• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 I. Nutritional anemia or "salt...
 II. Paces, lime-hided, marsh sickness,...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida - no. 699
Title: Mineral malnutrition in cattle
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027751/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mineral malnutrition in cattle
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 54 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
Henderson, J. R
Leighty, R. B
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Nutritionally induced diseases in animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Deficiency diseases in domestic animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 51-54.
Statement of Responsibility: R.B. Becker, J.R. Henderson, R.B. Leighty.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027751
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929284
oclc - 18361928
notis - AEP0062

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    I. Nutritional anemia or "salt sick" of cattle: A deficiency of iron, copper, cobalt, or some combination
        Page 5
        Review of literature
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Plan of investigation
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Results
            Page 9
            Field survey and field trials
                Page 9
            Cooperative feeding trials
                Page 10
                Were calcium or phosphorus lacking?
                    Page 10
                Iron as a causative deficiency
                    Page 11
                    Page 12
                    Page 13
                    Page 14
                    Page 15
                Copper with iron for anemic cattle
                    Page 16
            Bonemeal, copper, and cobalt, without iron
                Page 17
                Page 18
            Effects of salt sick on the body
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Composition of forages from healthy and affected ranges
                Page 21
                Page 22
            Soil composition with relation to cattle thrift
                Page 23
            Changing the range
                Page 24
            Nutritional anemia and reproduction
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
            Hay for controlled feeding trials
                Page 28
            Controlled feeding trials
                Page 29
                Cobalt, an essential nutrient
                    Page 30
                Controlled cobalt trials
                    Page 31
            Field trials with cobalt
                Page 32
            Cobalt content of pasture forages
                Page 33
            Cobalt content of soils
                Page 34
        Discussion
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Recommended supplements
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Conclusions
            Page 40
    II. Paces, lime-hided, marsh sickness, and falling disease
        Page 41
        Review of literature
            Page 41
        Plan of investigation
            Page 42
            Field observations and autopsies
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
            Soil relationships
                Page 47
            Correction or prevention
                Page 48
        Summary and conclusions
            Page 49
        Acknowledgements
            Page 50
        Literature cited
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Back Cover
        Page 55
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




BULLETIN 699 (TECHNICAL)
OCTOBER 1965











\y,/




MINERAL MALNUTRITION IN CATTLE

R. B. BECKER, J. R. HENDERSON, R. B. LEIGHTY

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J. R. BECKENBACH, DIRECTOR


Milking cows soon learn to seek mineral supplement, when offered in palatable form.


S. ;~~+,












MINERAL MALNUTRITION IN CATTLE


I. Nutritional Anemia or "Salt Sick"

II. Paces, Lime-Hided, Marsh Sickness, and
Falling Disease


R. B. Becker, J. R. Henderson, and R. G. Leighty


Becker: Dairy Husbandman Emeritus, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations

Henderson: Agronomist, Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Leighty: Associate Soil Surveyor, Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations








CONTENTS

Page
I. NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA OR "SALT SICK" OF CATTLE
A Deficiency of Iron, Copper, Cobalt, or some Combination ..................... 5
REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................. ....... ......... ............ 5
PLAN OF INVESTIGATION ..................... ................ 7
RESULTS ........... ........ ................................................................... 9
Field Survey and Field Trials .................. ... .. .. ............ 9
Cooperative Feeding Trials ............ ..... ... ...... .......... .........10
Were Calcium or Phosphorus Lacking? ........................................10
Iron as a Causative Deficiency ................... ............ .. .....-.......-11
Copper with Iron for Anemic Cattle .............. .......................16
Bonemeal, Copper, and Cobalt, without Iron ...............................17
Effects of Salt Sick on the Body ...........................................19
Composition of Forages from Healthy and Affected Ranges ...............21
Soil Composition with Relation to Cattle Thrift .............................23
Changing the Range ...................... ...... -............. 24
Nutritional Anemia and Reproduction ..................-.......- -..........25
Hay for Controlled Feeding Trials .. .. ........... ............ ................... 28
Controlled Feeding Trials .. ..... ..... ................................... 29
Cobalt, an Essential Nutrient ...... ........... ... ........ ........... 30
Controlled Cobalt Trials ............. ......... ............-.....31
Field Trials with Cobalt ................. ....... ....... ..........32
Cobalt Content of Pasture Forages ........................................33
Cobalt Content of Soils ................. ......... .... ..... ...34
DISCUSSION ........... ... ..... ....................... 35
RECOMMENDED SUPPLEMENTS .................................... .........37
CON CLU SION S ............ ............... ...... ...... .....................40


II. PACES, LIME-HIDED, MARSH SICKNESS,
AND FALLING DISEASE ........ .................... ....................41
REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........ ............. ............ ..41
PLAN OF INVESTIGATION ........................... ..............- ......... 42
Field Observations and Autopsies ..................... ...................... 43
Soil Relationships ......... ........ .......... .. ....- ....47
Correction or Prevention .......................... ..............48
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .................. ... ..................49
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -------....... --------.... ------..-50
LITERATURE CITED ----...........-------- ----------51








I. Nutritional Anemia, or "Salt Sick" in Cattle

A Deficiency of Iron, Copper,
Cobalt, or Some Combination


"Salt Sick" was reported in Florida as early as 1872 (31)1.
The report indicated that in Orange County it was being attrib-
uted to a deficiency of phosphates in the grass. In Levy County,
"cattle began to look badly in September, after the wet season
and high water of August, and nearly one-third died." The con-
dition was known by various local names, but was recognized
generally as salt sick. It has been investigated in Florida at inter-
vals since 1888. Cattle developed an anemia on certain soil areas
in the days of open range. It was not possible, before use of min-
eral supplement, to maintain a herd on many fenced lands due to
losses. Owners learned from experience that affected cattle re-
covered when changed to certain other ranges. Such recovery areas
became known locally as hospital farms. Several were fenced during
open range days, and rent was charged for placing affected cattle
there to recover.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Maxwell (45) autopsied a 13-month-old animal at death in
1888. It was emaciated and unable to stand. The muscles were
wasted, pale, and bloodless, with little adipose tissue. The digestive
tract was almost empty, and fecal matter hardened. The liver was
enlarged and pale, the spleen atrophied and shriveled, and the
parenchymous tissue dark colored. Maxwell believed the symptoms
resembled southern cattle fever in some respects.
Bitting (19) reported from observations in 1892-1893 that the
affected cattle grazed unwholesome vegetation in some drying
swamps and lake beds.
Iron deficiency was demonstrated first among cattle on native
ranges in central Florida in 1901 by Stockbridge et al. (60), who
established a field laboratory on land owned by Ennis near Nar-
coossee. The soils were predominately Pomello and Leon fine sands.
French (33) assembled affected cattle, and made autopsies. Critical
cases confined in pens were treated with 1/6 ounce of iron sulfate
1Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








I. Nutritional Anemia, or "Salt Sick" in Cattle

A Deficiency of Iron, Copper,
Cobalt, or Some Combination


"Salt Sick" was reported in Florida as early as 1872 (31)1.
The report indicated that in Orange County it was being attrib-
uted to a deficiency of phosphates in the grass. In Levy County,
"cattle began to look badly in September, after the wet season
and high water of August, and nearly one-third died." The con-
dition was known by various local names, but was recognized
generally as salt sick. It has been investigated in Florida at inter-
vals since 1888. Cattle developed an anemia on certain soil areas
in the days of open range. It was not possible, before use of min-
eral supplement, to maintain a herd on many fenced lands due to
losses. Owners learned from experience that affected cattle re-
covered when changed to certain other ranges. Such recovery areas
became known locally as hospital farms. Several were fenced during
open range days, and rent was charged for placing affected cattle
there to recover.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Maxwell (45) autopsied a 13-month-old animal at death in
1888. It was emaciated and unable to stand. The muscles were
wasted, pale, and bloodless, with little adipose tissue. The digestive
tract was almost empty, and fecal matter hardened. The liver was
enlarged and pale, the spleen atrophied and shriveled, and the
parenchymous tissue dark colored. Maxwell believed the symptoms
resembled southern cattle fever in some respects.
Bitting (19) reported from observations in 1892-1893 that the
affected cattle grazed unwholesome vegetation in some drying
swamps and lake beds.
Iron deficiency was demonstrated first among cattle on native
ranges in central Florida in 1901 by Stockbridge et al. (60), who
established a field laboratory on land owned by Ennis near Nar-
coossee. The soils were predominately Pomello and Leon fine sands.
French (33) assembled affected cattle, and made autopsies. Critical
cases confined in pens were treated with 1/6 ounce of iron sulfate
1Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


daily or twice a week, and recovered. French placed a mixed supple-
ment in boxes to which cattle had free access and noted that mainly
yearlings and nursing cows used the supplement. A change of staff
occurred before findings were published. French (33) gave the
senior author photographs and statements in 1929 concerning his
earlier work.
State Veterinarian C. F. Dawson succeeded French on the
Florida Agricultural College staff and was located at Lake City.
He prescribed an iron compound for anemic cattle near DeFuniak
Springs, and reported they were improving (30). Dawson believed
at first that the symptoms of salt sick resembled in part those of
cattle tick fever. Later he suspected that hookwork infestation
perhaps was the causative agent and nutritional insufficiency a
contributing factor. Dawson used and recommended three tonic
formulas:
Formula 1 Formula 2
"Carbonate or sulfate of iron 3 ounces 4 ounces
Bicarbonate of soda 3 ounces .......
Pulverized ginger root 3 ounces .....
Powdered capsicum 1 ounce
Gentian ............. 4 ounces
Common salt ................ 4 ounces
Fenugreek ............... 4 ounces
Formula 3
Fluid extract of ginger 31/2 ounces
Fluid extract of gentian 31/2 ounces
Fluid extract of capsicum 11/2 ounces
Nux vomica 3 drachms
The above amounts were used for four days feeding with adult
cattle, or eight days for yearlings. A salt lick for free access on
ranges, in a sheltered place, was:
Sulfate of iron 1 part
Common salt 4 parts
Bicarbonate of soda 2 parts
Plaster of paris 4 parts

The mixture was to be moistened to the consistency of coarse sand.
A cooperator of Dawson's mentioned later that his treated calf
recovered from hookworms but died of salt sick despite use of the
third tonic.
Shealy (58) re-opened the investigation of salt sick in 1925.
An affected cow recovered when supplied feeds, including cotton-
seed meal and bonemeal, purchased on the market. He concluded
that the condition was independent of internal parasitism and
probably was a mineral deficiency. Five borrowed animals were








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Figure 1.-A typical salt sick cow which W. E. French, V. S., observed and cor-
rected with ferrous sulfate at the Narcoossee field laboratory in
1901. Leon and Pomello fine sands predominated on the local
ranges. Photograph by H. Harold Hume.

given a balanced feed. They recovered and were returned to the
owners. One cow is shown in Figures 2 and 3.
Facilities and personnel were expanded in 1929. A new plan
was drafted, based on previous work, to investigate any possible
relationship with calcium carbonate, monobasic sodium phosphate,
an iron compound, common salt, and possibly other compounds
used separately.


PLAN OF INVESTIGATION
The investigation, as approved in February 1929, was divided
into two parts.
A. A field survey was made to determine where, when, how, and
with what animals salt sick occurred. This information was gath-
ered from experienced cattlemen, county agricultural agents,
vocational agricultural teachers, and veterinarians in areas where








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


F T



Ml N !- 1^





Figure 2.-Side view of salt sick cow loaned to Dr. A. L. Shealy in 1925-26.
She had pastured on a Blanton and Scranton fine sand soil area.

cattle developed the condition. Control areas were located likewise
for comparisons. Forage samples were plucked systematically
representing those areas grazed by cattle. Corresponding soil
samples were collected with the cooperation of Bryan (20) and
later with Henderson (11, 36) for analysis and identification of the
soil types. Because of changed classifications (34), soil types were
re-identified in 1965.
Single mineral compounds, attempting to modify only that part
of the feed intakes, and combinations later, were used locally with
affected cattle. Samples of blood were taken from a marginal ear
vein for hemoglobin determinations with a standardized Dare
hemoglobinometer (27) that read 1000 Dare for 13.74 grams of
hemoglobin. Photographs recorded physical appearance of the
cattle.
B. Controlled feeding trials were conducted with Jersey male
calves from the Station herd. They were fed whole milk, dried
skimmilk powder, ground or shelled white corn grown on an
Arredondo fine sand on the Station farm, and Natalgrass hay from
Farm 2 on a deep Blanton fine sand where cattle had died of salt
sick. The intention was to (a) produce, (b) correct, and (c) prevent
occurrence of the condition under controlled supplementation.







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Figure 3.-The cow (Figure 2) recovered when given feeds grown on different
soils.

Iron supplements were exchanged in 1936 at the suggestion of
B. C. Aston (6) Chief Chemist and in charge of Mamaku Research
Farm, New Zealand. The samples were analyzed spectrographically
by Gaddum (10). The analyses, as reported to Aston in 1936, and
a publication by Underwood and Filmer (63), were the basis for
using cobalt as one of the trace mineral nutrients with cattle in
Florida in controlled feeding (48) and under field conditions
(7, 14, 47).

RESULTS
Field Survey and Field Trials
Field studies of healthy and affected cattle initiated the re-
newed investigations. Symptoms of affected cattle were observed
and compared with those of other animals where the condition
did not occur. Cattle on certain soil areas in 44 Florida counties
showed the symptoms. The same condition occurred on similar
soils along the Atlantic seaboard.
Affected cattle became emaciated and weak, and showed almost
complete loss of appetite. They often refused feeds, preferring
deep-rooted weeds that healthy cattle often refuse. Sometimes


I;~Ylr~b(l~slL







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Figure 3.-The cow (Figure 2) recovered when given feeds grown on different
soils.

Iron supplements were exchanged in 1936 at the suggestion of
B. C. Aston (6) Chief Chemist and in charge of Mamaku Research
Farm, New Zealand. The samples were analyzed spectrographically
by Gaddum (10). The analyses, as reported to Aston in 1936, and
a publication by Underwood and Filmer (63), were the basis for
using cobalt as one of the trace mineral nutrients with cattle in
Florida in controlled feeding (48) and under field conditions
(7, 14, 47).

RESULTS
Field Survey and Field Trials
Field studies of healthy and affected cattle initiated the re-
newed investigations. Symptoms of affected cattle were observed
and compared with those of other animals where the condition
did not occur. Cattle on certain soil areas in 44 Florida counties
showed the symptoms. The same condition occurred on similar
soils along the Atlantic seaboard.
Affected cattle became emaciated and weak, and showed almost
complete loss of appetite. They often refused feeds, preferring
deep-rooted weeds that healthy cattle often refuse. Sometimes


I;~Ylr~b(l~slL







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


there was diarrhea or, on the other hand, the droppings were dry
and hard. Muscles appeared atrophied, and growth became stunted
after about six months of age. Blood became pale in color and low
in volume. The hemoglobin content sometimes dropped to one-
half or less than that of healthy cattle. The pulpy portion of the
spleen parenchymaa) diminished so that connective tissue dom-
inated, and the surface became wrinkled. Liver and kidneys became
pale. Gelatinous material sometimes was present in the kidney
knob. The heart muscle became flabby and lacked tone (Figure 4).
The condition was identified as a nutritional anemia. An advanced
case is seen in Figure 5. Local soils were examined again in 1965
to re-identify them with current classifications (34).


Figure 4.-Effect of nutritional anemia on the heart muscle of an affected
calf. The heart muscle became flabby and lacked tone.


Cooperative Feeding Trials

Were Calcium or Phosphorus Lacking?
Cattle owners in selected areas cooperated in field trials with
affected animals, using supplements provided. Steamed bonemeal
was tried as a corrective with affected cattle on five farms in three
counties. No favorable responses occurred. The blood plasma
samples fell within the range of inorganic phosphorus in blood of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


there was diarrhea or, on the other hand, the droppings were dry
and hard. Muscles appeared atrophied, and growth became stunted
after about six months of age. Blood became pale in color and low
in volume. The hemoglobin content sometimes dropped to one-
half or less than that of healthy cattle. The pulpy portion of the
spleen parenchymaa) diminished so that connective tissue dom-
inated, and the surface became wrinkled. Liver and kidneys became
pale. Gelatinous material sometimes was present in the kidney
knob. The heart muscle became flabby and lacked tone (Figure 4).
The condition was identified as a nutritional anemia. An advanced
case is seen in Figure 5. Local soils were examined again in 1965
to re-identify them with current classifications (34).


Figure 4.-Effect of nutritional anemia on the heart muscle of an affected
calf. The heart muscle became flabby and lacked tone.


Cooperative Feeding Trials

Were Calcium or Phosphorus Lacking?
Cattle owners in selected areas cooperated in field trials with
affected animals, using supplements provided. Steamed bonemeal
was tried as a corrective with affected cattle on five farms in three
counties. No favorable responses occurred. The blood plasma
samples fell within the range of inorganic phosphorus in blood of








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


healthy cattle (13, 46). Four critical salt sick yearlings died
despite free access to feeding grade bonemeal. This eliminated
calcium and phosphorus as major causative elements of nutritional
anemia.

Iron as a Causative Deficiency
Cattle with nutritional anemia were available in several areas
for cooperative feeding trials. A single iron supplement, or a
combination of iron and copper was supplied to the owners for
use as suggested. Responses of the cattle provided early evidence
as to effectiveness in these areas. Conditions of individual animals
were observed before receiving and while receiving one or more
trace mineral nutrients with the local feeds grown in respective
environments. Hemoglobin determinations were made on blood
from a marginal ear vein with a standardized Dare hemoglobino-
meter (27).
Farm 25 was on a Blanton fine sand, clay subsoil at 36 to 48
inches beneath the surface. Wiregrass (Aristida stricta species),
Natalgrass (Rhynchelytrum rose Nees), other mixed grasses, and
waist-high weeds were present in quantity. A 12-year-old cow
that had calved recently was in thin condition and had to be helped
up. She was provided with 2 ounces daily of a 6 percent solution
of ferric ammonium citrate3 after September 22 to supplement her
regular feed. Hemoglobin contents per 100 ml of her blood and
of her calf's follow:


Date Blood Hemoglobin of Cow Blood Hemoglobin of Calf
Sept. 22, 1929 4.81 gm (calf hidden)
Oct. 12 6.18 8.98 gm
Oct. 26 8.24 10.58
Nov. 14 8.24
Dec. 18 11.68 thrifty
Mar. 1, 1930 12.64 thrifty
May 31, 1930 12.37 thrifty


This family cow was 13 years old when last reported. She was in
good condition, and had calved again. Figures 5 through 8 show
progressive changes in physical condition at the initial, second,
fourth, and fifth hemoglobin readings above.
SThis solution supplied .26 to .28 grams of soluble iron (Fe) per fluid
ounce.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 5.-The 12-year-old cow had to be helped up. Her hemoglobin reading
was 4.8 gm per 100 ml of whole blood on September 28, 1929.
The native pasture was mainly on Blanton fine sand.


,i, .... ,^ -

^ ; .y.*.. : .
Y U
Figure 6.-The cow in Figure 5 began to improve when 2 ounces of a 6 per-
cent solution of ferric ammonium citrate was given daily "when
caught." October 12, 1929.


W1I~t ON








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


-^l".<.-*.r




." 'I*-... -*' **"


Figure 7.-Blood of the cow in Figure 5 contained 8.24 gm of hemoglobin
per 100 ml on November 14, 1929. She was recovering in physi-
cal condition.


"-. ., .. "
*-" .;* -


Figure 8.-This cow (from Figure 5) appeared fully recovered on December
18, 1929. Her blood hemoglobin reading was 11.68 gm per 100
ml of whole blood.


4


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. S r. T. *. L S I
/ ky-'-: ,w *yp '', .>


AT


'9








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Farm 26 was on the same sand soil as was Farm 25. A 7-year-
old grade Jersey cow was quite anemic. A 6 percent solution of
ferric ammonium citrate was provided. Her hemoglobin contents
per 100 ml of blood while receiving supplement were:


Date


Blood


Sept. 28, 1929 5
Oct. 12 9
Ferric oxide replaced ferric ammonium citrate solution
Oct. 26 11
Nov. 14 10


Hemoglobin
.50 gm
.76


.27
1.99


Farm 27 was in the same soil area as Farm 25. A 2-year-old
grade Jersey bull was furnished no supplement during the first
month, but 2 ounces daily of ferric ammonium citrate solution was
supplied after October 26, 1929. Blood hemoglobins per 100 ml
were as follows:

Date Blood Hemoglobin
Sept. 29, 1929 7.56 gm
Oct. 26 6.87
Iron supplement was provided
Nov. 14 7.56
Dec. 18 9.89
May 31, 1930 10.99

This animal became less anemic, hair became less rough, and
appetite improved in the first 14 days after iron supplement was
provided. Physical condition improved, and he was recovering by
December 18. By the following May 31 the winter haircoat had
shed, and the bull appeared thrifty.

Farm 41 was on a Blanton fine sand, high phase. The subsoil
was a deep, pale brown sand. Two animals in lowest condition in
the herd were recommended for a daily drench with 6 percent
solution of ferric ammonium citrate. Their hemoglobins per 100 ml
of blood were as follows:


Date
July 21, 1930
Aug. 21


Oct. 7


Blood Hemoglobins
Yearling Jersey bull Grade heifer
7.28 gm 5.77 gm
10.81 8.24
Range was changed for more grass
8.93 13.05


Date








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


While the author was enroute to this farm, a pedestrian was
invited to ride. He told of using Dawson's (30) non-iron tonic
(No. 3 formula) with a salt sick animal. Although the hookworm
treatment was administered, his animal died of salt sick.
Farm 51 was a fenced pasture on Lakeland fine sand. Ferric
ammonium citrate was used as a drench or in drinking water. Blood
hemoglobins were as given below. The Jersey heifer appeared as
shown in Figure 9 on June 13, 1930. Her appetite and condition
improved with the iron supplement, but she broke into a sweet
corn field and died of bloat.


Blood Hemoglobin per 100 ml
Animal May 16, 1930 June 13 July 25
Brindle yearling 6.87 gm 9.62 gm 14.43 gm
Yellow yearling 6.18 12.37 10.99
Brown 2-year-old 7.28 10.31 10.31
White face 10.99 11.68 10.99
Red 2-year-old 10.31 10.99 10.58
Jersey heifer (Figure 9) ........ 3.44t ......
Average 8.38 10.99 11.40
t-This reading is omitted from the average as her blood was read only on June 13.





-










\-. y" -





Figure 9.-An advanced case of salt sick on Farm 51. Blood hemoglobin was
3.44 gm per 100 ml of whole blood. The local soil was Lake-
land fine sand.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Farm 63 Cattle ranged on Lakeland fine sand and were
moved to fenced fields for winter grazing. A darker sand subsoil
occurred at various depths on the fenced field but did not extend
up to the surface. On parts of the area salamanders brought up a
little pale yellow sand along with the dominant white and gray
surface sand. The soil chemist (20) stated that this subsoil con-
tained traces of copper. The latter mineral nutrient had been found
by Wisconsin workers (32, 35) to contribute to iron utilization for
hemoglobin synthesis. Allison, et al. (3) had found in 1925 that
low copper limited growth of certain vegetables on Everglades
muck. These clues indicated a possibility that some cattle might
need copper also.
The owner had lost some animals each winter and stated that
some thin ones then living would not survive. Ferric oxide (No. 61
red oxide of iron) was supplied to be mixed with common salt for
free access. None of these cattle died during that winter. Some
may not have been as fat on January 27 as on October 8 (or at
least were not fatter), yet all were alert, rugged, and in good
physical condition. A number of thrifty calves were dropped in
December and January. Hemoglobins per 100 ml of whole blood
were as follows:

Hemoglobin per 100 ml of Blood
Animal Oct. 8, 1930 Nov. 11 Jan. 27, 1931
Red 4-year-old 12.78 gm 15.80 gm 14.84 gm
Bobtail 7.56 13.74 13.74
Yellow yearling 10.31 14.43 16.49
Brindle yearling 8.93 11.40 13.74
Brown spotted yearling 10.58 12.64 12.92
Fawn 2-year-old 7.83 13.19 15.11
Small yearling 8.52 12.37 calved on pasture
Betty, old cow 8.93 13.60 15.11
Average hemoglobin 9.34 13.19 14.56


Copper with Iron for Anemic Cattle
Farm 65 furnished the most direct evidence, on a Pomello fine
sand, that copper as well as iron was needed by cattle. The soil
was light in color, underlaid deeply with an organic hardpan.
Palmetto and wiregrass had been replaced with carpetgrass pasture,
to which phosphate fertilizer had been applied. Nine animals died
of salt sick on this farm in the previous winter. Two home-mixed








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


mineral supplements were used for several months in the summer
of 1930. These formulas were:

Bonemeal 100 Ibs. 50 lbs.
Common salt 300 100
Ferric oxide 30 25
Copper sulfate 1 1

The supply of copper sulfate was used up and not replaced for
6 weeks or longer. When the farm was visited on October 31, 1930,
a calf had died recently. Three others were anemic and two were
declining in condition. Copper sulfate (52) was restored to the
supplement and has not been omitted since that time.

Blood Hemoglobin per 100 ml
Animal October 21, 1930 December 16
Male 6.87 gms 10.03 gms
B-2 7.28 12.92
D-11 11.27 12.23
D-31 10.31 10.31t
E-15 5.91 13.74
Average hemoglobin 8.24 11.82
t-This animal was separate, where it did not receive supplement.

Pictures were taken of E-15 on October 21, December 16, and
March 27. They are shown in Figures 10, 11, and 12. It was
theorized from results on this farm and other less complete obser-
vations that iron supplement alone tended to accentuate the
anemia when copper also was deficient. Recovery was rapid when
both mineral nutrients were supplied.
Since either iron or copper, or both, could be deficient, a solution
of 1/2 pound of ferric ammonium citrate and 10 grams of copper
sulfate per gallon of water was supplied to later cooperators for
administration as a drench for advanced cases of anemia. The
allowances were at the rate of 2 or 3 fluid ounces for a calf, and
6 fluid ounces for yearlings or older animals.



Bonemeal, Copper, and Cobalt, Without Iron
Inadequacy of a non-iron mineral supplement was observed
with a large group of range cattle pasturing on a low grade Leon
fine sand area. The mineral tag indicated that it contained steamed








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 10.-Heifer E-15 had a blood hemoglobin of 5.9 gm per 100 ml of
whole blood on October 21, 1930. Administration of ferric am-
monium citrate and copper sulfate (50 Fe : 1 Cu) was started. The
soil was a Pomello fine sand.

bonemeal, copper sulfate, cobalt carbonate, aluminum sulfate and
salt. The supplement was grayish white in color, indicating again
that iron was not included. The cattle had declined in nutritional
condition. Some had just begun to shed the harsh dead hair on
the neck and withers when seen on October 12, 1942. If they had
been in good nutritional condition, the old haircoat would have
been shed earlier. The ranch foreman was separating cows from
heifer calves to be weaned and was conscious of their poor appear-
ance. He commented to the county agent and four strangers on
the corral fence, "I don't see why they haven't shed earlier.
I drenched them twice last winter."
The drench consisted of 1/2 pound of ferric ammonium citrate,
10 grams of copper sulfate, and 10 grams of cobalt sulfate in a
gallon of water. Yearlings received 6 fluid ounces for a dose, and
calves got one-half as much. Two drenches would have provided
1.56 to 1.68 grams of soluble iron for a yearling and one-half that
amount for a calf. From the response by this large group of
cattle, it appeared that shortage of iron in the presence of adequate
copper and cobalt had a depressing effect such as was observed








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Figure 11.-The hemoglobin of E-15's blood on December 15, 1930, was 13.74
gm per 100 ml. The supply of copper sulfate became exhausted.
After about 6 weeks, E-15 and two other calves declined in condi-
tion. The copper was restored, and not omitted again. This was
the first animal to prove the need of copper by cattle on a sand
soil under field conditions.

during the controlled feeding trials (48) in 1936-37, when cobalt
was lacking in the presence of sufficient copper and iron.



Effects of Salt Sick on the Body
Autopsies of animals sacrificed showed that salt sick was
independent of parasitism as a major causative factor, although
infestation accentuated the condition. The hair often became harsh
and dull. Blood volume on bleeding appeared low, with a sub-
normal hemoglobin content and a low volume of red corpuscles in
whole blood. Muscle tissues were atrophied and pale in advanced
cases; liver and kidneys were pale.
The condition differed from cattle tick fever in that the spleen
was shriveled and low in proportion of parenchyma to connective
tissue. Gelatinous infiltration replaced much of the fat about the
kidneys. Animals lost their appetites in the advanced stage. Death








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


often occurred of inanition. Hemoglobin readings were taken of
affected cattle in 39 herds in 1929-31. The lowest reading was of
1.37 grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of whole blood in a calf that
died. The lowest reading with an animal that recovered was 3.02
grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood. A single reading was
obtained with some cattle, while 6 or 7 readings were taken
at about monthly intervals with others.
Responses of anemic cattle to iron or to iron-and-copper
supplement were:

Number of Hemoglobin per 100 ml of
Animals Whole Blood (average)
Visibly anemic 87 8.28 gm
After receiving supplement 1 month 87 10.61 gm
No longer anemic 79 11.55 gm

Hemoglobin determinations in the cooperative field trials were
tabulated for cattle (49). Those of salt sick cattle shortly before
death, and of healthy animals in the same herds, were assembled
for comparison. Hemoglobin determinations of cattle on healthy
soil areas also are shown in Table 1.


Figure 12.-E-15 was recovered fully on Farm 65 by March 27, 1931. She re-
produced and become a normal cow in the milking herd.








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Table 1.-Hemoglobin contents of blood from cattle on iron, or iron-and-copper
deficient pastures in comparison with those of cattle on other healthy
soil areas.
Number Hemoglobin per 100 ml of Blood
of Standard
Age Group Animals Range Mean deviation
grams grams grams
Healthy cattle
Calves 2 9.62-13.74 11.68
Yearlings 28 10.72-16.49 13.34 1.37
Over 2 years old 4 11.68-14.43 13.57
Salt sick animals in same herds
Calves 12 3.02- 9.62 5.92 1.62
Yearlings 96 3.44-13.05 8.38 2.05
Over 2 years old 34 4.81-13.19 9.04 2.41
Over 12 years old 2 .............. 4.81
Salt sick animals shortly before death
Calves 9 1.37- 9.62 4.49 2.80
Yearlings 7 3.44-12.37 6.62 2.58
Normal cattle from soil areas where nutritional anemia did not occur
Jackson and Leon Counties, Florida
Cows 20 10.99-16.49 14.61 1.45
Cows 52 9.09-14.20 11.06 1.40
Ramsey County, Minnesota
Yearlings 7 11.40-16.49 14.58 1.68
Lawrence County, Pennsylvania
Calves 3 11.68-15.39 14.06
Yearlings 4 12.37-15.11 13.47
Cows 39 10.99-16.49 12.68 1.36
t-Hemoglobin determinations were made on fresh blood by the Dare method (27).

Calves past the stage of fetal storage (5 to 12 months), year-
lings, and young cows after first calving were affected with
nutritional anemia more often than other cattle. Bulls and steers
were affected less frequently than females, whose reserves were
withdrawn for fetal development. The condition was more common
during the fall and winter months on mature forages. Affected
animals tended to recover when grazing young green vegetation.
Cattle were subject to the condition when allowed to graze only
on white and gray sand soil areas.


Composition of Forages from
Healthy and Affected Ranges

When salt sick was found to be a nutritional anemia, by re-
sponses of cattle to iron and iron-and-copper supplementation,
samples of wiregrass (mostly Aristida stricta) were plucked for








22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

analysis at monthly intervals from March to July 1930. Cattlemen
had reported that affected animals recovered more rapidly while
grazing on new burns in the early spring. Samples were from
adjacent burned and unburned areas, avoiding contamination by
drainage from cultivated lands. These areas were on mineral soils,
not muck soils. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron were
determined on the dry matter basis (50). Proximate analyses also
were made. The variability of copper analyses (55) on identical
samples by methods then available (1930-31) made them less
dependable. Mineral analyses are listed on the dry matter basis in
Table 2.
Young plucked forage contained more mineral nutrients than
older forages from identical areas.

Table 2.-Mineral contents in dry matter of wiregrass plucked in consecutive
months.
Month of Number of
collection samples Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Iron
Percentages
Healthy areas, burned
March 6 .230 .178 .276 .0256
April 6 .221 .167 .231 .0233
May 6 .181 .122 .169 .0240
June 6 .167 .110 .122 .0207
July 6 .142 .095 .106 .0172
Average .... .188 .134 .181 .0222

Salt sick areas, burned
March 7 .153 .132 .221 .0191
April 7 .177 .151 .208- .0184
May 7 .140 .100 .144 .0194
June 7 .129 .090 .117 .0172
July 7 .117 .078 .106 .0143
Average .... .143 .110 .159 .0177

Healthy areas, unburned
March 2 .262 .096 .209 .0196
April 2 .193 .107 .168 .0217
May 2 .190 .108 .171 .0209
June 2 .200 .077 .125 .0177
July 2 .203 .086 .118 .0164
Average .. .210 .095 .158 .0193

Salt sick areas, unburned
March 2 .153 .117 .108 .0165
April 2 .167 .148 .164 .0182
May 2 .114 .086 .102 .0155
June 2 .107 .086 .102 .0218
July 2 .107 .074 .096 .0120
Average .... .130 .102 .114 .0168








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


The crude protein contents (dry matter basis) of wiregrass
decreased from 10.70, 9.26, 6.52, 4.46, to 3.60 percent month by
month on the burned grass areas. Wiregrass from unburned areas
(also plucked samples) ranged in average contents between 4.46
and 2.64 percent crude protein. Ash contents of wiregrass plucked
from the burned areas decreased from 5.24 to 3.12 percent. From
unburned areas, the range was from 3.60 to 2.64 percent.


Soil Composition with Relation to Cattle Thrift
Cattlemen recognized from experience that there were healthy
as well as deficient pastures. Healthy areas, known as hospital
farms, were on heavier loam or clay soils, or with shallow clay
subsoils. Owners changed the range, rented pasture, or fenced
healthy areas for management of the cattle and maximum utiliza-
tion of the more extensive deficient grazing areas.
Four series of soil samples were collected, and correlated with
condition and responses of cattle grazing particular areas. Virgin
soils, not subject to drainage from cultivated fields, were selected
for sampling. The first series, collected in 1929 to 1931 (20),
represented areas on which cattle were healthy. The parallel series
were from areas on which cattle made positive recoveries to iron
or iron-and-copper supplementation. These samples were analyzed
for calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper. The original samples,
or supplemental ones from the same locations, were analyzed later
for acid-soluble cobalt (11).
As field trials continued, other areas were found on which cattle
failed to respond to iron-copper supplement. Cattle grazing on
them recovered when cobalt sulfate was added to the iron-copper
drench or to the iron-copper supplement given ad libitum. Cobalt
sulfate then was added to the commercial mineral supplement,
being recommended in the following proportions:

No. 1 No. 2
(for brackish areas)
Common salt 100 lb. 50 Ib.
Steamed bonemeal ........... 50 lb.
Red oxide of iron 25 lb. 25 lb.
Copper sulfate 1 lb. 1 lb.
Cobalt sulfate 1 oz. 1 oz.
t-Cobalt sulfate was changed later to Vs ounce of cobalt carbonate. It is finely
divided and mixes more evenly into the supplement.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Series 3 and 4 soil samples (11) were taken from areas repre-
senting pastures where cattle responded to cobalt in 1935 and in
1937, respectively. The average compositions of these four series
are given in Table 3.


Table 3.-Mineral nutrient contents of soils on which cattle responded to iron,
or copper and iron, or addition of cobalt to iron-copper supplement,
as compared with soils of healthy areas.
Acid-
Number Soluble
Cattle Responses of Areas Calcium Phosphorus Iron Copper Cobalt
% % % ppm ppmt
Healthy areas 12 .055 .050 .391 7.20 .190
Salt sick areas 18 .033 .014 0.44 3.82 .010
Responded to cobalt addition
Series 3 10 ...... ...... ..... ...... < .002
Series 4 8 ...... ...... ..... ...... .003
t-ppm is parts per million of soil.


Changing the Range
Healthy soils generally contained more calcium, phosphorus,
iron, copper, and acid-soluble cobalt than the average deficient
soils. These varied, some being adequate in one element and low
in another, or in combinations of elements. The soils in Series 3
and Series 4 were analyzed only for acid-soluble cobalt. Six of 10
sampled areas in Series 3 had less than .001 ppm of acid-soluble
cobalt. On two pastures in Series 4 cattle had failed to respond
to a salt-iron-copper sulfate supplement in 1937. These soils
contained .003 ppm or less of acid-soluble cobalt. The cattle on
these areas recovered when cobalt was given in addition to free
access to the salt-iron-copper supplement. See Series 4 in Table 3.
Soils were analyzed representing three situations where change
of the range enabled cattle to recover and thrive. Compositions
of the healthy soils are listed in Table 3, and the corresponding
deficient area soils in Table 4. The first pair were from adjacent
farms. The father, who owned one farm, moved affected cattle
from his deficient fenced pasture (Blanton fine sand) to his son's
healthy pasture in which there was a considerable proportion of
Archer fine sandy loam. This was necessary twice a year.
Deficient cattle on Blanton fine sand were hauled to the
hospital farm on a Ruston fine sandy loam, and rent was paid for







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Table 4.--Comparison of soil composition of healthy and deficient areas used
alternately.
Acid-
Soluble
Pairs Soil Type Phosphorus Iron Copper Cobalt
% % ppm ppm
Healthy 1 Archer fine sand .015 .768 6.46 1.300
Deficient- 1 Blanton fine sand .011 .086 1.50 .016
Healthy 2 Ruston fine sandy loam .005 .232 8.37 .200
Deficient -2 Brighton fine sand .070 .055 2.81 .001
Healthy 3 Felda fine sand .003 .134 11.52 .150
Deficient 3 Average of eight soils ....... ...... ..... .003

4 to 6 weeks. When the animals recovered, they were led or driven
back to the deficient area. Salt sick cattle from several sand ranges
were taken for recovery to the Haw Creek range on Felda fine sand
overlaying a shallow clay subsoil. They soon recovered from salt
sick, but if kept on the area too long, the cattle began to chew
bones. The soil was low in available phosphorus.


Nutritional Anemia and Reproduction
A developing fetus places a heavy demand on the mother to
build the vital organs and blood of the new individual. The liver
in a tiny bovine fetus develops rapidly, constituting about 10 per-
cent of total fetus weight early in gestation. The body catches up in
growth later, so that at parturition the liver may weigh less than
3 percent of the total body (8). The liver functions in iron and
copper metabolism and building blood for the new individual even
at the expense of the mother. Nature provides thus for reserve
storage of certain nutrients to suffice until the calf can obtain them
from supplemental food sources. Milk contains many nutrients for
the newborn calf but is low in iron content. Field observations
confirmed this situation.
Sexual maturity is delayed (12) under some range conditions,
and the percentage calf crop may be low when mineral intakes
are inadequate, even in mixed herds. Camp (21) tabulated the
average calf crop among range herds in Alachua County during the
tick eradication campaign in 1930-31 before use of mineral sup-
plements. It amounted to 34.4 percent on grassy and palmetto flat-
woods areas; 37.1 percent on blackjack oak soils; 54.1 percent on
(wet) prairie pasturage; and 71.6 percent on more fertile hardwood
hammock lands where broadleaf trees thrived.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Cattlemen stated that calves were born normal and healthy
even though their mothers might become salt sick soon after calv-
ing. Instances among cooperators's herds confirmed their obser-
vations. A 12-year-old cow on Farm 25 had calved recently. The
cow was so weak when first seen that she had to be helped up.
Her blood hemoglobin was 4.81 grams per 100 ml of whole blood.
The calf was hidden. The cow was given 2 fluid ounces daily of a
6 percent solution of ferric ammonium citrate. When the calf was
seen 20 days later, its blood had 8.93 grams of hemoglobin, and the
cow 6.18 grams per 100 ml of blood. Cow and calf are seen in
Figure 7, 20 days after first contact.
Farm 6 is on a Blanton, almost a Scranton, fine sand over-
laying a deep sand subsoil. An affected cow was loaned to Shealy
(58) from this farm in 1925 in the condition seen in Figure 2.
When the farm was visited on June 11, 1929, bonemeal was left
for three affected young cattle. They did not take it ad libitum, so
some was placed in their mixed concentrates. Before August 29,
the yearling bull died, and two heifers declined in condition.
Hemoglobin determinations were made on their whole blood, and a
6 percent solution of ferric ammonium citrate was supplied, 3 fluid
ounces to be given to Monkey, then 8 months old. Hemoglobin
concentrations per 100 ml of whole blood and appearances of these
heifers were as shown.

Date Monkey Queen
April 20, 1929 41/2 mo. old 12 mo. old
bonemeal offered
Aug. 29-hemoglobin, gm 6.87 9.62
(ferric ammonium citrate supplied for Monkey)
Sept. 21 13.74 9.21
July 21, 1930 ........ again in thin condition

A picture of Monkey and Queen taken at 41/2 and 12 months of
age, respectively, showed Monkey still in good physical appear-
ance. Fetal storage was about exhausted, as the low hemoglobin
reading indicated. Queen was not supplied iron solution during
that time, and her blood hemoglobin had not increased.
Farm 40. Two heifers were brought from a healthy area in
June 1929 onto a submarginal Leon fine sand palmetto flatwoods.
They were seen early in 1930 when beginning to decline in physical
condition toward anemia. A pound of ferric ammonium citrate was
provided on March 4, 1930 (sufficient for recovery of two animals
for about 30 days); 0.5 pound on April 29, and 1 pound on May 31.







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


This was given in drinking water at about 6 fluid ounces of a 6
percent solution for each animal. This amount was insufficient for
the higher requirements of fetal development. The Brown cow
calved on July 9, and was in thin condition when seen on July 16.
Hemoglobin concentrations per 100 ml of blood of these animals
were as follows:
Date Brown Cow Calf Yellow Cow
March 4, 1930 8.52 gm ........ 10.44 gm
April 4 8.66 ........ 10.99
April 29 10.99 ........ 11.54
May 29 (picture) 10.99 ........ 11.68
July 16 6.87 (thin) 10.99 10.31

Iron-copper supplement did not become available commercially
in Florida until late in 1931. Animals on this fenced pasture were
at a disadvantage. The Brown cow and her calf became salt sick
and died before June 1931. The Yellow cow became extremely
thin and was moved to another soil area to recover. When mineral
supplement containing iron-and-copper became available commer-
cially, it was used widely with cattle on deficient areas, and fewer
reports of anemia were received.
A young calf was needed from a salt sick dam for further re-
search in 1937. Considerable search was necessary, as such animals
seldom were seen in local pastures because mineral supplement
was being used generally. Finally a cow with a reading of 8.45 gm
of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood was located with a 2-day-old
calf that was obtainable. When the body of this calf was analyzed
(53, 54), it was concluded that "a calf from a 'salt sick' dam was
not itself 'salt sick'." This evidence confirmed the earlier reports.
Arnold, et al. (5) divided six open heifers in the Station Jersey
herd into two groups: (a) three received access to bonemeal and
common salt in addition to pasture, corn silage, and limited con-
centrates; (b) three animals were allowed in addition, access to a
supplement comprising 100 parts of common salt, 25 parts of red
oxide of iron, and 1 part of copper sulfate. Estrus cycles became
more regular in the second group. These three heifers were bred
and conceived. Fourteen other heifers, prior to use of the salt-iron-
copper supplement, conceived at an average age of 22 months, 16
days, from 1.9 services per conception. Drinking water of six other
heifers was treated with a solution of ferric ammonium citrate and
copper sulfate. They conceived at 19 months, 1 day, with an
average of 1.5 services per conception. Fifteen heifers having







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


access to the salt-iron-copper supplement from birth conceived
at an average age of 17 months, 2 days, from 1.7 services per
conception. These results are summarized in Table 5.

Table 5.-Reproduction among first-calf dairy heifers on a marginal soil area
with respect to mineral supplementation.
Average
Number Mineral Average Services Average Age Birth Weight
of Heifers Supplement per Conception at Conception of First Calves
yr. mo. days pounds
14 none 1.9 1 10 16 44.3
3 none 1.67 1 5 5 38.7
6 ferric ammonium
citrate and copper
sulfate, in water 1.5 1 7 1 48.3
15 salt-iron-copper
supplement, ad lib. 1.7 1 5 2 53.8$
--These heifers grazed on a marginal iron-copper soil area from soon after concep-
tion until date of calving.
--Average weight of the first nine calves.


Hay for Controlled Feeding Trials

Farm 2 was located with known cattle history from which
Natalgrass hay (51) was obtained for controlled feeding trials.
The owner purchased this farm to raise livestock. While he was
building a fence, neighbors told him that cattle could not be main-
tained on that land if he fenced them in. He bought 14 cows with
yearlings at side, and an Angus bull. Some yearlings were pregnant.
He experienced little difficulty the first year. Twenty-two calves
were born, some prematurely. Two part-Jersey steers were sold
young. Three were fattened with cottonseed meal and corn, and
sold. Only five other calves lived. The herd was fed on native
wiregrass pasture, corn shucks, crabgrass hay, corn stover from
the shock, and Natalgrass hay (Tricholena rosea Nees) produced
on the farm. The cattle declined in condition, and most of them
died. The bull broke out and disappeared. The last animals were
sold to get them off the farm alive. This was the history of cattle
on the fenced land from which Natalgrass hay was purchased for
controlled feeding trials at Gainesville. It was cut when some of
the stalks were in seed but most of them were in bloom.
Soil on Farm 2 was identified as Blanton fine sand. Analysis
later showed this soil to be intermediate in copper content, but
low in acid-soluble cobalt and iron, as shown in Table 6.








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Table 6.-Soil composition on Farm 2 as compared with the averages of mineral
soils from healthy and deficient ranges. Natalgrass hay for con-
trolled feeding trials was produced on Farm 2.
Healthy Deficient Range Areast
Farm 2 Ranges Series 1 Series 2 Series 3
Number of areas 1 13 18 10 8
Phosphorus, percent .018 .447 .014 ......
Iron, percent .065 .391 .044
Copper, ppmt 5.01 7.20 3.82
Acid-soluble cobalt, ppm .011 .190 .010 .002 <.003
t-Soil samples from healthy and Series 1 deficient soils were collected in 1930;
Series 2 and 3 in 1935 and 1937, respectively.
--ppm is parts per million of soil.

Digestibility of the Natalgrass hay was determined with four
steers (51). This particular hay contained 92.5 percent dry matter,
as well as 4.83 percent ash, .59 percent calcium, .31 percent mag-
nesium, and .28 percent phosphorus. It provided .29 percent
digestible crude protein and 48.3 percent total digestible nutrients.
This hay was offered ad libitum as forage for each experimental
animal to consume along with weighed amounts of other feeds.


Controlled Feeding Trials
Male Jersey calves from the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station dairy herd were used in controlled feeding trials. Their
dams had been pastured mainly on a hardwood hammock (margi-
nal to healthy) soil area. The cows received home-mixed concen-
trates and corn or sorghum silages grown on acid Norfolk fine sand
soil. A limited amount of cowpea hay was fed when pastures were
scanty. From 1931, the cows had access to a three-compartment
mineral box containing common salt, steamed bonemeal, and a
trace mineral supplement of 100 pounds common salt, 25 pounds
red oxide of iron, and 1 pound of copper sulfate. One ounce of
cobalt sulfate, or later 0.5 ounce of cobalt carbonate, was added
to the supplement in 1937. Under such feeding practices, the
calves had some fetal storage at birth.
Experimental calves were housed in individual wooden pens at
feeding time. They had access to common salt and water. Whole
milk was given until calves were 6 weeks old, and reconstituted
skimmilk or 1 part of dried skimmilk powder and 4 parts of corn
grain were offered. Each animal had free access to Natalgrass hay
in his stall. They were in drylot daily with direct access to sun-
shine. The basal ration for the earlier trials was not supplemented







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


with vitamin A. Nipple buckets were not in use at that time. All
hay was from Farm 2.
Eight Jersey male calves, serving as controls, received no
mineral addition to the basal ration. Three died in weakened
condition at 142 to 207 days. Five were killed in weakened con-
dition and autopsied. One calf receiving ferric chloride supplement
was scouring, and was killed on the 91st day. Another receiving
ferric chloride solution was still thriving when his trial was termi-
nated on the 618th day.
Five calves were given ferric ammonium citrate as supplement.
One bloated and died on the 146th day. Two were killed because
of weakness and declining condition. Two others were thriving at
termination on the 606th and 766th days, respectively.
Nine calves received a supplement of ferric ammonium citrate
and copper sulfate (50 parts of iron to 1 part copper). This trial
was discontinued at an average animal age of 361 days (85 and
583 days). Four were scouring and weak at disposal. All gains in
weight were below normal for their ages, even though the animals
survived.

Cobalt, an Essential Nutrient
Underwood and Filmer (63) discovered that cobalt was essen-
tial in animal nutrition. Aston (6) supplied pulverized limonite (a
crude iron ore) to correct "bush sickness" in sheep at the Mamaku
Research Farm on a volcanic ash soil in New Zealand. He ex-
changed samples of limonite for supplements being used in Florida.
Spectrographic analyses (10) disclosed that the effective limonite
ore contained 0.005 percent of cobaltous oxide, whereas none was
detected spectrographically in the ineffective ore. Chemical
methods found traces of cobalt in both limonites.
Analyses of the New Zealand limonite ores, and the discovery
that cobalt is an essential nutrient, were clues suggesting possible
shortage of this element in the Natalgrass hay from Farm 2. The
Spectrographic Laboratory had been unable to detect cobalt in
the Natalgrass hay from Farm 2 or in shelled corn and skimmilk
powder fed in the basal ration at Gainesville. A trace of cobalt
sulfate was added to the feed of calf E-5 receiving Natalgrass hay
from Farm 2 in his basal ration. It stimulated his appetite, and
feed consumption increased.
The former experimental barn was dismantled, and controlled
feeding trials were transferred to a rebuilt stable. Individual stalls







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


were divided with solid galvanized sheet iron and bedded with
excelsior waste. New calves were assigned from the Station Jersey
herd. Codliver oil was added (20 ml/day) to increase vitamin A in
the ration, which included white shelled corn and the somewhat
pale Natalgrass hay. This part of the controlled feeding trials was
reported by Neal and Ahmann (48).

Controlled Cobalt Trials
E-85, a control calf on the basal ration, gained steadily to 360
pounds. He lost appetite for hay and grain, but continued to take
skimmilk. He began to lose weight until slaughtered 15 weeks later.
E-79 received 5 mg of cobalt sulfate daily with' the basal
ration. He grew steadily to a weight of nearly 600 pounds, then
less regularly until slaughtered at 20 months of age, weighing 740
pounds. E-86 received 5 mg of cobalt sulfate daily from 4 weeks
to 101/2 months old, when appetite decreased. Ten mg of cobalt
sulfate then were given daily until he weighed 500 pounds at about
15 months of age.
E-74 received the basal ration of hay, shelled corn, and skim-
milk for 186 days. Then 60 ml of an iron-copper solution (6
percent of ferric ammonium citrate and 0.1 percent of copper
sulfate) were given daily. The calf gained only 60 pounds in the
next 7 months. The consumption of hay and shelled corn decreased
from 7 to less than 3 pounds of dry matter daily. Five milligrams
of cobalt sulfate were added daily, and appetite began to increase
by the third day. Growth was resumed at a faster rate to attain
normal condition at 2 years of age.
Animals receiving no iron-and-copper supplement in their feed
licked the coating from the galvanized iron partitions and then
licked the bare iron clean. No account was made of this iron
intake. The animals thrived.
Three calves received the basal ration plus 60, 30, or 20 ml daily
of the iron-copper solution above. The solution was chosen because
of its efficacy in field trials with salt sick cattle (12, 48) on co-
operators' farms. E-73 received the basal ration above until 33
weeks of age, when 60 ml of the iron-copper solution were given
daily. Changes in weight were irregular until he died at a weight
of 200 pounds when nearly 60 weeks of age. E-78 (a female) was
born to a cow maintained on the basal ration and was born in poor
reserve condition. She received 30 ml daily of the iron-copper
solution and continued to make slight gains but weakened and died







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


when 7 months old, weighing 145 pounds. E-87 was given 20 ml
of the iron-copper solution daily from birth and gained normally
at first. However, appetite decreased, and he weighed only 140
pounds when slaughtered at past 40 weeks of age.



Field Trials with Cobalt
Field trials were conducted using cobalt sulfate with cattle on
high phase Blanton fine sand and Lakeland fine sand. These
animals had not responded to a salt-iron-copper supplement.
Bonemeal, iron oxide, and copper sulfate were inadequate to
correct anemia in a 21/ year old Jersey bull on one farm and a
12-month-old grade Holstein heifer on another. The heifer had
access to iron-copper supplement and mixed concentrates con-
taining some cottonseed meal. Appetite was so poor that she was
not expected to survive (Figure 13). Cobalt sulfate was added to
the iron-copper supplement. Improvement in appetite was rapid;


Figure 13.-A 12-month-old grade Holstein heifer had access to an iron-copper-
salt supplement. Her blood contained 6.6 gm of hemoglobin per
100 ml on February 25, 1937. Cobalt sulfate was added to the
supplement. Appetite increased rapidly and she recovered.








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


she recovered condition (46) and was with calf on the same pasture
when seen September 14, 1939 (Figure 14). Her blood hemoglobins
per 100 ml were as follows:

Date Blood Hemoglobin
February 25, 1937 6.60 gm
April 22 12.37
September 14, 1939 thrifty


Figure 14.-The heifer in Figure 13 recovered fully with an iron-copper-cobalt-
salt supplement while on the same pasture. She was due to calve
in 2 months.

Cobalt Content of Pasture Forages
Biological responses by calves distinguished between adequate
and inadequate contents of cobalt more distinctly than chemical
methods when present in trace amounts. However, relative amounts
of cobalt as determined chemically are of interest. A report of
.00 ppm indicated that no cobalt was detected in dry matter of
the forage by the analytical method then employed.
Seventeen samples of wiregrass from salt sick areas ranged
between .00 and .055 ppm of cobalt in the dry matter. This








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


compared with a range between .02 and .14 from healthy ranges.
The averages of the respective groups were .02 ppm from the salt
sick areas and .069 ppm in the dry matter of plucked wiregrass
samples from healthy ranges. Three samples of maidencane assayed
.01 to .065 (average of .04) of cobalt. Cobalt analyses are given
in Table 7. Kretschmer, et al., reported additional analyses of
Florida forages (41).

Table 7.-Relative cobalt contents, on the dry matter basis, of plucked forage
samples from healthy and deficient ranges.t

Number Cobalt
of Samples Range Average
ppm ppm
Wiregrass
Salt sick ranges
Burned 8 .00$ to .035 .02
Unburned 9 .00 to .055 .02
Healthy ranges
Unburned 14 .02 to .14 .069
Broadleaf grasses
Salt sick ranges 4 .00 to .034 .016
Healthy ranges 7 .035 to .11 .07
Maidencane
Deficient ranges 3 .01 to .065 .04
t-Analyses by C. L. Comar.
t-Indicates no cobalt was detected by the analytical method used.


Cobalt Content of Soils
Soil samples were collected from specific sites to relate cattle
welfare with composition of the soils. A spectrographic internal
standard method (11) was used to analyze the acid-soluble cobalt
contents in the separate soil samples. The acid-soluble cobalt in
13 soils from healthy ranges varied between .023 and 1.300 ppm,
averaging .190 ppm. Eighteen salt sick soils contained .001 to .070
ppm of acid-soluble cobalt and averaged .010 ppm. Most of the
latter group were satisfactory insofar as cobalt content was con-
cerned, but were low in iron and/or copper. Two groups of 8 and
10 soils on which cattle responded to cobalt supplement averaged
.003 and less than .002 ppm of acid-soluble cobalt. The soil from
Farm 2, source of the Natalgrass hay used in the controlled feeding
trials, assayed .011 ppm of cobalt. These soil analyses were cited
in Table 6.







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


DISCUSSION

The relation of soils and forages to welfare of animals de-
pendent on them has been recognized since the days of Hogg, the
Ettrick Shepherd (38) in the Cheviot Hills of Scotland over a
century ago. Shepherds learned by experience to change from
unsatisfactory pasture areas long before the exact explanation of
the trouble was discovered (59). Some soil conditions have involved
deficiencies such as common salt, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur,
iodine, iron, copper, and cobalt as well as harmful excesses of
common salt, fluorine, molybdenum, and selenium (42). Soils of
limited geological origin and those subject to excessive leaching
may involve deficiencies or excesses of mineral elements. The iron,
copper, and/or cobalt contents of individual soils varied inde-
pendently. Cattle responses to mineral supplementation on several
areas provided the index of adequacy. Some conditions were of
single origin, but often they overlapped. The second deficiency
became evident after the first had been corrected. These conditions
occurred on mineral soils as well as on highly organic residual soils
in Florida (10, 11, 12, 14, 22, 24, 28, 29, 48, 52, 60). Once the
cause was found, simple corrective measures have been applied
effectively.
A naturally occurring iron deficiency in ruminants has been
questioned recently (62) because some naturally occurring anemias
once were corrected by large amounts of certain crude iron ores or
commercial compounds. The instance of effective and ineffective
limonites from New Zealand (10) was cited previously in which the
effective limonite contained 0.005 percent of cobaltous oxide.
However, French et al. (60) corrected salt sick, a naturally occur-
ring nutritional anemia in cattle, with daily allowances of 1/6 ounce
of ferrous sulfate at the Narcoossee field laboratory in 1900-1901.
Dawson (30) obtained improvement among anemic cattle near
DeFuniak Springs by iron treatment. Deficient control cattle (48)
to which cobalt was given as a supplement sought iron by per-
sistently licking the sheet iron stall dividers. Ohio workers (37, 40)
noted that iron-deficient experimental calves attempted persist-
ently to lick iron stalls and other equipment, thus retarding
development of anemia. Abbott's reports (1, 2) of correcting
anemia in school children were accepted (62). That work was
accomplished in the area where salt sick had been corrected in
cattle (12) late in 1929 with ferric ammonium citrate drench or
in the drinking water.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Anemia in calves shortly after birth responded to iron or com-
binations of iron with copper, cobalt, and manganese (44, 61) but
not to the latter three elements separately. The latter investiga-
tion (61) involved 356 dairy calves over a 6-year period. Elvehjem
(32) pointed out that copper was not concerned with the assimila-
tion but with transformation of the ingested iron into hemoglobin.
Schultze (56) indicated that cobalt initiated a reticulocyte re-
sponse connected with iron and copper metabolism in successful
nutrition and prevention of anemia. A shortage of copper in
pastures sometimes was accompanied by a shortage of cobalt (43).
The present report cites specific recoveries from anemia with cattle
receiving either ferric ammonium citrate or ferric oxide to supple-
ment the feeds from which the anemia had resulted. There are
naturally occurring anemias in ruminants with which deficiency of
iron sometimes overlaps other nutrient shortages.
The relationships of some deficiencies to reproduction were
reported (5, 12, 21). Animals practiced selective grazing by avoid-
ing deficient pastures and choosing young tender forages on new
burns, or changing from sand to clay soil regions. For the opposite
reason, they grazed little on salt marsh grasses. Although de-
ficiencies of iron, copper, and/or cobalt delayed reproduction,
cattle were able to reproduce normally after appropriate supple-
mentation corrected the deficiency. Changing the range no longer
was necessary. No single mineral supplement effectively overcomes
all deficiencies with cattle; neither may it necessarily offset harmful
excesses of a mineral in some soils (7).
Mineral supplement formulas have been recommended (7, 24)
providing varying amounts of iron, copper, cobalt, and common salt
to fit separate patterns of needs by cattle on different soil areas.
Three factors influence rate of voluntary consumption of mineral
supplements. (a) A deficiency of some elements in forages from
poor soils, stage of growth of forages, or inadequate fertilization
causes most cattle to seek mineral supplements. (b) Soil water
in some areas contains almost repulsive amounts of common salt.
Additional salt in a mineral formula needs to be gauged so that
cattle will not avoid a total supplement even though they are
starving for its trace elements. (c) When the contents of iron,
copper, and/or cobalt are low in the formula, palatable ingredients
such as an oilmeal or molasses have been incorporated to encourage
consumption. Rate of consumption is important to meet daily
requirements of the essential trace nutrients. On the other hand,
much over-consumption is uneconomical and may even lead to







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


toxic effects with copper (23) and cobalt. In the field trials on
brackish water areas (7) animals have refused to consume formu-
las that contained too much common salt. This explained im-
portance of proportions of salt in a mineral formulation for use
in high-salt areas. These factors need consideration by cattle
owners with relation to their soil areas. Responses of cattle over
a year or longer furnish evidence for such decisions.

RECOMMENDED SUPPLEMENTS
Mineral supplement formulas recommended for use with live-
stock have been improved as additional observations and research
indicated. Stockbridge and associates (60) found that ferrous
sulphate effectively corrected advanced cases of salt sick in cattle
on light sand soils in 1901. Dawson thought that hookworm in-
festation was the primary cause (30) along with inadequate
nutrition. Hence he published formulas recommended as vermi-
fuges and tonics, two of which contained ferrous sulphate to
hasten recovery of affected cattle. Shealy (58) concluded in 1925
that parasitism could affect cattle adversely, but that a mineral
deficiency possibly was involved.
Later field trials confirmed earlier findings (30) with regard to
iron alone (12) and showed also that cattle sometimes required
copper in addition to iron on certain sand soil areas (12, 52).
The high content of salt in some water and forages caused
cattle to avoid a mineral supplement even when it contained
needed trace mineral nutrients. Recognition of this factor caused
a modified mineral formula to be recommended in 1935 (4) that
was acceptable to the cattle. One-half of the salt in the formula
was replaced with bonemeal.
Cobalt deficiency was confirmed in controlled feeding trials
in 1937 using Natalgrass hay from a low-cobalt soil area. Field
trials on three farms on another soil type (10, 47) caused addi-
tion of a small amount of cobalt sulphate (1 ounce in a 126-pound
formula) or of cobalt carbonate (/2 ounce in the same formula).
Bonemeal became unavailable during World War'II by an
order of the War Production Board. Chief Chemist W. T. Whitney
of Coronet Phosphate Company, Plant City, Florida, cooperated
with a committee in producing defluorinated phosphate of safe
low-fluorine content. The ortho form of phosphate is utilized well
by animals, whereas the meta form is not. Defluorinated phos-
phate must be mixed with salt or other palatable ingredients








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


acceptable to animals (9). Part or all of the bonemeal may be
replaced satisfactorily in mixed feeds and mineral formulas.
Beef and dairy cattle differ in daily needs for the several
mineral nutrients, because of differences in feeding practices and
in demands for the minerals to form milk. A single mineral
formula, with free access to common salt, was acceptable for beef
cattle in central Florida. The wide differences in daily milk yields
of dairy cows have made it economical to use a three-compartment
mineral box containing (a) common salt, (b) steamed bonemeal
or an acceptable replacement, and (c) the appropriate trace
mineral formula of iron-copper-cobalt-salt adapted to either a
mineral or to a muck soil grazing area. Consumption by animals
differs with composition of the forages and concentrates as well
as with the output of milk.
Formula No. 1 for inland soil areas and Formula No. 2 for
cattle on brackish water areas were adapted for cattle grazing
over white or gray sand soil areas. A modified single-formula for
beef cattle was developed at the Range Cattle Station in 1953 (7)
adapted to areas in central Florida. This formula was for a "com-
plete" mineral rather than for use with dairy cattle in a three-
compartment box. The Range Cattle formula was:
Steamed bonemeal 29 lb.
Defluorinated phosphate 29
Modified salt sick mineral 38
Cane molasses 2
Cottonseed meal 2
t-Modified salt sick mineral contains 100 lb. common salt, 10 lb. red oxide of iron,
2 lb. copper sulfate, and 2 oz. of cobalt sulfate or 1 oz. of cobalt carbonate.

Red oxide of iron (ferric oxide) is the least soluble form of
iron, yet the lowest in cost. Sufficient amounts of ferric oxide
are rendered available while in contact with organic acids in rumen
fermentation and to hydrochloric acid in the fourth stomach com-
partment, so that it was found satisfactory in early field trials
with salt sick cattle in Florida. The proportion of 25 pounds of
red oxide of iron was recognized as higher than necessary, but
no harm resulted from the surplus of it. In interest of economy,
controlled trials were conducted over 6 years with heifers at the
Dairy Research Unit. Iron oxide was reduced from 25 to 15
pounds in the No. 1 formula for 2 years, following welfare with
hemoglobin determinations in the blood. All animals thrived.
The level was decreased to 10 pounds during the next 2 years,
wherein the blood hemoglobin decreased in some animals. The








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


breeding histories were less satisfactory, possibly being affected
by other factors. The iron level was returned to 15 pounds in
the formula No. 1 for 2 more years, with more satisfactory re-
sults. Without separate publication of the results, the recom-
mendation was passed to the industry that the 15-pound level
of red oxide of iron in the No. 1 formula had been found satis-
factory for use with cattle where the soil was a Leon fine sand
and for similar areas. It has been used satisfactorily since then,
and recommended for general acceptance on similar areas. This
formula is intended for dairy cattle using a three-compartment
mineral box. Recommendations for dairy cattle currently are
that the mixed concentrates contain 1 percent of common salt,
1 percent of steamed bonemeal or its equivalent, and 1 percent
of calcium carbonate in satisfactory form such as marble dust
(kalsite), ground limestone of high quality, oystershell flour, or
other high-calcium product.
A three-compartment mineral box is recommended for dairy
cattle, giving access to additional common salt, steamed bone-
meal in small quantity renewed weekly, and the iron-copper-
cobalt-salt trace mineral of the formula:

No. 1 No. 2 for
Formula Brackish Areas
Common salt 100 lb. 50 lb.
Steamed bonemeal, or equivalent .......... 50 lb.
Red oxide of iron 15 lb. 15 lb.
Copper sulfate 1 lb. 1 lb.
Cobalt sulfate 1 oz. 1 oz.
t-One-half ounce of cobalt carbonate may replace 1 ounce of cobalt sulfate.

The formulas are for use with dairy cattle on sand soil areas.
No separate formulation has been given for dairy cattle on Florida
muck soils for lack of sufficient direct observations. The supple-
ment used for beef cattle on muck soil at the Everglades Experi-
ment Station (24) may be a guide. This formula is:
Common salt 20 lb. (brackish water)
Steamed bonemeal 22.5
Defluorinated phosphate 40
Red oxide of iron 1
Copper sulfate 3
Cobalt sulfate 0.15
Cane molasses 7.5
Cottonseed meal 5.85

This formula is not recommended for use away from the muck
soils, high in content of molybdenum. For use with cattle on







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


sand soils, red oxide of iron is increased to 3 pounds and copper
sulfate reduced to 0.6 pounds. Increased palatability from cane
molasses and cottonseed meal tends to induce greater consump-
tion per animal, to offset low level of iron and copper in the
formula. Milk cows would need access to additional common salt.



CONCLUSIONS
1. Salt sick, a naturally occurring nutritional anemia in cattle
on certain sand soils, was corrected with doses of 1/2 ounce of
iron sulfate daily or twice a week in 1901.
2. Salt sick cattle on other soils recovered when their feed
was supplemented with ferric ammonium citrate solution or with
ferric oxide in 1929-31. On other soil areas recoveries occurred
when copper sulfate was added to the iron compound.
3. Calves displayed no visible deficiency symptoms at birth,
nor were symptoms evident until fetal storage had been exhausted,
even though calves were dropped by deficient dams.
4. Anemia was caused by inadequate intakes of one or more
trace mineral nutrients: iron, copper, and/or cobalt. Lack of
any one of them appeared to accentuate the deficiency.
5. Wiregrass, used as an index of soil fertility, tended to
reflect the composition of the soil. Young forages contained more
calcium, phosphorus, and iron than did more mature forages.
6. Nutritional anemia was independent of, although it could
be accentuated by, the presence of internal parasites.
7. Mineral soils varied widely in contents of essential nutri-
ents independently of each other. For example, iron, copper, and
cobalt could be in adequate supply, with phosphorus at an
inadequate level.
8. Reproduction was retarded by nutritional anemia, even
in marginal condition.
9. Requirement of cobalt, discovered in West Australia, was
confirmed in Florida in 1937 by controlled feeding tests and field
trials under other soil conditions.
10. Shortage of any one of three trace minerals (iron, cop-
per, or cobalt) concerned with blood hemoglobin exerted an
adverse effect upon growth and well-being of cattle.








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


II. Paces, Lime-Hided, Marsh Sickness
and Falling Disease

The earlier cattlemen recognized four conditions among cattle
of various ages on certain marsh soil areas in Florida. Paces
(named from the gait) and lime-hided or faded hair coat occurred
among cattle past 10 months of age maintained continuously for
8 to 10 months or longer on certain marsh ranges. Calves and
foals were born with enlarged pasterns and ankles (marsh sick-
ness) from cows or mares on the marsh areas. Falling disease
(known as sudden death in Australia) resulted with some cattle
on the marsh lands; the animals dropped dead after relatively
little exertion. Salt sick, on the other hand, developed among
cattle kept too long on certain sand soil areas.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Keil and Nelson (39) observed fading hair coats with piebald
rats in 1931 that received a milk diet, low in iron and copper.
The new hair had a normal color, and the animals reproduced
after the milk was supplemented with ferric chloride and copper
sulphate. Sedgwick and Ellis (57) developed anemia in rabbits
on a diet low in copper. The hair turned from black to gray,
some was lost, and dermatitis developed. The authors regarded
the change in hair color as a more sensitive index of copper
deficiency than was anemia.
Bennetts et al. (15, 16, 17, 18) received reports in 1929 of
falling disease in cattle in West Australia and began its investiga-
tion in 1937. Mature cattle mainly became involved when re-
tained too long on low-copper pastures. The animals developed
rough hair coats, became anemic and unthrifty, and some scoured.
Such animals tended to recover on early summer pastures. Fol-
lowing ordinary exertion, an apparently normal cow might bellow,
throw up her head, and fall dead almost without a struggle. Twen-
ty-five autopsies on dead cattle disclosed little abnormality other
than anemia and sometimes a flabby heart. Veins were full of
blood because of heart stoppage. Calves from copper-deficient
cows had swollen leg joints or bone prominences that tended to
disappear before 2 years of age. The liver and spleen had an
increase of iron when insufficient copper had retarded its metab-
olism in the body. The dry matter of forages from affected pas-








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


II. Paces, Lime-Hided, Marsh Sickness
and Falling Disease

The earlier cattlemen recognized four conditions among cattle
of various ages on certain marsh soil areas in Florida. Paces
(named from the gait) and lime-hided or faded hair coat occurred
among cattle past 10 months of age maintained continuously for
8 to 10 months or longer on certain marsh ranges. Calves and
foals were born with enlarged pasterns and ankles (marsh sick-
ness) from cows or mares on the marsh areas. Falling disease
(known as sudden death in Australia) resulted with some cattle
on the marsh lands; the animals dropped dead after relatively
little exertion. Salt sick, on the other hand, developed among
cattle kept too long on certain sand soil areas.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Keil and Nelson (39) observed fading hair coats with piebald
rats in 1931 that received a milk diet, low in iron and copper.
The new hair had a normal color, and the animals reproduced
after the milk was supplemented with ferric chloride and copper
sulphate. Sedgwick and Ellis (57) developed anemia in rabbits
on a diet low in copper. The hair turned from black to gray,
some was lost, and dermatitis developed. The authors regarded
the change in hair color as a more sensitive index of copper
deficiency than was anemia.
Bennetts et al. (15, 16, 17, 18) received reports in 1929 of
falling disease in cattle in West Australia and began its investiga-
tion in 1937. Mature cattle mainly became involved when re-
tained too long on low-copper pastures. The animals developed
rough hair coats, became anemic and unthrifty, and some scoured.
Such animals tended to recover on early summer pastures. Fol-
lowing ordinary exertion, an apparently normal cow might bellow,
throw up her head, and fall dead almost without a struggle. Twen-
ty-five autopsies on dead cattle disclosed little abnormality other
than anemia and sometimes a flabby heart. Veins were full of
blood because of heart stoppage. Calves from copper-deficient
cows had swollen leg joints or bone prominences that tended to
disappear before 2 years of age. The liver and spleen had an
increase of iron when insufficient copper had retarded its metab-
olism in the body. The dry matter of forages from affected pas-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tures seldom contained over 1 or 2 ppm of copper in the dry
matter. The condition did not occur where forages contained 5
parts ppm of copper on a dry matter basis.
The name "coast disease" was applied to a condition (16) in
cattle where cobalt deficiency overlapped on low-copper soil areas.
Both deficiencies had to be corrected by supplementation before
cattle developed normally.
Cunningham (25, 26) in New Zealand confirmed fading of the
hair coat in cattle maintained on reclaimed low-copper swamp
lands. Analyses of pasture forages suggested involvement of
molybdenum on some areas. Dry matter of the pasture herbages
showed copper and molybdenum contents as follows:

Normal Pastures Copper-Deficient Pastures
Copper, ppm 10-15 3- 7
Molybdenum, ppm 1- 2 4-20

Cunningham stated that When the rations contained sufficient
sulfate ions, molybdenum was soon excreted without harmful
effects to the body.
Rusoff (53, 54) analyzed total bodies of a normal Jersey calf
and one from a salt sick dam. He found that the copper consti-
tuted 0.16 and 0.17 percent of their empty body weights, respec-
tively. In other words, the dam had drawn on feed sources and
her own body reserves to build the fetus as nearly normal as
possible.
Wintrobe et al. (64) found that during fetal life the liver con-
tained 5 to 10 times as high a percentage of copper as did the
liver from an adult cow. Copper deficiency did not become evi-
dent in calves until after the reserve supply from fetal storage
became exhausted.


PLAN OF INVESTIGATION
Cattlemen were contacted in 1929-32 (a) to locate specific
paces range areas, (b) to observe and describe the condition, (c)
to examine cattle when slaughtered for beef, and (d) to identify
the soil types on which the condition occurred. With additions
to the staff and changes of duties, further controlled observations
were conducted by others. Some phases have not been answered
yet, although a method was developed for correction and preven-
tion of the deficiencies or excesses (3, 7, 23, 24, 29).








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


Field Observations and Autopsies
Nine marsh areas were located on which cattle were reported
to develop paces. Falling disease was mentioned by cattlemen as
occurring on some of them. Owners cooperated by allowing
slaughter of six affected cattle. Such marsh ranges often were
used for grass-fattening animals for a season, but were regarded
as less desirable for breeding herds. Statements conflicted con-
cerning whether or not pacing animals recovered from the changed
gait when moved from the marshes onto the sandhills, where
salt sickness would develop later. A typical paces marsh range
is shown in Figure 15.
A 4-year-old dry cow (E-41) showed the typical pacing gait
(Figure 15). It is characterized by an apparent stiffness in the
hocks and springiness in the pasterns. Such animals had no diffi-
culty running, but they advanced both left legs and then both
right legs alternately, hence the term paces. Animals with ad-
vanced paces breathed with difficulty after normal exertion, such
as when being driven short distances on the range.
E-33 (Figure 16) was a 7-year-old grade Devon cow that had
been kept on a paces marsh range of Okeechobee muck soil. She
was driven with other cattle about one-half mile to the pen, and
she breathed heavily with tongue hanging out. Labored breathing






JV .' L .


Figure 15.-A 4-year-old female (E-41) had the typical pacing gait developed
from long continued grazing on certain marsh ranges. The pasture
was on Okeechobee muck.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Figure 16.-Cow E-33 was extremely short of breath after being driven less
than one-half mile from a paces marsh range. Her tongue was
hanging out, and she breathed with difficulty. Okeechobee muck
soil predominated.


could be heard at a short distance. She ran with a pacing gait-
stiff in the hocks and springy on her pasterns. She was excitable
and nervous, and tried to fight through the fence. Her last calf
had been dropped a year earlier. The cow was grass fat and non-
pregnant, among a mixed herd of cattle.
The blood of cow E-33 contained 15.11 grams of hemoglobin
per 100 ml, and was darker than normal in color. The plasma
contained 5.9 mg of inorganic phosphorus per 100 ml. On slaughter
her heart was large, and had coronary fat. The liver and spleen
were of good weight for her size. The medullary layer of the
adrenal glands was quite pale, and cortex layer somewhat pale.
No foreign matter or parasites were found in the stomach.
A yearling steer (E-36) with pacing gait on the marsh had
a fawn haircoat that had faded from a red color (lime-hided).
The heart was flabby, but the liver and spleen were of good size
for the animal's age. The adrenals were pale, and a few stomach
worms were present in the abomasum.
A 12-year-old cow (E-60) had dropped a calf on the marsh
range about two weeks previously. She did not pace when driven,
but showed the typical labored breathing. The calf had enlarged
knees and pastern joints, typical of marsh disease among new-








Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


born calves and foals from dams held long on the marsh ranges.
The cow was slaughtered for autopsy observations. The owner
retained the calf to raise on other land. Cow and calf are shown
in Figure 17.
E-59 was a grass fat steer that had been driven with other
cattle about two miles from an Everglades muck pasture to the
pen. It dropped dead soon after arrival and was butchered imme-
diately, before our arrival. Some of the organs were available
for examination. The heart was large and flabby, and had some
coronary fat.
Autopsy records of six animals were assembled in Table 8.
Life of one steer terminated by falling disease. Cattlemen re-
ported such deaths on similar marsh pastures on four mucklands
in the state. Four animals were seen to pace either on the marshes
or on arrival at the pen for slaughter. The faded haircoat, termed
lime-hided, occurred in one animal autopsied, and in other cattle
held long on the marsh areas. This was before copper fertiliza-
tion of the marsh ranges or use of copper-containing mineral
supplement locally. Two animals breathed with labored difficulty.


r -

Ii_ ; .


Figure 17.-A 12-year-old Devon cow dropped a calf about 2 weeks previously.
She was lime-hided. Note enlarged knee and pastern joints, and
the buck-knee stance in the calf's forelegs. Cattlemen called the
condition marsh sickness. A yearling steer (E-60) in the same herd
was starting to pace. They grazed over an Okeechobee muck area.









Table 8.--Observations on autopsy of six pacing or lime-hided cattle in 1932-33.


Animal
Date
Age
Estimated live
weight, Ibs.
Dressed carcass
weight, lbs.
Condition
of blood
Hemoglobin, gms
Inorganic
phosphorus, %
Heart, total, lbs.
Trimmed, lbs.
Condition

Coronary fat
Adrenals
Notes


E-33
7-18-1932
7 years


brownish
metallic luster
15.11

5.6
5.15
4.3
inner wall
streaked & pale
present
pale
paces, tongue
out, panting


E-36
8-1-1932
long yearling


2.4
1.6

flabby


pale
paces, a few
stomach worms


E-41
10-28-1932
4-year-old


brownish shade
13.74



2.25


large, inner
wall mottled





paces


E-59
12-17-1933
coming 2 years


3.2
large,
flabby
present


dropped dead
in pen after
2-mile drive
with herd


Illustrated Figure 14


E-60
12-17-1933
12-year-old


bright red





2.9
2.5
flabby, light
areas inside


19.4 gm
lime-hided,
typical heavy
breathing on
being driven
Figure 15


E-61
12-18-1932
20 months


136
good color
and volume





1.6
1.4
lacked
tone



paces
fair condition


Figure 13







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


It is believed that E-59, which dropped dead soon after arrival
at the pen, was affected similarly. Not every animal exhibited
all of the symptoms.
When the organs were examined after slaughter, the hearts
showed the greatest change in all six cattle. They appeared large
in proportion to size of the animals. Each of the hearts was
flabby, and the heart muscle lacked tone. Inner walls of the
venticles were streaked, pale, or mottled. Sometimes the adrenal
glands were pale, both the cortex and medullary layers.
The cattlemen reported that animals had to be on the marsh
pastures eight months or longer before showing indications of
such malfunctions as have been described. The change in hair
color or development of the pacing gait takes place in long year-
lings and older cattle independently of season of the year or sex
of animal. Old hair sheds off slowly, but the new hair coat is of
normal color for the animal at first. Autopsy observations are
summarized in Table 8. Calves and foals outgrow the enlarged
joints of marsh sickness by 2 years of age.

Soil Relationships
One of the paces pastures, which once may have been a shallow
muck soil destroyed by fire, was on Pompano fine sand and Delray
fine sand. Everglades muck was one soil type on which Devon
cattle had faded in hair color prior to fertilization with copper
sulfate. Delray fine sand, moderately shallow, also characterized
the pasture area at one location.
Most virgin muck soils in Florida contained little available
copper, unless they were overflowed from clay soil areas. Molyb-
denum contents (7) varied widely, independently of the copper
present. Total content and ratio of copper to molybdenum have
varied greatly. Grasses from three sawgrass muck areas contained
1 to 7 ppm of copper and 1 to 160 ppm of molybdenum. Grasses
from one muck area ranged from 3 to 9 ppm of copper and 12 to
86 ppm of molybdenum. If copper were the only mineral nutrient
involved, cattle on the latter area sometimes would have been
deficient in copper, as 5 ppm of copper in the forage dry matter
is within healthy range. However, interference with excessive
molybdenum complicated this. A high molybdenum intake also
depressed phosphorus metabolism in the body.
Young cattle on muck ranges were more prone to have broken
hips and ribs than those observed under more balanced mineral
nutrition. Fragility of bones resulted from improper balance which








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


interfered with phosphorus metabolism. It was not unusual for
animals to be reported with one or more broken bones on the
muck pastures. One young animal suffered four broken ribs from
falling into a drainage ditch on Everglades muck. A broken leg
bone, hip, or vertebra resulted from similar accidents.
A judicious use of copper compounds tended to offset inter-
ference of excessive molybdenum with phosphorus metabolism.
On the other hand, large excesses of copper caused deaths of
cattle from copper toxicity in one herd.

Correction or Prevention
Measures for correction or prevention of paces and lime-hided
were developed by staff of the Everglades Experiment Station and
G. K. Davis (7, 22, 24). The measures consisted of judicious use
of copper sufficient to meet daily requirements of the cattle and
offset excesses of molybdenum in widely varying amounts in some
residual muck soils. These copper levels were high enough to be
injurious in time to cattle on sand soils low in molybdenum.
A number of mineral supplement formulas which provided
various amounts of iron, copper, cobalt, and common salt have
been recommended for separate needs of cattle on different areas.
Three factors influence greatly the rate of consumption of such
mineral supplements. (a) A deficiency of some element in forages
due to season or soil causes cattle to seek supplements in the
mineral mixtures. (b) Soil water in some areas contains almost
repulsive amounts of common salt. Additional salt in a mineral
formula has to be gauged so as not to cause cattle to refuse the
total supplement even though they may starve for lack of some
trace minerals contained. (c) When the contents of iron, copper,
and/or cobalt are low in the formula, such ingredients as molasses
and/or an oilmeal have been incorporated to encourage a higher
rate of consumption. These factors need to be considered by
owners to supplement the forages growing under particular soil
conditions.
More detailed study is required to obtain a full explanation
of falling disease among cattle on the marsh areas. Chapman
and Kidder (22) theorized in 1964 that
Occasionally copper-deficient cattle die suddenly when excited
in any fashion. Copper-deficient cattle become anemic and
under exertion demand more oxygen that the blood of anemic
cattle can carry. Also, post-mortem examination sometimes re-
veals many small lesions (petechiae) in the myocardium, indicat-
ing that lack of copper may affect the proper function of the heart.







Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


How is this function affected? What changes are involved in
its correction?
The flabby condition of the heart muscles and volume of blood
in the veins at autopsy possibly may indicate that (a) the heart
beat stopped in the relaxation diastolicc) phase of its rhythmic
cycle; (b) uptake of oxygen in the lungs was interrupted; (c)
there was interference with automaticity of the heart beat when
the carbon dioxide content of the blood became excessively high,
or (d) some change had occurred in the blood enzyme system.
Shortness of breath under less than strenuous muscular exertion
indicated some failure of the carbon dioxide-oxygen exchanges
and functions between heart and lungs. The labored efforts to
get breath were indicative of imbalance in the oxygen supply and
disposal of carbon dioxide from the body. Anemia did not always
occur. The blood color and apparent large volume on bleeding
were in contrast with salt sick autopsies. Further investigations
are needed to answer these important points in physiological
functions.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Fading of hair color, called lime-hided, was attributed later
to copper deficiency. It occurred among cattle held long on cer-
tain residual muck soils, and was corrected with growth of the
new hair after copper supplementation.
The pacing gait, which affected animals when running, oc-
curred under the same environment. Exact cause of the inco-
ordinated nervous control of the muscles of locomotion has not
been determined. Both conditions occurred independently of
season and sex of animals past 10 months old.
Enlarged leg joints (marsh disease) were seen in calves and
a foal born to dams held long on the local marsh soils that were
low in copper and often high in molybdenum content. This con-
dition was outgrown by 2 years of age.
The explanation of falling disease still is indefinite. It can
happen under exertion with grass-fat animals that are not neces-
sarily anemic.
Since soils and forages vary so widely in content of the useful
and injurious mineral elements, owners of livestock should select
mineral formulas on which their animals respond best under local
soil and forage conditions.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many people cooperated in the investigations concerning mal-
nutrition. These included owners of cattle who gave their experi-
ence and access to their cattle, staff of the Agricultural Extension
Service on the state and county levels, veterinarians, tick eradica-
tion officials, and teachers of vocational agriculture. Dr. A. L.
Shealy, head of the Animal Husbandry Department, arranged
initial contacts with cattlemen. Most of the hemoglobin readings
in the field were obtained jointly with Dr. W. M. Neal. Dr. O. C.
Bryan identified soil types, took soil samples, and supervised
their analyses. Drs. D. A. Sanders and E. F. Thomas examined
fecal samples, eliminating parasitism as a major cause of salt sick.
T. C. Irwin and Dr. C. L. Comar analyzed soil and forage samples
for cobalt. Sincere appreciation is expressed to them for these
contributions.









Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle


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Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle 53

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54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

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