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 First feeding experiment
 Second feeding experiment
 Cost of a gallon of milk


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Milk production
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027750/00001
 Material Information
Title: Milk production
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1909
Copyright Date: 1909
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Milk yield -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921816
oclc - 18160211
notis - AEN2284
System ID: UF00027750:00001

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Most profitable amounts to feed
        Page 4
    Conditions of the experiments
        Page 4
    First feeding experiment
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Second feeding experiment
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Cost of a gallon of milk
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





BULLETIN 99


Florida

Agricultural Experiment Station





MILK PRODUCTION


BY

JOHN M. SCOTT


MilK Record for Week Binmnig fyW/Week Endin a///lt
W cow cow cow cow cow ro w COw cow cow cow cOw cow
A Nl NAAJ N4 AhS AS6 No.7 NaO N#0 A/l O 1 ll AIT /aS
A. _/S_ 6. /0. /00 70 O 5.0 S 1. 0 S.o 10.0 .o
RP.M. /i.o 5. 7..S .0o 43 4.0 4.0 /0-0 3.5J /05 /t.
.: .//.3 70 70 .O 100 4.$5 70 /4. ).0 /.o 9.0
M___ ___ 0 .f 75 So 4. s 10.0 M So/0.0 7.5
A. 0. 6.3 //13 75 SS 5.0 70 /I.j S.O /0 t.o
P A _7 SO f.so 70o5 4. 5S 10 5.10 .s 7
A./. /0 6.S /10 .o50 5.0 7o 10 50 O /0 .0 90
SM. 7.5 .S. I00 o 45j S /10 0o 0.0 7S
A., ~.0 70 /20 9S o 5 .o0 70 /4. 50 o 14.0 /00
SPM .0 S.5 /00 5.0 50 s4 SS 1.0 ..5 /.S 7.S
a M 7.0 70 /.0 10o 0 5.0 6.o 0 .o 50.1o o / 0 I.
,P. q.O 6.0 7.0 .S4 .:0 So .O 14. 1//.5 7.5
I AM II 6.0 //. /. 7.0 4.0 5. /3.0 3.0 /3.S 9.
aM __ ..0 6 1.0 .0 o5. S.0 6.0 10.0 4.0 /. 7.0
Fig. 1-A page from the Station milk record.


The bulletins of ts Station will be sent free to any 'address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.


pepper Fo. N ptC. 9o,. 9-esvlle, tIa,


JULY, 1909



















CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction ._.---------------.---------------.------------- 3
Most Profitable Amounts to Feed------------ -------------------- 4
Conditions of the Experiments.---..---------------------------- 4
First Feeding Experiment ..-------------------------------- 5
Sec6ndFeeding Experiment -----.---------- ------------------ 7
Cost"of a Gallon of Milk ----------... ---------------------- 9



IMPORTANT FACTS
1. One pound of cottonseed meal was found to be equal to nearly two
pounds of cocoanut meal for milk production.
2. Cocoanut meal is only equally profitable, as a feed for milk produc-
tion, at about half the price of cottonseed meal.
3. One hundred pounds of sweet potatoes were found to be equal, for
nilk production, to one hundred and sixty pounds of sorghum silage.
4. Sweet potatoes are only as profitable as sorghum silage, for milk pro-
duction, at about one and a half times the price of the latter.











MILK PRODUCTION


BY
JOHN M. SCOTT


INTRODUCTION
According to the tenth biennial Report of the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, Florida has about 42,855 dairy cows. It is likely that every year at
least 8857,100 is expended by the dairymen of the State for concentrated
protein feeds, such as wheat bran, wheat shorts, cottonseed meal, and a few
others. This allows $20 for each coor, which is a moderate estimate of what
the dairy cow should have in a year. It is doubtful if the dairy cow averages
more than $15 clear profit annually, with the feeds given at present. In this
case, about half of the possible profit of. the dairy goes to the feed dealer.
The question of how to get away from this expenditure is one of importance
for dairymen to consider. At the present time, with the crops usually raised,
the purchasing of protein feeds is essential to profitable dairying. Though it
may take a large share of the probable returns to purchase feeds, yet, if it
were not possible to secure these feeds, the profits now obtained by the dairy-
man would be lessened, or even changed into losses. Protein feeds must
either be bought or raised. Until a short time ago the idea of raising all of
the protein feed necessary for a herd of cows appeared to be preposterous, and
even now it seems almost impossible to many dairymen. However, the de-
sirability of raising a part or all of the protein feed required by the dairy herds
should be apparent to every man concerned in the dairy business. Hencet
though the first feeding test described in this bulletin was conducted wholly,
and the second test partially, with purchased concentrated feeds, it must not
be inferred that such combinations of feeds are the best. For the object of
the test being solely to add to our knowledge of the relative milk-producing
qualities of certain feeds, it mattered little what was the nature of the other
feeds added to balance the ration.
Florida conditions are promising for a further development of the dairy
interests of the State. Considering the number of legumes that can be pro-
duced here, and the variety of other forage crops that can be grown with little
difficulty, it seems that a large percentage of the money now being sent out
of the State for dairy products ought to be kept at home. The climatic con-
ditions are almost ideal. The Florida farmer can secure good grazing on
fresh pasture for nearly the entire year. This will be found to be an advan-
tage in several ways. He does not need to supply so much feed in the way





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of concentrates, nor is it requisite to store such a large amount of hay and dry
fodder as must be done farther north. Expensive barns and sheds are not a
necessity here. Less feed will .be required to keep up the normal flow of
milk; for good dairy cows only yield their largest flow of milk when they are
given abundance of succulent food from fresh pasture, from soiling crops,
from root crops, and from the silo-and the best of these is fresh pasture.

MOST PROFITABLE AMOUNTS TO FEED
Every cow has two limits with regard to feeding. First, there is a limit
of capacity; that is, the total amount of feed the cow can possibly eat. Sec-
ond, there is a limit to the amount of feed eaten that can be made use of in
keeping up the energies of the body, and in producing milk. All food sup-
plies between these two limits are worse than wasted; because they not only
give no return whatever, but once in the stomach, it requires extra work for
the cow to rid herself of the excess; thus using time when she could other-
wise be at rest. On the other hand, then we consider that about 60 per
cent. of the food eaten goes to carry on the workings of the different parts of
the animal body, and that only the remaining 40 per cent. is available for
milk production, we see how necessary it is, in order that the cow should do
her best work, that the food should be just enough to reach the limit where
economical production stops. This limit varies with every cow. For, perhaps,
no two cows fed the same amount will both give the most economical re-
turns. One of the cows if fed a few more pounds a day would give larger re-
turns, but this might not be the case with the other cow. Suppose you are
feeding each cow 25 pounds a day, one cow giving two and a half gallons of
milk and the other two gallons; you may find that if you give 30 pounds of
feed to the first cow .she will then produce three and a half gallons, while if
you increase the amount of food given the- other cow, the flow of milk will not
be increased. Hence there may be a considerable waste in feeding for milk.
This brings us to an important point. The dairyman should keep a
complete record of each cow in his herd, including both a-feed record and a
milk record. Then only is he in a position to find the standing of each cow,
and tell which cows are profitable and which are unprofitable. Then only can
he know how much feed he can afford to give to each cow to make the high-
est profit.
CONDITIONS OF THE EXPERIMENTS
For the test with cocoanut meal and cottonseed meal, four cows were
selected from the dairy herd and divided into two lots in such a way that the
period of lactation in each lot would be as nearly comparable as possible. The
feeding time was divided into three equal periods qf twenty-one days each;
with seven days' preliminary feeding before each of these periods, so as to
change the feeding gradually. Each lot received the same amount of bran
and shorts; but the cottonseed meal and the cocoanut meal were not fed in





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of concentrates, nor is it requisite to store such a large amount of hay and dry
fodder as must be done farther north. Expensive barns and sheds are not a
necessity here. Less feed will .be required to keep up the normal flow of
milk; for good dairy cows only yield their largest flow of milk when they are
given abundance of succulent food from fresh pasture, from soiling crops,
from root crops, and from the silo-and the best of these is fresh pasture.

MOST PROFITABLE AMOUNTS TO FEED
Every cow has two limits with regard to feeding. First, there is a limit
of capacity; that is, the total amount of feed the cow can possibly eat. Sec-
ond, there is a limit to the amount of feed eaten that can be made use of in
keeping up the energies of the body, and in producing milk. All food sup-
plies between these two limits are worse than wasted; because they not only
give no return whatever, but once in the stomach, it requires extra work for
the cow to rid herself of the excess; thus using time when she could other-
wise be at rest. On the other hand, then we consider that about 60 per
cent. of the food eaten goes to carry on the workings of the different parts of
the animal body, and that only the remaining 40 per cent. is available for
milk production, we see how necessary it is, in order that the cow should do
her best work, that the food should be just enough to reach the limit where
economical production stops. This limit varies with every cow. For, perhaps,
no two cows fed the same amount will both give the most economical re-
turns. One of the cows if fed a few more pounds a day would give larger re-
turns, but this might not be the case with the other cow. Suppose you are
feeding each cow 25 pounds a day, one cow giving two and a half gallons of
milk and the other two gallons; you may find that if you give 30 pounds of
feed to the first cow .she will then produce three and a half gallons, while if
you increase the amount of food given the- other cow, the flow of milk will not
be increased. Hence there may be a considerable waste in feeding for milk.
This brings us to an important point. The dairyman should keep a
complete record of each cow in his herd, including both a-feed record and a
milk record. Then only is he in a position to find the standing of each cow,
and tell which cows are profitable and which are unprofitable. Then only can
he know how much feed he can afford to give to each cow to make the high-
est profit.
CONDITIONS OF THE EXPERIMENTS
For the test with cocoanut meal and cottonseed meal, four cows were
selected from the dairy herd and divided into two lots in such a way that the
period of lactation in each lot would be as nearly comparable as possible. The
feeding time was divided into three equal periods qf twenty-one days each;
with seven days' preliminary feeding before each of these periods, so as to
change the feeding gradually. Each lot received the same amount of bran
and shorts; but the cottonseed meal and the cocoanut meal were not fed in






Bulletin 99


equal, but in approximately equivalent rations, which were calculated from the
results of the chemical analysis, so as to contain equal amounts of protein.
The conditions of the test with sorghum silage and sweet potatoes were the
same as given above, except that six cows were selected from the herd instead
of four. The first test was undertaken to ascertain which of the two manufac-
tured feeds it would be most profitable to employ as a milk producer, at cur-
rent prices. The second test was to ascertain which of the two home-grown
feeds it would be best to use as a milk producer, taking into consideration the
cost of growing them. The first test was conducted during July, August, and
September; the second test during January, February, and March.

FIRST FEEDING EXPERIMENT
TABLE I
FEEDS FOR EACH PERIOD, AND MILK PRODUCED


First Period-July I,
Lot 1' Pounds
Cottonseed meal ---------- 84
Wheat bran--_------------168
Shorts----..--------------.168
Milk produced------ -- 737
Second Period-August 1
Lot 1 Pounds
Cocoanut meal ------------151
Wheat bran ----- ...168
Shorts-----..---..-----....168
Milk produced-------- 544.5
Third Period-September
Lot 1 Pounds
Cottonseed meal ----------- 84
Wheat bran --------------168
Shorts ------..------------168
Milk produced ---------.- 536


8 to August 7, 1907
Lot 2 Pounds
Cocoanut meal-- ....-----151
Wheat bran ------------168
Shorts--...---.......-- ..168
Milk produced--...---- 703.5
5 to September 4, 1907
Lot 2 Pounds
Cottonseed meal -------- 84
Wheat bran ----..----- 168
SShorts_ ----------.---- 168
Milk produced_ ------ 615.5
12 to October 2, 1907
Lot 2 Pounds
Cocoanut meal ----------151
Wheat bran -----... --..-168
Shorts ------ ----------168
Milk produced --------- 596


Pounds
Total cottonseed meal- -------------------_ 252
Total cocoanut meal -------------------------------------453
Milk produced by feeding cottonseed meal, wheat bran, and shorts_-- 1888.5
Milk produced by feeding cocoanut meal, wheat bran, and shorts_-- _1844
Difference in favor of cottonseed meal --------------------- 44.5


Daily Rations per Head for Each Lot
Pounds


Pounds


Cottonseed meal ------------2 Cocoanut meal ----------. 3.6
Wheat bran ---------------4 Wheat bran --------------4
Shorts---.---. ------- -----.. 4 Shorts --------4---------4






Florida AgricUdtural Experiment Station


Table I shows the amounts of milk produced in each period by each lot
of cows, and the total amounts of milk produced by feeding cottonseed meal,
wheat bran, and shorts; and by cocoanut meal, wheat bran, and shorts. It will
be noticed that between the first and second periods each lot of cows dropped
off considerably in their flow of milk. We are unable to account for this.
From the results of this experiment it will be seen that there was little
difference in the total amounts of milk produced by feeding cottonseed meal or
cocoanut meal. But it required nearly two pounds of cocoanut meal to pro-
duce as much milk as did one pound of cottonseed meal. This corresponds
closely to the results of the chemical analysis of these two materials. In
other words this experiment indicates that a unit of protein from cocoanut
meal is very nearly, though not quite, equal to a unit of protein from cotton-
seed meal for milk production. This is equivalent to saying, that for milk
production, one pound of cottonseed meal (38.5 per cent. protein) is equal
to about 1.8 lbs. of cocoanut meal (20.3 per cent. protein). Hence in pur-
chasing cocoanut meal for milk cows, unless it' costs about half as much per
ton as cottonseed meal or less, it is more profitable to buy the latter.

TABLE II


July 18, 1907
Beginning of
First Period
August 7, 1907
End of First
Period -


August 15, 1907
Beginning of
Second Period
Sept. 4, 1907
End of Second
Period


Sept. 12, 1907
Beginning of
Third Period
October 2, 1907
End of Third
Period


WEIGHTS OF COWE
Lot 1 (Cottonseed Meal)
Pounds
Cow No. 7_..... 642
Cow No. 12 ------753

Cow No. 7--------641
Cow No. 12_-----.750

Lot 1 (Cocoanut Meal)

Cow No. 7...---. 642
Cow No. 12--...-- 751

Cow No. 7. ------649
Cow No. 12---...-750

Lot 1 (Cottonseed Meal)

Cow No. 7 -------645
Cow No. 12.------755

Cow No. 7--..-- _-755
Cow. No. 12----.--777


Lot 2 (Cocoanut Meal)
Pounds
Cow No. 4----.....692
Cow No. 9-...--...694

Cow No. 4.-- .....696
Cow No. 9 .----- _692

Lot 2 (Cottonseed Meal)

Cow No. 4 --------694
Cow No. 9 ...------689

Cow No. 4.--------712
Cow No. 9 --------690

Lot, 2 (Cocoanut Meal)

Cow No. 4------ .. 716
Cow No. 9--.......690

Cow No. 4 .-----..730
Cow No. 9-------725






Bulletin 99


Table II shows the weight of each cow at regular intervals during the
experiment. It will be seen that all the cows did little more than retain their
initial weight until the third period, when all gained a little. This can partly
be explained in that the first and second periods were during the warmer part
of the summer season, and at a time when flies and mosquitoes were trouble-
some.
SECOND FEEDING EXPERIMENT
TABLE III
FEEDS FOR EACH PERIOD, AND MILK PRODUCED
First Period-December 31, 1907, to January 20, 1908
Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
Cottonseed meal..-------. 133.8 Cottonseed meal...------133.8
Wheat bran------------ 589 Wheat bran_---------- 589
Sweet potatoes--------- 1606.5 Sorghum silage --------2299.5
Milk 'produced_ -------1059 Milk produced.------. 891.25

Second Period -January 28 to February 17, 1908
Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
Cottonseed meal ------ 133.8 Cottonseed meal-------. 133.8
Wheat bran_- _S- 589 Wheat bran --------- 589
Sorghum silage_ -----.2299.5 Sweet potatoes -----.. 1606.5
Milk produced-----.-- 999.75 Milk produced ---.--- 990.Z5

Third Period-February 25 to March 16, 1908


Lot 1 Pounds
Cottonseed meal--------- 133.8
Wheat bran..- ..------- 589
Sweet potatoes_. --- 1606.5
Milk produced.---- --1072.5


Lot 2 Pounds
Cottonseed meal.. .----- 133.8
Wheat bran--_ _-- 589
Sorghum silage --------. 2299.5
Milk produced-------- 909.25


Pounds
Total sweet potatoes ...---. -------- 4819.5
Total sorghum silage. ----------. ... .. .--------------. 6898.5
Milk produced by feeding sweet potatoes, cottonseed meal, and wheat
bran ----... -------------------------------------3122.25
Milk produced by feeding sorghum silage, cottonseed meal, and wheat
bran ----------- ----------------- 2800.25
Balance in favor of sweet potatoes ---------- -------..-------. 322
Daily Rations per Head for Each Lot
Pounds Pounds
Cottonseed meal.--.--- -- 2.12 Cottonseed meal------ 2.12
Wheat bran-------------- 9.33 Wheat bran ---------- 9.33
Sweet potatoes--. .------,25.5 Sorghum silage -------- 36.5






lorida Agricultural Experiment Station


Table, III shows the amount of milk produced during each feeding pe-
riod by each lot of cows; and the total amount of milk produced by feeding
sweet potatoes, cottonseed meal, and bran, and by feeding sorghum silage,
cottonseed meal, and bran.
It will be noticed that each time sweet potatoes were fed to a lot of cows,
they increased in their flow of milk by 75 to 100 pounds. This would cer-
tainly indicate that sweet potatoes are a better milk producer than sorghum
silage. In the same length of time, the sweet potatoes produced 322 pounds
more milk than did sorghum silage. This table also shows the amounts of
each feed used. Rather less than one and a half times as much silage was
given as sweet potatoes; while each lot of cows was fed the same amount of
cottonseed meal and wheat bran.
TABLE IV


Dec.31, 1907
Beginning of
First Period

January 20, 1908
End of First
Period


January 28, 1908
Beginning of
Second Period
Feb. 17, 1908
End of Second
Period

Feb. 25, 1908
Beginning of
Third Period

March 16, 1908
End of Third
Period


WEIGHTS OF COWS
Lot 1 (Sweet Potatoes)
Pounds
Cow No. 2----.---742
Cow No. 6 .--....664
Cow No. 9 -------765

Cow No: 2_---...-753
Cow No. 6 --..__-640
Cow No. 9 .._---- 754


Lot 1
Cow No.
Cow No.
Cow 'No.

Cow No.
Cow No.
Cow No.
Lot 1
Cow No.
Cow No.
Cow No.

Cow No.
Cpw No.
Cow No.


(Silage)
2. .. .._ 753
6---- .-. 619
9.-------776
2-----.__775
6 -------652
9___'. __- 795
(Sweet Potatoes)
2 -..__ 780
6 -----.657
9 -------816

2 ------.811
6_____ .. 692
9-------_838


Lot 2 (Silage)


Cow No.
Cow No.
Cow No.

Cow No.
.Cow No.
Cow No.


Pounds
5-..------. 681
7----- .-666
13 ------741
5 -------664
7 -------662
13 --753


Lot 2 (Sweet Potatoes)
Cow No. 5 ------679
Cow No. 7 -------674
Cow No. 13 --.---661

Cow No. 5------..711
Cow No. 7----- _-681
Cow No. 13.------790
Lot 2 (Silage)
Cow No. 5 .------711
Cow No. 7 -------688
Cow No. 13 -----.778

Cow No. 5 -------782
Cow No. 7-------719
Cow No. 13 ------798


Table IV shows the weights of cows for each period. From this it will
be seen that all the cows gained in weight during the test. But the gain in
weight was only slight, so that the feeds went mainly to the production of
milk and not to the production of body fat.






Bulletin 99


From these results it follows that 100 pounds of sweet potatoes, with cot-
.tonseed meal and wheat bran, produced 64.8 pounds of milk; while 143
pounds of sorghum silage, with the same amounts of cottonseed meal and
wheat bran, produced 58.1 pounds of milk. Thus sweet potatoes are equal to
about one and a half times their weight of sorghum silage for milk production.
The question now arises whether or not the farmer can produce a ton of
sweet potatoes for the same expenditure of money, as it requires to produce
one and a half tons of sorghum silage.
Silage can be produced for about $4.00 per ton, while it is likely that it
will cost three or four times that amount to produce, a ton of sweet potatoes.
The conclusion to be drawn from the results of this test is, that silage is the
more economical of the two feeds.


TABLE V

COST OF A GALLON OF MILK WITH DIFFERENT RATIONS

Cottonseed Meal

To 126 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred---------. $ 1.89
To 252 pounds wheat bran at- .. $1.63 per hundred -----------4.11
To 252 pounds shorts at--------$1.70 per hundred------------4.28
To pasturing one cow 63 days at__ $2.00 per month -------------4.20
To labor ....----------------......... ---------------- 4.20
Total ------------------------$18.68
Cost of milk per gallon ---------------- 0.17

Cocoanut Meal

To 227 pounds cocoanut meal at _$1.25 per hundred ----------$ 2.84
To 252 pounds wheat bran at.___ $1.63 per hundred ------------4.11
To 252 pounds shorts at------- -$1.70 per hundred------------4.28
To pasturing one,cow 63 days at $2.00 per month ------4.20
To labor-- ------- ...-----------------------------.... 4.20
Total---------- --$19.63
Cost of milk per gallon ------------ $ 0.18

Sweet Potatoes

To 134 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred ----------$ 2.01
To 589 pounds wheat bran at- .- $1.63 per hundred------------9.60
To 261 bushels sweet potatoes at--$ .40 per bushel ------------10.70
To labor .----..----------..------- ------------------ 4.20
Total-- ------------ -$26.51
Cost of milk per gallon ......- .. $ 0.22






10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Sorghum Silage
To .124 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred-- .-------- 2.01
To 589 pounds wheat bran at-... -$1.63 per hundred ------------ 9.60
To- 2,300 pounds sorghum slage at $ .20 per hundred------------ 4.60
To labor .-----. ----------------.----------------. 4.20
Total---------------------$20.41
Cost of milk per gallon ---------------$ 0.19
Interest on investment and depreciation of value are not included.