iodine which produces toxicity is high
enough that there is little or no danger in this regard in a
practical feeding program.

COPPER
Copper was first found to be an essential mineral for live-
stock over 35 years ago, when it was shown to be involved in
the utilization of iron for hemoglobin formation. Copper is
necessary for the functioning of enzyme systems and is a part
of various pigments of the body. It is involved in the central
nervous system, bone tissue metabolism, and normal heart func-
tion. It is also interrelated with the utilization of many other
nutrients. Research in Florida with this element has been dis-
cussed in detail in recent publications (1, 2)'.

Deficiency Symptoms
With the exception of phosphorus and cobalt, copper is
probably the most widespread mineral deficiency found in cattle
throughout Florida. There have been numerous copper deficiency
symptoms reported, including slow growth, loss of body weight,
rough bleached hair, and anemia. However, many copper-deficient
cattle may be fat, may have a smooth, normal-appearing hair
coat, and may not be anemic. Another symptom, observed on
both mineral and organic soils, is the development of fragile
bones, particularly the long bones, which break quite easily,
sometimes without apparent cause. It is also common to observe
a bony ring on the legs of young cattle just above the ankle
joint (see Figure 5). Cattle that show these skeletal abnor-
malities may run like a pacing horse rather than like normal
cattle (see Figure 6). Copper-deficient cattle may die suddenly
when exerted. A copper-deficient animal before and after treat-
ment with copper is shown in Figure 7. Post-mortem examina-
tion may reveal small lesions of the heart. Not all of these
SNumbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Miverals for Beef Cattle in Florida


met by adding 0.01 percent potassium iodide or 0.0076 percent
iodine to the salt. Several chemical forms of iodine including
potassium iodide, sodium iodide, calcium iodate, and 3, 5-diiodo-
salicylic acid have been used satisfactorily as a source of iodine,
with the most important consideration being that of stabiliza-
tion. Iodine should always be included in a stablized form, since
unstabilized iodized salts are subject to decomposition and loss
of iodine. The level of iodine which produces toxicity is high
enough that there is little or no danger in this regard in a
practical feeding program.

COPPER
Copper was first found to be an essential mineral for live-
stock over 35 years ago, when it was shown to be involved in
the utilization of iron for hemoglobin formation. Copper is
necessary for the functioning of enzyme systems and is a part
of various pigments of the body. It is involved in the central
nervous system, bone tissue metabolism, and normal heart func-
tion. It is also interrelated with the utilization of many other
nutrients. Research in Florida with this element has been dis-
cussed in detail in recent publications (1, 2)'.

Deficiency Symptoms
With the exception of phosphorus and cobalt, copper is
probably the most widespread mineral deficiency found in cattle
throughout Florida. There have been numerous copper deficiency
symptoms reported, including slow growth, loss of body weight,
rough bleached hair, and anemia. However, many copper-deficient
cattle may be fat, may have a smooth, normal-appearing hair
coat, and may not be anemic. Another symptom, observed on
both mineral and organic soils, is the development of fragile
bones, particularly the long bones, which break quite easily,
sometimes without apparent cause. It is also common to observe
a bony ring on the legs of young cattle just above the ankle
joint (see Figure 5). Cattle that show these skeletal abnor-
malities may run like a pacing horse rather than like normal
cattle (see Figure 6). Copper-deficient cattle may die suddenly
when exerted. A copper-deficient animal before and after treat-
ment with copper is shown in Figure 7. Post-mortem examina-
tion may reveal small lesions of the heart. Not all of these
SNumbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 5.-Ankle of copper-deficient calf above and ankle from a non-
copper-deficient calf below. (Courtesy H. L. Chapman, Everglades Experi-
ment Station).

symptoms necessarily occur in every copper-deficient animal, and
many may be due to other causes. The best, simple procedure
to diagnose copper deficiency in beef cattle is to chemically
analyze a sample of liver for iron and copper. It is a simple
5-minute operation for an experienced person to obtain a liver
sample by biopsy technique. Copper-deficient cattle will have
low levels of copper and high levels of iron in the liver. The
high level of iron accumulates due to the lack of copper needed
for its utilization. Cattle in Florida with adequate copper nutri-
tion usually have a range of 100 to 300 parts per million (ppm)
of copper in their liver, on a dry matter basis. External symptoms
of copper deficiency may not be seen until the copper level be-
comes lower than 75 ppm and are not found consistently until
the level falls below 25 ppm. The level of iron in liver of non-
copper-deficient cattle is usually in the range of 200 to 300 ppm.
Cattle deficient in copper may have levels about 10,000 ppm of
iron. As the liver iron content increases, there is a decrease in
blood hemoglobin and blood cell volume. The normal level of
total blood copper is from 0.75 to 1.00 micrograms (mcg) per ml
of blood and usually does .not decrease until the level of copper







Minerals for Beef Cattle


4%
p(r


Figure 6.-The steer on bottom is walking normally. The steer on top
part of photo is shown "pacing". This is due to copper deficiency. (Cour-
tesy H. L, Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station)

in the liver falls below 25 ppm. If the level of total blood copper
is low, it is usually an indication that the animal is extremely
copper deficient.


~3C~F1


in Florida 13











I L


"~" i


-^
A-^







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 7.-The top photo shows a copper deficient animal. The bottom
photo shows the same animal after copper supplementation. (Courtesy
R. B. Becker)


Copper deficiency does not develop in a few weeks. If cattle
are in a good state of nutrition, 8 to 12 months are required
to deplete their body reserve of copper. Calves born to cows
with adequate copper stores require approximately 4 to 5 months
to become copper deficient. Calves born to copper-deficient cows
show copper deficiency symptoms in 4 to 5 weeks.







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida 15

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
The recommended amount of copper for mineral mixtures is
not the same for organic and mineral soils. The most important
reason for this is the presence of higher levels of molybdenum
in organic soils. A detailed discussion of this copper-molybde-
num relationship is available (1). Very briefly, excess molybde-
num in the ration increases the need for copper. Thus, a higher
level of supplemental copper is recommended for organic (muck)
soils to counteract the effect of high molybdenum.
The recommended minimum average daily intake of copper
is one-eighth of a gram (or I- gram of copper sulfate) per ani-
mal on organic soil pastures in Florida. The level of copper to in-
clude in a mineral mixture should be adjusted to the amount
of mineral consumed. Some minerals are very palatable and are
eaten at a rate of 50 to 60 pounds per animal annually. Mineral-
protein mixtures are also used that are consumed at rates of
1 to 2 pounds per day. Some mineral mixtures are less palatable,
and cattle eat only 10 to 15 pounds per year. Most commercial
mineral mixtures, however, appear to be eaten at a rate of 35
to 40 pounds per animal yearly if fresh mineral is continually
available to the cattle. Minerals consumed at this rate should
contain a minimum of 0.75 percent of copper (3.0 percent copper
sulfate) for organic (muck) soil and 0.15 percent of copper
(0.6 percent copper sulfate) on mineral (sandy) soil. These
recommended levels of copper should be adjusted up or down if
the rate of mineral consumption varies much from 35 to 40
pounds per animal yearly.

Sources
Recent research, utilizing radioactive copper, has produced
additional information concerning the utilization of different
copper-containing materials by beef cattle. Materials tested in-
cluded cupric sulfate, cupric carbonate, cupric chloride, cupric
nitrate, copper wire, cupric oxide powder, cupric oxide needles.
and cuprous oxide.
Cupric nitrate, cupric sulfate, and cupric chloride had similar
patterns of absorption and excretion by beef cattle. Cupric
nitrate and cupric chloride are hygroscopic in nature (i.e., they
absorb moisture from the air), and this may limit commercial
application of these materials in mineral mixtures. Cupric car-
bonate compared favorably with these three materials in







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida 15

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
The recommended amount of copper for mineral mixtures is
not the same for organic and mineral soils. The most important
reason for this is the presence of higher levels of molybdenum
in organic soils. A detailed discussion of this copper-molybde-
num relationship is available (1). Very briefly, excess molybde-
num in the ration increases the need for copper. Thus, a higher
level of supplemental copper is recommended for organic (muck)
soils to counteract the effect of high molybdenum.
The recommended minimum average daily intake of copper
is one-eighth of a gram (or I- gram of copper sulfate) per ani-
mal on organic soil pastures in Florida. The level of copper to in-
clude in a mineral mixture should be adjusted to the amount
of mineral consumed. Some minerals are very palatable and are
eaten at a rate of 50 to 60 pounds per animal annually. Mineral-
protein mixtures are also used that are consumed at rates of
1 to 2 pounds per day. Some mineral mixtures are less palatable,
and cattle eat only 10 to 15 pounds per year. Most commercial
mineral mixtures, however, appear to be eaten at a rate of 35
to 40 pounds per animal yearly if fresh mineral is continually
available to the cattle. Minerals consumed at this rate should
contain a minimum of 0.75 percent of copper (3.0 percent copper
sulfate) for organic (muck) soil and 0.15 percent of copper
(0.6 percent copper sulfate) on mineral (sandy) soil. These
recommended levels of copper should be adjusted up or down if
the rate of mineral consumption varies much from 35 to 40
pounds per animal yearly.

Sources
Recent research, utilizing radioactive copper, has produced
additional information concerning the utilization of different
copper-containing materials by beef cattle. Materials tested in-
cluded cupric sulfate, cupric carbonate, cupric chloride, cupric
nitrate, copper wire, cupric oxide powder, cupric oxide needles.
and cuprous oxide.
Cupric nitrate, cupric sulfate, and cupric chloride had similar
patterns of absorption and excretion by beef cattle. Cupric
nitrate and cupric chloride are hygroscopic in nature (i.e., they
absorb moisture from the air), and this may limit commercial
application of these materials in mineral mixtures. Cupric car-
bonate compared favorably with these three materials in







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


absorption of copper, but had the highest rate of copper excre-
tion in the feces and urine.
The size of particle influenced the absorption and excretion
of copper from cupric oxide. More copper was absorbed into
the blood stream from the powdered than from the needle form.
At the end of a 96-hour period, however, over 77 percent of the
copper from the cupric oxide powder had been excreted in the
feces as compared to approximately 4 percent from the cupric
oxide needles, indicating the heavier particles remained in the
stomach longer. Cuprous oxide ranked fifth in absorption into
the blood stream and second highest in excretion in the feces
and urine. Copper from copper wire was the least absorbed. One
steer was autopsied 4 months after treatment, and it was found
that the 5 grams of copper wire had lost only 300 mg in weight
during that time.
These studies indicate that copper sulfate was the best of
the eight materials studied. However, pulverization of cupric
or cuprous oxide would possibly make these compounds more
available to cattle.

Toxicity
A recent study (2) revealed that the toxicity of copper sul-
fate is related to the manner in which it is given to cattle. Levels
as high as 8.0 grams of copper sulfate per animal daily were
administered in a dry form to steers for 12 months, followed
by 12.0 grams to the same steers for the next 12 months with
no toxic effect. Twelve grams a day given in a water drench,
however, was lethal to two animals within 65 days. A detailed
description of the toxicity symptoms obtained is available (2).
Copper sulfate is not toxic to cattle when fed in a dry mineral
mixture at the level recommended. However, copper sulfate
should not be put in drinking water for a prolonged period of
time and should not be force fed in dry feed, molasses, liquid
drench, or any other way unless directed by a veterinarian or
other qualified person. Toxicity results can occur if it is im-
properly used.

MOLYBDENUM
Molybdenum has been shown to be an essential element in
the nutrition of some plants, but a requirement for cattle has
not been established. Evidence has been developed that poultry







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


absorption of copper, but had the highest rate of copper excre-
tion in the feces and urine.
The size of particle influenced the absorption and excretion
of copper from cupric oxide. More copper was absorbed into
the blood stream from the powdered than from the needle form.
At the end of a 96-hour period, however, over 77 percent of the
copper from the cupric oxide powder had been excreted in the
feces as compared to approximately 4 percent from the cupric
oxide needles, indicating the heavier particles remained in the
stomach longer. Cuprous oxide ranked fifth in absorption into
the blood stream and second highest in excretion in the feces
and urine. Copper from copper wire was the least absorbed. One
steer was autopsied 4 months after treatment, and it was found
that the 5 grams of copper wire had lost only 300 mg in weight
during that time.
These studies indicate that copper sulfate was the best of
the eight materials studied. However, pulverization of cupric
or cuprous oxide would possibly make these compounds more
available to cattle.

Toxicity
A recent study (2) revealed that the toxicity of copper sul-
fate is related to the manner in which it is given to cattle. Levels
as high as 8.0 grams of copper sulfate per animal daily were
administered in a dry form to steers for 12 months, followed
by 12.0 grams to the same steers for the next 12 months with
no toxic effect. Twelve grams a day given in a water drench,
however, was lethal to two animals within 65 days. A detailed
description of the toxicity symptoms obtained is available (2).
Copper sulfate is not toxic to cattle when fed in a dry mineral
mixture at the level recommended. However, copper sulfate
should not be put in drinking water for a prolonged period of
time and should not be force fed in dry feed, molasses, liquid
drench, or any other way unless directed by a veterinarian or
other qualified person. Toxicity results can occur if it is im-
properly used.

MOLYBDENUM
Molybdenum has been shown to be an essential element in
the nutrition of some plants, but a requirement for cattle has
not been established. Evidence has been developed that poultry







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


respond to added molybdenum, and there is one report of re-
sponse by sheep. Present evidence, however, is that the molyb-
denum problem, insofar as cattle in Florida are concerned, is
one of toxicity.
Molybdenum levels in Florida range from less than 1.0 ppm
in forages on unfertilized sandy soils to from 3 to 12 ppm in
forage on sawgrass muck in Palm Beach County and approxi-
mately 20 ppm in the Zellwood-Lake Apopka muck areas.
Isolated small tracts of muck have run as high as 150 ppm of
molybdenum when newly developed but soon drop to levels com-
parable to those in surrounding areas. With good fertilization
practices the copper content of forages seldom exceeds 9 to 12
ppm. This level of copper will not prevent molybdenum toxicity
when the forage contains above 4 to 6 ppm of molybdenum. This
emphasizes the need for continuous supplementation with extra
copper in the mineral mixture in excess molybdenum areas.
It has been known since 1938 that molybdenum excess in
forage causes a clinical condition in cattle that is difficult to
distinguish from acute copper deficiency in general appearance.
The diarrhea, loss of coat color, dry skin, stiff joints, emaciation,
and anemia characteristic of this condition may occur when
molybdenum levels on a dry matter basis exceed 3 ppm and the
copper level is below 5 ppm. It has been amply demonstrated,
however, that the copper level of the diet is critical in deter-
mining whether or not molybdenum toxicity develops. The in-
teraction between molybdenum and copper in cattle is made
possible by the presence of sulfate in the diet. Consequently,
it is necessary to have adequate sulfate present in forage to
control molybdenum toxicity by copper in the diet. It has not
been demonstrated, however, that beef cattle in Florida need
supplementation with inorganic sulfate.
Molybdenum is most readily available to plants under alka-
line conditions of the soil which also reduce the availability of
copper. Consequently, molybdenum toxicity is more a problem
of alkaline than of acid soils. In Florida excess molybdenum is
particularly a problem on alkaline muck soils, although it has
occurred when high levels of molybdenum have been added to
sandy soils by fertilization.
The use of the currently recommended level of 3 percent
copper sulfate in the mineral mixture should control the effects







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of excess molybdenum in muck soils if the cattle consume 35 to
40 pounds of the mineral mixture yearly.

COBALT
Most grazing areas in Florida are deficient in cobalt. Many
experiments have been conducted in Florida with cobalt, and a
detailed report of recent experiments is available (2).
Deficiency Symptoms
As in the case of many of the copper deficiency symptoms,
those of a cobalt deficiency in beef cattle are not specific. They
include loss of body weight, loss of appetite, dull appearance,
anemia, and weak calves (see Figure 8). Diagnosis is often
difficult. Since cobalt-deficient cattle usually respond quickly to
cobalt treatment, recovering their appetite, weight, and vigor,
this serves as an easy, practical test to determine whether a
cobalt deficiency exists.
Cobalt is an essential part of vitamin B12, and normal re-
quirements of the vitamin are met by rumen synthesis if ade-
quate cobalt is available.

Figure 8.-Animals showing cobalt deficiency. Note the emaciation,
rough hair coat, and retarded development. (Courtesy R. B. Becker and
G. K. Davis)


ep~R- -~


WUM1 H0i6a.A
4L '

f.Li-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of excess molybdenum in muck soils if the cattle consume 35 to
40 pounds of the mineral mixture yearly.

COBALT
Most grazing areas in Florida are deficient in cobalt. Many
experiments have been conducted in Florida with cobalt, and a
detailed report of recent experiments is available (2).
Deficiency Symptoms
As in the case of many of the copper deficiency symptoms,
those of a cobalt deficiency in beef cattle are not specific. They
include loss of body weight, loss of appetite, dull appearance,
anemia, and weak calves (see Figure 8). Diagnosis is often
difficult. Since cobalt-deficient cattle usually respond quickly to
cobalt treatment, recovering their appetite, weight, and vigor,
this serves as an easy, practical test to determine whether a
cobalt deficiency exists.
Cobalt is an essential part of vitamin B12, and normal re-
quirements of the vitamin are met by rumen synthesis if ade-
quate cobalt is available.

Figure 8.-Animals showing cobalt deficiency. Note the emaciation,
rough hair coat, and retarded development. (Courtesy R. B. Becker and
G. K. Davis)


ep~R- -~


WUM1 H0i6a.A
4L '

f.Li-







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Sources
Successfully used sources include cobalt oxide, cobalt sulfate,
and cobalt carbonate. Information is limited regarding the com-
parative value of various compounds for furnishing cobalt to
beef cattle.
Recently, cobalt has become available commercially in the
form of a heavy, 5-gram pellet containing cobalt oxide. This
dense pellet will lodge in the rumen and presumably provide
adequate cobalt for several months. Tests in other countries
have indicated these pellets have value for preventing cobalt
deficiency. Tests in Florida (2) indicated that the pellet has
merit when used for cattle grazing cobalt-deficient ranges and
not having adequate access to a mineral mixture containing
cobalt. The heavy pellet was of marginal or of no economic
benefit to beef cattle when a mineral mixture containing cobalt
was used.

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
It is recommended that mineral mixtures for cattle on both
organic and mineral soils, consumed at the rate of 35 to 40
pounds per animal annually, should contain 0.03 percent of co-
balt (0.12 percent cobalt sulfate).
Cobalt is potentially toxic to livestock. The tolerance of
cattle for cobalt, however, is much greater than the non-
ruminant animal, and cobalt toxicity is not a problem with beef
cattle if it is not force fed or given at levels several times higher
than those recommended for mineral mixtures.

Copper Interrelationship
Recent experiments (2) have indicated that cobalt supple-
mentation results in more efficient utilization of forage copper.
It is important that cattle receive an adequate, continuous sup-
ply of both copper and cobalt.

IRON
Iron plays a vital role in animal metabolism as a necessary
constituent of the oxygen-carrying system (hemoglobin) and
of oxidizing enzymes. Over half the iron present in the body is
in hemoglobin, and its determination serves as a measure of
the adequacy of iron nutrition. Hemoglobin levels may be lowered







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Sources
Successfully used sources include cobalt oxide, cobalt sulfate,
and cobalt carbonate. Information is limited regarding the com-
parative value of various compounds for furnishing cobalt to
beef cattle.
Recently, cobalt has become available commercially in the
form of a heavy, 5-gram pellet containing cobalt oxide. This
dense pellet will lodge in the rumen and presumably provide
adequate cobalt for several months. Tests in other countries
have indicated these pellets have value for preventing cobalt
deficiency. Tests in Florida (2) indicated that the pellet has
merit when used for cattle grazing cobalt-deficient ranges and
not having adequate access to a mineral mixture containing
cobalt. The heavy pellet was of marginal or of no economic
benefit to beef cattle when a mineral mixture containing cobalt
was used.

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
It is recommended that mineral mixtures for cattle on both
organic and mineral soils, consumed at the rate of 35 to 40
pounds per animal annually, should contain 0.03 percent of co-
balt (0.12 percent cobalt sulfate).
Cobalt is potentially toxic to livestock. The tolerance of
cattle for cobalt, however, is much greater than the non-
ruminant animal, and cobalt toxicity is not a problem with beef
cattle if it is not force fed or given at levels several times higher
than those recommended for mineral mixtures.

Copper Interrelationship
Recent experiments (2) have indicated that cobalt supple-
mentation results in more efficient utilization of forage copper.
It is important that cattle receive an adequate, continuous sup-
ply of both copper and cobalt.

IRON
Iron plays a vital role in animal metabolism as a necessary
constituent of the oxygen-carrying system (hemoglobin) and
of oxidizing enzymes. Over half the iron present in the body is
in hemoglobin, and its determination serves as a measure of
the adequacy of iron nutrition. Hemoglobin levels may be lowered







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Sources
Successfully used sources include cobalt oxide, cobalt sulfate,
and cobalt carbonate. Information is limited regarding the com-
parative value of various compounds for furnishing cobalt to
beef cattle.
Recently, cobalt has become available commercially in the
form of a heavy, 5-gram pellet containing cobalt oxide. This
dense pellet will lodge in the rumen and presumably provide
adequate cobalt for several months. Tests in other countries
have indicated these pellets have value for preventing cobalt
deficiency. Tests in Florida (2) indicated that the pellet has
merit when used for cattle grazing cobalt-deficient ranges and
not having adequate access to a mineral mixture containing
cobalt. The heavy pellet was of marginal or of no economic
benefit to beef cattle when a mineral mixture containing cobalt
was used.

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
It is recommended that mineral mixtures for cattle on both
organic and mineral soils, consumed at the rate of 35 to 40
pounds per animal annually, should contain 0.03 percent of co-
balt (0.12 percent cobalt sulfate).
Cobalt is potentially toxic to livestock. The tolerance of
cattle for cobalt, however, is much greater than the non-
ruminant animal, and cobalt toxicity is not a problem with beef
cattle if it is not force fed or given at levels several times higher
than those recommended for mineral mixtures.

Copper Interrelationship
Recent experiments (2) have indicated that cobalt supple-
mentation results in more efficient utilization of forage copper.
It is important that cattle receive an adequate, continuous sup-
ply of both copper and cobalt.

IRON
Iron plays a vital role in animal metabolism as a necessary
constituent of the oxygen-carrying system (hemoglobin) and
of oxidizing enzymes. Over half the iron present in the body is
in hemoglobin, and its determination serves as a measure of
the adequacy of iron nutrition. Hemoglobin levels may be lowered







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Sources
Successfully used sources include cobalt oxide, cobalt sulfate,
and cobalt carbonate. Information is limited regarding the com-
parative value of various compounds for furnishing cobalt to
beef cattle.
Recently, cobalt has become available commercially in the
form of a heavy, 5-gram pellet containing cobalt oxide. This
dense pellet will lodge in the rumen and presumably provide
adequate cobalt for several months. Tests in other countries
have indicated these pellets have value for preventing cobalt
deficiency. Tests in Florida (2) indicated that the pellet has
merit when used for cattle grazing cobalt-deficient ranges and
not having adequate access to a mineral mixture containing
cobalt. The heavy pellet was of marginal or of no economic
benefit to beef cattle when a mineral mixture containing cobalt
was used.

Recommended Levels in Mineral Mixtures
It is recommended that mineral mixtures for cattle on both
organic and mineral soils, consumed at the rate of 35 to 40
pounds per animal annually, should contain 0.03 percent of co-
balt (0.12 percent cobalt sulfate).
Cobalt is potentially toxic to livestock. The tolerance of
cattle for cobalt, however, is much greater than the non-
ruminant animal, and cobalt toxicity is not a problem with beef
cattle if it is not force fed or given at levels several times higher
than those recommended for mineral mixtures.

Copper Interrelationship
Recent experiments (2) have indicated that cobalt supple-
mentation results in more efficient utilization of forage copper.
It is important that cattle receive an adequate, continuous sup-
ply of both copper and cobalt.

IRON
Iron plays a vital role in animal metabolism as a necessary
constituent of the oxygen-carrying system (hemoglobin) and
of oxidizing enzymes. Over half the iron present in the body is
in hemoglobin, and its determination serves as a measure of
the adequacy of iron nutrition. Hemoglobin levels may be lowered







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


however, by deficiencies of copper or cobalt or by parasite in-
festation. The normal level of hemoglobin for cattle is 10 to 13
grams per 100 ml of blood, and amounts below 10 grams per
100 ml are generally considered to be deficient. The minimum
iron requirement for maintaining the hemoglobin level in young,
growing dairy calves is reported to be approximately 30 mg per
day, while the iron requirements of mature cattle are unknown.
Levels of iron in pasture grasses and grains are considered
adequate for cattle in most parts of the United States. The use
of supplemental dietary iron is recommended in Florida, because
some sandy soils are low in iron, and many cattle carry a heavy
internal and external parasite load.
Sources of supplemental iron currently being successfully
used include ferric oxide (red oxide of iron), ferrous sulfate,
and ferrous carbonate. Ferrous carbonate is generally considered
to be of lower biological availability than ferrous sulfate but
possesses superior handling and mixing qualities. Research at
Florida has shown iron oxide to be of limited biological avail-
ability, but the amounts usually added to the mineral mixture,
as shown in Tables 5 and 6, apparently meet the supplemental
needs of the animal.


MANGANESE
Manganese occurs in various organs and tissues throughout
the body and has several vital functions despite the relatively
small total amount present in the body. A manganese deficiency
in cattle under experimental conditions results in reduced growth
and body development, and leg deformities. The deficiency re-
sults in reduced fertility in cows and weak legs and pasterns
in newborn calves.
The National Research Council (6) states that the man-
ganese requirement of beef cattle appears to be met with as
little as 2.7 to 4.5 mg per pound in the ration. It seems unlikely
that beef cattle rations require manganese supplementation un-
der practical feeding conditions, since both roughages and grains
contain several times this amount of manganese per pound.
Several times the level of manganese required seems to be
tolerated without producing symptoms of toxicity, although
toxic effects are obtained with extremely high levels of manga-
nese.






Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


ZINC
Zinc has been shown to be a dietary essential for ruminants,
but the requirements for beef cattle have not been established.
Research at the Purdue Station (10) has shown increased gains
in fattening cattle with zinc supplementation. Average daily
gains were increased 0.2 lb. when zinc oxide was added at either
138 or 235 ppm of zinc in the total ration. In another study, the
North Carolina Station (11) used yearling steers to test the
effect of supplemental zinc (100 ppm) as zinc oxide and calcium
S(0.38 percent) when added to an all-concentrate basal ration
containing 25 ppm zinc and 0.42 percent calcium. In a 105-day
feeding period no significant differences between treatments
were obtained in weight gains, feed intake, feed conversion, or
carcass characteristics. These two findings to date indicate the
need for more studies on zinc with different rations and kinds
of cattle. The results of a zinc deficiency on a purified ration
very low in zinc are shown in Figure 9.


Figure 9.-Zinc-deficient calf vs. normal calf. Calf on the left was fed
the basal diet containing 3.0 ppm zinc. The calf on the right was given
the same diet with 100 ppm zinc added. The calf on the basal diet gained
53 pounds in 17 weeks, while the one receiving the added zinc gained 132
pounds. Notice the listless appearance, general dermatitis, and scaly
lesions on the legs and nose of the calf on the left. (Courtesy E. A. Ott,
W. H. Smith, and W. M. Beeson, Purdue University)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Analyses of feedstuffs and experimental observations have
not yet demonstrated the likelihood of a zinc deficiency occurring
in Florida. This element is usually included in the mineral sup-
plement, since unusual stress conditions may increase the dietary
requirement for zinc.

MAGNESIUM
Magnesium is closely associated with calcium and phosphorus,
both in its distribution in body tissues and in its metabolism.
Approximately 70 percent of the body magnesium is present in
the skeleton, with the remainder distributed in fluids and soft
tissues. This element is a normal constituent of bones and teeth
and is required for body processes including the activation of
enzymes.
A deficiency of magnesium per se is rarely, if ever, observed
under practical feeding conditions. A "magnesium tetany" in
calves, characterized by low blood level of magnesium with
normal calcium and phosphorus, has been produced by rearing
calves for extended periods on highly purified diets or on milk
only. In calves showing symptoms of tetany, the blood serum
magnesium levels were as low as 0.1 mg per 100 ml compared
with normal magnesium levels of about 2.5 mg per 100 ml of
blood serum. These findings with calves have called attention
to a disease of cattle referred to as "grass tetany" or "grass
staggers" which is sometimes attributed to magnesium defi-
ciency. The condition responds to injections of magnesium
compounds. In general, however, the supply of magnesium in
"grass tetany" pastures has appeared to be adequate, and it is
apparent that this disease is more likely due to an interference
in normal magnesium utilization than to a simple magnesium
deficiency.
The magnesium requirement appears to be 0.06 percent of
the total ration. Most of the common feedstuffs contain at least
0.1 percent magnesium on a dry matter basis. If the intake of
other minerals is in proper balance, it is unlikely that cattle
need a supplemental source of magnesium under practical feed-
ing conditions.

POTASSIUM
Potassium deficiency has been produced experimentally in
several species of animals. The deficiency is evidenced by growth







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Analyses of feedstuffs and experimental observations have
not yet demonstrated the likelihood of a zinc deficiency occurring
in Florida. This element is usually included in the mineral sup-
plement, since unusual stress conditions may increase the dietary
requirement for zinc.

MAGNESIUM
Magnesium is closely associated with calcium and phosphorus,
both in its distribution in body tissues and in its metabolism.
Approximately 70 percent of the body magnesium is present in
the skeleton, with the remainder distributed in fluids and soft
tissues. This element is a normal constituent of bones and teeth
and is required for body processes including the activation of
enzymes.
A deficiency of magnesium per se is rarely, if ever, observed
under practical feeding conditions. A "magnesium tetany" in
calves, characterized by low blood level of magnesium with
normal calcium and phosphorus, has been produced by rearing
calves for extended periods on highly purified diets or on milk
only. In calves showing symptoms of tetany, the blood serum
magnesium levels were as low as 0.1 mg per 100 ml compared
with normal magnesium levels of about 2.5 mg per 100 ml of
blood serum. These findings with calves have called attention
to a disease of cattle referred to as "grass tetany" or "grass
staggers" which is sometimes attributed to magnesium defi-
ciency. The condition responds to injections of magnesium
compounds. In general, however, the supply of magnesium in
"grass tetany" pastures has appeared to be adequate, and it is
apparent that this disease is more likely due to an interference
in normal magnesium utilization than to a simple magnesium
deficiency.
The magnesium requirement appears to be 0.06 percent of
the total ration. Most of the common feedstuffs contain at least
0.1 percent magnesium on a dry matter basis. If the intake of
other minerals is in proper balance, it is unlikely that cattle
need a supplemental source of magnesium under practical feed-
ing conditions.

POTASSIUM
Potassium deficiency has been produced experimentally in
several species of animals. The deficiency is evidenced by growth







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


retardation, lowered potassium content of several body organs,
and pathological changes in the heart, kidneys, and other tissues.
Potassium requirements have not been established for cattle,
but studies with other species indicate the requirement to be
approximately 0.2 to 0.3 percent of the dry ration. Forages com-
monly consumed by cattle contain considerable quantities of
potassium, and it seems unlikely that a dietary deficiency occurs
under practical conditions.


SULFUR
Sulfur is required by the animal body in the form of organic
compounds, primarily amino acids, rather than in inorganic
form. It may be supplied in cattle rations in either organic or
inorganic form, since rumen bacteria can use inorganic sulfur
to build sulfur-containing amino acids.' When rations contain
urea to supply a large portion of the protein needs of cattle, a
supplemental source of sulfur may prove beneficial. Several ex-
periments, however, have shown no benefits from adding supple-
mental sulfur to practical rations containing as much as 40
percent of the nitrogen in the ration in the form of urea. The
sulfur requirement for mature ewes appears to be about 0.08
to 0.1 percent of the total ration, but the requirement for cattle
is not known. Assuming the sulfur requirement to be similar
for cattle, there is little suggestion for a supplemental dietary
need for sulfur, since practically all of the common feedstuffs
contain more than 0.1 percent sulfur.
Sulfur in the sulfate form has an additional function in the
interrelationship between molybdenum and copper. It is neces-
sary along with copper in the diet to prevent molybdenum
toxicity, a problem in some peat and muck soil areas of Florida
as previously discussed in sections on copper and molybdenum.


SELENIUM
Interest in selenium was limited to its toxic effects on animals
for many years. Selenium was reported as toxic to animals as
early as 1842, but almost a century passed before the diseases
known as "alkali disease" and "blind staggers" were identified
as selenium poisoning. It has become of interest as an essential
element in recent years.







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


retardation, lowered potassium content of several body organs,
and pathological changes in the heart, kidneys, and other tissues.
Potassium requirements have not been established for cattle,
but studies with other species indicate the requirement to be
approximately 0.2 to 0.3 percent of the dry ration. Forages com-
monly consumed by cattle contain considerable quantities of
potassium, and it seems unlikely that a dietary deficiency occurs
under practical conditions.


SULFUR
Sulfur is required by the animal body in the form of organic
compounds, primarily amino acids, rather than in inorganic
form. It may be supplied in cattle rations in either organic or
inorganic form, since rumen bacteria can use inorganic sulfur
to build sulfur-containing amino acids.' When rations contain
urea to supply a large portion of the protein needs of cattle, a
supplemental source of sulfur may prove beneficial. Several ex-
periments, however, have shown no benefits from adding supple-
mental sulfur to practical rations containing as much as 40
percent of the nitrogen in the ration in the form of urea. The
sulfur requirement for mature ewes appears to be about 0.08
to 0.1 percent of the total ration, but the requirement for cattle
is not known. Assuming the sulfur requirement to be similar
for cattle, there is little suggestion for a supplemental dietary
need for sulfur, since practically all of the common feedstuffs
contain more than 0.1 percent sulfur.
Sulfur in the sulfate form has an additional function in the
interrelationship between molybdenum and copper. It is neces-
sary along with copper in the diet to prevent molybdenum
toxicity, a problem in some peat and muck soil areas of Florida
as previously discussed in sections on copper and molybdenum.


SELENIUM
Interest in selenium was limited to its toxic effects on animals
for many years. Selenium was reported as toxic to animals as
early as 1842, but almost a century passed before the diseases
known as "alkali disease" and "blind staggers" were identified
as selenium poisoning. It has become of interest as an essential
element in recent years.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Deficiency Symptoms
A discovery in 1957 that liver necrosis in rats (see Figure
10) fed certain diets was prevented by trace amounts of selenium
has been repeated by others. Studies with cattle have shown
that selenium is a factor in the control of white muscle disease
(or muscle dystrophy), and occasionally in thriftiness, growth,
and fertility. Chronic diarrhea has also been reported to be a
selenium deficiency symptom. Selenium has been shown to be
related to the metabolic functions of vitamin E. In Florida, the
symptoms that have been observed are stiffness, listlessness,
and death in calves on lush clover pastures in the spring".


Figure 10.-Necrotic liver in rat due to a deficiency of selenium. (Cour-
tesy of Klaus Schwarz, National Institutes of Health, Washington, D. C.)

Levels Which Have Been Used
It has been reported (5) that cattle have gained 17.1 lb. per
head during 30 days following an injection of 1 ml per 100 lb.


" Sippel, W. L. Personal communication. 1962.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Deficiency Symptoms
A discovery in 1957 that liver necrosis in rats (see Figure
10) fed certain diets was prevented by trace amounts of selenium
has been repeated by others. Studies with cattle have shown
that selenium is a factor in the control of white muscle disease
(or muscle dystrophy), and occasionally in thriftiness, growth,
and fertility. Chronic diarrhea has also been reported to be a
selenium deficiency symptom. Selenium has been shown to be
related to the metabolic functions of vitamin E. In Florida, the
symptoms that have been observed are stiffness, listlessness,
and death in calves on lush clover pastures in the spring".


Figure 10.-Necrotic liver in rat due to a deficiency of selenium. (Cour-
tesy of Klaus Schwarz, National Institutes of Health, Washington, D. C.)

Levels Which Have Been Used
It has been reported (5) that cattle have gained 17.1 lb. per
head during 30 days following an injection of 1 ml per 100 lb.


" Sippel, W. L. Personal communication. 1962.







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


body weight of a selenium-vitamin E preparation that contained
1.0 mg of selenium as sodium selenite and 50 mg of a-tocopherol
acetate per ml. These animals had chronic diarrhea and had
failed to respond to anthelmintics and antidiarrhea compounds
over a five-month period. They recovered within five days after
receiving the selenium and vitamin E preparation.
In Scotland, complete prevention of muscular dystrophy in
calves has been obtained by one subcutaneous injection of 15 mg
of selenium at birth. In New Zealand, it has been recommended
that 10 mg of selenium be injected subcutaneously into beef
calves at "marking" time, at weaning, and later as considered
necessary.
Oregon State workers (8) have suggested that the cause of
white muscle disease goes back to prenatal development, and
that cows in areas where muscle dystrophy occurs should re-
ceive an injection of selenium and vitamin E any time after
being pregnant for five months.





















-. . -.


Figure 11.-Early stages of "blind staggers" from excess selenium. The
animal has no desire to eat or drink. It has poor vision and some saliva-
tion, and the swallowing mechanism is impaired. Courtesy A. A. Beath,
University of Wyoming)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The levels reported above can be used as a guide. At the
present time, however, the use of selenium in mineral mixtures
in Florida is not recommended.
Sources
Selenium occurs in vegetation in varying concentrations de-
pending on the amount in the soil and plant species. Forage and
other feedstuffs containing 0.5 ppm of selenium should be ade-
quate for cattle. Otherwise, it may be obtained in such salts
as sodium selenite and sodium selenate and various organic
selenium compounds. These chemical sources of selenium can
only be administered therapeutically under the supervision of
a veterinarian due to a ruling by the Food and Drug Administra-
tion.
Toxicity
For many years a chronic ailment known as "alkali disease"
has been caused by excess selenium. In the acute form of
toxicity it is known as "blind staggers". A lack of thriftiness,
poor hair coat, abnormal hooves, incoordination, and death
characterize the toxicity symptoms. Figure 11 shows a bull
suffering from excess dietary selenium. Feeds containing more
than 10 ppm of selenium frequently cause toxicity symptoms in
cattle.
FLUORINE

Fluorine, in limited amounts, has been demonstrated to in-
crease the resistance of teeth to cavities, but other attempts to
demonstrate an essential function for fluorine involving health or
growth have not been successful. Industrial fluorine intoxication
has been an important problem for the cattle industry in several
states, especially in Florida near phosphate plants.
Toxicity
The animal is protected by two physiological mechanisms
from high intakes of fluorine. One of these mechanisms is the
rise in urinary excretion of fluorine, and the other is the deposi-
tion of fluorine in the skeleton. Fluorine toxicity is associated
with levels in excess of 5500 ppm in compact bone and 7000 ppm
in spongy bone. The deposition in bone proceeds rapidly at
first and then slowly until the saturation stage is reached around
30 to 40 times the level in normal bone, which is 200 to 500 ppm
of fluorine. At this point, flooding of the soft tissues with







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The levels reported above can be used as a guide. At the
present time, however, the use of selenium in mineral mixtures
in Florida is not recommended.
Sources
Selenium occurs in vegetation in varying concentrations de-
pending on the amount in the soil and plant species. Forage and
other feedstuffs containing 0.5 ppm of selenium should be ade-
quate for cattle. Otherwise, it may be obtained in such salts
as sodium selenite and sodium selenate and various organic
selenium compounds. These chemical sources of selenium can
only be administered therapeutically under the supervision of
a veterinarian due to a ruling by the Food and Drug Administra-
tion.
Toxicity
For many years a chronic ailment known as "alkali disease"
has been caused by excess selenium. In the acute form of
toxicity it is known as "blind staggers". A lack of thriftiness,
poor hair coat, abnormal hooves, incoordination, and death
characterize the toxicity symptoms. Figure 11 shows a bull
suffering from excess dietary selenium. Feeds containing more
than 10 ppm of selenium frequently cause toxicity symptoms in
cattle.
FLUORINE

Fluorine, in limited amounts, has been demonstrated to in-
crease the resistance of teeth to cavities, but other attempts to
demonstrate an essential function for fluorine involving health or
growth have not been successful. Industrial fluorine intoxication
has been an important problem for the cattle industry in several
states, especially in Florida near phosphate plants.
Toxicity
The animal is protected by two physiological mechanisms
from high intakes of fluorine. One of these mechanisms is the
rise in urinary excretion of fluorine, and the other is the deposi-
tion of fluorine in the skeleton. Fluorine toxicity is associated
with levels in excess of 5500 ppm in compact bone and 7000 ppm
in spongy bone. The deposition in bone proceeds rapidly at
first and then slowly until the saturation stage is reached around
30 to 40 times the level in normal bone, which is 200 to 500 ppm
of fluorine. At this point, flooding of the soft tissues with





Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


fluorine occurs, causing a metabolic breakdown. Refusal of feed
generally takes place at this stage, and typical starvation symp-
toms may then be imposed on the fluorine toxicosis. Dietary
levels of fluorine greater than 200 ppm may also cause a reduc-
tion in feed intake.
Clinical signs of fluorosis often become apparent before the
later stage is reached. Teeth may become modified in shape,
size, color, and structure if the animal receives the fluorine when
quite young. The incisors may become pitted and the molars
show pulp cavities due to fracture or wear. These abnormalities
occur in animals exposed to excess fluorine prior to development
of the permanent teeth. Jaw or long bones develop exostoses, and
the joints may become thickened, causing the animal to become
stiff and lame. Figure 12 shows the teeth of a cow and Figure
13 a cow with exostoses that lived 4 years on pasture about 2
miles from a phosphate plant in Florida. A corresponding cow
to the one cited above died and had approximately 8000 ppm of
fluorine in a rib. The lumps on the legs, ribs, and face were
characteristic of the cattle in this pasture,.


'r~1 I


~iV%


Figure 12.-Mottled and deformed teeth in cow that ingested high levels
of fluorine in Polk County, Florida. (Courtesy Robertson Studio, Bartow)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


-.



















Figure 13.-Cow with exostosis (bony growth) of the bones caused by
ingesting large amounts of fluorine in Polk County, Florida. (Courtesy
Robertson Studio, Bartow)

Toxic Levels in Water, Forages, and Feeds
Mottled tooth enamel has been observed in cows drinking
water containing 4 to 5 ppm of fluorine. Toxicity of fluorine-
containing compounds appears to be related to their solubility
in water. Soluble sodium fluoride is more toxic than calcium






Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


fluoride or raw rock phosphate. According to the National Re-
search Council recommendations (7), cattle can safely consume
2 to 3 mg of fluorine per day per kilogram of body weight from
raw rock phosphate. This level is compatible with growth from
weaning to maturity. According to the NRC recommendations
(7), beef cattle can safely consume 40 to 50 ppm of fluorine in
their diet as sodium fluoride or other soluble fluoride compounds,
and can tolerate 65 to 100 ppm, or almost twice as much, of
fluorine from phosphatic limestone or rock phosphate. Among
the factors that decrease fluorine toxicity or increase the toler-
ance of animals to a given fluorine intake are adequate nutrition
.and liberal concentrate feeding, which dilutes the intake of
fluorine.
Fluorine studies4 have been made to determine the effect
of fluorine from different sources on feed consumption, feed
conversion, average daily gain, and fluorine deposition in the
bones of steers on a 91-day trial. Feed consumption, average
daily gains, and feed conversion were not influenced by three
different sources of fluorine. The bones had less fluorine from
the calcium fluoride than from either soft phosphate or sodium
fluoride sources.

Safe Levels in Water, Forages, and Feeds
Water supplies and forages are normally low in fluorine, even
though the soils may be high in phosphate minerals containing
fluorine on a moisture-free basis unless they have dust or fumes
capacity in most plants to absorb the fluorine from the soil,
even when fluorine-containing fertilizers are added. Most
pastures and hay crops contain no more than 1 to 2 ppm of
fluorine on a moisture-free basis unless they have dust or fumes
from industrial plants falling on them. Cereal grains and their
milling products and other seeds used in livestock feeding gen-
erally contain from 1 to 3 ppm of fluorine.
Analyses of water from a number of rivers and lakes in
Florida have been made for fluorine at the Nutrition Laboratory
(9), but only trace amounts of fluorine have been found, except
in the Alafia River and in the Peace River near Zolfo Springs,
where 3.3 ppm were found in December 1961. Cattle drinking
10 gallons of this water per day would consume approximately
'Ammerman, C. B. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations unreported
data. 1963.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


0.1 grams of fluorine per day, which would be approximately
one-third of the fluorine that the National Research Council (7)
suggests as an upper limit that beef cattle will tolerate. Young
cattle drinking this water might develop mottled teeth. A level
of 10 ppm of fluorine in the drinking water is the top limit
tolerated by beef cattle.

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME FLORIDA FEEDSTUFFS
Table 2 has been prepared as a convenient reference for
finding the concentration of several of the principal elements in
common feeds and forages used in Florida. These values are
averages of many analyses and do not indicate the wide varia-
tion that may occur. In a few instances, extreme values are
presented to indicate that an element has unusually variable
concentration.
Table 2 should have value in showing if an available feed
needs supplementation with a given mineral element. If feed
intake and the daily requirement of an animal for an element
are known, it will be possible to calculate from data presented
in Table 2 whether dietary need for the element is met.
Table 2 should be inspected for those feeds that are gener-
ally quite low in a given element. If such a feed is used, it is
important to balance the deficiency with another feed high in
the element or to be certain that the element is fed in the
mineral mixture.
A chemical analysis is a good investment if there is any
doubt about the concentration of an element in a feed.
COMPOUNDS AND SUBSTANCES THAT ARE
SOURCES OF MINERAL ELEMENTS
In Table 3 are presented source substances or compounds that
may provide cattle with calcium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron,
magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc. The molecular
formula and molecular weight of substances, and atomic weight
of the element are given. The percentage of the element present
in a compound can be calculated from these data. Important
considerations in buying a source of mineral elements are the
physical form, i.e., whether it is a crystal or a powder, and its
solubility in water. Limited solubility may be important in
practical handling, as well as determining the toxicity of the
element if the compound is eaten in excess of the needs of the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


0.1 grams of fluorine per day, which would be approximately
one-third of the fluorine that the National Research Council (7)
suggests as an upper limit that beef cattle will tolerate. Young
cattle drinking this water might develop mottled teeth. A level
of 10 ppm of fluorine in the drinking water is the top limit
tolerated by beef cattle.

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME FLORIDA FEEDSTUFFS
Table 2 has been prepared as a convenient reference for
finding the concentration of several of the principal elements in
common feeds and forages used in Florida. These values are
averages of many analyses and do not indicate the wide varia-
tion that may occur. In a few instances, extreme values are
presented to indicate that an element has unusually variable
concentration.
Table 2 should have value in showing if an available feed
needs supplementation with a given mineral element. If feed
intake and the daily requirement of an animal for an element
are known, it will be possible to calculate from data presented
in Table 2 whether dietary need for the element is met.
Table 2 should be inspected for those feeds that are gener-
ally quite low in a given element. If such a feed is used, it is
important to balance the deficiency with another feed high in
the element or to be certain that the element is fed in the
mineral mixture.
A chemical analysis is a good investment if there is any
doubt about the concentration of an element in a feed.
COMPOUNDS AND SUBSTANCES THAT ARE
SOURCES OF MINERAL ELEMENTS
In Table 3 are presented source substances or compounds that
may provide cattle with calcium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron,
magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc. The molecular
formula and molecular weight of substances, and atomic weight
of the element are given. The percentage of the element present
in a compound can be calculated from these data. Important
considerations in buying a source of mineral elements are the
physical form, i.e., whether it is a crystal or a powder, and its
solubility in water. Limited solubility may be important in
practical handling, as well as determining the toxicity of the
element if the compound is eaten in excess of the needs of the






Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


animal. Table 3 gives information on the chemical composition
of mineral sources and some of their physical properties as to
form and solubility. Other factors not listed in the table that
are important are the tendency for caking or hardening, and
deliquescence, which is the property of some substances in tak-
ing up water from the atmosphere.
Calcium oxide was purposely omitted from Table 3 because
of its vigorous reaction with water. Due to the insolubility of
other oxides in general there should be little danger from tox-
icity in using them. This insolubility factor may result in
limited availability of the element for the animal. The solu-
bility values given in Table 3 are those observed in water; the
acid and alkaline conditions of the alimentary tract of cattle
may increase the solubility of mineral compounds over that
which occurs in water.
Table 4 gives data on the blood and liver values of minerals.
These values can be used as a guide in evaluating the adequacy
of mineral nutrition in cattle.
SOME RECOMMENDED MINERAL MIXTURES
TO USE IN FLORIDA
Many requests are made for recommended mineral mixtures
to use in Florida. As a result, a number of mineral mixtures
which have been used successfully at the various Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations are given. It must be emphasized,
however, that many variations of these mineral mixtures can
be made by substituting other ingredients for those which have
been listed.
Table 5 shows the mineral mixtures being used with beef
cattle at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations at Gaines-
ville, Brooksville, Ona, and Belle Glade.
The formula shown for the organic (muck) soils in Table 5
is one which has been used in the Everglades area. It should
be noted that this formula contains 3 percent copper sulfate,
which is five times higher than the amount of copper sulfate
used on sandy soils. The extra copper is needed to counteract the
high level of molybdenum found in muck soils. The formulas
used on sandy soils shown in Table 5 are all quite similar. The
authors recommend the mineral mixtures shown in Table 6
for use in Florida to eliminate any confusion which might occur
for the slight deviation in constituents shown in each formula
in Table 5.








Table 2.-Mineral Element Content of Florida Feedstuffs-Air Dry Basis*.


Phosphorus Calcium Magnesium Cobalt Copper Molybdenum
Feedstuff % % % ppm ppm ppm


Iron
ppm


Alfalfa, all analyses
Alyce cover silage
Bagasse
Bahiagrass, Pensacola
Bahiagrass, Argentine
Bermudagrass hay, Coastal
Bermudagrass
Cane molasses
Citrus molasses
Citrus pulp, dried
Citrus seed meal
Corn, shelled
Corn silage, mature
Corn, ground snapped
Cottonseed meal, solvent
Cottonseed hulls
Fescue grass
Ladino clover hay


0.26
0.21
0.02
0.22
0.28
0.18
0.34
0.12
0.07
0.10
0.69
0.45
0.07
0.19
0.7-1.7
0.13
0.36
0.40


1.64
0.55
0.1'8
0.45
0.62
0.27
0.27
0.3-2.2
0.9-2.9
1.3-3.6
0.7-1.4
0.16
0.10
0.11
0.10-0.26
0.13
0.50
1.38


12-86


1-4 1-16


0.2-0.9
0.12
0.10
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.10
0.4-0.8
0.08
0.50
0.50


0.07-0.3
0.13
0.07


33-137
73
2-15
6.6


16-32
4
4
8.8


130
210
94
290


30


110
587

15-160 -








Table 2, Continued


Feedstuff

Lovegrass
Milo, all analyses
Millet silage
Oat hay
Oat pasture
Paragrass pasture
Peanut meal, expeller
Peanut hulls
Pangolagrass
Pangolagrass silage
Napiergrass
Rice bran
Rye hay
St. Augustinegrass
Sorghum fodder
-Soybean meal, solvent
White clover
Wiregrass


Phosphorus Calcium Magnesium
% % %


0.11
0.33
1.13
0.34
0.44
0.23
0.67
0.07
0.21
0.16
0.30
1.3-2.5
0.86
0.48
0.17
0.78
0.21
0.11


0.28
0.04
0.69
0.38
0.43
0.23
0.16
0.25
0.30
0.34
0.60
0.05
0.57
0.21
0.40
0.2-1.0
0.33
0.34


0.02
0.05
0.26
0.01
0.15
0.08
0.28
0.04
0.07
0.10
0.05
0.6-1.2
0.40
0.06
0.07
0.22
0.17


Cobalt
ppm



0.07


0.07





0.11


0.12





0.26





0.03


Copper Molybdenum
ppm ppm


-526


5-300



4-51
12-100





0-300



15-160


Values obtained at the Nutrition Laboratory or from the Joint
Publication 659, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.


United States-Canadian Table of Feed Composition, National Research Council









Table 3.-Types and Characteristics of Compounds Available


Source
Element Compound

Calcium steamed
bonemeal
defluorinated
rock phosphate
soft phosphate
calcium
carbonate
ground
limestone
dolomitic
limestone
monocalcium
phosphate
tricalcium
phosphate
dicalcium
phosphate

Cobalt cobaltous
carbonate o
cobalt
tric bonyl
coba'ous
chloride
cobaltous
sulfate


Mol. Wt.
Molecular Compound
Formula grams


Ca::(PO4)a -CaX

Ca:, (PO4)2-CaX
Ca::(PO4)2-CaX

CaCO::

CaCO::

CaCO: -Mg-CO::

Ca(H2PO4),-H200

CaN(PO)2

CaHPO4 2HO2


CoCO::

(CoCO::)4

CoCl2- 6HO0

CoS04-7H20


100.1

100.

184.4

252.2

310.3

172.1


119.0

571.9

238.0


Atomic Wt.
Element
grams

1
3 x 40.1

3 x 40.1
3 x 40.1

40.1

40.1

40.1

40.1

3 x 40.1

40.1


58.9

4 x 58.9

58.9


% Element in
Compound
29.0
(22.8-36.7)
29.2
(19.9-35.7)
18

40.0

38.5

22.3

15.9

38.6

23.3


49.5

41.2

24.7


281.1 58.9 24.8


Elements For Salt Mixes.


Physical
Form

meal

powder
powder
white
powder

powder

powder
white
crystal
white
powder
white
crystal

red
crystal
black
crystal
red
crystal
red-pink
crystal


Solubility
grams per
100 ml Water

sl. sol.

sl. sol.
sl. sol.

sl. sol.

sl. sol.

sl. sol.

1.8

0.003

sl. sol.


insol.

sl. sol.

49.9


60.04


as Sources of EssentihMineral









Table 3,-cont'd.


Source
Element Compound


Cobalt,
cont'd.

Copper








Iodine


Iron


Mol. Wt.
Molecular Compound
Formula grams


Co::O4


CuCO:i-Cu(OH):,

CuCl.- 2HO.0
CuO

CuSO, *5H2O


cobaltic (ous)
oxide

cupric
carbonate
cupric
chloride
cupric oxide
cupric
sulfate

potassium
iodide

iron
oxide
ferrous
sulfate
ferrous
sulfate
ferrous NH4"
sulfate
ferrous
carbonate


240.7


221.2

170.5
79.5

249.7


166.0


159.7

278.0

151.8

392.2

133.9


Atomic Wt.
Element
grams


% Element in
Compound


3 x 58.9


2 x 63.6

63.6
63.6

63.6


128.9


111.7

55.8

55.8

S55.8

55.8


Physical
Form

black

green
crystal
green
crystal
bl. powder
blue
crystal

W$rhite
crystal

red-black
powder
bl.-grn.
crystal

powder
fine
crystal

powder


Solubility
grams per
100 ml Water


insol.


insol.

110.04
insol.

31.6


127.5


insol.

15.6

sol.

v. sol.

sl. sol.


Magnesium magnesium
carbonate


*84.3 24.3 28.8


white
crystal


Fe2O::

FeSO4 7HO0

FeSOI
Fe(NH4)((SO4)p'
6H.,O

FeCO: -H.O2


0.0106 V


MgCO::








Table 3,-cont'd.


Source
Element Compound
Magnesium, magnesium
cont'd. chloride
magnesium
oxide
magnesium
sulfate

Manganese manganous
carbonate
manganous
chloride
manganous
sulfate
manganous
oxide

Phosphorus steamed
bonemeal
defluorinated
rock phosphate
calcium
phosphate
dicalcium
phosphate
tricalcium
phosphate


Molecular
Formula

MgCC2- 6H20

MgO

MgSO4 7H20


MnCO::

MnCl2-4H20

MnSO4 H2O

MnO


Ca:s(PO4)2-CaX

Ca:,(PO4)2 CaX

Ca(H2PO4)-HH20

CaHPOr42HO

Ca:i(P04)2


Mol. Wt.
Compound
grams

203.3

40.3

246.5


115.0

197.9

169.0

70.9


252.2

172.1

310.3


Atomic Wt.
Element
grams

24.3

24.3

24.3


54.9

54.9

54.9

54.9


2 x 31

2 x 31

2 x 31

31

2 x 31


% Element in
Compound

12.0

60.3

9.9


47.8

27.8

32.5

77.4

13.6
(8.3-18.4)
13.3
(8.7-21.0)

24.6

18.0

20.0


Physical
Form
white
crys. deliq.
white
powder
white
crystal

rose-pink
powder
rose crys.
deliq.
pale pink
crystal
green
crystal


meal

powder
white
crystal
white
crystal
white
powder


Solubility
grams per
100 ml Water

167.0

0.0006

26.0


0.0065

0.151

98.47

insol.


sl. sol.

sl. sol.

1.80

0.02

0.002








Table 3,-cont'd.


Source
Element Compound

Phosphorus, phosphoric acid
con'td. diammonium
phosphate
sodium
phosphate
sodium
phosphate
dipotassium
phosphate
potassium
phosphate
tripotassium
phosphate
soft phosphate


zinc
carbonate
zinc
chloride
zinc
sulfate
zinc
oxide


Molecular
Formula

H3PO0

(NH4)2HP04

Na2HPO4

Na2HPO4 7H20

K2HPO4

KH2PO4

KiPO4
Caa(P04)2-CaX



ZnCO:;

ZnC12

ZnSO4-7H20

ZnO


Mol. Wt.
Compound
grams

98.0

132.1

142.0

268.1

174.2

136.1

212.3


Atomic Wt.
Element
grams

31

31

31

31

31

31

31
2 x 31


% Element in
Compound

31.6

23.5

21.8

11.6

17.8

22.8

14.6
9


125.4

136.3

287.6

81.4


Physical
Form

clear liq.
white
crystal
white
crystal
white
crystal
white powd.
deliq.
white powd.
deliq.
white crys.
deliq.
powder


white
crystal
white crys.
deliq.
white
crystal
white
powder


Solubility
grams per
100 ml Water

85.0

42.9

100.00

104.0

v. sol.

33.0

sl. sol.
sl. sol.


0.001

432.0

96.5

0.0002







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Table 4.-Blood* and Liver** Values of Minerals
As a Guide.


Mineral
Element


Calcium
Blood plasma

Phosphorus
Blood plasma

Copper
Blood, whole
Liver

Cobalt
Blood, whole
Liver

Iron
Blood hemoglobin
Liver

Potassium
Blood, whole

Sodium
Blood, whole

Magnesium
Blood, whole

Manganese
Blood, whole

Zinc
Blood, whole


Approximate
Normal
Level



10-12 mg


5-8 mg


0.75-1.00 ppm
100-300


0.0004 ppm
0.2


10-13 gm
200-300


66 mg


256 mg


2.04 mg


0.002 mg


0.88 mg


Approximate
Level Below
Which a
Deficiency
Begins



8 mg


5 mg



75



0.07


10



52


244


0.1-0.4


in Cattle to Use


Approximate
Level at
Which an
Extreme
Deficiency
Exists



6 mg


2-3 mg


0.25 ppm
25



0.04


6-8


* All blood values are per 100 ml of blood.
** All liver values are in ppm. on a dry matter basis.








Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida 39


Table 5.-Mineral Mixtures Used at Florida Stations with Beef Cattle.


Mix For
Organic
Mixes for Sandy Soils Snils
BRU and Range
West Central Cattle Everglades Everglades
Ingredients Florida Station* Station** Stationt Stationt


Steamed bonemeal 25.5 28.0 23.0 22.5

Defluorinated
rock phosphate 25.5 28.0 40.0 40.0

Salt iodizedd and
trace mineralized) 35.0 20.0 20.0

Salt, plain 31.21

Red oxide of iron 3.0 3.12 3.0 1.0

Copper sulfate 0.875 0.63 0.60 3.0

Cobalt carbonate 0.125 -

Cobalt chloride
or sulfate .04 0.15 0.15

Cane molasses 5.00 7.00 7.50 7.50

Cottonseed meal
(41% protein) 5.00 2.00 5.75

Citrus pulp (ground fine)
or cottonseed meal 5.85
Vitamin A -


Formula used by M. Koger at Beef Research Unit at Gainesville and W. C. Burns
at West Central Florida Station at Brooksville.
** Formula used at the Range Cattle Station, Ona. This or similar mixture has been
used at the Range Cattle Station since 1945. Cattle have had free access to these mineral
mixtures as long as 18 years.
t Formula used by H. L. Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade. The
salt content is low because the salt content of the drinking water is higher than most
other areas.
t Added at level of 100,0000 I.U. per pound of mineral.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Table 6.-Recommended Mineral Mixtures for Beef Cattle in Florida.


Sandy Soils
Good Water High
Water in Salt*
% %


Organic Soils
Good Water High
Water in Salt*
% %


Steamed bonemeal, dicalcium
phosphate, or defluorinated
rock phosphate, or a mixture
Salt iodizedd and trace
mineralized)
Red oxide of iron
Copper sulfate
Cobalt sulfate
Cane molasses


Cottonseed meal
(41% protein)
Citrus pulp (ground fine)
or cottonseed meal


56.25


63.00 54.00 62.50


30.00 20.00 30.00
3.00 3.00 1.00


5.85

100.00 100.00 100.00


The formula with 20 percent salt should be used on most ranches having water with
about 1500 ppm of salt in them. This level of salt may be decreased further if the salt
content of the water exceeds 1500 ppm. The level of salt needed in the mineral mix will
vary with each ranch depending upon the salt content in the water. Each ranch should be
studied as an individual ease, and the salt level modified until mineral consumption is
adequate.


It is emphasized that ways of improving the recommended
mineral mixtures shown in Table 6 may occur with new research
findings. These mineral mixtures, however, serve as a guide to
those wishing information on formulas to use in their areas.
Cost of various mineral elements, their availability to the animal,
and other factors may necessitate substitution of other sources
of mineral elements for those shown in these formulas. Vitamin
A can be added at a level of 100,000 I.U. per pound of the mineral
mixtures shown in Table 6 if a need for this vitamin exists.
A stable source of vitamin A should be used in the mineral
mixture.


FACTORS AFFECTING MINERAL CONSUMPTION
IN FLORIDA
There are many factors which influence mineral consumption
by cattle. It is important to understand these factors, since the


Ingredients


20.00
1.00
3.00
0.12
7.50


5.85
100.00







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


level of mineral intake may necessitate some variation in the
formula to insure an adequate intake of mineral elements.
Following are some factors which influence the intake of
minerals by cattle:
1. Usually, the higher the level of soil fertility, the lower
the consumption of minerals.
2. Some forages cause an increase in mineral consumption,
whereas others lower it. Cattle on native range consume more
mineral than those on improved pastures. Usually, when forages
are growing rapidly there will be less mineral consumption than
during the periods of the year when plant growth is slow or
stops. Cattle on low quality and overgrazed pastures consume
more mineral.
3. The kind and level of supplemental feeding will influence
mineral intake.
4. Growth rate, percentage calf crop, and milk production
influence mineral needs. The added requirements of gestation
and lactation increase mineral needs.
5. The amount of minerals in the drinking water influences
mineral intake as well as dietary needs.
6. The palatability of the mineral mixture affects intake.
If the mixture is not palatable enough, the cattle may not con-
sume enough mineral to satisfy their needs. If the mineral mix-
ture is too palatable, they may consume too much and develop
mineral imbalance. Cane molasses, cottonseed meal, and other
ingredients may be added to mineral mixtures to increase their
palatability, but they must be used in moderation or they will
cause over consumption of the mineral mixture.
7. Mineral boxes which keep out the rain help increase
mineral intake. Minerals should not be allowed to cake in the
box, as this decreases consumption. Boxes should be constructed
so that the calves can also consume mineral from them. Keep-
ing the mineral supply fresh increases its consumption.
8. Less mineral is consumed if the cattle have to travel long
distances to the mineral box. Mineral boxes should be located
near the water supply or where the cattle rest.
9. Moldy mineral mixes will lessen consumption. Use mineral
mixtures which will not spoil during damp, wet weather or blow
away in windy weather. The use of 20 to 40 percent salt pre-
vents molding and blowing.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Information has been accumulated in Florida on mineral con-
sumption by cattle under various experimental conditions. Some
of the early data on mineral consumption can be reviewed in
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 513-R (1).
More recent data with beef cattle are presented herein to serve
as a guide to mineral consumption in Florida under various
conditions.
Table 7 shows mineral consumption data obtained at the
Range Cattle Station under three different pasture programs.
Table 8 shows the average monthly mineral consumption per
animal for the three herds mentioned in Table 7 during the year.
The data in Table 7 show that quality of pasture influences
mineral consumption by grazing cattle. The data in Table 8
show that there is some variation in the monthly consumption
depending on the adequacy of the pasture available.

Table 7.-Average Mineral Consumption of Beef Cows From 1956 to 1962
at the Range Cattle Station, Ona, Florida.*

Average Mineral Intake
Herd No. per Cow, lbs.
No. Pasture** Cows Yearlyt Daily

1 Native 60 37.35 0.11
2 Combination:
Native and improved
pasture 60 33.92 0.09
3 Improved:
Pangolagrass, 1/3
overplanted with
whiteclover 60 19.72 0.05

Data supplied from Range Cattle Station.
** Herd 1 on 800 acres native range, one-half burned alternate years, and fed hay and
cottonseed meal in winter. Herd 2 grazed 315 acres native range and 75 acres fertilized
pasture consisting of 18 acres Pensacola bahiagrass overplanted with hairy indigo, 20 acres
each of pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass and 17 acres of mixed grass, only fed
cottonseed meal in 1957-58 winter. Herd 3 kept on fertilized pasture consisting of 70 acres
pangolagrass and 20 acres of the same grass overplanted with Whiteclover, and fed hay
each winter.
t Range in average yearly mineral intake per cow; Herd 1, 18 pounds in 1956 to 47
pounds in 1959; Herd 2, 25 pounds in 1961 to 48 pounds in 1957; Herd 3, 15 pounds in
1956 and 1959 to 31 pounds in 1962.

Table 9 gives data on monthly and yearly mineral consump-
tion at the Everglades Station. The average yearly consumption
of minerals for all the yearling cattle was 47.45 Ibs.
Table 10 gives data on the mineral consumption by cows
over a 3-year period at the Beef Research Unit at Gainesville.






Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Table 8.-Average Monthly Mineral Consumption Per Cow
1956 to 1962.*


From


Pasture
Combination Native All Improved Plus 1/3
Native, and Improved, Area. Overplanted With
Month Pounds Pounds Whiteclover, Pounds

January 4.23 2.80 1.43
February 3.27 3.21 1.67
March 1.01 2.20 2.26
April 0.71 1.55 1.25
May 1.01 1.55 0.65
June 3.08 2.92 1.87
July 3.45 2.80 1.60
August 2.98 3.51 2.80
September 4.51 2.87 2.02
October 3.88 4.05 1.73
November 4.46 4.11 0.95
December 4.76 2.35 1.49

37.35 33.92 19.72


* Data from Range Cattle


Station,


Ona, Florida.


The average mineral consumption per cow per year in the five


pasture programs was 42.61


pounds


and varied somewhat de-


pending on the pasture program.


The effect of


cane molasses feeding on


mineral


intake at


the Everglades Station is shown in


Table


The feeding of


molasses decreased the mineral intake by the cattle.
Table 12 shows the effect of phenothiazine on mineral con-


sumption


cattle.


The addition


of 1


percent


phenothiazine


to the mineral mix had very little effect on mineral consumption.


The use of


or 4 percent phenothiazine,


however,


had a de-


pressing effect on mineral consumption by the cattle.
Table 13 shows mineral intake data by steers at the North


Florida Station at Quincy.


The data show that the steers con-


sumed about twice as much mineral during the winter


the summer.


as during


Full-fed steers in drylot consumed about 6 pounds


of mineral per 100 days of feeding period.

















Table 9.-Daily Mineral Consumption by


Yearling Cattle at Everglades Station.*


Grass** Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
Argentine bahia 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.13 0.17 0.17
Pangola 0.08 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.11
Para NI1 nn n N7 o01 n nR n 19


w 0


R. St. Augustine
Average


Periods of Supplemental
Feeding
No Supplementation
Sup. (Nov., Dec., Jan.)
Sup. (Nov., Dec., Jan.,
Feb., Mar., Apr.)
Sup. (Nov., Dec., Jan.,
Aug., Sept. & Oct.)


Minerals for Beef Cal


I


Nov.


Dec.


18 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.16 0.10
10 0.15 0.12 0.15 0.14 0.17
12 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.16 0.14
17 0.15 0.12 0.13 0.21 0.12


Breeds
40 H, 28 BxA, 4 A, 4 B
and 4 HxA from Ranch A
80 A from Ranch B
80 Crossbreds from Ranch C


Average
Overall Average


Data supplied by Dr. C. E. Haines.
** Data from Project 1014, which includes summary of three years for
and Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, but only one year for pangolagrass.
t Data from Project 1027 for three consecutive years. First analysis
treatment, and second analysis on the basis of breed or source of steers.
St. Augustinegrass for all years.
tH H = Hereford, A = Angus, B = Brahman.


Argentine


bahiagrass,


0.13
0.22.
m 0.19


0.03 0.04
0.15 0.13
0.17 0.13


paragrass,


basis of experimental
asture was Roselawn


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations







Florida


Agricultural Experiment


Stations


Table


10.-Mineral Intake of


Experimental


Cows


at the Beef Research


Unit at Gainesville.*


Program**


Animals


Av. Daily
Intake (lbs


Av. Yearly
Intake (lbs.)t


5

Average


for all


0.115

0.100

0.150

0.119

0.104

0.117


programs


41.80

36.50

54.75

43.43

37.96

42.61


Data obtained by M
** Program 1 was a s
binations. Grasses for all
grass, and Coastal bermu


1 through
180, 0, 60,


5 respectively
120, and 180 1


t The mineral


mixture


Koger


straight gr
programs


dagrass.


and R. W. Rainey


ass program.


R


during


Programs


1959-62.
2 to 5


were one-third each of Pen
ates of fertilization yearly


were 450, 300, 300, 700, and 900 lbs.


. per acre
used is the


in Programs 1 through


one shown


were grass-clover


sacola bahiagrass,
with 0-10-20 for
Nitrogen fertilize


5, respectively.


in Table 5.


Table 11.-Effect of Cane Molasses Feeding on Mineral Intake at
Everglades Station.*


Feeding
Program


Animal


Total Mineral
Intake,
Ibs.


Mineral Intake
Per Animal


Daily,
lbs.


Yearly,
lbs.


No molasses


during


year


55,181


0.063


Molasses


during


winter only


61,160


0.052


Molasses


58,159


0.048


* Da


ta furnished by H. L.


organic soil. The
on Roselawn St. i
to 4-16-63. Annual
of water soluble P


Chapman,


fed


Augustinegrass.


Jr. Mill-run


blackstrap


at rate of 5.0 lbs. of molasses


of molasses


feeding


applications of fertilizer were made to
and 70 lbs. of 0.5 N acetic acid soluble K


provide
per ac


molasses produced on
er adult animal daily,
iod was from 9-15-60
a minimum of 5 lbs.


pangola-
Programs
Ition was


year


molasses was


Length


1


bs


8








Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Table 12.-Effect of Phenothiazine Level on Mineral Consumption at
Everglades Station.*

Total Mineral Intake
Animal Mineral Daily, Annually,
Days Consumed lbs. lbs.


9-29-55 through 6-30-56
Plain mineral
1% Phenothiazine mineral
1-21-57 through 7-3-57
Plain mineral
1% Phenothiazine
2% Phenothiazine
4% Phenothiazine


33,036
31,155


7,297
6,770
8,926
9,373


3,012
2,877


973
791
425
360


32.85
32.85


47.45
43.80
18.25
14.60


Data supplied by H. L. Chapman, Jr. Fertilizer applied annually to provide a minimum
of 5 Ibs. of water soluble P and 70 lbs. of 0.5 N acetic acid soluble K per acre.









Table 13.-Mineral Intake by Steers at North Florida Station, Quincy.*


Program


Age and
Class of
Cattle


Average Mineral Intake Per 100 Days, Lbs.
Trace Total
Common Steamed Mineralized Mineral
Salt Bonemeal Salt Blocks Intake


1. Wintering
rations

2. Summer pasture
rations
3. Full-fed steers
in drylot


Short year-
lings and
calves 4.58
Yearling
steers 3.15
Mostly year-
ling steers 2.38


* Data supplied by F. S. Baker. North Florida Station. Quincy.


10.74

5.50

5.93







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The information which has been presented on mineral intake
shows that there is considerable variation in the amount con-
sumed, depending on the kind of forage and soil, level of fertili-
zation, time of the year, kind of cattle, level and kind of supple-
mentation on pasture, stocking rate, level of mineral in the
drinking water, growth rate, calf crop, milk production, and
other factors. This means it is very difficult to estimate the
mineral consumption per cow on a particular ranch operation.
The mineral consumption figures reported herein, however, can
be used as a guide. The final criterion on mineral adequacy is
how the animal is performing. Rapid growth rate, high calf
crop percentage, and heavy weaning weights are a good indica-
tion that the mineral supplementation program is also adequate.
If these production factors are low, however, mineral supple-
mentation, as well as all other phases of the beef production
program, should be studied.

SALT AND MINERAL FOR CONTROLLING
INTAKE OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT

Protein is one of the nutrients most frequently lacking in
winter forages on many Florida ranges. It is important to supply
the necessary protein in such a manner that all animals have an
opportunity to obtain sufficient intake to meet their needs.
The original formula recommended by the Range Cattle
Station contained only cottonseed meal and salt. Cattle supplied
this mixture for an extended period did not go to the mineral
box, and there resulted a deficiency of calcium, phosphorus,
and minor elements. Replacing 5 to 10 percent of common salt,
depending on the average daily intake, with an equal amount of
a complete mineral mixture corrected this. Giving cattle access
to a cottonseed meal-salt-complete mineral feed in a self-feeder
(Figure 14) has been practiced with good results for several
years by many Florida cattlemen. A satisfactory starting
formula with many herds is: 75 parts of a 41 percent cottonseed
meal or other high protein meal, 15 to 20 parts salt, and 5 to 10
parts of a complete mineral mixture. The salt regulates protein
intake, and the complete mineral insures that animals obtain
sufficient calcium, phosphorus, and minor elements to meet their
needs. Cattle consume more of this feed as they become ac-
customed to it, but the total intake can be controlled by chang-































-

Figure 14.-Commercial herd of cattle at a cottonseed meal-salt-mineral
self feeder. (Courtesy W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station)

ing the ratio of cottonseed meal and salt in the mixture. The
higher the level of salt, the less total protein supplement con-
sumed. Thus, the level of salt can be increased or decreased,
depending upon the daily protein supplement needs of the cattle.
Intake of the mineral-protein mixture is affected by the
quality of forage available. It is well to remember that feeding
a cottonseed meal-salt-mineral mixture is a supplement to pas-
ture but does not take its place.
The advantages of this method of protein and mineral sup-
plementation outweigh the disadvantages.
Advantages:
1. All animals have an opportunity to obtain protein and
mineral supplements to balance the ration.
2. The mixture can be fed to all classes of cattle.
3. Only a small capital outlay is needed for equipment, since
a movable 6-foot self-feeder with access to both sides will hold
sufficient feed for a herd of 40 to 50 cows for several days.
4. Labor costs of supplemental feeding of cattle are reduced.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Disadvantages:
1. There is added cost of salt to control protein intake.
2. Cattle eat an excess amount of salt, but this is not harm--
ful if there is plenty of clean, fresh water, as well as forage,
available.
3. It is necessary to change the protein-salt-mineral formula
to meet changing weather and pasture feed conditions. Con-
sumption over a 2-week period (or longer) gives a more accurate
record of average intake than the amount eaten from day-to-
day.
Table 14 gives a summary of the mineral elements which
may be deficient under Florida conditions. It also summarizes
deficiency symptoms, supplemental sources of the minerals, and
levels to use.

EFFECT OF SALT CONTENT OF WATER
ON CATTLE PERFORMANCE

Sea water contains about 36,000 ppm or about 3.6 percent
of its weight as dissolved salts (4). In Florida some wells may
penetrate submerged lakes which at one time were thought to
have been connected with the sea. Other sources of water, par-
ticularly near coastal areas, have mingled with sea water in
various proportions. These are usually referred to as brackish
waters. As the salt content in the water increases, the cattle
consume less of high salt mineral mixtures. This means the
salt level in the mineral mixture needs to be decreased, or even
eliminated, if the salt content in the water is too high. Other-
wise, cattle consume too little mineral and thus develop phos-
phorus, copper, cobalt, and possibly other mineral deficiencies.
Adequate experimental evidence is lacking concerning the
level of salt in water which may be tolerated by beef cattle in
Florida. Workers at the Everglades Station where salt contami-
nation occurs frequently in surrounding areas have found that
water containing less than 1,000 ppm of total salts will usually
not affect mineral consumption. When the level is about 1,500
ppm, the effect on mineral intake is variable, and when it is in
excess of 2,000 ppm, mineral intake is often limited. Additional
information on this subject is available at the Oklahoma (4)
and South Dakota (3) stations.







Minerals for Beef Cattle ih Florida


Cattlemen who have low mineral consumption and suspect
a high salt content in the water should have their water supply
analyzed. If the salt level is too high, it may necessitate the
following course of action: 1, Decrease or eliminate entirely the
salt content in the mineral mixture in order to encourage the
cattle to consume more phosphorus, cobalt, copper, and other
mineral elements; 2, improve the palatability of the mineral
mixture; and 3, obtain a source of water containing less salt
for the cattle.

MINERAL FEEDERS FOR CATTLE

Properly formulated supplements are of benefit to cattle
only if they are available at all times in a fresh, dry form.
Figures 15 to 21 illustrate most of the designs of feeders and
methods of constructing feeders in Florida. No aspect of cattle
management is more often neglected than the establishment of
a routine weekly inspection of mineral feeders. The following
should be checked with regard to the mineral feeder:

1. Does the height of the feeder box above the ground keep
calves from being able to reach the supplement? If so, the de-
sign of the mineral feeder may be at fault. If it is a portable
feeder, it may need to be moved to level ground. Permanently
located feeders may need concrete or limerock placed around
their base. Hanging feeders must be moved frequently if a
hard-surface area is not constructed under the feeder.

2. Does the feeder protect the mineral supplement from loss
by wind or rain and cracks in the bottom of the box? If not, it
should be repaired. The short life of all types of mineral feeders
usually is due to a lack of maintenance. Mineral supplements
are corrosive to metal; consequently, good judgement dictates
regular replacement of rusted nails and use of protective coating
on metal parts that come into contact with mineral supplements.

3. Are the cattle using the feeder? If not, what is the cause?
If the boxes are found to be full, the cause may be:
(a) Pasture forage is supplying ample mineral elements.
(b) Feeder is located in an area not being grazed.
(c) Mineral supplement has become inedible because of caking,
mold, manure contamination, or other spoilage.







Table 14.-A Summary on the Mineral Elements Which May be Deficient in Florida Forages.


Element
Calcium






Phosphorus






Sodium
chloride
(salt)


Iron




Copper


Gross Deficiency Symptoms
Poor growth and bone develop-
ment, lowered milk production.
Not apt to be deficient on im-
proved pasture properly fer-
tilized. May be lacking in high
concentrate rations or poor
native range.

Poor utilization of feed, slow
growth, low milk production,
abnormal appetite (as chew-
ing bones), bones fragile and
easily broken, stiffness, poor
calves, reproductive failure,
and general weakness of body.

Marked salt hunger, loss of
appetite, weight loss, and
breakdown of body functions.


Low hemoglobin (anemia).




Anemia, depraved appetite,
severe scouring, loss in weight,
moves with difficulty, hair coat
fades, and fragile bones.

Anemia, loss of appetite and
flesh, rough hair coat, repro-
ductive failure.


Usual Supplemental Source
Defluorinated phosphate, dical-
cium phosphate, and steamed
bonemeal.




Defluorinated phosphate, dical-
cium phosphate, steamed bone-
meal, and phosphoric acid.




Common salt.



Red oxide of iron, ferrous sul-
fate, and ferrous carbonate.



Copper sulfate (bluestone),
copper oxide, and copper car-
bonate.


Cobalt sulfate, cobalt car-
bonate, and cobalt oxide.


Recommendations for
Mature Beef Cattle
0.30 to 0.35 percent calcium in
dry ration (16 to 25 pounds
per year).



0.20 to 0.30 percent phosphorus
in dry ration (12 to 17 pounds
per year).



0.5 percent of salt in dry ra-
tion (24 to 36 pounds per
year). (Water with a high
salt content reduces salt in-
take.)

3 percent of red oxide of iron
in mineral mixture for mineral
soil and 1 percent on organic
soil (0.70 of pound of iron per
year).

3 percent of copper sulfate in
mineral mixture for organic
soil and 0.6 percent on mineral
soil (0.2 to 1.2 pounds copper
sulfate per year).

0.12 percent cobalt sulfate in
mineral mixture (22 grams of
cobalt sulfate per year).


Cobalt








Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Figure 15.-Permanent mineral feeder constructed of concrete for dur-
ability under feedlot conditions. Roof is made of treated lumber and
aluminum or galvanized metal. A slab of concrete around the feeder is
essential. The height of the mineral compartment should be less than 18"
for calves and 24" for yearling or older cattle. (Courtesy V. E. Whitehurst
and Sons, Williston, Florida)


Et


Figure 16.-Wind-controlled mineral feeder constructed of galvanized
metal with a fiberglass-coated wooden stationary two-compartment tray.
These are designed to keep the closed side to the wind to eliminate waste
from wind and rain. Because holes develop in the ground around perma-
nently installed feeders, the feeder stand may be made portable as shown
in Figure 18. (Courtesy C. E. Fenton, Arcadia, Florida)


i rikl~i;~ .-p
I: c


r

~~s r:
~;oc


r.~r X:







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


(d) Mineral supplement is not properly formulated; a change
should be made after checking soil, plant, and water an-
alyses.

If the boxes are found to be empty, the cause may be:
(a) Negligence or error in putting out mineral regularly.
(b) Need for more frequent filling of the feeder.


Figure 17.-Wind controlled two-compartment mineral feeder con-
structed of fiberglass and mounted on portable steel stand. This box has
the advantages of being resistant to deterioration, easily portable, and
light in weight. A ball bearing in the portable stand permits rotation of
the feeder so that its back is always to the wind. The light-weight stand
may need to be anchored to the ground or made heavier if used to feed
bulls. (Courtesy of C. E. Fenton, Arcadia, Florida)


:;1W~k;l.ci~,i~,~iiri~'ee*Plau~auoh;s ~JBEe r-:







Minerals for Beef Cattle in I','i ;,Il.


(c) Inadequate size of the feeder. This is dictated by the number
of cattle to be fed at one time. When mineral supplements
are mixed with protein supplements or other concentrates
for self-feeding, a long feeder with a large capacity is
needed (see Figures 22 and 23).


Figure 18.-Example of a base that will allow a mineral box to be
portable. This base weighs approximately 200 to 250 pounds and is con-
structed from a used tire, reinforcement rod, concrete, and a 2-inch pipe.
(Courtesy Everglades Experiment Station)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 19.-One method of hanging a mineral box so that it will with-
stand severe abuse from cattle. A %-inch flexible cable hung from a cross
beam will allow the box to turn with the wind but be flexible when rubbed
by cows or bulls. (Courtesy U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida)



(d) Inadequate number of feeders. Feeders should be spaced at
intervals of less than mile and be adequate in number
for the stocking capacity of the pasture.

(e) Improper location of feeders. Feeders will be used more
frequently by cattle if they are located near water tanks,
shaded loafing areas, back-rubbers, and areas of best graz-
ing. They should be located on dry ground accessible to
trucks for checking and servicing throughout the year.



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Proper mineral supplementation of beef cattle is very im-
portant for maximum beef production. Mineral needs will vary
considerably, depending on many factors which are discussed
herein. The mineral elements apt to be lacking under Florida
conditions are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, copper,-







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


cobalt, and iron. Mineral mixtures to supply these elements for
sand and muck soils have been recommended. The problem of
excess molybdenum in muck soils and how to counteract its
effect on cattle is discussed. Excess salts in water, which occur
in parts of Florida, decrease mineral consumption unless the salt


Figure 20.-Hanging mineral feeder which is constructed of fiberglass.
This type may be suspended by a nylon rope from a tree branch or from
a crossbeam mounted on posts. It turns with the wind, is almost inde-
structible, and is easily moved. (Courtesy W. W. Scott, Jacksonville,
Florida)






Foricia Agricultural Experiment Stations


iB~ii~I


Figure 21.-Portable wooden mineral feeder used for several years at
Range Cattle Experiment Station. Plan 313 showing construction details
and bill of materials for a similar box 8 feet wide is available from Exten-
sion Agricultural Engineer, Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Gaines-
ville, Florida. (Courtesy Range Cattle Station, Ona, Florida)


















Figure 22.-Portable feeder for self-fed supplemental protein mixtures
(oil meal and minerals). All parts of this feeder are metal except the
minerals compartment, which should be made of wood or fiberglass. (Cour-
tesy C. E. Fenton, Arcadia, Florida)







Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida


Figure 23.-Portable feeder for self-feeding protein-mineral mixtures.
This feeder is made of lumber. It is designed to hold a three to four day
supply and to accommodate a large number of cows and/or calves at one
time. (Courtesy Peace River Ranch, Zolfo Springs, Florida)

content is adjusted in the mineral mixture. This problem is
discussed and recommendations made on how to handle it. Salt
can be used to control protein supplement intake by cattle.
Suggestions have been made on salt levels to use. Data have
been presented on the mineral composition of Florida feeds and
mineral supplements. Information is also given on blood and
liver values of minerals to use as a guide in determining whether
a deficiency may exist. Mineral feeders are also shown which
may be used under Florida conditions.


LITERATURE CITED
1. Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, G. K. Davis, and R. W.
Kidder. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle. Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations Bulletin 513-R. 1957.
2. Chapman, H. L., Jr., and R. W. Kidder. Copper and cobalt for beef
cattle. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 674. 1964.
3. Embry, L. B., M. A. Hoelscher, R. C. Wahlstrom, C. W. Carlson, L. M.
Krista, W. R. Brosz, G. F. Gastler, and 0. E. Olson. Salinity and live-
stock water quality. South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station
Bulletin 481. 1959.
4. Heller, V. G. The effect of saline and alkaline waters on domestic
animals. Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 217.
1933.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


5. "--Se, Bo-Se, and Mu-Se." Technical bulletin. H. C. Burns Co.,
1122 East 8th Street, Oakland, California. 1960.
6. National Research Council Publication 579. Nutrient requirements
of beef cattle. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. 1958.
7. National Research Council Publication 824. The fluorosis problem in
livestock production. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
1960.
8. Oldfield, J. E., O. H. Muth, and J. R. Schubert. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
& Med. 103:799. 1960.
9. Shirley, R. L. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations unreported
data. 1963.
10. Smith, W. H., W. M. Beeson, T. W. Perry, R. B. Harrington, and M. T.
Mohler. Effect of zinc, cobalt and injectable iron on the performance
of fattening steers. Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station Cattle
Feeders Day Report. April 26. 1963.
11. Wise, M. B., and E. R. Barrick. Influence of added zinc and calcium
on performance of steers fed an all-concentrate ration. North Carolina
Agricultural Experiment Station A. H. Series No. 85. 1963.








ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This bulletin is a summary of a great many experiments con-
ducted by many scientists at the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station. Their names are too numerous to mention. Great-
ful acknowledgment is given, however, to all of them for their
outstanding contributions toward increasing the knowledge of
mineral nutrition in Florida.




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