• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Purpose of Study
 Source of Data
 Main
 Historic background by areas
 An industry in transition
 What of the future?
 Appendix
 Addendum
 Reference






Group Title: Economics report - University of Florida Food and Resource Economic Dept. ; 74
Title: Snap bean production in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027733/00001
 Material Information
Title: Snap bean production in Florida a historic data series
Series Title: Economics report
Physical Description: x, 129p. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rose, G. Norman
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Kidney bean -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 127-129.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027733
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001614566
oclc - 11275469
notis - AHN8992

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Purpose of Study
        Page 2
    Source of Data
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Historic background by areas
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    An industry in transition
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    What of the future?
        Page 105
    Appendix
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
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        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Addendum
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Reference
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






December 1975


Economics Report 74


Snap Bean Production in Florida


A Historic Data


mM


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
in Cooperation with
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service
Statistical Reporting Service
United States Department of Agriculture
Orlando 32803


G. Norman Rose


Series


IIL-- s ~ a C I I 11111
1 I ~II
















FOREWORD


Snap Bean Production in Florida--A Historic Data Series
is the fourth in a series of historical reviews. This history
is a story of hard work by men interested in an independent
life; a place in a free society; a chance to assist in helping
others by providing them a privilege to work; and having the
satisfaction of performing well in helping feed a hungry
nation with nutritious and palatable food.
It is, too, a history of change. Perhaps the machines
which have displaced many workers did an injustice to labor
and our nation.
It is the portrait of the reality of the forces of
nature and man's determination to produce in spite of disaster.
Our nation will not go unfed as long as there are those
who are determined to succeed.












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Leo Polopolus,
Chairman of the Food and Resource Economics Department at the University
of Florida, and to Robert A. McGregor, Statistician in Charge of the
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, for their continued support,
assistance and allocation of time for research, analysis and tabulation
of documented data.
Appreciation is gratefully extended Dr. Donald L. Brooke, Professor
of Food and Resource Economics, for assistance rendered in the preparation
of this manuscript and to Dr. Cecil N. Smith for his patience and skill
in editing it.
The forces of nature have affected bean production tremendously
through the years. Merited praise has been well earned by Warren 0.
Johnson, former Meteorologist in Charge of the Federal-State Agricultural
Weather Service, and Gordon E. Dunn, former Head of the National Hurricane
Center, for their notes on extremes of weather affecting the vegetable
and citrus industries in Florida.
The author acknowledges the capable work of James B. Owens, Charles
Townsend, Jr., M. E. Marks, Reginald Royston and others who were statis-
ticians in vegetable reporting and estimating at various periods during
the history of vegetable estimates by USDA. Much of the narrative and
estimates herein restated are from notes by these men on file with the
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (FCLRS). Mr. Owens specifi-
cally assisted the writer with much of the Everglades material.
The Federal-State Market News Service, and Elmo F. "Mo" Scarborough,
in particular, have been of great assistance to this writer, to FCLRS in
general and to the industry as a whole.
Various growers, shippers, suppliers and transporters were of im-
measurable assistance to the "crop reporters," including the author of this
report. Crop reporting has ever been based on contacts made with men in
these various fields; the information was gratis, usually freely given.
In north Florida and the McIntosh area, guidance in preparing the nar-
rative was provided by M. O. Harrell at Brooker, the late C. D. Newbern and







L. S. Cellon, who farmed in the area north of Gainesville. For information
on the rise and decline of the area around the west side of Orange Lake
thanks are due 0. D. "Buddy" Huff, Jr. and Mark Richardson.
In the Center Hill area thanks go to Mark Sellers for his notes and
pictures on file and to the library of the Orlando Sentinel-Star. In
north central's Sanford-Winter Garden-Zellwood area our thanks go to Roby
Laing, M. L. Cullum, David McAdams, E. G. Stephens and Jack Conrad.
Similar credit goes to Donald Downs, Extension Agent in vegetable
crops, T. B. Ellis and W. B. Sparkman, Jr., for assistance in the Plant
City area and to A. C. McLain and Willis R. Hamiter at Palmetto. To Frank
Connor, Thomas Underwood and M. E. Brown appreciation is expressed for
assistance on the Peace River Valley or Wauchula area.
Notes on file with FCLRS were the main source of information concern-
ing growers in the Everglades, especially those of J. B. Owens, although
Lawrence E. Will's book, "Swamp to Sugar Bowl--Pioneer Days in Belle
Glade,"is an excellent documentation referred to frequently. Robert
"Bob" Creech also was very helpful.
The late Mrs. George Wright of Pompano Beach assisted with names of
pioneer growers of snap beans and other tender vegetables. Mrs. Wright was
the daughter of John W. Umstead, one of the early (1898) settlers in the
Pompano vegetable producing area. Harvey Cheshire, E. E. "Gene" Cooper,
Frank Delegal, Marshall DeWitt, G. B. Hogan, J. N. "Nick" Sloan, Louis
Fisher and Miss Addie Sundy were most helpful in providing a background of
historic information.
In Dade County invaluable assistance was rendered by Mrs. B. R.
Biggers, J. D. Barnes and W. A. Blanchard, but here again most data, es-
pecially since 1945, were from notes on file with FCLRS.
Footnotes are not used in reference to the above, but the assistance
of each person named herein, as well as some others, was most helpful and
the author is indeed grateful.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

PURPOSE OF STUDY . . . . .

SOURCE OF DATA . . . . .

Statistical Records . . . .

Interesting Data to Consider . . .

The Florida Department of Agriculture . .
The Census of Agriculture .. . . .
The Statistical Reporting Service . .
Florida's Production Ranked with National Output.
Snap Beans for Processing . . .

HISTORIC BACKGROUND BY AREAS . . . .

Where It Began . . . . .

Diversification and Its Cause. . .

The North Florida Area. . . ..

Early Transportation . . . .
The Orange Lake or McIntosh Area . .

Pioneers in produce . . .

The North Alachua, Bradford and Union County Area


The North Central Area.. . .

Sumter County . . .
Orange County and the .Zellwood Area
Seminole County . . .


.. ~r


Page

i

ii

vii

x

1

2

2

2

4

4
4
7
7
13

18

18

18

20

20
20

20

21

22

22
24
26





TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


The West Central Area .

The Peace River Valley. .
The Plant City-Ruskin Area.
The Manatee County Area .

The Lower East Coast . .

The Pompano Area . .
The South Dade County Area.
The Everglades Area .

AN INDUSTRY IN TRANSITION . .

Factors Influencing Change .

Production . .
Demand . . .
Financing . . .
Soils and Temperatures. .
Drainage and Irrigation .
Varietal Characteristics .

Green-podded snap beans.

Bush types . .
Pole types . .

Wax yellow-podded beans.

Bush types . .
Pole types . .

Fresh shelling beans .

Bush types. .

Culture . . .
Marketing . . .

Containers . ..
Harvesting and packing
Labor vs. machines .
Selling . .
Transportation . .

Research .. .

WHAT OF THE FUTURE? . .


Page

27

27
27
28

29

29
37
41

45

46

46
46
46
60
62
64

65

65
68

71

71
71

71

71

72
78

78
78
79
84
92

95


. . . 105







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)




Page

APPENDIX. . . . . . . . ... 106

LIMA BEANS. . . . . . . ... 107

Early History . . . . . . 107

Florida Statisti s . . . . . 107

The Pompano A-ea . . . . ... 108
The Everglade:. Area .. . . . . 108
The Plant City Area . . . . . 109
The North Florida Area . . . . 109

SNAP AND LIMA BEANS VERY SUSCEPTIBLE TO
EXTREMES OF ADVERSE WEATHER . . . . ... 109

STATISTICALLY SPEAKING. . . . . . .. 119

Demand for County and Area Data . . . 119

The Federal-State Market News Service (MNS) . . .. 123

ADDENDUM. . . . . . . . 125

REFERENCES. . . ........ . . . 127












LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

1 Florida snap beans, bush and pole types: Acreage, produc-
tion and value as reported to the Commissioner of
Agriculture (FDA) during the crop years shown, 1889-90
through 1925-26. . . . . ... . 5

2 Florida snap beans: Farms reporting and acres harvested
as reported to the Bureau of the Census, 1919 through 1969
census years ... . . . . . 6

3 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, all seasons combined, 1918 through 1971-72 . 8

4 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage,.pproduction
and value, fall 1922 through 1971. . . . .. 10

5 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter 1923 through 1972. . . ... 11

6 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, spring 1918 through 1972. . . ... 12

7 U. S. snap bean production for fresh market: Acreage,
production and value by five crop-year averages, for the
1947-48 through 1971-72 periods. . . . ... 14

8 Florida snap bean production for fresh market: Acreage,
production and value by five crop-year averages, for
the 1947-48 through 1971-72 periods. .. . . 14

9 Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage, production
and value for the calendar years 1934 through 1969 .... 16

10 U. S. snap beans for processing: Acreage, production
and value, calendar-year basis, five-year average
periods. . . . . ... ........ .17

11 Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage (including
equivalent acreages), production and value, calendar-
year basis, five-year average periods. . . ... 17

12 Florida snap beans, bush and pole varieties: Acreage by
counties and state totals as reported to the Commissioner
of Agriculture (FDA) during the crop years shown, 1889-90
through 1925-26. . .. .. . 19







LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

13 Florida snap beans: Dade County pole bean acreage, yield
and production, 1949-50 through 1973-74. . . ... 40

14 Florida snap beans, bush and pole types: Farms reporting
and acreage harvested by counties, and state totals as
reported by the U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1919 through
1969 census years . . . . . .47-48

15 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
harvested by counties and areas. . . . .49-53

16 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
for harvest or harvested, by nine crop-year average
periods, 1928-29 through 1973-74 . . .... .54

17 Florida snap beans: Usual material requirements per acre,
by areas, as determined by surveys conducted during 1943
through 1948 . . . . . . 73

18 Florida snap beans: Usual material requirements per acre,
by areas, as determined by surveys conducted during 1959
through 1961 . . . . . . 74

19 Florida snap beans: Usual season of operations, by areas,
as determined by surveys conducted during 1943 through
1948 . .... . . . . ..... 77

20 Florida snap beans: Usual season of operations, by areas,
as determined by surveys conducted during 1959 through
1961 . .. .. . . . . . 78

21 Florida snap beans: Labor requirements in hours per acre,
by areas, 1943 through 1948. . . . ... 80

22 Florida snap beans: Labor requirements in hours per acre,
by areas, 1959 through 1961. . ... ....... .80

23 Florida snap beans: Volume and value of sales over the
Pompano State Farmers Market from 1939-40 through 1973-74. 87

24 Florida snap beans: Volume and value of sales over the
Plant City State Farmers Market from 1938-39 through
1973-74. . . . . * 89

25 Florida snap beans: Volume and value of sales over the
Florida City State Farmers Market from 1939-40 through
1973-74 . . . . . . 90


viii






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)



Table Page

26 Florida snap beans: Volume and value of sales over the
Gadsden County State Farmers Market from 1954-55 through
1973-74. . . . . ... ........ .91

27 United States snap beans for fresh market: Monthly average
prices received per hundredweight, crop years 1953-54
through 1971-72. . . . . ... ..... 93

28 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Monthly average
prices received per hundredweight, crop years 1953-54
through 1971-72. . . . . . 93

29 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing:
Interstate shipments by months during crop years 1949-50
through 1973-74. . . . ... ...... 96

30 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing:
Monthly percentage of distribution of interstate shipments,
1949-50 through 1973-74 crop years . . .... .96

31 Florida snap beans: Costs and returns for the 1948-49
through 1952-53 five crop-year period. . ... 97

32 Florida bush snap beans: Costs and returns.per acre and
per crate in the Pompano area (east Palm Beach-Broward)
during the five crop-year periods, 1948-52, 1962-66 and
1969-73. . . . . .. . 98

33 Florida bush snap beans: Costs and returns per acre and per
crate in the Everglades area during the five crop-year
periods, 1948-52 and 1962-66, and the 1966-67 crop year 99

34 Florida pole snap beans: Costs and returns per acre in the
Dade County area for the five crop-year periods, 1949-53,
1962-66 and 1969-73. . . . . ... .. 100

35 Florida lima beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, winter and spring combined, crop years 1933-34
through 1967-68. . . . . ... . 110

36 Florida lima beans: Acres harvested by areas, winter and
spring combined,crop years 1933-34 through 1967-68 . .. 111

37 Florida lima beans: Costs and returns for the average crop-
year period as designated. . . . .... 112

38 Florida snap and lima beans: Adverse effects of extremes
of weather on production . . . .... .114-118


ix






LIST OF TABLES (Continued)




Table Page

39 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acreage,
production (converted to bushels) and value for crop years
1917-18 through 1971-72. ..... ... . ..... . 122

40 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production
and value, fall, winter, spring and total, crop years
1972-73 and 1973-74. .... . . . .. ..... 125

41 Florida snap beans: Monthly production sold and prices
received, 1972-73 and 1973-74 crop years. . . ... 126



LIST OF FIGURES



Figure

1 Florida snap beans: Farms reporting and acres harvested as
reported to the Bureau of the Census, 1919 through 1969
census years. . .... .... . 6

2 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage harvested and
production sold, 1918-72. .. . . . . 9

3 Florida snap bean production for fresh market vs. U. S.
production by five-year averages, 1947-48 through 1971-72 14

4 Florida snap bean production for processing vs. U. S.
production for processing as indicated in Tables 10 and 11. 17

5 Florida snap beans: Average acres for harvest or harvested
by periods of nine-year averages, by areas, 1928-29 through
1973-74 (based on Table 16) .... .. ..... . . 54

6 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
for harvest during the 1928-29 crop year. .. ..... ... 55

7 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
for harvest during the 1943-44 crop year. ... .... ...... .56

8 Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres
for harvest during the 1958-59 crop year. . . 57

9 Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acres harvested
during the 1973-74 crop year. .. . . . .58











SNAP BEAN PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA--
A HISTORIC DATA SERIES


G. Norman Rose


INTRODUCTION


Snap beans are believed to have originated in Central America and
were distributed widely over the Americas by the Indians. Their culture
may be older than that of lima beans; at least, the greater range of
cultivation of snap beans and their greater diversity in North America
would so indicate.
Snap beans are not the type of beans mentioned in the Bible or the
historic records of the "Old World." However, they were introduced into
Europe and Asia shortly after they were discovered and became popular
very quickly. Snap beans are mentioned as being grown in Europe about
1542; by 1616 a large number of varieties and types were described. The
English first used the name "kidney bean" in 1551 to distinguish the
American common bean from the "Old World" types.
It has been a little more than a century since the truly stringless,
nearly fiberless, tender-podded varieties were developed. A desire for
a stringless pod gave the initial impetus to American bean breeding about
1890 [12].
Florida has been growing snap beans for 100 years and possibly long-
er. Indications of their culture go back to the 1870s. From small plant-
ings in the formative years, when transportation to market was the key
factor in the successful vocation of a Florida producer of fresh vegetables
for market, production of snap beans has increased to many thousands of
acres and multiples of daily loadings of carload lots. Florida's climatic

G. NORMAN ROSE is an associate professor of food and resource
economics at the University of Florida. He is stationed with the
Florida office of the Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture in Orlando where, since 1945, he has
collaborated in vegetable crops estimating and reporting.








conditions, its sandy, organic and marl soils, and adequate water supplies
have been and still are conducive to economic production of snap beans; for
many years the demand for fresh beans has been met in population centers
north of Florida during periods .when their local and nearby areas are dormant.
Florida is the only state that grows snap beans during the winter months in
sufficient quantity to warrant estimates and reports in the national crop
reporting program.


PURPOSE OF STUDY


This study is the fourth in a series of historic data compilations on
Florida vegetables. Not only are statistical data presented but also his-
toric memorabilia relating to the various producing areas. Names of
pioneer developers and planters, or those who contributed in bringing about
constructive methods and change, are recorded for posterity. The transition
locally has been very pronounced, brought about by natural and economic
factors. Some localities, once heavy producers of snap beans for fresh
market and sometimes also for processing, no longer grow beans commercially.


SOURCE OF DATA


Statistical Records


Statistical data presented are documented estimates of acreage, pro-
duction and value. During the late years of the nineteenth and the early
years of the twentieth century, reports were made by knowledgeable persons
in most of the various counties to the Commissioner of Agriculture in the
Florida Department of Agriculture (FDA) [11]. In 1918 estimates of acre-
age, production and value of vegetables in Florida became a part of the
program of national estimates issued periodically by the Bureau of Crop
Estimates which became the Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAE) of the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1922. This agency later
changed its name to the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) and in 1961
with intermittent minor changes in nomenclature (but not in purpose) to the
Statistical Reporting Service (SRS), which continues to be the official
estimating agency of all states [30]. Within Florida SRS collaboration








conditions, its sandy, organic and marl soils, and adequate water supplies
have been and still are conducive to economic production of snap beans; for
many years the demand for fresh beans has been met in population centers
north of Florida during periods .when their local and nearby areas are dormant.
Florida is the only state that grows snap beans during the winter months in
sufficient quantity to warrant estimates and reports in the national crop
reporting program.


PURPOSE OF STUDY


This study is the fourth in a series of historic data compilations on
Florida vegetables. Not only are statistical data presented but also his-
toric memorabilia relating to the various producing areas. Names of
pioneer developers and planters, or those who contributed in bringing about
constructive methods and change, are recorded for posterity. The transition
locally has been very pronounced, brought about by natural and economic
factors. Some localities, once heavy producers of snap beans for fresh
market and sometimes also for processing, no longer grow beans commercially.


SOURCE OF DATA


Statistical Records


Statistical data presented are documented estimates of acreage, pro-
duction and value. During the late years of the nineteenth and the early
years of the twentieth century, reports were made by knowledgeable persons
in most of the various counties to the Commissioner of Agriculture in the
Florida Department of Agriculture (FDA) [11]. In 1918 estimates of acre-
age, production and value of vegetables in Florida became a part of the
program of national estimates issued periodically by the Bureau of Crop
Estimates which became the Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAE) of the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1922. This agency later
changed its name to the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) and in 1961
with intermittent minor changes in nomenclature (but not in purpose) to the
Statistical Reporting Service (SRS), which continues to be the official
estimating agency of all states [30]. Within Florida SRS collaboration









with FDA and the Agricultural Experiment Stations is active. All reports
are released by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (FCLRS)
[10].
All official estimates of yield, production and average price are on
a hundredweight (cwt.) basis. In the reports of the Florida State Farmers
Markets the bushel units are shown, but these were converted to cwt. in the
"all" combination such that the tables are comparable with SRS data.
The U. S. Bureau of the Census (USBC) is the primary source of data
documenting the numbers of farm operators. Unfortunately, records of the
number of farm operators were not available until the census of 1929 [28].
The acreage, production and value listed by FDA are assumed to be for
an entire crop year. USBC data are supposedly for calendar years, but it
is generally considered that the reports are for a crop year. BAE and
later SRS reports have mostly been broken into three seasons, i.e., late
fall, winter and early spring. In this report the three seasons are
given, but are also combined into an "all" table. Processing bean acre-
age, production and value are listed separately and are on a calendar
year basis.
Bush beans, pole beans and the few known cranberry beans (not a snap
bean) make up an estimate for a season. Fall beans are those that are
harvested from the beginning of the new season, usually in September (West
Florida), and continue through December 31; winter production is that ac-
reage which has been planted to be picked between January 1 and March 31;
and the spring crop is that portion of the acreage left to be picked on
or after April 1. Usually a season's harvest in Florida is completed by
early or mid-June.
Information other than statistical data was obtained by contacting
early pioneer growers or their descendants and by researching libraries.
Appreciation to contacts is noted in the acknowledgments. Where possible,
early settlers were given credit for their participation in an industry
that had a tremendous part in making Florida an outstanding producer of
fresh vegetables.









Interesting Data to Consider


The Florida Department of Agriculture

The reports of the various counties to the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture began with the first biennial report in 1889-90. The aggregate of
these annual reports is shown in Table 1. Very little is known about the
accuracy of these data or just what type of sale was involved, i.e.,
whether the cost of selling and of the hamper were included. Most likely
the cost of the container, and of picking and packing were included as
most beans were packed in the field, but it is likely that the selling
charge was not included. It is interesting to note that the bean data
reported must have been for market since most reporters gave odd figures for
for production statistics. The totals for 1919, 1923 and 1926 may be com-
pared with those made by BAE. The acreage continued small, even through
the World War I (WWI) period (only 8,000 acres in 1918), but increased
appreciably during the early '20s. Often an important county would fail
to report and this would affect the total appreciably [11].

The Census of Agriculture

Florida farms reporting the culture of snap beans to the USBC have
provided data for what has become a national trend--that of a declining
number of farms. Fortunately the amount grown has not declined in ratio.
Figure 1 shows graphically the peak number of farms reporting snap bean
production in 1934 (8,724 operators) and how they declined as the de-
pression years advanced during the '30s. Evidently the war economy kept
production of snap beans, a price-controlled commodity, from a contin-
uation of a sharp, downward trend; nevertheless, by 1949, the trend for
the farmers to cease bean production was verified by reports of fewer farm
operators through five consecutive censuses, as shown in Table 2. In 1969
the number of operators had dropped to 271.
Acreage and production had a tendency to hold at a more even keel as
the depression faded into the World War II (WWII) economy.
No data were available on a commodity basis in the 1909 Census of
Agriculture. ..The value of vegetable production was listed by counties.
Dade was the lone county exceeding $1 million. The monetary value re-
ported included production in what was later to become Broward County







Table 1 .--Florida snap beans, bush and pole types: Acreage, production and value as
reported to the Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA) during the crop years
shown, 1889-90 through 1925-26

Crop Acres Yield Productiona Price ter Total
Year harvested per acre I cwt. value


1889-90
1891-92
1893-94
1895-96
1897-98

1899-00
1900-01
1901-02
1902-03
1903-04

1904-05
1905-06
1907-08
1909-10
1911-12

1913-14
1915-16
1917-18
1919-20
1923-24

1925-26


Acres
804
977
1,214
2,770
3,183

2,199
2,118
3,284
2,476
3,241

4,366
3,891
4,150
5,049
6,297

7,728
6,856
8,006
3,398
11,155

20,697


Cwt.
32
25
27
27
34

24
22
28
28
27

22
30
18
27
37

32
21
51
31
29


Cwt.
25,386
24,185
32,605
73,779
108,179

51,806
45,695
92,145
69,844
87,892

96,969
118,010
72,962
133,864
230,490

2.49,888
145,623
408,040
105,625
322,027

466,350


production in bushels was converted to hundredweight (cwt.) on the basis of
30-lb. per bu. Yields were derived by dividing production in cwt. by the acres har-
vested and rounding to nearest whole cwt.
prices were derived by dividing total value by the total cwt.

Source: [11].


Dollars
2.91
4.66
4.69
4.03
2.44

2.88
4.21
3.79
3.56
3.54

3.71
3.79
4.40
4.17
4.09

5.72
4.57
4.74
3.71
6.70


5.16


Dollars
73,805
112,822
152,946
297,484
264,120

149,175
192,251
349,152
248,689
311,205

359,615
447,496
321,001
558,801
943,221

1,428,367
666,169
1,933,578
391,706
2,159,686

2,405,021








.Farms ,
report-
ing (000


0 I I I I i I
1919 '24 '29 '34 '39 '44 '49 '54
- -- - Census',years -
Figure 1.--Florida snap beans: Farms reporting and
ported to the Bureau of the Census, 1919


Acres
harvested
(1,000)
90


S80

sted 70
70


60


s50


40


\- 30


S 20


10


I I 0
'59 '64 1969
- - *
acres harvested as re-
through 1969 census years


Table 2.--Florida snap beans: Farms reporting and acres harvested as report-
ed to the Bureau of the Census, 1919 through 1969 census years

Census years Farms reporting Average per farm Acres harvested

Year Number Acres -: Acres
1919 NA 8,522
1929 6,509, .. 4.6 29,984
1934 8,724 7.2 62,592
1939 4,424 14.4 63,558
1944 4,331 21.1 91,206

1949 2,703 27.5 74,437
1954 1,855 30.4 56,407
1959 883 41.7 36,805
1964 536 73.2 39,213
1969 271 87.1 23,612

Source: [28].









(April 30, 1915), a leader in beans and other vegetables. Second in value
was production from Marion County ($684,000), followed by Manatee ($649,000),
Alachua ($602,000), Palm Beach ($531,000) and St. Johns ($523,000). All
the rest were under $500,000, but Orange ($483,000), Sumter ($473,000) and
Hillsborough ($383,000) were important, relatively speaking. Farms in
most of these counties grew beans with their other vegetables [28].

The Statistical Reporting Service

The crest in acreage of snap beans harvested in Florida as determined
by the Census of Agriculture was in 1944, when over 91,000 acres were found.
This peak figure is substantiated by BAE which credited the state that crop
year (1943-44) with 83,500 acres for fresh utilization and 14,500 acres for
processing or a total of 98,000 acres (Tables 3, 4, 5 and 6). This was an
all-time record in acres harvested since Florida's federal reporting of
vegetables started in 1918. Economic abandonment was very light in spite
of this large acreage. However, two crop years later it was very heavy,
second only to that of 1950-51 when a record 386,000 cwt. (1,287,000
hampers) was left in the field [30].
At that time, harvest was by hand and pickers often refused to work a
field for light-yielding seconds and thirds. High volume would depress
markets and make the second pickings a gamble, especially when the picking
crews demanded more per hamper. Thus, labor costs and poor markets inter-
acted, the result being economic abandonment. From 1944-45 through 1951-52
economic abandonment was excessive.
With the advent of mechanical harvesting, beans are allowed to mature
slightly more than when hand-picked and the once-over harvest operation gets
all the beans on the plants. At the start a few growers hand-picked the
first picking and followed with the mechanical harvester (see Labor vs.
mechanical harvesting, p. 79). Acreage and production from 1918 through
1972 are graphically presented in Figure 2.

Florida's Production Ranked with National Output

Since Florida snap bean production is on a crop year rather than a
calendar year basis, the order of seasons is always fall, winter and spring.
In comparing Florida production by five crop-year periods with that of
the U. S., it was necessary to adjust the latter to Florida's level for













Table 3. -- Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production and value, all seasons combined, 1918
through 1971-72

Crop Acreage Yield T Production_ Averacge a
year Planted Harvested per acre Total I Not marketed Marketed price Value


-------Acres --------
1918 5,700
1919 10,200
1920 8,100
1921 8,000
1922 12,300

1922-23 14,500
1923-24 19,800
1924-25 20,500
1925-26 16,000
1926-27 19,700

1927-28 29,450
1928-29 27,000
1929-30 35,800
1930-31 40,000
1931-32 41,500

1932-33 50,800
1933-34 62,800
1934-35 67,000
1935-36 59,200
1936-37 58,800

1937-38 60,700
1938-39 64,000
1939-40 82,000 52,000
1940-41 69,500 62,500
1941-42 92,000 55,300

1942-43 71,300 50,000
1943-44 87,500 83,500
1944-45 88,000 64,300
1945-46 96,800 69,600
1946-47 114,950 72,600

1947-48 74,900 67,600
1948-49 73,400 69,800
1949-50 90,000 68,100
1950-51 86,700 66,900
1951-52 71,100 65,800

1952-53 55,400 49,000
1953-54 58,200 52,200
1054-55 62,900 57,400
1955-56 61,100 52,500
1956-57 54,800 44,700

1957-58 58,300 43,000
1958-59 48,100 44,000
1959-60 54,600 45,400
1960-61 46,200 42,100
1961-62 46,200 42,400

1962-63 46,400 40,600
1963-64 41,800 36,700
1964-65 39,600 36,300
1965-66 41,600 37,000
1966-67 40,200 37,100

1967-68 40,700 38,800
1968-69 39,100 37,500
1969-70 37,700 34,600
1970-71 36,700 35,200
1971-72 37,600 36,100


wt, ---------- 1000 cwt----------


513 0
702 0
952 0
1,013 0
1,352 85

1,500 43
1,913 129
1,475 0
1,255 0
1,407 0

1,614 0
2,140 86
1,527 0
1,734 0
1,736 0

1,672 0
2,124 30
1,782 151
2,168 365
1,863 233

1,750 159
2,291 343
1,947 77
2,017 386
1,927 124

1,535 0
1,829 35
2,123 78
1,844 55
1,501 0

1,274 65
1,379 49
1,426 35
1,544 35
1,586 85

1,452 45
1,454 107
1,436 98
1,325 0
1,396 0

1,442 38
1,317 0
989 0
1,243 0
1,280 0


197
324
255
300
376

451
452
531
353
479

513
702
952
1,013
1,267

1,457
1,784
1,475
1,255
1,407

1,614
2,054
1,527
1,734
1,736

1,672
2,094
1,631
1,803
1,630

1,591
1,948
1,870
1,631
1,803

1,535
1,794
2,045
1,789
1,501

1,209
1,330
1,391
1,509
1,501

1,407
1,347c
1,338
1,325
1,396

1,404
1,317
989
1,243
1,280


Dollars 1000 dollars
4.67 918
6.67 2,162
6.33 1,615
6.83 2,050
7.50 2,824

7.75 3,223
8.87 4,009
6.98 3,705
10.62 3,748
7.17 3,433

7.61 3,902
7.76 5,448
7.15 6,805
6.51 6,592
4.70 5,958

2.99 4,356
3.42 6,099
4.00 5,902
4.98 6,250
5.00 7,037

3.89 6,272
3.45 7,094
4.90 7,480
5.15 8,933
6.15 10,669

8.72 14,585
8.55 17,909
9.73 15,866
8.99 16,216
9.02 14,700

8.71 13,861
8.17 15,922
8.30 15,529
9.63 15,711
9.18 16,554

10.68 16,388
8.62b 15,460
9.02 18,443
8.99 16,089
10.57 15,862

9.97 12,051
9.81 13,049
10.87 15,124
9.75 14,713
10.19 15,293

10.78 15,174
11.22 15,118
11.44 15,307
12.31 16,309
12.88 17,974

12.57 17,642
13.00 17,116
16.96 16,769
14.57 18,114
15.39 19,697


aValue based on marketed production.

bAverage prices prior to 1954exclude sellingchargeat shipping pointbut include It In 1964 and subsequent years.

CYield in 1964 and subsequent crop years based on marketed production.

Source: [LJ].














Table 4. -- Florida snap bxans for frlshI nmirkl : Avrtt'ii' l ipri. lti< llii IAw vaIyle. i*fall I II22 thlirou h 1i197


Year Acre' Yll ...... l ,l .. ... ... Avr ,T,
Planted I Ilarlt.l d M t Nott, ,; --ti.rI J-.t. Mri-' lt I' h Value


i... Acres-----------
1,000
3,500
3,800
4,000
3,900

12,050
4,500
8,700
14,000
14,000

10,500
20,500
14,000
11,000
18,200


17,500
22,000
22,000

14,000
23,000
28,200
27,000
32,950

22,600
24,000
27,500
26,800
23,700

19,000
18,900
19,700
19,400
18,500

17,600
15,500
15,800
12,400
15,100

13,000
9,800
12,300
11,700
11,500

11,700
10,100
10,100
10,200
10,800


12,500
18,000
15,000
19,000
16,500

11,000
23,000
14,000
18,100
20,400

17,900
23,000
15,500
11,600
20,700

15,400
17,000
16,600
18,300
15,400

15,300
14,700
12,700
11,600
13,200

11,100
9,300
10,700
8,600
9,100

11,000
9,500
9,500
9,800
10,200


26
31
21
27
22

15
20
28
25
40

28
32
22
30
30

33
45
30
42
42

50
38
28
32
30

27
34
28
21
30

24
33
33
37
32

33
38
26
39
42

36
40
38a
42
39

43
35
32
42
40


--------1 000 wlt


2(1
1061
HO
80
107
83

181
92
248
353
567


aYield in 1964 and subsequent seasons based on marketed production.


bAverage prices January 1, 1959 and subsequent crop years are
shipping point; prior years exclude selling charges.

Source: [30 ]

I


f.o.b. and include selling charge at the


1937
1938
1939
1940
1941

1942
1943
1944
1945
1946

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951

1952
1953
1954
1955
1956

1957
1958
1959
1960
1961


l)ollnr
10.00
9.17
12.50
9.00
7.17

3.50
12.53
5.67
5.00
3.67

4.67
2.17
4.33
4.33
3.33

5.67
2.33
5.33
2.67
4.83

7.83
7.67
9.83
8.83
9.17

8.50
6.67
9.15.
13.35
8.00

12.00
7.85
9.50
7.50
9.70

9.50
7.30
12.20b
9.00
8.10

11.50
11.90
10.20
13.00
14.60

11.00
16.60
19.00
12.80
16.20


1.000 dollars
255
990
998
961
628

632
1,151
1,404
1,764
2,079

1,397
1,119
1,365
1,430
1,820

2,338
1,688
2,400
2,128
3,350

4,265
6,612
3,924
4,094
5,610

3,705
3,716
3,971
3,257
3,976

4,440
4,129
5,206
4,845
4,782

4,798
3,723
4,026b
4,068
4,082

4,600
4,427
4,151
4,693
5,183

5,203
5,511
5,776
5,274
6,610






10





Table 5. Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage, production and value, winter 1923 through 1972


Year Acreage Yield Production Average I
Planted Harvested per acre Total Not marketed Marketed .price Value


------- Acres----------


31,000
36,000
26,500
31,000

29,100
39,500
36,200
44,700
45,000

34,400
31,400
P7,500
36,500
31,300

23,600
24,300
26,100
25,300
23,200

22,000
19,700
21,400
19,400
19,800

20,900
18,900
16,800
16,800
17,200

15,200
15,600
15,200
14,000
15,300


3,000
5,000
5,600
2,000
.3,950

4,800
10,500
11,000
8,000
14,000

26,800
21,000
28,000
29,100
28,900

30,000
31,000
17,000
26,500
21,000

23,000
38,500
33,700
35,700
25,500

32,800
30,100
32,600
32,800
30,300

22,300
23,600
24,600
21,600
18,800

9,500
18,500
16,300
18,300
19,300

19,700
16,500
15,500
16,300
17,000

14,900
15,300
13,000
13,400
15,100


-------1.000 cwt ---------


105
290
337
228
445

772
756
672
524
538

765
790
357
477
536

552
866
910
1,124
650

836
963
913
918
818

758
850
959
713
620

114
518
473
604
695

650
570
568
456
612

492
566
286
375
483


94
141
151
51
107

105
290
337
228
445

772
756
672
524
538

765
790
357
477
536

552
866
880
943
547

724
963
S913
823
818

758
850
922
713
620

114
518
473
604
660

605
528
527
456
612

492
566
286
375
483


aYield in 1964 and subsequent seasons based on marketed production.


bAverage prices January 1, 1959 and subsequent years are f.o.b.
shipping point; prior years exclude selling charges.

Source: [30].


and include selling charge at the


1938
1939
1940
1941
1942

1943
1944
1945
1946
1947

1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957

1958
1959
1960
1961
1962

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

1968
1969
1970
1971
1972


Dollars
9.83
8.67
7.67
18.33
11.17

15.67
8.27
9.50
12.33
5.47

2.67
4.33
4.33
5.50
5.50

4,00
4.33
6.83
8.33
7.67

10.00
9.17
10.17
9.00
9.17

8.67
9.35
8.65
9.65
9.50

10.85
9.15
9.15
9.80
11.30

18.60
11.30b
12.40
10.80
10.40

10.70
12.30
12.20
14.00
12.70

15.20
13.10
19.60
17.70
15.90


1.000 dollars
929
1,222
1,159
935
1,193

1,645
2,396
3,198
2,812
2,434

2,058
3,276
2,912
2,881
2,957

3,060
3,426
2,440
3,975
4,106

5,520
7,942
8,946
8,492
5,016

6,279
9,004
7,897
7,942
7,771

8,224
7,778
8,436
6,987
7,006

2,120
5,853b
5,865
6,523
6,864

6,474
6,494
6,429
6,384
7,772

7,478
7,415
5,606
6,638
7,680












Table 6 .--Florida snap bIans for fresh market: Acre:gei, producllcn and value, spring, 1918 through 1972

Year Acreage Yield aProduction Average
Yer Planted n Harvested per acre Total Not marketed Marketed rice Value
--------- Acres---------- Cwt. ------------- 1000 wt------------- Dollars 000 dollars

1918 5,700 34 197 0 197 4.67 918
1919 10,200 32 324 0 324 6.67 2,162
1920 8,100 32 255 0 255 6.33 1,615
1921 8,000 38 300 0 300 6.83 2,050
1922 12,300 31 376 0 376 7.50 2,824

1923 10,500 32 331 0 331 6.17 2,039
1924 11,300 18 203 0 203 8.83 1,797
1925 11,100 27 300 0 300 5.17 1,548
1926 10,000 20 195 0 195 9.50 1,852
1927 11,850 24 284 0 284 5.67 1,612

1928 12,600 18 227 0 227 7.17 1,625
1929 12,000 27 320 0 320 5.93 1,901
1930 16,100 23 367 0 367 6.00 2,203
1931 18,000 24 432 0 432 4.67 2,016
1932 13,500 25 340 85 255 5.67 1,445

1933 13,500 32 429 43 386 2.33 901
1934 21,300 24 511 0 511 3.33 1,704
1935 25,000 20 488 0 488 3.33 1,625
1936 19,100 21 401 0 401 4.83 1,939
1937 11,700 28 323 0 323 7.00 2,260

1938 18,200 24 437 0 437 2.00 874
1939 15,000 15,000 36 540 0 540 3.67 1,980
1940 28,500 20,000 36 720 0 720 3.67 2,640
1941 21,000 17,000 27 459 0 459 6.17 2,830
1942 39,000 17,800 28 507 0 507 6.33 3,213

1943 28,200 16,000 36 576 0 576 8.33 4,800
1944 25,000 22,000 18 396 30 366 9.17 3,355
1945 23,600 16,600 28 473 121 352 8.50 2,996
1946 25,100 15,800 30 474 78 396 9.17 3,630
1947 37,000 26,700 22 601 130 471 8.67 4,074

1948 17,900 16,900 26 431 0 431 9.00 3,877
1949 18,000 16,700 32 534 107 427 7.50 3,202
1950 25,000 20,000 30 600 77 523 7.00 3,661
1951 23,400 22,500 38 855 291 564 8.00 4,512
1952 16,100 14,800 33 488 0 488 9.85 4,807

1953 12,800 11,300 36 407 0 407 9.15 3,724
1954 15,000 11,600 36 418 0 418 8.50 3,553
1955 17,100 16,200 38 616 41 575 8.35 4,801
1956 16,400 12,600 36 454 24 430 9.90 4,257
1957 13,100 10,500 37 388 0 388 10.50 4,074

1958 18,700 18,200 36 655 65 590 8.70 5,133
1959 12,900 10,800 28 302 0 302 11.50b 3,473
1960 17,400 16,400 38 623 35 588 8.90 5,233
1961 14,400 12,200 40 488 35 453 9.10 4,122
1962 11,300 9,900 34 337 0 337 12.90 4,347

1963 12,500 9,800 41 402 0 402 10.20 4,100
1964 13,100 10,900 41a 512 65 447 9.39 4,197
1965 10,500 10,100 40 429 25 404 11.70 4,727
1966 13,100 12,100 42 508 0 508 10.30 5,232
1967 11,500 11,000 39 429 0 429 11.70 5,019

1968 13,800 12,900 34 477 38 439 11.30 4,961
1969 13,400 12,700 33 419 0 419 10.00 4,190
1970 12,400 12,100 33 399 0 399 13.50 5.387
1971 12,500 12,000 38 456 0 456 13.60 6,202
1972 11,500 10,800 36 389 0 389 13.90 5,407

ayield in 1964 and subsequent seasons based on marketed production.

bAverage pries January 1, 1959 and subsequent crop years are f.o.b. and include selling charge at the shipping point;
prior years exclude selling charges.
Source: [30].













HarvestedHarvested
acres ."" "* --- -*- Harvested
acres production
1000 (1,000 cwt.)

80 3,200




70 L 2,800




60 2,400
50 I- ";



o 2,000


I1 I
i I\ ^\!\!^I
40 1,600






I t 0
30 1i 0 2004





.\ /I -- --- Production marketed (hundred-
i0 \ weight) 400




i I i I I 0
1920 '25 '30 '35 '40 '45 '50 '55 '60 '65 '70
------------------------ Crop years ending----------------------------
Figure 2.--Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acreage harvested and production
sold, 1918-72









comparability. Thus, the U. S. production (Table 7) shows production during
a crop year like that of Florida (Table 8). This comparison is illustrated
in Figure 3 [30]. In fresh market bean production Florida feeds the nation
and Canada during the late fall, .winter and early spring months. This is,
relatively speaking, 35 percent of the nation's annual production.

Snap Beans for Processing

For many years few beans were planted specifically for processing,
but many growers would fall back on bulk sales to canners to dispose of
surplus beans when supplies, exceeding demand, would force the fresh mar-
ket price down. Some processors were as selective concerning quality as
some of the more fastidious fresh buyers. Others were willing to sacrifice
quality for price and thus there was an outlet for older or second picked
beans. The utilizers of snap beans for freezing were concerned about
quality and canners were fast becoming quality conscious. The demand for
the best resulted in acreage being contracted specifically for processing,
rather than relying on open market sales.
For many years the USDA statisticians determined utilization of
Florida beans for processing and estimated an equivalent acreage to cover
such utilization each season. This was difficult since each season had to
be treated separately. Fall had to be added to the previous winter and
spring to make out a calendar year for the national calendar year estimate
but, for Florida's annual summaries, that same fall was placed into a
crop-year concept of fall, winter and spring for the "all" season produc-
tion. This is where it logically belongs.
Processing of Florida snap beans took a sharp increase in 1941, in-
creasing from an insignificant 300 acres in 1940 to 5,000 acres in 1941.
By 1943, World War II demand pushed utilization by processors sharply
upward such that bean production (36,570 tons) from an equivalent 21,200
acres was utilized. This set a record that has not been broken; the
closest was the 32,290 tons utilized in processing from 18,700 acres in
1953.
Frequently the second and, sometimes, third pickings beans would be
refused or priced too low for the fresh market, but would be bought by a
cannery broker, ever on the alert for good buys. First pickings likely had
already sold for fresh market consumption, but when the fresh market















Periods

(1) F lorida3 U. .










(4) a 3%.



(6) oU. S8


1 2 3 4 5
-- --- ---------------- Million cwt----------------------------....

Figure 3.--Florida snap bean production for fresh market vs. U. S. production by
five-year averages, 1947-48 through 1971-72





Table 7.--U. S. snap bean production for fresh market: Acreage, production and value by five crop-year averages, for the
1947-48 through 1971-72 periods

Acreage Production
Average period Yield Price Value
Planted Harvested per acre Total Not Marketd per cwt.
SI marketed
------ Acres-------- Cwt. -------------1,000 ct. ----------- Dollars 1,000 dols

(1) 1947-48 to 1951-52 197,830 182,890 31 5,629 236 6,393 8.17 43,911

(2) 1952-53 to 1956-57 154,900 143,360 35 4,940 77 4,867 8.91 43,129

(3) 1957-58 to 1961-62 129,160 119,400 37 4,361 70 4,291 8.81 37,810

(4) 1982-63 to 1966-67 108,880 100,060 38 3,853 113 3,785 10.76 40,598

(5) 1967-68 to 1971-72 92,960 87,690 37 3,249 38 3,242 13.38 43,197


Table $.--Florida snap bean production for fresh market: Acreage, production and value by five crop-year averages, for the
1947-48 through 1971-72 periods

Acreage Production
Average period A Yield P c Price Value
Planted Harvested per acre Total Not Marketed per cwt.
per _marketed prI.

--------- Acres-------- Cwt. ----- 000 cwt ----------- Dollars 1.000 dols.

(1) 1947-48 to 1951-52 79,220 67,640 20 1,986 218 1,769 8.80 15,515

(2) 1952-53 to 1956-57 58,480 51,160 34 1,766 34 1,733 9.58 16,448

(3) 1957-58 to 1961-62 50,680 43,380 33 1,442 54 1,388 10.12 14,046

(4) 1962-63 to 1966-67 41,920 37,540 37 1,413 50 1,363 11.73 15,976

(5) 1967-68 to 1971-72 38,360 36,440 34 1,254 8 1,247 14.50 17,868

Source: (30].








became glutted, even first pickings were diverted to processors. Some-
times a processor would have a large truck at the farm and beans would be
poured up bulk or, if diverted to processing after being packed for fresh
market, the expense of opening and pouring the beans from the hamper to
the bulk truck had to be taken into consideration. The hampers reverted
to the grower.
FCLRS files list 22 Florida-based processing firms utilizing 1943
bean production, plus six interstate firms. Actually the six interstate
firms were in excess of that number, as a Baltimore, Md. area survey was
counted as one, but apparently represented all firms in that area.
Statistics are available from 1934, the year of the first official
estimate of utilization in processing, through 1969. In 1970 publication
of acreage, production and value was terminated to avoid disclosure of
the firms processing the bulk of Florida's processing beans. Publication
has not been resumed. The reader will note the acreage and production
had once more declined to a rather low level (Table 9). Tables 10 and 11
compare the utilization in Florida with that of the U. S. as a whole; this
is graphically portrayed in Figure 4 [30].
During the period of heavy utilization in processing, the important
Everglades area was the principal source- supplemented by lighter quan-
tities from Pompano and other lesser producing areas. Definitely some
came out of south Dade County. The Belle Glade Canning Company was the
primary intrastate canner at that time, just as the Baltimore area led in
interstate utilization. Bean production in Zellwood started in 1943.
The equivalent acreages declined nearly one-third in 1944 and 1945;
after the war the decline was more pronounced. Occasionally a short pack
nationally would increase the demand for Florida beans for canning; 1953
was such a year, when production from 18,700 acres was estimated to have
been utilized; after this the level of utilization seldom turned upward.
The demand for Florida beans for processing has increased since 1969; pub-
lication may be resumed soon.
Areas of bean production have shifted. No longer are beans grown in.
the Zellwood mucklands. Production for processing continues heavy in the
Everglades, but the acreage is grown by only a very few farmers. One farmer
has been dominating production by contract in Dade County and another in the
Pompano area.






















Table 9.--Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage, production and value for the calendar years 1934 through 1969a


Yea Acreageb Yield I I Average Ic
Year Production Valuc
Planted Harvested per acre Productionrice
----------Acres ------------- Tons Tons (2.000 lbs.) Dollars 1,000 dollars

3933 0 0 0 0 0 0
1934 300 300 1.1 330 66.70 22
1935 300 300 1.0 300 66.70 20
1936 150 140 1.1 150 40.00 6
1937 350 350 1.4 490 40.80 20


1938
1939
1940
1941
1942

1943
1944
1945
1946
1947

1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957

1958
1959
1960
1961
1962

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

1968
1969


350
300
300
5,000
14,700

21,200
14,500
14,200
10,600
7,100

7,100
6,700
7,500
10,000
7,200

18,700
13,600
11,200
8,900
13,200

9,100
8,900
13,400
14,000
6,600

9,400
10,200
9,100
7,000
9,800

7,000
5,900


350
300
300
5,000
14,700

21,200
14,500
14,200
10,600
7,100

7,100
6,700
7,500
10,000
7,200

18,700
13,600
11,200
8,900
13,200

9,100
8,900
13,100
13,400
5,500

8,000
8,500
8,300
5,800
9,300

5,600
5,500


420
330
330
9,500
26,800

36,570
16,420
20,550
16,070
8,780

10,620
10,200
11,020
16,810
10,470

32,290
23,880
21,000
15,060
23,060

16,850
12,100
24,950
27,150
9,600

16,500
14,500
14,950
10,400
18,600

8,400
9,350


37.50
25.00
25.00
54.90
72.70

85.60
95.50
110.90
116.60
102.40

103.70
109.00
100.40
102.60
114.80

135.90
108.80
95.00
115.90
124.50

116.30
123.20
123.70
113.70
108.60

120.00
124.00c
115.00
115.00
111.00

114.00
102.00


16
8
8
522
1,948

3,132
1,568
2,278
1,874
899

1,101
1,112
1,106
1,725
1,202

4,388
2,598
1,995
1,745
2,871

1,960
1,491
3,086
3,087
1,043

1,980
1,798c
1,719
1,196
2,065

958
954


aData for 1970 and subsequent years are not published to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

bAcreage is equivalent in most years of open market purchases prior to contracting of acreage by processors and at any
time wherein a portion of the production was utilized by the processors and part utilized for fresh market.

cThe "value per unit" and "value (of production)" in 1964 and subsequent years are equivalent returns for all varieties and
grades at the processing plant door; prior to 1964 the basis was the first receiving point.

Source: [30].












Average
production
periods
1933-37


1938-42

1943-47


1948-52


1953-57


1958-62 Florida 4.4% U. S.

1963-7 ~ Florida 2.8% U. S.

1968-72 Florida 1.4% U. S.
100 200 300 400 500 600
---------------------------------------- 1,000 ton ------------------------------------------

Figure 4. --Florida snap bean production for processing vs. U. S. production for processing in periods as
indicated in Tables 10 and 11



Table 10. -- U.S. snap beans for processing: Acreage, production and value, calendar year basis, five-year average periods


Ave e pe Acreages Yield Productionb Averagec Valuec
Average period Planted Harvested er acre sold price
----------Acres ------------ Tons Tons (2.000 lbs.) Dollars 1000 dollars
1933-37 53,966 49,872 1.56 78,260 43.10 3,420
1938-42 86,852 83,292 1.75 144,608 52.19 8,159
1943-47 144,784 136,294 1.61 217,794 103.50 22,457
1948-52 122,498 117,894 2.09 247,004 115.00 28,277
1953-57 153,748 145,724 2.31 334,290 118.26 39,550
1958-62 180,092 172,236 2.40 413,434 106.42 43,902
1963-67 248,138 232,058 2.27 528,418 100.26C 52,897c
1968-72 261,672 245,764 2.42 595,036 97.50 58,079


planted and harvested acreage includes (1) all acreage owned by processors and used in production of the crop, (2) acreage
utilized by growers in producing a crop grown under contract to a processor and (3) an equivalent acreage allowance for product-
ion purchased by processors on the open market.
b,"Production" refers to te quantity of raw product received and paid for at the rates) specified in contracts or purchase
agreement. Culls and rejects in excess of any established tolerances are excluded.

cThe "average price" and "value of production" for processing vegetables since January 1, 1964 are equivalent returns
at processing plant door. Prior to 1964, such average price was based on the value per ton at the first receiving point.

Source: [3d.



Table 11. -- Florida snap beans for processing: Acreage (including equivalent acreages), production and value, calendar year
basis, five-year average periods

Acreagea Yield Production" Averagec Valuec
Average period Harvested r acre sold price
.....Acres ------------ Tons Tons (2.000 lbs.) Dollars 1.000 dollars

1934-37d 275 273 1.20 320 53.60 17
1938-42 4,130 4,130 1.40 7,480 43.00 500
1943-47 13,520 13,520 1.40 19,680 102.20 1,950
194Q-52 7,700 7,700 1.50 11,820 106.10 1,249
1953-57 13,120 13,120 1.80 23,060 116.00 2,719
1958-62 10,400 10,000 1.80 18,130 117.10 2,133
1963-67 9,100 7,980 1.90 15,020 117.00c 1,754c
1968-69 6,450 5,550 1.60 8,875 108.00 956

a, b, cFootnotes under Table 10 above are applicable here.

dprocessing of record began in Florida in 1934, hence firstperiod safouryear average; all other periods are five years each,
except 1968-69 (data for 1970 and subsequent years not published).

Source: [301.


-Fl.0.4% -U. S.


- Florida 5.2% -U. S.

Florida 9.0% U. S.


Florida 8.0 U. S. I

Florida 6.9 U. S.
..a- -~









North Florida is the newest area growing beans for processing. Most
acreage is located at O'Brien in Suwannee County. Valmont Farms started
production there in the '60s. Soon one or two local farmers followed their
example. Valmont later sold its land to a long-time producer and to a
northern processor. Nuway Farms added acreage to make this a significant
area of sandland production. Their system of irrigation is worthy of
special notice (see Drainage and Irrigation, p. 62). There are a few
other isolated areas contracting bean production for processing. Alachua,
Bradford and Union counties have been in and out for a few seasons. Pro-
duction in the Hastings area has been tried, unsuccessfully, more than
once. As south Florida farmers seek new areas of production, no doubt
successful bean growers will try in Hastings again. This was evidenced
in 1974.


HISTORIC BACKGROUND BY AREAS


Where It Began


Diversification and Its Cause

In 1889-90 snap beans were being grown in several counties of Flor-
ida. Alachua County led in acreage, followed by Lake, Marion, Sumter and
Brevard. No doubt there were earlier acreages grown but this is the
earliest available documentation (Table 12).
In the 1820s the fertile oak and hickory uplands in the northern bor-
der of Florida began to be settled by cotton planters. In 1828-29,
4,146 bales were exported; three years later it had increased to 22,651
bales; by 1840 exports were in excess of 100,000 bales; and by the '50s
the sea-island cotton industry had expanded. In the '60s the turpentine
industry was revived; too, the herding of cattle and hogs on unoccupied
land was another of Florida's most important industries. After the Civil
War, cotton production declined appreciably--from 65,153 bales in 1860 to
39,789 bales in 1870 and then up to 57,928 bales in 1890. Cheap cotton
pushed more farmers out of the Carolinas and Georgia into the newer land.
More profitable farming was badly needed. Fresh produce seemed the answer.
Later the adverse effect of boll weevils on cotton production forced more
growers to diversify [16].







19





Table 12 .--Florida snap beans, bush and pole varieties: Acreage by counties and state totals as reported to the Commissioner of
Agriculture (FDA) during the crop years shown. 1889-90 through 1925-26


Counties 1889-90 1891'92 1893-94 1895-96 1897-98 1899-1900 1900-01 1901-02 1902-03 1903-04 1904-05

----------------- --------------- ---Acres ------------------------- --------------

Alachua 173 357 204 497 307 410 573 336 163 24:1 230
Bradford 1 2 1 38 25
Brevard 87 166 289 687 670 524 396 516 346 152 144
Broward
Dade 11 23 9 NR 58 16 25 151 86

DeSoto 6 18 25 298 305 279 32 806 281 387 535
Duval 4 24 66 57 61 60 63 62 10


7 6 8


155 121 305
1 110
NR '3 14
120 86 51


2 23

2 6


2 1


82 17 26


355 168 132
98 107 112

121 856 258



39 89 89

307 325 55

89 89 106
3 55 22


86 93 82


151 127 182
118 70
10 12
133 360 214



5 50 14

345 381 510

147 24 57
1


1 366 383


91 82


197 161
2 3
17 13
486 1,420



23 18

56 36

328 511
24 6
472 382

483 556


Union
Misc. counties 80 149 111 114 125 117 73 66 106 129 148

State total 804 977 1,214 2,770 3,183 2,199 2,118 3,284 2,476 3,241 4,366




Counties 1905-06 1907-08 1909-10 1911-12 1913-14 1915-16 1917-18 1919-20 1923-24 1925-26

-.-----------------------------------Acres----------------------------------

Alachua 220 456 253 514 393 513 147 298 1,174 1,183
Bradford 3 5 74 278 35 19 23 390 628
Brevard 65 79 88 70 71 95 74 .13 5 115
Broward 615 1,811 168 NR 2,488
Dade NR 379 737 1,162 696 822 227 NR 62

DeSoto 606 495 473 416 791 774 237 199 16 10
Duval 13 11 8 251 39 18 18 8 21 32
Gadsden 124 341
Hardee 589 483
Hillsborough 80 192 240 314 388 620 370 576 991 786
803
Indian River 8
Lake 94 241 136 97 218 134 78 192 200 266
Leon 2 1 1 12
Manatee 15 56 NR 43 92 442 47 34 25 258
Marion 998 1,144 1,172 1,393 1,160 191 1,580 1,057 2,629 3,285

Martin 364
Okeechobee 152 2 34 334
Orange 24 14 67 168 22 44 22 18 27 128
Palm Beach 358 654 911 827 1,828 456 991 5,935
Pasco 61 52 NR 62 377 41 78 32 37 43

Polk 354 13 40 138 205 57 242 200 222 547
Putnam 32 21 115 110 185 72 54 197
St. Lucie 569 465 740 786 536 427 672 NR 1,156 291
Seminole 230 37 74 14 142
Sumter 568 399 537 NR 914 913 NR NR 2.026 1,137
Union 136 497

Misc. counties 221 120 195 134 292 140 144 50 220 404
.. of 7 28 6 856 8 006 3.398 11.155 20.697


state total 3,891 4,150 5,040 ,
,


Source: (11].


Gadsden
Hardee
Hillsborough
Indian River
Lake
Leon
Manatee
Marion

Martin
Okeechobee
Orange
Palm Beach
Pasco

Polk
Putnam
St. Lucie
Seminole
Sumter


104 39


I I








The North Florida Area

Early Transportation

Transportation was the factor of major importance influencing the
shifting into produce on a commercial scale. The first cross-state rail-
road (The Florida Railroad--1860) linked Fernandina on the Atlantic coast
to Cedar Keys on the Gulf of Mexico [20]. A branch line south from Waldo
was extended to Ocala in 1881; it skirted Orange Lake and Lochloosa on the
east.

The Orange Lake or McIntosh Area

Hammock land on the west side of Orange Lake in south Alachua and
north Marion Counties is fertile and well suited for vegetable farming.
Prior to 1895 vegetables grown in the area were hauled overland in carts
and wagons to Evinston where they were loaded on Captain Knight's steam-
boat which transported the produce across Orange Lake, through Cross Creek
and Lochloosa to the Ocala-Waldo railroad, thence to northern markets. Not
all vegetable growers grew beans, as eggplant was an important crop, and
squash later became of first importance.
Another railroad was being built in 1887-88, called the Jacksonville,
Gainesville and Gulf. Later it was called the T&J (Tampa to Jacksonville).
This line, in relation to the farming area, was a mile west of McIntosh
and had a turntrack just south of Fairfield at Almathla. The track of this
line was taken up in 1944.

Pioneers in produce

Going back to the turn of the century, some early pioneers in vege-
tables in the area were 0. D. Huff, Sr., H. D. Wood, Harry Culpepper (start-
ed zucchini squash), Edward Smith, P. K. Richardson (credited with first
Boston lettuce in Florida), Edward Rush, John Whittington, J. L. Wolfenden
and W. R. Brown. Later the Yawns and the Zetrouers were added to the
list of bean growers.
Christian and Neal were large vegetable brokers. In 1926 0. D.
"Buddy" Huff, Jr. began as their buying representative, going north as
far as Lake Butler and Worthington Springs buying beans, but McIntosh was
the big produce area in the '20s. Later Huff started his own produce
business with a packinghouse one mile west of McIntosh on the T&J R.R.
where he handled a wide variety of produce, including green beans.









In the '50s F. A. Cockrill became an important factor in the handling
of the area produce. He became a partner in the firm known as Christian
and Cockrill. As production declined this partnership was phased out, each
former partner devoting time and efforts to personal interests.

The North Alachua, Bradford and Union County Area

Early vegetable production did not get underway commercially north of
Gainesville as early as in the McIntosh area. The Howards at Dukes go
back to the early 1900s with J. S. Howard as the pioneer whose descendents
are now in the third or fourth generation of farming, but they probably
grew no vegetables until the '20s. The Harrells at Brooker trace back
to the late 19th century, but vegetables were first grown by M. C.
Harrell in 1921; even then no snap beans were grown. .Other early vege-
table growers in the community were A. L. Green, Clyde Cone, Ralph and
Aubrey Hazen and Everett Gainey.
The Cellon family's first produce was a commercial acreage of potatoes
(other than a family crop as early as 1910-12) in 1918 grown by Frank
Cellon and Son (S.D.). Snap beans were started possibly in the mid-'20s.
Linley S. Cellon continued the home farm as a third generation farmer,
producing potatoes for 50 years and beans almost as long. In more recent
years his vegetable and potato farming was taken over by Ralph Cellon, Jr.,
making it a fourth generation in produce in the same area; vegetable and
potato farming was terminated in 1974-75. Roy Cellon started growing
vegetables a few years later than his brother, Linley, and produced snap
beans successfully for many years.
The Newberns came to the area in the late '20s and began produce
farming in the fall of 1929, but grew their first bean crop in 1931-32.
There were a few beans grown earlier, mostly in the Dukes-Worthington
Springs and the Hainesworth-Santa Fe sections. W. W. Newbern preceded
C. D. Newburn, his brother, by about five years. Ray Gallup and Ike
Fisher were also early growers of beans and potatoes in the area, but
the commercial acreage was very small prior to 1930. Vegetable growing
increased gradually in the LaCrosse-Hague sections. Many early family
names can be recalled, some still active in the area--Bethea, Doak,
Harris, Kite, Strickland and Thomas, to name a few. Others started in
the late '30s and early '40s--the Browns and Hayes' around Worthington









Springs and Gays and Imlers in the LaCross-Santa Fe section. The
Hitchcocks at Alachua were later large snap bean growers and shippers.
Snap beans in southeast Alachua were marketed at Hawthorne, Gaines-
ville and McIntosh. The acreage was not concentrated as much as in the
other sections. Rochelle was one of the early small communities where
beans were grown.
Snap beans in the Hawthorne area never came into prominence, but
were grown in limited quantity (see Lima beans, p. 107).
Production in north Florida has declined tremendously through the
years. Marion County has practically dropped bean production. Operations in
Alachua continue to grow snap beans where sufficient acreage can be
planted to warrant ownership of a mechanical harvester or justify a cus-
tom harvester coming in to do the job. Production can be both fall and
spring but most growers seem to prefer the spring season. During the
years when the Black Valentine variety was grown extensively, one of
the larger growers always started his bean planting season on February
14--with Black Valentines, of course!

The North Central Area

In the biennial reports of the Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA),
Brevard County bean acreage was second to none during the 1895-96, 1897-
98 and 1899-1900 seasons and was significant in other years from 1892
through 1905 but dropped appreciably after that. Its peak season was
in 1895-96 when 687 acres were reported [11].

Sumter County

Center Hill on the eastern edge of Sumter County was, at one time,
considered the string bean capital of Florida. The dark gray, sandy
soil with sandy clay subsoil, when drained, was very productive. Mark
Sellers at Center Hill has pictures of local fields of produce, dating
back to May 1905. The bean field pictured was that of C. C. Lamareaux.
In these early beans, production fromcne eighty-acre crop sold for
$16,000. Early growers in the area who grew beans for market were family
names still familiar to all--Archibald, Berry, Beville, Dixon, Nelson,
Smith, Strickland and Todd, to name a few.
The county reported 104 acres of beans in 1890 and 39 acres in
1891-92, but failed to report again until 1900. In 1902, 366 acres were








reported; by 1910 it was up to 537 acres and in 1924 it reached 2,026
acres that produced only 95,953 bushels, a poor yield of 47 bu. per acre
compared with the state average of 90 bu.; the $183,343 value averaged
$1.91 per bu. which compared favorably with the state average of $2.01.
Adjacent Lake County reported 200 acres, but with a better yield of 105
bu. per acre and a comparable value of $1.98 per bushel [11]. Apparently
growers experienced some unfavorable force of nature that season which
curtailed production. G. G. Oldham of Leesburg was the principal handler
and D. H. Browder, an associate of A. S. Herlong, was an outstanding
buying broker, but mention was also made of the Trucker's Assn. as being
a shipper. All beans were packed in hampers and hauled from the fields
in mule-drawn wagons to the depot. A record 14 carloads were shipped
from one local station in one day. The Sumter County Farmers Market
started in 1936 as an auction, selling mainly cucumbers but some beans
and peppers as well. It is located at Webster outside the bean-producing
section of the county. Only Marion County exceeded Sumter production in
1924 but it is a larger county in land area, according to clippings on
file with Mr. Sellers. They also state that Palm Beach County exceeded
Sumter that season--but reports to the FDA do not support this.
Sumter County bean production apparently peaked on 5,200 acres in
1930-31. The acreage for harvest dropped sharply in the mid-'30s, was
rather erratic during the '40s and '50s, and was insignificant during the
later years. Local farmers blame the demise on the reclamation of the
Everglades area, the superior economic advantage of production there, and
on a local situation: the Jumper Creek Drainage District which was
created in October 1922 by decree of the circuit court. The district was
"L" shaped, draining 45 square miles of area from east to west via Jumper
Creek, thence into Jumper Lake and then into the Withlacoochee River. Its
goal was to reclaim 24,600 acres of land. This reclamation seemed to
have had an adverse effect on bean growing in the area in that the lowered
water table made irrigation necessary. Many growers put in overhead
(Skinner system) irrigation and planted larger fields--40 to 80 acres [24].
Lake County farmers just to the east of Center Hill and south to Bay
Lake grew beans in the period of Center Hill importance, but did not con-
tinue into the '30s as did the Sumter County growers. Many such crops were
handled in conjunction with those grown at Center Hill. In fact, during the
1890s more bean acreage was reported for Lake County than for Sumter.









The increase and decrease in produce activity around Center Hill is
reflected in the rise and fall of its population. At its peak there were
an estimated 1,500 people; gone with the crown of "string bean king," the
bank went broke, trains quit stopping and business houses failed. Only a
remnant is left. In 1970 only 37 people were counted. Whether the decline
can be attributed to the cessation of bean growing is debatable but surely
it had a tremendous impact on the economy of Center Hill [24].

Orange County and the Zellwood Area

Prior to the development of the Zellwood mucklands, beans were being
grown in the Winter Garden sandland area in a very small way. The 168
acres reported to the Commissioner of Agriculture in 1911-12 could very
well have been grown in the Sanford area since Seminole County was not
split off from Orange County until April 25, 1913 [11; 20]. For the next
five years acreages were very small. In 1925-26 plantings increased to 128
acres [11]. In 1928-29 the acres reported by BAE were 150 in the fall
plus a lesser amount indicated but not reported in the spring. In 1930 the
fall crop of 250 acres was fair and 42 carloads were shipped, mostly
moving during November. Acreages in the county ran around 300 to 550
until 1942-43 when the Zellwood muckland farmers began to plant beans [10].
The Zellwood area, both the Zellwood Drainage District (ZDD) in
Orange County and similarly developed pockets in adjacent east central
Lake County, are mostly identified by their organic soils. Prior to
being drained, the area was a marsh, the bottom of a once much larger Lake
Apopka. Lake County muck pockets are separated from the Zellwood muck by
a strip of sandy soil which is currently being farmed successfully.
Unit I (the north portion) of the ZDD was opened for farming in 1941-
42. By the spring of 1943 about 1,000 acres of beans were estimated to
have been planted. These were apparently subjected to adverse weather
(the greatest drawback for beans in the area is from frost) since the
final acreage for harvest was 600 acres; this would include any beans
grown in the Winter Garden area. The muck soils are well suited for
bean culture. Plantings declined due to the hazards of cold and, because
of competition in the Carolinas, early beans sold cheaply on the open
market.







In the fall of 1947 the Zellwood muckland bean crop was grown by
Lenhart Brothers, McGowan and Calhoun, McCoy and Piowaty, Zellwood Growers,
Dingfelder and Saperstone, Don Carraway, Henry Thurston and Charles
Niblack.
Processors soon realized the production potential in the organic
soils and began to seek growers who would plant under contract binding
for delivery, regardless of open market. In 1948 and for the next 20
years Lake-Orange mucklands produced fall and spring crops, primarily for
processing. Other areas in the two counties were relatively insignificant
in bean planting. Except for 1953-54 the acreage was relatively light,
mostly less than 1,500, often under 1,000; in 1960-61 the acres harvested
exceeded 2,000, and held at the higher level through 1965-66. Acres
harvested were generally less than the planted acreage, often significantly
less. The two peak seasons of planting and harvesting were 1963-64 and
1964-65 with 3,860 and 3,520 acres, respectively. A 16 and 29 percent loss
of acreage occurred in each of these respective years. For the 21-year
period of rather heavy planting, losses of acreage from natural causes
averaged 18 percent. Plantings often started in mid- or late August for
fall harvest. Plantings were subject to flooding from late summer-early
fall hurricane rains and burn from later cold winds and frost, both fall
and spring. In the spring beans were in competition with more profitable
open market crops such as endive-escarole, Boston and Romaine lettuce,
celery and, later, sweet corn and radishes. Contracts were frequently
written with no protection for the grower against loss from adverse
weather. The contract specified a fixed price for tonnage of usable
beans after harvest. Although the contract might specify harvest by the
processor, it was usually the farmer's loss if the beans were lost be-
forehand. This brought about a reluctance to plant. Billy Long is
credited with a proposition (made in a year when the nation's late summer
pack was very short) in which he agreed to lease the land, prepare, plant
and cultivate it and bring the crop to maturity. However, the crop was
owned, all this time, by the firm leasing the prepared land. It paid
for the land used at a fixed price per acre, whether a crop was produced
or not. There were few takers!
Most muckland area farmers have grown beans for processing at one
time or another--Ambs and Crakes, B. T. Bass, Clarence Beal, Borders and









Conrad, Cardin and Long, 0. G. Calhoun, A. Duda and Sons, Frank's Farm,
Hooper Farms, Long Farms, Lust Farms, Carroll Potter, J. B. Register,
the Sewell farm, Dan Stroup and Welling Farms; some planted during each
year of processing bean production in the area.
The more important firms contracting acreage were the California
Packing Company (Cal-Pac) which later changed its name to the Del Monte
Co., Havana Canning Co. (very small), H. L. Hunt (H-L-H), Southland
Frozen Foods, the Snow Crop Division of the Minute Maid Corporation and
Stokeley-Van Camp.
Bush bean varieties soon were being machine harvested. Borders and
Conrad brought in the first mechanical harvester.
An interesting story is told relating to hand-pickers. It seems
Mrs. Borders planted a sizeable acreage on Clay Island (an area not easily
accessible) in Lake County. The beans were were ready to pick and the
workers were actively picking, but--they all quit--too many rattlesnakes
were found before they had gone far into the field. Mrs. Borders said,
"I didn't blame 'em at all!"
Labor was a most important factor in the successful production of
beans for processing. Some of the extra cost of pole bean production
could be offset by higher yields. One contracting firm brought in equip-
ment to facilitate trellising (see description, paragraph 3, p. 75).
Pole beans must be hand-picked and picking crews were not always readily
available. The Blue Lake pole bean was a dark green round podded bean
very well suited for canning. Other processors were contracting bush
varieties which were harvested mechanically. Soon, through research, Del
Monte had available a Blue Lake bush variety that met its standards of
quality and permitted mechanical harvesting (see paragraph 2, p. 70).
Modern hydraulic machines were brought in that did a thorough job.
The risk of fall floods, early frost and freeze was still there
and some preferred beans grown on sandy soils. As a result, after 1968
very few beans were grown in the central Florida muck soils.

Seminole County

The Sanford-Oviedo area has never played an important role in the
Florida bean industry. During the early years continuing through the first
half of the '40s plantings were light. This was mainly due to more









lucrative crops such as celery taking priorities on labor, land and
machinery; and to salts in the water from flowing wells used in irrigating
during dry spring months. However, acreage planted to beans began to in-
crease in the late '40s, to 1,000 acres or more, continuing at the higher
level through the early '50s. Chase and Company, C and J Produce,
Kastner Produce and W.-L. Justice grew and handled most of the beans in
the area. Later the American Produce Exchange grew sizeable crops. In
the early '70s bean growing practically ceased, as pickers could find more
lucrative work and the growing season is too short as well as farms were
too small to warrant ownership of or to lease mechanical harvesters.

The West Central Area

The Peace River Valley

Farmers in all sections of this area have grown beans at one time or
another. While DeSoto County encompassed what is now Hardee, Highlands,
Glades and Charlotte as well as the present DeSoto (they became counties
April 23, 1921), bean production was credited to the vast area. In
1895-96 the large county reported 298 acres and 806 in 1901-02, but
never increased over this peak. In 1923-24 Hardee County reported 589
acres, while DeSoto reported only 16 acres. It is assumed the bulk of
the early acreages at or near the turn of the century was primarily in
that portion now known as Hardee County [11].
Snap beans were the area's principal commodity until the Everglades
began producing beans on a large scale. The early growers are rather in-
definite, but Conley, Roberts, Shackleford, Smith, Stephens, and Williams
are familiar family names of farmers known to have grown produce--probably
beans was one of their commodities.
The soils of the Peace River Valley are rich and productive with an
abundance of pebble phosphate, which was first mined in 1888 [20]. Wauchula
was incorporated about 1902 and became the vegetable center of the area.

The Plant City-Ruskin Area

Hillsborough County is noted for strawberries, but bush and pole
beans were also grown successfully for many years. Statistics available
show less than 100 acres until 1907-08; by 1915-16 plantings had increased
to 620 acres, eight years later, to nearly 1,000 acres [11]. Limited









knowledge is available as to early settlers growing beans, since most
were interested in strawberries. Mr. Willis, a farmer near Plant City,
experimented with fertilized soil by using compost composed of bone
meal, sulphate of potash and stable manure to produce more strawberries,
snap beans and other vegetables. By 1893 a variety of vegetables and
berries was being shipped from this point [6].
Only a few mixed vegetables were grown in the Ruskin area prior to
1930. Pole beans, 191 variety, were grown there in the '40s and '50s
along with beans at Palmetto. The McLains, who lived in Palmetto, farmed
pole beans frequently on their farm at old Sun City near the protective
waters of Cockroach Bay.

The Manatee County Area

As in the case of tomatoes, bean growing for shipping to northern
markets may easily be traced back nearly a century to Joel Hendrix and
others in the area. Major W. I. Turner is credited with the first 40
acres of vegetables at Palmetto. Snap beans were not a major commodity
in the area [17]. Less than 100 acres annually were reported prior to
1915-16 when the World War I markets pushed bean plantings up to 442
acres, but this was only for that one year--afterwards it dropped back to
an insignificant acreage. During the '40s and '50s pole beans, mostly
the 191 variety which is a Kentucky Wonder strain, were grown.
Manatee County Growers Association (MCGA) (1918-60), with an esti-
mated 150 to 250 members, grew very few beans. In its best bean year,
1927, the Association shipped only eight carlots; in 1928 it dropped to
four cars, then to one each season for a few years, then quit altogether.
Sales at the Palmetto Farmers Market, never truly heavy, in 1951
reached 5,636 bushels of pole beans that averaged $3.80 and 386 bushels
of bush beans which averaged $3.18. In 1944 no pole beans were reported
but bush bean volume had reached 14,233 bushels which averaged $2.83.
Apparently a peak was reached in 1956-57 for 20,958 bushels of pole beans
moved through the market for an average of $2.73. The market opened on
November 3, 1937 and continued through June 30, 1959, but the property was
sold January 21, 1959. Bean supplies after 1957 were insignificant. The
county declined in production in the late '50s and has not had a significant
acreage since.









The Lower East Coast

The three areas in which beans are grown in southeast Florida were, in
Florida's early history, all in Dade County, but they were not producing a
significant acreage of beans. Actually the Lower East Coast does not in-
clude the Everglades, but it is classified here since it is part of Palm
Beach County.

The Pompano Area

The entire area was unexplored and unsurveyed except for the Coastal
Ridge, which was surveyed in 1870. A narrow coastal strip was surveyed in
1875. The only privately owned land was the Charles and Frankie Lewis
donation or grant under Spanish rule, which dated to 1793. In 1876 New
River had one inhabitant--John J. "Pig" Brown, who raised hogs and lived
a hermit's life. The Florida Land and Mortgage Company bought two million
acres of land from Hamilton Disston in 1881. A sisal hemp enterprise
instigated the purchase of 1,300 acres, but by 1895 this had failed [32].
The Florida East Coast Railroad (FEC RR) carried its first passengers
into Ft. Lauderdale on February 22, 1896, and through service to Miami
began on April 22 of the same year. The owner of this railroad, Henry
Flagler, named a village eight miles north of Ft. Lauderdale for the ex-
cellent seafood dinner served him; thus Pompano got its name [8].
Area growth is measured using Ft. Lauderdale as a yardstick. Settlers
and farmers began to arrive with the advent of overland transportation.
Ft. Lauderdale's population in 1900 was only 52 people; by 1910 there were
143 persons, but by March 20 of the following year 5,000 people were re-
ported [32, p. 40].
Tomatoes and pineapples were the principal early crops grown in the
area. At Pompano "Uncle Pink" Pearce planted the first bean, thereby
founding a new industry that was to become a Florida giant; others say
five acres was the first commercial crop. E. M. Brelsford of Brelsford
Brothers, the early postmaster at Palm Beach, had printings of a pro-
motional nature on the reverse side of their 1890s business letterhead,
a part of the message was "A large business is done in Garden Truck
each winter" [22]. The railroad first operated into West Palm Beach
April 2, 1894. The population of Dade County was only 861 in 1890 [32].
The vast area that made up Dade County reported 11 acres of beans in









1889-90 and 23 acres in 1895-96 [11]. These were east coast crops, prob-
ably for local sales or to go south by boat to Key West. Dade County
extended from the Keys, the present extremity on the south, to Brevard on
the north, which then began at the present north boundary of Martin
County; thus Dade, Broward, Palm Beach and Martin were all one under the
name of Dade County. Juno, north of West Palm Beach, was made the county
seat in 1888, but it was moved to Miami in 1899. All county records and
the jail were moved.
One of the early settlers, John W. Umstead, came to the Oakland Park-
Pompano area from Live Oak and later (1898) moved his family to the area.
At one time his home was located where the present busy U. S. 1 highway
crosses Cypress Creek. He cleared land for himself and for others, but
farmed mostly tomatoes on the muck soils close to the Pompano Canal and
grew pineapples (as did many others) on the sand. Mr. Umstead built a
packinghouse by the FEC RR just north of Oakland Park. Much later he
was known to have grown beans also, selling through Frank Jill. These
early beans moved north mainly by express. W. T. Hardy, another pioneer
grower, came to the area about 1899. Bert Raulerson came to Ft. Lauder-
dale about 1900 and in 1902 August H. Butts came to the same area and
farmed in-the mucklands up the river, going to and from the farm by boat.
Mr. Fisher, father of Louis, came to the area about 1902 and farmed in a
small way. Much of the land cleared by Mr. Umstead was owned by the Model
Land Company, a considerable portion of which was located west of Margate
(earlier called Hammondville) on Pine Island. This area was a little
higher ground than the surrounding swamp. A large acreage was sold to a
Mr. Hammond who left it to the Robinson family. The large holdings were
operated as the Hammond Development Company which was under the manage-
ment of William West and Horace and Wallace Robinson. The policy of the
company was to use monies set aside initially for development with addi-
tional sums annually from farming profits to insure continuation to
completion. August H. Butts and, later, C. M. DeWitt worked as develop-
ment superintendents or farm foremen on a commission basis. Production
of snap beans constituted over 95 percent of the land use. John Trumbull
was the last of the family to farm under the name of Hammond Development
Company.







Also in 1902 a packinghouse was built in Ft. Lauderdale and was oper-
ated by the Florida Vegetable and Fruit Growers Association. It was con-
verted into the Osceola Hotel about 1909 [32].
George Landrum Blount, Sr., came to Pompano in 1905. He was follow-
ed by his brothers, Will and J. Devotee Blount. They operated as Blount
Brothers for many years, growing a large acreage of snap beans and consid-
erable pepper in "Pun-kin" Swamp just northwest of Pompano. These pioneer
growers produced beans for many years [21].
The Bailey family settled early. Jim Bailey farmed south of Pompano.
He was said to have sold $1,500 worth of okra off the first acre of
this commodity ever planted in the area. He later became very successful
as a bean grower despite the fact that he was said to have had no formal
education whatsoever. B. F. Bailey was also a successful bean grower.
On April 30, 1909, the north portion of Dade County became Palm
Beach County. The new county included all the present Martin County area.
In 1909-19 the first report from the newly formed county listed 358 acres
of beans; Dade County (Pompano area?) reported 737 acres [11]. Thus beans
were becoming an important factor in the lower east coast agricultural
economy. N. Sample was an early farmer, starting about 1910 (later an
east-west farm road that crossed the farming section north of Pompano was
named for him),
Broward was established as a county on April 30, 1915. The first re-
port to -the Commissioner of Agriculture (FDA) for Broward County listed 615
acres of beans. This may not have been representative for Dade also re-
ported 822 acres. In 1917-18 Broward reported 1,811 acres while Dade noted
only 227 acres [11]. This indicates some error following the forming of
the new county.
During the 'teens or WW I years, many farmers migrated southward to
seek their fortunes, growing vegetables in the new land. Mack Cheshire
and J. J. Hogan came about 1914; G, B. Hogan joined his brother after
the 1917 season had gotten underway. Later he established his own farm
on the Boynton Road about pwo miles east of the "Range Line" (RL) road
(State Road 7 or U. S. 441). He farmed peppers successfully, mainly on a
sharecropper basis, but utilized the extra time and family labor in growing
and harvesting his individual crops, especially in harvesting beans. Many
others practiced this labor policy also (see Labor vs. machines, p. 79).








Some others who came to the area about this time were Joe and Claude Johns,
Joe Allison and Charlie Cheshire, all from the Wellborn area of Suwannee
County in north Florida. These men and their sons were successful bean
farmers.
The Butler Farms Company was composed of two brothers, G. Emory and
J. D. Butler of Deerfield. Their farms were located west of that commun-
ity. Beans, cucumbers, eggplant, squash and tomatoes were shipped mainly
by rail. Some moved through the port of Jacksonville by the Clyde Steam-
ship Line and later through the port of Miami. There were no refrigerator
cars available until 1921 when the.Butlers shipped the first refrigerated
carload. Later most of their produce moved by truck. This partnership
dissolved and Emory and his sons formed the Butler Farms, Inc. in 1937
while J. D. Butler continued for a few years under his own name. Jack
and "Bob," sons of Emory Butler, operate the farm as this is written,
growing beans successfully, becoming modern in methods as changes in cul-
ture and equipment warrant.
Churchill Lyons and his sons, Clint and H. L., started farming in
the Pompano area in the mid-'teens. Soon Clint (later Sr.) left to grow
tomatoes in Dade County and H. L. ("Bud") left to serve his country in
WW I. He returned to farm again with his father under the name, C. L. and
H. L. Lyons. In the early 'twenties Clint returned from Dade County to
farm as Clint and H. L. Lyons. After this partnership dissolved, Mr.
"Bud" continued to farm in "Pun-kin" Swamp, growing peppers and beans
quite successfully. Mr. Lyons advertised his produce as being from "Seed
to sales," and shipped to 29 outlets in northern U. S. and Canadian points.
His packinghouse was in Pompano located by the FEC RR and was used
actively until the State Farmers Market opened. In the early 'thirties
Mr. Lyons expanded his operation to include a large holding on Pine Island,
lying west of the Hammond Development Company's land and north and south
of the Pompano Canal. After his death his wife ("Aunt" Lena as she was
known to many) managed the farms and ranch, assisted by her nephew,
"Jim-Bob" Walton and her brother, Louis Fisher, who was a large bean grow-
er during WW II, operating as Lyons and Fisher. After Mrs. Lyons' death
(November 30, 1974) the estate is being divided among her heirs, her
church and various charities. At his peak in farming, H. L. Lyons bore
the distinction of being the largest individual produce farmer in Florida
and perhaps in the nation.







Dewey Hawkins and Jim Fletcher settled in Oakland Park and were
successful with beans and cattle. Mr. Hawkins owned land along U.S.
.Highway 1 that became very valuable for urban development. His cattle
ranch was developed in fieldsthat were depleted in fertility for vege-
table farming. This, too, was later diverted to suburban expansion to
a large extent. Many have said the best crop the area ever had was that
of people who wanted a place "in the sun" and the developments this desire
generated. Ogden Bros. grew beans south of the Pompano Canal off U.S. 441.
They came from the Brooker area of Bradfprd County, but were among the
early landowners to sell their farm for a subdivision "in the sun."
W. B. Cheshire came with his family in September 1921, moving to the
area from Wellborn in Suwannee County, as did so many others. His sons,
Harvey, 15, Elmer, younger, and Woodrow, a little tot, grew with the beans
that became such an important factor in their lives. For the first four
years Mr. "Will" grew peppers, then added beans. R. F. "Bub" Helton moved
down from Wellborn a year earlier than Mr. Will and, as time passed,
formed a partnership in the fall of 1930 known as Cheshire (Harvey) and
Helton. This partnership lasted until 1944. Their farm was located on
the west side of the "Range Line" road along the Hillsborough Canal and
boasted "gravity" drainage into the canal. After retiring, Harvey was
followed by his son, Russell, who continues to produce beans on a very
large scale. At first Russell had John Kristyak, long-time foreman of
Cheshire Farms, as partner but later they farmed separately. Both Harvey
and Woodrow were civic-minded; the former served under Commissioner of
Agriculture Nathan Mayo as a member of the Board of Directors of the
Pompano State Farmers Market, and Woodrow as commissioner and mayor of
the city of Pompano Beach.
In the 1919 Census of Agriculture, Broward County reported only 453
acres planted to beans; Dade reported a very low 33 acres; but Palm Beach
County led with 1,006 (which may be a discrepancy). Most of the growers
named above were primarily Broward County farmers. There were many
others who farmed in Broward, east Palm Beach, or both. P. L. Hinson of
Deerfield farmed in both counties, but sold his Palm Beach farm and moved
to Indiantown where he carved out a large farm operation and grew beans,
other vegetables and melons. Cossie Lyons, a successful cousin of Clint
and H. L., increased his vegetable and cattle operation by buying the







Hinson farm fronting the west side of the Range Line Road (U. S. 441),
just north of the Hillsborough Canal.
G. G. Collier, R. E. "Bob" West (son of William West, mentioned ear-
lier in the management of the Hammond Development Company), J. N. McJunkin
and Son, Arthur Seyler, Bland and Van Netta, and Henry Smith (Lyons and
Smith) were active growers during the '40s and probably the '30s as well.
In Palm Beach County most farms are within the area known as the
Lake Worth Drainage District (see Drinage and irrigation, p. 62). Bert
Raulerson, who came to Ft. Lauderdale about 1900, cleared land west of
Boca Raton and grew beans and other vegetables, starting about 1910.
John Blank began farming the marsh at 10th St. (Delray) or Germantown Road,
starting during World War I or the mid-'teens. His son, Rudy, operated
the Rudy Blank Farm until his death in 1955. This farm, located south of
Atlantic Blvd.,afterwards was known as Edisto Farms.
The Lamb Brothers, John,Ellis and Charlie, were pioneers in lower
east coast farming, coming to the area before WW I, leaving for active
war duty, then returning to start again, possibly in the late 'teens, ex-
cept Charles and his wife, Esta, farmed in north Florida until 1935 when
they, too, moved south to farm along the RL road. After Charles Lamb's
death, the farm operated for many years as the Esta Lamb Farm. These
brothers and their descendants grew beans, eggplant, pepper and squash
for many years. The Lambs quit farming vegetables about 1972.
Ben Sundy started farming alone during the '20s close to Delray but
in the mid-'30s became a partner with Jarman Smith, Sr. in the northeast
corner of Atlantic Boulevard and the RL road where they grew snap beans
and Fordhook limas for many years. He and his sister, Addie, operated
Sunday Feed and Fertilizer Company until Mr, Sundy's death. It continued
to operate under "Miss Addie's" management until she retired in the sum-
mer of 1975. They supplied much of the Fordhook lima seed'used in the
area through the years when Fordhooks were grown extensively. Mr. Sunday
served the county as commissioner and that portion of the former Atlantic
Boulevard east of the Sunshine Parkway now proudly bears the name Ben
Sunday Boulevard, honoring him in memory.
Vince Giardano was contemporary with Rudy Blank in the '20s. Fran
Bishop was associated with him on his large farm fronting the north "Range
Line" road. H. M. L'Neal was another farmer in this area during the '20s.








Johnny Wellbrock came to Delray in 1927 as a commission merchant or
broker, soliciting consignments or buying beans and other produce. He was
from the area south of Charleston, S. C. and spoke with an accent credited
solely to the coastal area. He formed a partnership and handled produce
for local growers as Wellbrock and O'Neal in the early '30s while located
at the Delray Station of the Seaboard Airline Railroad (SAL RR).
Clarence Butts and Marshall DeWitt started farming just ahead of the
September 1928 hurricane that devastated the Lake Okeechobee area. They
located on the west side of the RL road at the intersection of the Atlan-
tic Boulevard.
Alvin and Emory Jones of Deerfield gained invaluable experience
as farm supervisors for their uncles, the Butler Brothers.' After 10
years in this capacity, they combined forces as E & A Jones, starting
during the depression '30s, farming with a mule, a plow and hoe at
first, but growing to be listed among the large operators. Emory was in
charge of bean production, later setting up mechanical grading equip-
ment at the farm. The partnership was dissolved in 1958, but the
brothers continued to farm independently, Emory operating the original
farm as the G. E. Jones Farm and Alvin operating the new West Side Farms;
both grew beans for some time in diversified programs.
E. E. "Gene" Cooper came to the area about 1930, became the son-in-
law of Bert Raulerson and farmed along the north RL road the following fall;
at first he had 80 acres and added 80 more the next season. He and his
sons farmed for many years, selling out in the early '70s. They also oper-
ated Cooper Farm Supply for many years.
August H. Butts gained possession of the Raulerson Farm west of Boca
Raton in 1933 where he and his son Harold grew a large acreage of beans
each season for many years. This large farm extended from the east-west
Boca Raton road on the south to its parallel, the Clint Moore road on the
north. After Mr. Butts' death, Butts and DeWitt terminated their own
operation to form a coalition of the Butts Farm heirs--sons Harold and
Clarence; sons-in-law Marshall DeWitt and Thomas J. Fleming, Jr. The
latter handled sales until this farm ceased to operate. The large farm,
located just west of Florida Atlantic University and the rapid-growth
area along the Military Trail, will no doubt go into urban development later,







Burton Gaylor located in 1934 at the intersection of the Boynton
Road and RL road. Mr. Gaylor was formerly farm foreman for "Bud" Lyons
where he gained invaluable experience in bean production.
J. N. "Nick" Sloan came to Delray in 1935; later he worked as a
field representative for Johnnie Wellbrock about 1940, when the Boynton
Market was established on the east side of U.S. Hwy. 1. By 1945 they
formed a partnership known as Wellbrock and Sloan, doing business at
the new market. Howell "Hal" Brown was also working this market. "Nick"
managed the Wellbrock and Sloan (W&S) bean farm on the Hagan Ranch road which
traversed the farming area north to south, connecting the Boynton Road, and
extending south of the Ben Sundy Boulevard. The entire area, during the '40s
and '50s especially, was planted heavily to beans. W & S marketed beans
grown by others not named previously--Fred McNeese, George McMurrian, Ken
Mims, William Mazzoni (mainly a grower of gladioli), the Weeks Farm, Joe
Genna and Brothers, "Hank" Schnabel and J. D. McCauley. There were others
but all, including some of the above, grew small acreages.
Throughout the area many farmers were becoming important, especially
during the early '40s and the '50s. Some lived in Broward County, but
farmed in east Palm Beach County. Most of the following have been out of
farming for a good many years, but they should not be forgotten since they
helped produce food for a nation at war: J. H. Eller, W. B. Fullbright,
0. P., W. D. and B. F. Green, G. F. Harrison, J. R. Keene, W. L. Kester
and Levi Matthews, Claude Lanier, W. D. MacDougal, A. H. Mitchell, Ogden
Brothers, Case and "Nick" Peet, S. B. Skeen, E. T. Wilburn, J. B. Wiles
and Roy Yawn. Acreages of these growers generally exceeded 100 acres,
frequently going much higher. In 1946-47 FCLRS listed 185 farm operators
as bona-fide bean growers in the Pompano area. Their plantings ranged
from one acre to quite large, averaging (according to the listed estimate)
about 157 acres per grower [10].
Only a few descendants of these growers are active in bean production
currently (1975). Some are no longer living and others are retired or
have changed vocations. Those who acquired land holdings and farmed them
often became affluent due to accelerated land values brought about by
an expanding urban area.
During the 1973-74 season the Pompano bean crop was grown by about 20
growers who averaged planting about 1,350 acres per farm operator. Some








have been producing beans for several years; some started more recently.
H. D. Allen, K. D. Eatman, A. "Shorty" and Dale Bruschi, Earl Crossman,
Kermit Dell, J. Kirksey, Mike Jones, Richard Jones, J & N Farms, Rowland
Bros., Neil Spears, Charles Vanelli and John Whitworth (along with some
older growers) are putting a tremendous amount of beans on the tables of
a people who like "fresh" every month of the year.

The South Dade County Area

Farming south of Miami goes back to the late 19th century. Many
pioneers moved in to "homestead" their acreage and the vegetable and potato
producing center got its name, Homestead, in this manner.
No doubt early farming of vegetables for local market included snap
beans that would have been grown close in as were tomatoes at Arch Creek
and Little River in 1894-95. Likewise, market gardening was active later
in the environs of Hialeah, Coral Gables and Kendall, continuing until
forced out by the encroachment of subdivisions and shopping centers. Pole
beans, for example, were grown in the area around the Tropical Park race-
track into the '50s.
Statistics on bean production in Dade County through April 30, 1909
included any grown in the Keys area, extending northward to an east-west
line from the St. Lucie Inlet to Lake Okeechobee; through April 30, 1915,
data would include the present Broward County. The first beans reported
from this vast area were 11 acres in 1889-90 and, again, 23 acres in 1895-
96. These could well have been in the Pompano area. The first documented
commercial tomatoes south of Miami were grown around 1898 to 1900; beans
(except for local market) were no doubt considerably later. The census of
1919 credited Dade County with only 33 acres of snap beans, but in 1929
the amount had increased to 413 acres grown by 65 farm operators. Thus
bean production in south Dade County can be pinpointed primarily to a
post-WW I beginning [11, 28].
Among the homesteading families of the early twentieth century were
the Campbells and Rutzkes. The Biggar family arrived about 1915-16.
These families later became involved in bean production. Eb Caves was
an early bush bean farmer of the late 'teens as was Curtis Lee.. Some
growers starting probably in the early '20s were J. D. Barnes, who ar-
rived shortly after WW I or in the early '20s, H. L. Brandenberg (later







Brooker and Brandenberg), Carl Deden and Tom Harris, Russell Home and
'Bert Nelson, to name a few. Landon Carney was a backer of share-cropped
beans, coming to the area possibly in the 'teens. Julius Dingfelder
came to Homestead in 1926 and packed tomatoes.- Landon Carney represented
C. I. and M. Dingfelder as their bean buyer. J. D. Barnes reached his
planting peak with some 800 acres of bush beans which were killed by a
freeze, possibly in the "Big Freeze" of 1927. Dunn Brothers were growing
beans and mixed vegetables for the Miami Curb Market, probably in the
mid-'20s.
In the '30s more growers became active in bean production, some de-
voting all their time to this crop, while others were quite diversified;
One of these growers was B. R. "Bob" Biggars, mentioned above, who
married the daughter of homesteader Campbell in 1934 and started bean
farming. He increased his bush bean acreage to a peak performance in the
mid-'40s, continuing through most of the '50s. Homer Davis grew excellent
quality beans, but not on a large scale. S. S. and Whitney Beam were early
growers who migrated from North Carolina. Craddock and Nealy were grower-
shippers over a long period. Ed Bryngleson started in the early '30s;
with the capable assistance of Don Sickle, he produced a variety of com-
modities, marketing much of it on the Miami Curb Market. F. M. Dolan
followed potatoes with beans, starting in the '30s. J. W. Johnstone di-
versified his bean plantings to include a few trellised butterbeans as
well as larger acreages of pole beans in the '40s. Tom Hinman, his brother,
Albert, and his father added beans successfully in the late '30s. W. T.
Vick grew vegetables for the Miami Curb Market and later for shipping.
In the WW II years, demand for beans for fresh market and processing
was strong; FCLRS listed 52 growers in Dade County in 1946-47 with a
total of 3,600 acres. More than that number were planted for the figure
adopted for the estimated acreage that season was 5,000 acres, but losses
were heavy since only 2,650 acres were estimated to have been harvested [10].
Cornelius and Sons arrived in the '40s and became an important factor
in bean production, planting and handling a large acreage. August
Burrichter had started growing pole beans successfully and others were
beginning to follow suit. Of the 3,600 acres of beans tabulated as
being grown by the 52 growers listed by FCLRS, nine growers reported 220
acres of pole beans; August Burrichter, Cornelius and Sons, J. W. Johnstone,








Arthur Mays and M. L. Waters were the principal growers for that early
season. However, quite a few had join);ed the ranks in producing bush
beans. Among those not named previously were H. A. Aman, C. E.
Eichenberger, Walter Peterson, South Dade Farms (Sotille), J. H.
"Doc" Sasser, Irvin Hayes, R. R. Beale, R. R. Warren, Robertson and
Mattson, Frank Basso, Jack Flynt, Henry Poe, J. E. Campbell, Johnnie
Carroll, Alex and Garland Chaney (labor camp operators), and other small
growers too numerous to list.
Pole bean markets were demanding more supplies than Dade County
growers were producing and plantings began to increase perceptibly (see
Table 13). From the very small beginning in the mid-'40s, plantings
increased rather rapidly such that by 1949-50 the acreage planted and
harvested was estimated at 1,500 acres and by 1954-55 at 6,700 acres
planted. During the period from 1953-54 through 1969-70, each season
saw plantings ranging from 5,000 acres to a peak of 7,020 acres in 1963-
64. Laborers for picking pole beans were not as difficult to find as
were laborers to pick bush beans; quality was generally good; markets
were expanded; and the price structure was basically higher than that of
the general bush bean market. The pole bean grower list had expanded
appreciably. Fritz Rutzke and Sons, whose family dates back to the turn
of the century, became active producers; J. Alton Sasser, 14 years with
Dunn Brothers, began to produce pole beans successfully in 1945. The
Douberlys from north Florida, L. L. Cannington, J. W. Campbell, H. D.
Cross, 0. C. Craddock, J. A. "Doc" Sasser, Cooper and Sasser, Cox and
Hinman, Cesare Linzalone, Clyde Sickle, Tuttle Farms, Glenn Wood and
Sons, plus a few small growers, in addition to those named earlier,
produced the bulk of the late fall, winter and early spring pole beans
in the nation.
During the early '60s Curtis Anderson had been added to the list of
pole bean growers, as had Walter Boller, W. H. "Billy" Cato, Bill
Cornelius Farms, Iori Brothers, William Scarborough, Eric Schmidt, Jesse
and C. A. Underwood, sons Alan, Harold and Tommy and Harry Wright.
Many bush bean growers quit, as stoop labor was a problem, switching
over to pole beans instead. A few new operators should be added to the
list, however. These included Earl Hoover, Paul Konski and Virgil Sprinkle
as well as Pat Tucci and Brothers who intermittently planted bush beans.








Table 13--Florida snap beans: Dade county pole bean acreage, yield and production,
1949-50 through 1973-74a


-------Acres--------


1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54

1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64

1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


1,500
2,400
2,800
3,950
5,000

6,700
5,500
5,100
5,700
5,600

7,000
5,400
6,900
6,600
7,020

5,930
5,700
5,830
5,820
5,300

5,240
3,880
3,600
3,680
3,480


1,500
2,300
2,700
3,700
4,850

6,600
4,700
4,850
3,700
5,275

4,900
4,975
6,700
6,100
6,500

5,800
5,350
5,725
5,790
5,230

4,990
3,830
3,600
3,650
3,350


------------ Bushels--------------


Bu.

247
236
197
223
233

284
260
247
196
232

238
254
236
236
230

267
244
288
274
288

227
283
257
312
291


370,000
542,000
532,500
824,000
1,130,750

1,752,500
1,223,500
1,199,250
682,000
1,178,250

1,128,000
1,265,375
1,463,000
1,379,000
1,403,000

1,509,000
1,303,000
1,647,000
1,558,000
1,508,000

1,131,300
1,082,500
926,400
1,137,500
975,500


370,000
542,000
532,500
824,000
1,130,750

1,875,500
1,223,500
1,199,250
727,000
1,225,125

1,166,500
1,265,375
1,582,000
1,442,000
1,497,000

1,547,000
1,303,000
1,647,000
1,586,000
1,508,000

1,131,300
1,082,500
926,400
1,137,500
975,500


Source:[10].


123,000
0
0
45,000
46, 875

38,500
0
119,000
63,000
94,000

38,000
0
0
28,000
0


aData were obtained in cooperation with the South Florida Vegetable Exchange.








In the most recent season W. T. Queen and Sons produced large acreages,
frequently contracting for processing.
In 1973-74 only 3,477 acres of pole beans were planted by 13 growers.
The only ones not previously named are Dunnagan and Son, Edward Hilson
and Delma Rhodes. Several of the 13 have been named only by the family
names. Nearly the same amount of bush beans for fresh market was
planted by even fewer growers. There was a significant additional acre-
age grown for processing, but the data cannot be reported since it would
entail a disclosure. Practically all bush beans are machine harvested
and constitute no difficult labor problems. Thus one sees the rise and
decline of a commodity farmed within an area.

The Everglades Area

Early success in farming the organic soils of the Everglades area
is closely associated with snap bean production. The lack of transporta-
tion was a very serious problem for nearly everything that was brought
in or shipped out had to be hauled part of the way by boat. Indications
are that some beans were first being grown around the Canal Point area,
moving to market via the West Palm Beach Canal, thence by rail north.
Others moved across the lake to catch the Moore Haven and Clewiston Rail-
road, moving north from the west side of the lake. Produce grown around
the south end of the lake and in the Okeelanta section moved down the
North New River Canal to Ft. Lauderdale. The FEC RR was built into Canal
Point, reaching there June 4, 1926; it was extended to reach Belle Glade-
Chosen September 1, 1927.
Walter Greer claims to have been the first grower to ship green beans
in quantity. He arrived with his large family in the winter of 1918-19
at what later became Belle Glade (he had the distinction of being the
new town's first mayor). Mr. Greer's first beans were shipped by boat
to C. B. Lozier in Ft. Lauderdale. He was paid $7 per hamper which was
an excellent price, but these same beans brought Mr. Lozier $15 in New
York! Lake Okeechobee's southeastern shore became the nation's greatest
source of winter beans [33]. Others credit Michelson and Mayberry, for-
merly of Moore Haven, with the first significant production. They were
said to have grown 30 acres in 1922 at Pahokee. These beans moved by
canal boat to West Palm Beach and on to a northern market. They were said
to have received $30,000 gross for the beans marketed.









R. Y. "Bob" Creech moved from Moore Haven to the area in 1923 and
grew beans for many years.
Several farmers were active tn the early '20s, growing beans on the
south shores of the lake, principally around Lake Harbor. James Beardsley,
H. W. James, Paul Jones, Edward Utter, Tatum Brothers and a Mr. Van Horn
were growers in the early '20s. The Van Horn beans were poled down the
North New River Canal by barge to Ft. Lauderdale. Arthur Wells in the
early '20s was located in the midst of the bean area. Even the town was
named Bean City! Others who farmed the area just south of the lake, or
were farming on the islands and the lake bottom (when the water level was
low), were the Lee family (first the father and later his sons), James
Summerlin (who became a principal in the South Bay Cooperative), Herring
Brothers and Floyd and Melvin Wilder, to name a few.
In the Canal Point-Pahokee area the Chastain family, Sam and his
brothers, were among the earliest growers, eventually centering their
activities around Sand Cut. W. H. Vann was probably the earliest broker
and may have come to the area in the late 'teens. Several important
growers started as field men for him. Mr. Vann became a grower of a
large bean acreage and continued his active produce brokerage. A Mr.
Anderson was one of his main growers who started early in bean production.
Growers Bloom, Friend and McClure, producers in the early '20s, later
marketed their beans through Unity Farms under the management of
Roy Segree. This may have been the first organized marketing effort in
the area. L. L. Stuckey was another Pahokee pioneer who arrived in the
'teens to become an important bean grower. A Mr. Brandon was among the
pioneering bean growers who also operated for a short time as Brandon
Brokerage in the '40s.
In the Belle Glade-Chosen area, Hans J. Stein, father of Hans II,
Fritz (Sr.) and Emil (Tony), came to farm on Kreamer Island as early as
1916. He supplemented his early farm income by becoming lock tender.
Emanuel Schlechter, also in the 'teens, settled about two miles out in
the-sawgrass, off today's Main Street. These men's greatest success cul-
minated in the further success of their respective sons, Fritz and Walter,
who became large farm operators. Fred Kirchman moved in from Moore Haven
about this time to stay and became a large farm operator. Richard Brothers,
Pat Burke and V. Dell were also growers in the 1920s. Later J. Y. Dell
became a grower.








Following the freeze of February 3, 1927, when crops close to the
protective waters of the lake were not frosted, most Glades farmers !and
many newcomers began raising snap beans and for years the area lived in
a bean economy, flush with business during the large influx of labor for
harvesting--depressed when the labor was even temporarily idled. Beans
are relatively quick and easy to raise but, at that time, required hand
labor for harvesting; the labor force increased in proportion to plaht-
ings. During the season before the devastating hurricane of Septemb'er
17, 1928, some 1,520 carloads were said to have been shipped, but the
following crop year, despite the storm, there were 2,692 [33].
The Aunapu packinghouse on Torry Island collapsed during the 1928
hurricane. Julius Dingfelder had one of the early (reported as the first
for beans) packinghouses in the Everglades, starting in the 1926-27
season after being sent to Florida by his uncles, C. I. and M.
Dingfelder, who operated a produce firm dating back to 1894 in New %ork
City. Mr. Dingfelder is said to have assisted the Red Cross greatly in
its rehabilitation program following the disastrous hurricane. P. C.
Keesee started in the '20s, heading his own firm later with one of the
first grading belts. Ben Bolton was one of his many growers who began
early. Walter Hull came to the area as a buyer, then farmed and opera-
ted as the Hull Packing Company, primarily as a family operation. He
probably did not get into beans until the early '30s.
Herman Wedgworth began growing beans in the 1932-33 season, packing
them at his farm. Later he expanded to become a very large planter of fall
and spring beans. His new packinghouse in Chosen had six bean grading
machines. Wedgworth Farms dropped beans in 1948, giving quick frozen
beans and fresh beans grown in areas having fewer weather risks as com-
petition too keen to meet.
Hubert Chamblee and, later, his sons were successful growers, start-
ing in the '30s. This period saw numerous additions--Kruse Br6thers,
E. L. Pope (later Pope-Johnson became partners, Mr. Johnson being earlier
than Mr. Pope), Thurman W. Knight, P. M. Cate (who became a planter of
a large acreage), Curtis Thompson, Grant and Layfield, Joe Hatton,
Geo. E. Tedder, Richard Lefils, Burchett and Perkins, a Mr. Cook (who
came to the area earlier but grew beans in the '30s); also a Mr.
Challancin, Joe Cherry, and Zwycki and Sons were growers in the latb or








mid-'3Cs. Harold Rabin came in the late '30s as a buyer, then became a
bean farmer or financier.
In the mid-'40s World War II had created a great demand for fresh
beans and any surplus was easily diverted to the canners. Lists of
growers on file with FCLRS add a few names to the long roster of the
'20s and '30s--E. H. Borchardt, the Jones Brothers (Bill and Sam, who
came to the area to supplement their North Carolina potato operation),
Bowen and Walker, Evans and Rogers (later a factor in the South Bay
Growers [SBG], as Rogers and Thomas), Slim Hardiman (field foreman
for SBG), D. B. Watkins (who became a farmer for Chase and Company),
Rocelle Wilson (son-in-law of H. G. Hull), and Mr. Williams of
Vandegrift and Williams. Roy Vandegrift started earlier, but took over
the P. M. Cate operation and farmed as Vandegrift-Williams, starting in
the mid-'40s.
Some grower names are omitted and dates are difficult to check,
but are believed reasonably authentic. The area cannot be checked for
numbers of farm operators through the Census of Agriculture for therein
the farm operators numbered represent the whole of Palm Beach County.
In the spring of 1946 as many as 100 growers were involved in bean
growing in the Everglades mucklands. During the period 1942-43 through
1949-50 the area was in its peak. Due to the policy of BAE in counting
acreages, plantings might affect records of one season over another,
i. e., if acreage was lost and replanted in which the replants harvested
during the same season as the original planting, the replant was not
counted as a planting; if replantings were harvested in another season
the replants were counted in the planted acreage. Thus 1946-47 was the
peak crop year for acres planted--73,150 acres in the muckland area,
mostly Palm Beach County (west), but only 39,000 were harvested. The
previous crop year, 64,400 acres had been planted and 39,650 acres
were harvested. Planted acreage was not available prior to 1945-46
by areas, but during the five-season (1945-46 through 1949-50) period,
the average was 54,130 acres planted and 37,230 acres harvested in
the Everglades. This indicates an average acreage loss of about 31
percent due to natural causes.
During the '50s plantings decreased appreciably as labor became
more of a problem. After the 1961-62 crop year, the acreage had declined







to much less than 10,000, fresh and processing, and by 1968-69 it had
dropped to just short of 1,000 acres (fresh market only). After the
1967-68 crop year plantings under contract for processing were excluded
from county and state acreages to protect the contracting firm from
disclosure. Fresh market beans hit a very pronounced low such that the
area in the '70s has no significance in fresh market production.
A few farmers continue to grow beans for processing, harvesting
mechanically mainly for canning within the state. Thus a giant has
fallen in the land that was once a swamp.


AN INDUSTRY IN TRANSITION


Like production of many vegetable crops in Florida, there are
several areas, once important in snap bean production, where growers
have practically quit planting or else have declined to the extent they
are no longer significant..
Florida still has the prime factor that makes the state outstanding--
climate. Beans produced during the late fall, winter and early spring,
when most areas of the United States and Canada cannot grow beans and
other tender vegetables, are very greatly desired by the consumer in
those areas. When the industry was growing from its infancy into a
major factor in the vegetable economy, land was in abundance and rela-
tively cheap. Most soils required fertilizers, including minor elements,
which were readily available. Most areas had a source of adequate
water for irrigation and made use of it.
One can readily understand the annual growth in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries. Bean culture was an infant industry that grew
with demand and available transportation. The county data submitted to
the Commissioner of Agriculture, FDA, were consolidated as a part of
the documentation on bean production in Florida (Table 12, p. 19). Land
divisions into new counties should be carefully noted.
Farm operators by counties, as denoted by the Census of Agriculture
show the transition from bean grower to some other crop or vocation. The
peak number of farm operators was reported at 8,724 in 1934. In 1944
the number of farm operators had declined 50 percent, but acreage had in-
creased in the 10-year period by 46 percent to 91,206 acres. Twenty years








later (1964) the number of operators had decreased to 536, only 6 per-
cent of the Census peak in 1944 (Table 2, p. 6). Grower numbers and
acreage declines were very pronounced in some counties (Table 14) [28].


Factors Influencing Change


Production

During the first 20 years of statistical documentation on the bean in-
dustry, the acreage grown in Florida built up slowly from about 800 acres
in 1889-90 to more than 5,000 acres in 1909-10. Through the 'teens, WW I
was being waged (during the 1914-18 period) and "Victory Gardens" were
in vogue. From 1910 to 1920 Florida bean plantings continued to increase
slowly, barely exceeding 8,000 acres (Table 1, p. 5) [11]. The rise to
peak production and the fall to the current level are shown by areas and
counties in Tables 15 and 16. Figure 5 graphically illustrates these
changes and the maps, Figures.6, 7, 8 and 9 show the importance of counties
at 15-year intervals.

Demand

The prime factor in production of any commodity is ever-present
demand, increasing with urban growth. The demand for fresh market beans
is further influenced by inventories of processed beans and other com-
peting vegetables, whether fresh or processed. Good health standards
of the American people have long been a justifiable goal uppermost in
their government, but working standards and vocational hazards, no
doubt, frequently belie this. Improved methodology in processing and the
desire to utilize better quality for the pack in canning and freezing
along with the added convenience has increased consumer acceptance of
processed beans, swinging per capital consumption away from "fresh."

Financing

A good credit rating has always been a prerequisite of a good farmer.
A series of seasons of low production, poor markets brought about by over-
production, a depressed economy or expenses much above normal have been
known.to erase good credit ratings of respectable growers and even
force bankruptcy.
























Table 14.--Florida snap beans, bush and pole types: Farms reporting and acreage harvested by counties, and state totals as
reported by the U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1919 through 1969 census years

1919 ICensus year
County 1919 1929 1934 1939 1944
SFarmsa I Acres Farms I Acres Farms I Acres IFarms I Acres Farms I Acres


322
3
79
1,466


3
14
11
1,006
15

154
184
359
2
89

1,704
3

8
145


517 1,669
291 590
362 5,043
65 413
20 17


41 223
43 115
18 32
513 1,013
103 603

168 863
56 277
104 168
584 3,948
80 600

42 15
73 109
44 111
540 8,396
76 194


Duval
Escambia
Gadsden
Glades
Hardee

Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Indian River

Lake
Levy
Manatee
Marion
Martin

Nassau
Orange
Okeechobee
Palm Beach
Pasco

Polk
Putnam
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Seminole

Sumter
Suwannee
Union
Volusia
Misc. counties

State total


8,522 6,509 29,984


477 1,531
274 421
678 26,394
323 1,399
20 16


62 372
46 222
37 177
1,302 1,939
122 592

110 240
28 120
179 524
772 3,390
114 362

183 173
322 347
101 716
622 18,776
43 193


112 468
20 19
63 219
379 165
960 1,090

8,724 62,592


323 1,512
224 504
242 13,094
131 1,904
9 5


7 28
13 130
27 327
958 1,625
54 210

63 138
16 96
86 206
239 1,158
31 761

16 7
40 49
14 53
334 38,768
41 64


4,424 63,558


aFarms reporting not available.

Sources 128).


Alachua
Bradford
Broward
Dade
DeSoto


233 2,078
14 5
123 365
53 43
809 585


315 1,481
266 290
202 13,813
146 1,742
1 1

88 62
83 244
91 257
2 45
48 34

4 131
22 157
44 57
895 1,345
1 12

128 111
12 42
40 124
213 1,009
43 1,056

11 20
54 211
4 23
303 65,264
10 26

276 237
45 246
9 1,064
68 44
40 241

270 1,097
13 19
68 243
29 30
489 428

4,331 91,206







48

















Table 14.--Florida snap beans, bush and pole types: Farms reporting and acreage harvested by counties and state totals as re-
ported by the U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1919 through 1969 census years --Continued

Census year
County 1949 1954 1959 1964 1969'
Farms 1 Acres IFarms I Acres I Farms I Acres Farms IAcres Farms I Acres


Alachua
Bradford
Broward
Dade
DeSoto

Duval
Escambia
Gadsden
Glades
Hardee


237 1,355
112 236
109 20,845
78 1,568
5 3


158 1,457
55 202
82 10,252
86 3,615
6 3


86 1,370
7 21
34 5,459
87 7,878
1 2


43 822
6 23
32 8,388
47 8,179
1 1


16 734
NA NA
12 3,811
26 5,301
NA NA

NA NA
NA NA
33 531
NA NA
NA NA


Hendry 1
Hernando 21
Highlands 16
Hillsborough 407
Indian River 4


NA NA
NA NA
76 NA NA
491 33 378


Lake 52 162
Levy 4 43
Manatee 92 282
Marion 155 915
Martin 9 704

Nassau 13 6
Orange 34 579
Okeechobee
Palm Beach 221 43,050
Pasco 23 21

Polk 163 184
Putnam 25 130
St. Lucie 6 16
Santa Rosa 28 30
Seminole 85 1,168

Sumter 123 622
Suwannee 25 12
Union 57 327
Volusia 31 34
Misc. counties 400 254

State total 2,703 74,437


6 1,165


1 1 1
24 749 17


180 32,968
4 4

75 93
16 180
2 1,240
10 4
53 556


1,855 56,407


83 18,724
6 9


883 36,805


NA NA
NA NA
9 65
4 66


4 1
416 1 25


52 17,084
4 6

23 48
7 3
2 11
3 3
19 1,387


536 39,213


29 11,433


9 3
2 1

5 3
13 395

NA NA
5 661
5 73
NA NA
65 131

271 23,612


aClass 1-5 farms or those having more than $2,500 in sales of all farm products.

Source: 1281.






49









Table 15.--Florida snnp tl ans for, fle h mn lIrket! :Iul I )c,,'I n : A ,.,-' lliv,,l I,,I'I lIv ,.IIj i,.l :mi ;',1, -(I)on I r, ed


Area and I
county 1937-3a 198-39 11 :9-t40 1940-41 I !4 l-42 42 l 43'-4:l 4l!:l- 4-,4 194-46

West Florida -- --- ------------ ---------------- ------------ r----------- .-..cre...
Eseamha


200 100 230
Gadsden 400 400 400 400 400 500 300 200 450
Other 50 ,0 100 100 150 50 100 100 120
Area total 450 460 500 500 550 550 600 400 800

North Florida
Alachua 600 700 800 1,000 1,100 1,050 950 800 1,550
Bradford 200 200 200 250 400 250 250 125 150
Levy 300 450 400 300 300 150 100 100 50
Marion 2,000 1,100 2,000 2,000 1,600 1,100 800 500 800
Putnam 100 100 400 400 400 200 200 240
Union 100 100 100 100 200 100 240
Other 200 200 300 200 350 150 100 100 270
Area total 3,500 2,850 4,200 4,250 4,150 2,900 2,600 1,725 3,300

North Central
Hernando 100 100 250 100 500 400 150 150 140
Lake 100 100 100 200 200 300 400 350 140
Orange 500 400 450 450 350 700 750 100 150
Pasco 100 100 100 100 100
Seminole 450 400 400 400 300 500 300 150 350
Sumter 400 300 400 900 1,100 500 550 475 230
Other 75 140 200 100 200 50 50 40
Area total 1,725 1,540 1,900 2,250 2,750 2,450 2,200 1,225 1,050

West Central
Hardee 50 50 50 200 200 :50 40
Highlands 300 400 300 300 300 800 900 550 230
Hillsborough 1,600 1,600 1,100 1,000 1,100 750 850 250 1,200
Manatee 100 100 100 100 350 100 250 450
Polk 100 100 100 100 100 150 50 50 200
Other 25 50 100 50 200 50 80
Area total 2,175 2,200 1,750 1,550 1,800 2,300 2,100 1,150 2,200

East Central
Brevard
Indian River 250 250 250 300 100 100 50
Okeechobee 800 400 300 300 300 250 50
St. Lucie 300 250 150 100 200 500 250 100 100
Other 100 100 150 50 150 '50 50 50
Area total 1,450 1,000 850 750 750 900 400 100 150

Lower East Coast
Broward 21,000 17,200 12,800 19,500 17,500 12,800 20,500 19,800 20,200
Dade 500 2,700 950 2,700 5,500 4,100 4,500 3,000 3,100
Martin 400 400 800 400 300 500 700 600 340
Palm Beach, E. 10,800 12,500 8,000 10,000 10,500 13,600 18,000 16,000 9,730
Palm Beach.W. 18,000 22,500 19,800 21,500 23,500 30,000 46,000 35,600 39,050
Area total 50,700 55,300 42,350 54,100 57,300 61,000 89,700 75,600 72,440

Southwest
Collier 50 50
Glades 200 200 200 200 200 250 350 250 50
Hendry 700 600 400 400 400 350 50 150 210
Other 100 100 150 100
Area total 1,050 950 750 600 700 600 400 .400 260

State totals:
Fresh (60,700) (64,000) (52,000) (62,500) (55,300) (50,000) (83,500) (64,300) (69,600)
Processinga (350) (300) (300) (1,500) (12,700) (20,700) (14,500) (16,200) (10,600)
All 61,050 64,300 52,300 64,000 68,000 70,700 98,000 80,500 80,200

aParenthetical data are acreages utilized for fresh market or in processing; their combined acreage is the sum of the county
acreages for the crop year.

Source: [10].



















Table 15.--Florida snap beans for fresh market ned processing: Acres harvested by counties and n nron-Continucd


Area and
A ra an 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-5.1 1953-54 1954-55

West Florida .. .------------------. ---Acres-------- ...----.. ..... ---- ...................
Escambia 100 100 100 100 100 100.
Gadsden 350 350 400 550 500 350 400 1,350 600
Other 100 50 25 25 25 100 100 50 50
Area total 550 500 525 675 625 550 500 1,400 650

North Florida
Alachua 1,050 1,325 1,700 1,650 1,475 1,350 1,400 1,875 1,900
Bradford 150 100 200 250 200 200 175 225 265
Levy 75 100 50 75 50 25
Marion 1,000 800 1,500 1,700 1,275 800 1,200 1,200 1,125
Putnam 100 50 100 75 50 50
Union 250 275 425 325 150 150 175 150 160
Other 250 200 75 150 200 200 100 50 50
Area total 2,800 2,700 3,900 4,150 3,450 2,900 3,200 3,600 3,575

North Central
Hernando
Lake 100 300 325 350 450 250 250 175 100
Orange 350 600 300 725 125 300 600 1,725 750
Pasco
Seminole 850 575 1,200 1,375 750 1,300 1,000 1,000 775
Sumter 250 650 1.050 600 650 700 475 450 700
Other 50 25 '75 50 50 100 50 50 25
Area total 1,600 2,150 2,950 3,100 2,025 2,650 2,375 3,400 2,350

West Central
Hardee 50 50 50 50 50
Highlands 500 500 400 200 425 450 350 400 850
Hillsborough 1,900 1,075 1,350 1,100 1,500 1,200 925 875 925
Manatee 600 450 450 275 400 350 475 475 525
Polk 200 100 150 275 325 200 200 200 200
Other 50 25 50 25 50 25
Area total 3,300 2,200 2,400 1,900 2,700 2,250 1,975 2,000 2,525

East Central 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Lower East Coast
Broward 18,300 14,850 12,300 13,400 17,900 15,600 12,500 12,900 12,000
Dade 2,650 3,000 3,000 5,500 5,600 5,200 5,550 5,900 7,800
Martin 700 600 1,100 1,000 600 850 600 600 300
Palm Beach, E. 12,200 15,500 13,200 14,600 19,500 17,600 13,000 13,500 14,100
Palm Beach.W. 38.200 33.000 38.600 33.200 21.900 25 900 23.500 24.700 23.900
Area total 72,050 66,950 68,200 67,700 65,500 65,150 55,150 57,600 58,100

Southwest
Collier
Glades 100
Hendry
Other 25 75 100 100 200
Area total 100 25 75 100 100 200 300

State totals:
Fresha (72,600) (67,600) (69,800) (68,100) (66,900) (65,800) (49,000) (52,200) (57,400)
Processing (7,800) (6,900) (8,200) (9,500) (7,400) (7,800) (14,300) (16,000) (10,100)
All 80,400 74,500 78,000 77,600 74,300 73,600 63,300 68,200 67,500


aParenthetical data are acreages utilized In fresh market or in processing; their combined acreage is the sum of the
county acreages for the crop year.















Table 15.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres harvested by counties and areas
Area and
county 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37
--------------------------------------------Acres----------------------------------------------------
West Florida
Escambia 120 100 130 100 25 25 25
Gadsden 500 500 500 400 150 200 100 100 100
Other 230 200 270 250 225 225 225 50 50
Area total 850 800 900 750 400 450 350 150 150

North Florida
Alachua 900 1,250 1,100 1,200 1,000 300 300 400 600
Bradford 400 400 200 300 100 200 200 300 150
Levy 150 125 300 550 500 550 300 300 350
Marion 2,500 4,100 2,950 3,000 3,300 2,300 1,700 1,700 2,000
Putnam 100 100 100
Union 300 400 100 150 100 100
Other 150 375 350 150 100 900 900 150 300
Area total 4,500 6,650 5,000 5,350 5,000 4,250 3,500 3,050 3,500

North Central
Hernando 100 200 200 300 200 350 200 100 100
Lake 150 100
Orange 150 150 550 550 550 500 400 300 550
Pasco 100 100 100 200
Seminole 300 465 650 875 300 700 250 325 450
Sumter 2,400 4,000 5,200 2,500 1,250 1,150 650 300 200
Other 100 285 250 200 100 200 200 25 50
Area total 3,200 5,200 6,850 4,425 2,500 2,900 2,000 1,050 1,350

West Central
Hardee 600 300 250 225
Highlands 100 300
Hillsborough 900 1,100 800 500 500 700 1,200 600 800
Manatee 100 300 400 200 500 700 100 150 .100
Polk 350 200 150 100 100 100 100
Other 50 200 200 150 150 125 300 100 100
Area total 2,000 1,900 1,850 1,000 1,250 1,850 1,700 950 1,400

East Central
Brevard
Indian River 1,000 800 650 500 400 300 400 450 300
Okeechobee 300 500 300 700 800 1,300 1,300 1,100 1,300
St. Lucie 225 850 450 300 400 300 400 450 500
Other 100 150 150 100 50 150 150
Area total 1,625 2,300 1,550 1,600 1,650 2,050 2,250 2,000 2,100

Lower East Coast
Broward 5,450 5,300 7,300 7,700 19,000 14,000 17,600 23,000 22,800
Dade 850 1,100 1,000 500 1,500 650 2,100 2,200 1,200
Martin 200 450 300 325 300 300 400 300 200
Palm Beach,E. 4,000 4,000 1,000 6,500 8,000 6,500 9,300 6,300 8,700
Palm Beach.W. 3,300 7,000 13,500 12,500 10,600 29,300 26,700 19,000 16,400
Area total 13,800 17,850 23,100 27,525 39,400 50,750 56,100 50,800 49,300

Southwest
Collier 100 200 100 300 100
Glades 325 250 100 250 200 300
Hendry 700 850 600 500 200 350 700 900 700
Other 50 200 100 100
Area total 1,025 1,100 750 850 600 550 1,100 1,200 1,000

State totals:
Fresha (27,000) (35,800) (40,000) (41,500) (50,800) (62,800) (67,000) (59,200) (58,800)
Processing -
All 27,000 35,800 40,000 41,500 50,800 62,800 67,000 59,200 58,800

aparenthetical data are acreages utilized in fresh market or in processing; thus acreages 1928-29 through 1936-37 were
utilized in fresh market.

Source: [101.


















Table 15.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres harvested by counties and areas --Continued
Area and ---
acounty 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64

West Florida ----------------------------------------- Acres---------------------- --.... ...................
Gadsden 550 700 825 700 650 525 600 600 390
Other 100 100 75 100 25 30 35
Area total 650 800 900 800 650 525 625 630 425

North Florida
Alachua 1,450 1,575 1,800 1,700 1,700 1,600 1,340 1,410 1,050
Bradford 150 200 200 125 95 75 75 50 50
Levy 25 50 50 50 50 50 25
Marion 800 650 750 875 1,250 750 700 480 200
Putnam 25 25 25 25 5 25
Union 225 275 225 225 275 225 185 260 250
Other 150 175 200 150 75 65
Area total 2,825 2,950 3,250 3,150 3,375 2,725 2,400 2,200 1,615

North Central
Lake 50 250 425 75 250 425 a 650 1,440
Orange 575 825 1,225 835 1,000 1,700 2,075 1,565 1,790
Seminole 450 400 365 500 425 575 825 585 520
Sumter 250 265 85 150 100 165 150 90 50
Other 25 35 50 40 75 25 10
Area total 1,325 1,675 2,150 1,600 1,775 2,865 3,125 2,915 3,810

West Central
Highlands 650 200 350 200 200 260 70
Hillsborough 900 860 735 575 725 690 560 785 620
Manatee 550 340 75 50 75 50
Polk 150 100 100 100 100 100 175 150 100
Other 50 50 65 25 50 55 100 120
Area total 2,300 1,550 1,325 950 1,150 840 1,050 1,105 840

East Central 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Lower East Coast
Broward 11,400 10,000 9,000 8,400 5,700 5,800 6,100 5,750 7,150
Dade 6,700 6,725 4,925 6,875 7,200 6,550 8,000 7,650 8,030
Martin 200
Palm Beach, E. 13,000 11,600 11,200 10,850 15,500 18,425 19,200 21,500 16,800
Palm Beach,W. 23,100 21,100 20,350 21,075 20,200 18,000 10,350 5,800 6,200
Other 250
Area total 54,400 49,425 45,475 47,200 48,600 48,775 43,650 40,950 38,180

Southwest
Collier 290
Glades
Hendry 750
Other 50 140
Area total 800 100 100 250 370 150 430

State tot1s:
Fresh (52,500) (44,700) (43,000) (44,000) (45,400) (42,100) (42,400) (40,600) (36,700)
Processingb (9,800) (11,800) (10,100) (9,800) (10,400) (14,000) (8,600) (7,200) (8,600)
All 62,300 56,500 53,100 53,800 55,800 56,100 51,000 47,800 45,300

aIncluded in Orange.

bParenthetical data are acreages utilized in fresh market or in processing; their combined acreage is the sum of the
county acreage for the crop year.

Source: 110].




















Table 15.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres harvested by counties and areas --Continued
Area and 7 -7
county 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1 1968-69b 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74

West Florida ---------------------------------Acres -.............. .--------------------..............
Gadsden 470 600 600 660 530 800 1,400 950 920 1,000
Other 10 50 70 40 160 100 120 250 230 250
Area total 480 650 670 700 690 900 1,520 1,200 1,150 1,250

North Florida
Alachua 1,200 1,040 1,000 900 510 880 1,080 1,060 1,360 1,260
Bradford 20
Levy
Marion 670 270 60
Putnam
Union 330 330 280 260 130 130 140 120
Other 110 140 370 40 270 550 620 680 580
Area total 2,330 1,780 1,340 1,530 680 1,280 1,770 1,800 2,040 1,840

North Central
Lake 1,750 1,560 210 525
Orange 740 750 1,050 780
Seminole 680 600 400 510 170 260 380
Sumter 130 50
Other 30 170 30 30 220 370
Area total 3,330 3,080 1,710 1,845 200 480 750 350c 230c 250C

West Central
Highlands 80
Hillsborough 530 480 520 725 700 700 580 850 910 1,200
Polk 200 100 60
Other 110 100 80 350 10 60 100 50 70 110
Area total 840 580 680 1,175 770 760 680 900 980 1,310

East Central 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Lower East Coast
Broward 8,500 7,300 9,600 9,980 8,600 8,000 7 350 8,950 8,520 6,900
Dade 7,130 6,590 7,175 7,740 6,430 6,810 7,700 6,550 6,850 5,810
Palm Beach, E. 17,200 17,020 17,800 19,250 18,600 15,180 14,250 15,850 16,970 19,340
Palm Beach,W. 4,500 6,200 5,775 5,380 970 1,190 1,180 .500 360 200
Other 30 250
Area total 37,360 37,110 40,600 42,350 34,600 31,180 30,480 31,850 32,700 32,250

Southwest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

State totals:
Fresh (36,300) (37,000) (37,100) (38,800) (37,500) 34,600 35,200 36,100 37,100 36,900
Processing (8,100) (6,200) (7,900) (8,800) (4,200) NA NA NA NA NA
All 44,400 43,200 45,000 47,600 41,700 -


aProcessing acreage included in 1967-68 and all prior crop years by counties; excluded in all subsequent crop years,

bLast crop year in which processing acreage is released; excluded to avoid disclosure.

CAll counties in area.

Source: 110).





54





Harvested
acres

30,000




25,000





20,000




15,000




10,000





5,000





12345 1 2 3 4 5 1 2345 1 345 1 2 3 4 5 12345 1 4 5
West Florida North Florida North Central West Central Everglades Pompano Homestead

Figure 5.--Florida snap beans: Average acres for harvest or harvested by periods of nine-year averages, by areas,
1928-29 through 1973-74 (based on Table 16)

Source: [101.



Table 16.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and processing: Acres for harvest or harvested, by nine crop-year average
periods, 1928-29 through 1973-74
Area"
Period Nine crop-years West North North est Everglades Pompano Homestead
Central Central
---------------------------------------Acres------------------------------------

(1) 1928-29 through 1936-37 533 4,533 3,275 1,544 16,444 19,606 1,233

(2) 1937-38 through 1945-46 534 3,275 1,899 1,914 29,528 30,083 3,006

(3) 1946-47 through 1954-55 664 3,364 2,511 2,361 29,928 29,217 4,911

(4) 1955-56 through 1963-64 667 2,721 2,360 1,234 16,375 23,042 6,962

(5) 1964-65 through 1973-74c 1,023 1,821 1,357 964 2,948 28,351 7,643


aAreas include counties as shown in Table 15, except:
(1) the Everglades includes Palm Beach (west), Glades, Hendry and Martin;
(2) Pompano includes Broward and Palm Beach (east); and
(3) Homestead which is Dade alone.

bThe nine crop-year period was used due to the 45 crop-year record of county data and the space available; nine crop-
years are on each page of Table 15.

cIn the fifth period all known processing is excluded; the average, statewide, for the first five years of the fifth period
is 7,040.acres harvested. This was grown primarily in the Everglades. Processing was dropped from the estimates to avoid
disclosure.
Source: 01).


































Acres for harvest

I 0- 99

100- 399

i 400- 699

700- 999

S1,000-1,999

F 2,000-2,999

3,000 and over


Figure 6.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and
processing: Acres for harvest during the
1928-29 crop year

Source: [10].

































Acres for harvest

O] 0- 99

100-399

S400-699

%. 700-999

5,200

S18,000

0 20,500

46,000


Figure 7.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and
processing; Acres for harvest during the
1943-44 crop year


Source: [1]0


0 .
































Acres for harvest

II 0- 99

Fj 100- 399

400- 699

700- 999

^ 1,000-1,999

S6,000-8,499

10,850

S21,075


Figure 8.--Florida snap beans for fresh market and
processing: Acres for harvest during the
1958-59 crop year


Source: [10].



































Acres harvested

L] 0- 99

100- 399

400- 699

700- 999

^ 1,000-1,999

5,000-6,999

19,340


Figure 9.--Florida snap beans for fresh market: Acres
harvested during the 1973-74 crop year


Source: [101.


00 "do









In the formative years land was cheap, but clearing and preparation
were slow and often expensive. The average farm operation was small and
no great outlay of capital was necessary. The transition from mule and
manpower to the machine age was synonymous with growth of the industry.
The small farmer made a transition from share-cropper to an independent
small grower. Allied industries and suppliers made possible potential
assistance in the form of credit for most things necessary for production.
Most of the time beans will reach maturity for harvest in 42 to 58 days
and the supplier knows repayment can begin relatively soon; however, many
with excellent credit wait longer; some start with a minimum of credit
and resort to cash or 30-day cash basis account. When beans were har-
vested by hand labor, advances for payments to pickers were available
from various sources; credit for very short periods was also advanced
to purchase containers. Cash advances were made by brokers to growers
in some instances after a sale had been made. Some selling brokers had
to resort to consigned sales and the buyer, in many instances, followed
a slow payment policy, using the money due the seller to finance further
cash business outlays. The practice of reluctant payment and often out-
right refusals later necessitated the Perishable Agricultural Commodities
Act (PACA) which, through careful administration protected the buyer and
the seller against unfair practices.
The Florida land boom of the mid-'20s disrupted agriculture in
general and the Lower East Coast, in particular. This period of escalated
land prices was followed by the Great Depression, the end result of the
stock market crash of 1929. This period of general unemployment made
farm labor abundant, but also made production monies difficult to obtain.
One frequent source of financing was referred to as the "sugar
daddy." This occurred when an individual or firm made a financial agree-
ment to back a particular farmer in his production needs. Often this
source of credit insisted on restrictions in marketing a crop.
By 1933 the economic situation had become acute. The Federal
Government set up Production Credit Associations (PCA's) on a national
level to provide short-term and intermediate credit to farmers. Georgia,
Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina PCA's discount their notes
made by farmers with the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank (FICB) of








Columbia, S. C. On December 31, 1969, the grower members of the nine
PCA's in Florida joined those in the other three states to become sole
owners of the FICB of Columbia and the Columbia Bank for Cooperatives.
The FICB provides leadership, supervision and loan funds for 62 produc-
tion credit associations [15].
In times of disaster the Farmers Home Administration (FHA) is direct-
ed to provide low-interest loans to bonafide farmers who have exhausted
all other sources of credit. Its efforts to establish or re-establish
farmers on a sound basis frequently makes assistance over a period of
years necessary.
The commercial banks have played an important role in vegetable pro-
duction in Florida. Often the financial assistance is hidden or is in-
direct, being made to the supplier of seed, fertilizer and pesticides
who, in turn, passes along the credit to the actual grower. Tractors,
trucks and other farm equipment are frequently financed through local
banks. Trucking firms which transport beans to northern markets could not
function well without adequate financing, most often through local banks.
In more recent years, as stoop labor became more difficult to obtain
when needed, growers resorted to expensive harvesting machines and wide-
row planters. In fact, the outlay for expensive equipment caused many
farmers, who habitually grew a small acreage of beans annually, to take
a new look. Many quit beans. Some smaller growers have resorted to the
custom harvester. Practically all bush beans grown in Florida during the
late '60s and '70s have been machine harvested. This practice eliminates
multiple picking.

Soils and Temperatures

The climate of southeast Florida is suitable for growing beans during
about nine months of the year. This is due to its location south of the
27th parallel of north latitude, and its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean
with its close-to-shore Gulf Stream which provides the southern portion
of the peninsula with a subtropical climate.
The production of beans in south Florida was centered for many years
in two important and somewhat different agricultural areas--the peat and
muck soils of the Everglades near the eastern and southern shores of Lake
Okeechobee, and the sandy soils of the Lower East Coast areas. Some beans








were also grown in south Dade County's marl soils, especially following the
winter potato harvest. Temperatures low enough to injure beans were ex-
pected in the Everglades from December to March. There is less danger from
low temperatures in the coastal areas. Rainfall is heavy during the summer
and early fall months, but is very light the rest of the year.
The peat and muck soils of the Everglades are rich in total nitrogen,
which is usually in abundant supply except after periods of heavy, leaching
rains. In their virgin state these soils are usually deficient in phos-
phorus, potassium, copper, manganese and, in some cases, zinc and boron.
Higher residuals of these elements are found after several years of in-
tensive cropping and fertilizing. The peat soil's moisture-holding
capacity is high and normally adequate to grow a bean crop, but the muck
areas are slightly higher in elevation and become rather dry during periods
of prolonged drouth.
The sandy soils are low in most nutrient elements and may require
additions of some minor elements as well as nitrogen, phosphorus and po-
tassium. The acid sands are deficient in calcium and magnesium. The lat-
ter element also may be low in the more neutral sands.
Proper water control for drainage and irrigation is necessary in both
types of soils described above. Medium to dark-gray sands with a moisture
equivalent of 3.5 or higher was recommended for the best culture of beans
in Florida's mineral soils. Excessive drainage should be avoided. How-
ever, the marl soils of Dade County usually will produce beans without
benefit of irrigation, except in very dry periods when overhead irrigation
is applied [18].
In the 1945-46 season, when bean production was in its peak level,
southeast Florida Csouth of St. Lucie Inlet and including the organic
soils.around Lake Okeechobee) produced 90 percent of the volume marketed
in the state. The Everglades produced 47 percent and the Lower East
Coast 43 percent, while the remaining 10 percent was produced in central
and north Florida, where most soils were sandy except for the north central
mucklands. In more recent years this has changed appreciably. For
example, in 1967-68 the Everglades marketed only 13 percent of the Florida
bean crop and this was heavily utilized by processors. The Lower East
Coast produced 74 percent. In 1972-73 the Everglades was credited with
only 50,000 bushels for fresh market, but a considerable acreage was









grown under contract for processing. The sandy soils of the Lower East
Coast, including marl and rockland soils of south Dade County, produced
nearly 85 percent of the state's fresh market crop [10]. Thus an era
passed in which the peat and muck soils were primarily utilized in snap
bean production. Due to the nitrogen available, fertilizer costs for beans
were lower on peat and muck than on sandy soils, but other commodities
proved more economically'sound and beans are no longer an outstanding crop
in the organic soils of Florida.

Drainage and Irrigation

Most successful bean producing areas of Florida have water control
provided directly or indirectly by the growers. After soil suitability
was determined, drainage was a primary improvement expenditure, if it was
not a natural asset. An outlet for water used in irrigation that does
not adversely affect others is generally required by law. Irrigation was
equally necessary in many cases as most soils of the state would easily
experience periods of drouth too great for successful production.1
In the early years of bean culture, farming had not advanced to the
stage (except in a few areas) where water could be added. Seminole and
Manatee Counties were exceptions since artesian or flowing wells could
be brought in over much of the two areas. Sanford farmers tiled vegetable
farms intensively. Manatee County farmers tiled land to a lesser extent.
Most north Florida farms have natural drainage and irrigation was not used
extensively until more recent years. Portable aluminum pipe with sprinkler-
heads for overhead irrigation is currently used rather extensively.
In Sumter and west Lake Counties, the Jumper Creek Drainage District
was said to have had an adverse effect on snap bean culture in the Center
Hill area (see p. 23). Fields were drained such that irrigation became
necessary. The Skinner system of small pipes with a row of small holes,
mounted on posts with water pumped from wells, has been used on small fields
successfully; the large fields required by most bean growers would have
necessitated a level of initial outlay of hard-to-get capital beyond the
financial capacity of most growers. Snap bean production declined to


lThe past tense is used for most land has been brought into cultiva-
tion.already, especially for bean farming. Any farm operation of cleared
land would, basically, have the'same needs.








insignificance, gradually but surely, giving way to the Everglades com-
petition, in particular.
In the important east Palm Beach County farming area, the Lake Worth
Drainage District (LWDD) was organized about 1915 to insure better water
control and thus make the Palm Beach County portion of the Pompano market-
ing area a suitable place to farm. The area extends from an irregular
boundary one-half to one-mile west of the RL road (U. S. 441) and extends
eastward to a line skirting the coastal municipalities, or along the
equalizing canal No. 4. The north boundary is the Okeechobee Road and
the south boundary is the Hillsborough Canal. A system of four equaliz-
ing canals connects the Palm Beach Canal on the north with the Hillsborough
Canal on the south with 50 east-west laterals to provide drainage or
water for irrigation as needed.
Beans are planted on raised beds in fields ditched for drainage.
After each cultivation, drains are opened with a hand shovel to permit
the flow of surface water. Reversible pumps remove excess accumulations
of rainfall or add water to in-field ditches and cross-ditches during
periods of depleted moisture. Full canals and ditches aid in preventing
disastrously low temperature during cold invasions. The LWDD personnel
provide readings of measurable rainfall as determined from 12 rain gauges
that meet the standards of the U. S. Weather Bureau. These gauges are
placed at specific intervals throughout the district and are read five
days per week; readings are taken on Saturdays and Sundays if the rainfall
is significant. Reports of these readings have been very helpful to
FCLRS in more accurate crop reporting.
The Acme Drainage District, located northwest of the LWDD, serves
the area known as the Flying C.O.W. The system is similar to the sur-
face irrigation of the LWDD.
Broward County farmers have major canals for drainage and as a water
source for irrigation, but maintenance is dependent upon each grower fur-
nishing his share of labor and cost without special taxation. Their
system has not always proved as efficient as the LWDD.
In Dade County early growers grew beans in the marl soils of the
East Glades. Usually there was sufficient moisture to make a crop with-
out irrigation. The area is drained by major canals. After clearing,
the rockland areas were utilized in tomato production several times and









both bush and pole beans are grown successfully. Portable pumps are
placed over very shallow wells (usually cased with a 10-foot cement
standpipe sunk to ground level) placed in a row across a large field.
The pump's "volume gun" extends above the pump and gasoline-driven motor
to force overhead irrigation over about a two-acre area, wetting it to
the desired moisture content before being moved to another well. Often
several portables pump simultaneously along a row of wells and then are
moved to another row, thus watering a whole field in a relatively short
period. Accidents have occurred; it is mandatory that the shallow wells
be covered when not in use.
In the Everglades and at Zellwood, drainage and irrigation were pre-
requisites for successful farming, moisture control being no less important
in muck soils than on sand. Canals bring water from Lake Okeechobee to
the Everglades farms, while Lake Apopka furnishes water to the Zellwood
area. Necessary ditches tend to cut up fields, but connecting with peri-
meter ditches reduces flooding after heavy rains. On most farms excess
water can be drawn off quickly with the aid of pumps. During dry weather
the pumps are reversed, the perimeter ditch is filled and fresh water
spreads over the field via mole drains which are opened underneath the
field's surface, extending from one ditch almost to the other at about
10-foot intervals. Thus sub-irrigation was provided bean fields on muck
farms. The water level in canals and ditches can be maintained at the de-
sired level for needed moisture, or can be filled with pumps to aid in
frost and freeze control. Preparation of mole drains requires special
equipment in which a bullet-shaped instrument is forced through the soil
at the desired depth by pressing the soil outward to form a water tunnel.
Some mole drains last three or more seasons.
Plastic mulch is used extensively by pepper and tomato growers to
retain moisture, fertilizer, etc., but is perhaps too expensive for the
average bean grower, given the level of net profit normally made.

Varietal Characteristics

Snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, are leguminous plants, yet they us-
ually show a heavy response to applications of nitrogen, especially in
sandy soils where very little nitrogen is available., Three major types
of plants are grown in Florida.








Green podded snap beans

Bush types--Bush snap beans, named for their low plant characteris-
tics, bring forth, with proper fertilization, a heavy foliage which will
give pods some protection from frost but they have the disadvantage of
requiring stoop labor for harvesting. Bean pods are produced for two or
more pickings if hand picked, but second and third pickings are consider-
ed less desirable by the buyer. Bush beans only can be machine harvested
successfully; however, the mechanical harvester strips all foliage from
the stem, scattering the residue on the ground to be cut under, perhaps
adding nitrogen to the soil but prohibiting a second or third picking.
There is a multitude of bush snap bean varieties. In the early
'20s and perhaps earlier, there were extensive plantings of Black Valen-
tines (not the newer, stringless variety), possibly a few Red Valentines
and the Refugee, which was a high-yielding, beautiful bean, but one that
was subject to severe rust. This variety was well received in Philadel-
phia and New York and had a well-recognized reputation. The Giant String-
less (Green Pod) was grown also in the '20s or earlier, moving into
southern markets primarily [10].
The Bountiful variety was becoming very popular by 1930'and was
taking the lead in Florida. This was the earliest of the flat-podded
varieties grown in Florida. Bountiful plants grew to about 14 inches
high on the east coast sandy soils and possibly higher in the Everglades.
They were vigorous and produced pods that averaged 6-1/4 inches long and
were thick-flat, light-green and tender when young, but fibrous at full
size. It took from 47 to 55 days to produce marketable beans from seed.
Bountifuls were widely grown for about 15 years, commanding a premium
in the New York and other eastern markets. They were also in demand for
French-cut style in processing.
Stringless Black Valentines were an excellent shipper, but only fair
in edible quality.. Bushes were vigorous and erect, ranging up to 18 inches
high, but pod-set would fail under adverse environmental conditions.
Nearly straight, medium-green pods averaged about six inches in length.
The seeds--long, oval and slightly flattened--are jet-black and require
50 to 55 days to reach maturity. This variety would not be suitable for
first harvest by machine since less than 50 percent of a plant's yield









at first picking was normal. Total yields in Florida trials in 1951-52
were less than other varieties [18].2
The Plentiful, also a flat-podded green bean, replaced the Bountiful
extensively in the mid-'40s. Bushes--tall, erect, vigorous and moderately
compact--produced pods averaging seven inches in length, light-green, and
fairly straight, slightly rough and stringless. It was sometimes called
the black-seeded Bountiful (black-seeded beans are considered undesirable
for processing). The time from seeding to prime maturity for market takes
about 50 to 55 days.
The Tendergreen was a leading all-purpose, round-podded, stringless
bean for shippers, canners, freezers and market gardens. It has had the
distinction of being the standard of quality by which others were judged.
It has a tall (14 to 16 inches in sandy soil trials), erect, sturdy bush
that produces well. Pods average about 5 inches and are attractive,
round, nearly straight, medium-green and of excellent quality. The seed
has a mottled, brownish-purple color on a fawn-colored field and requires
50 to 55 days from seeding to first harvest. In the Pompano area it
followed the Plentiful, coming into first importance.
Contenders were not grown extensively for a very long period. Plants
are vigorous, but on very light, sandy soil frequently did not reach suf-
ficient size to hold the heavy set of pods off the soil. Pods had the
appearance of the Black Valentine, but were slightly heavier and thicker,
having a tendency to curve slightly. Contenders were resistant to the
common bean mosaic and showed considerable resistance to powdery mildew.
The seeds are buff-colored with a slight mottling of brown and usually
develop for marketing within 50 to 55 days. Some were harvested in 45
days. Farmers report them as fine-looking beans that proved to be a
poor carrier.
The Wade was a new bean in the early '50s. The bush averages some-
what taller than the Tendergreen and bears almost ideal, deep-green,
fleshy-round pods that are stringless and contain little fiber. It is
resistant to common bean mosaic, a high yielder, producing longer and
straighter pods than does Tendergreen. The Wade matures in 52 to 56
days from seeding [18].

2Variety descriptions are from reference [18] unless otherwise
specified; seed catalogues and dealers were consulted also.








The Seminole, a highly-productive, disease-resistant, green, round-
podded bush snap bean, was released by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations in the spring of 1953. In the early stages of growth, plants
resemble In tests made at the Everglades Station and at Lake Worth from 1951 to
1953, Seminole outyielded Tendergreen, the standard, round-podded variety
grown in Florida. Pods are smooth, straight, attractive and suitable for
fresh market and processing. This variety, however, never attained the
extensive plantings of some other "first place" varieties in Florida [34].
The Extender is a general-purpose variety, resistant to common bean
mosaic. The pods are the same as those of Wades, though slightly darker
and reach maturity under favorable conditions within 46 days from seeding.
They have never reached the extensive planting in Florida of some other
varieties.
Logan, Topcrop and Rival varieties are all mosaic-resistant, high
quality, round-podded types, released in recent years by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture. They have not been widely accepted. All are high
yielders having good to excellent eating quality, but the Logan produces
light-colored pods that do not hold up well in marketing while Topcrop
and Rival produce rough pods which frequently have hollow spaces between
the seeds.
The Harvester variety received the greatest impetus from a resistance
that was timely and welcome. This writer was checking fields in the Pompano
farming area for prospective yields on which to base a forecast of produc-
tion. Field after field showed extensive rust and prospects were poor.
One farmer offered a closer observation via a tour in his pickup truck.
Block after block, browned with rust, was observed, but suddenly there were
two blocks of trial beans--green and beautiful--and no rust! Seed for
these few blocks was doled out in small amounts to various growers. This
was the Harvester. The time was the early '60s or, possibly, the trials
were in the late '50s. This white-seeded, round, green-podded bush bean
rapidly became a favorite. Plants grow tall with dark-green leaves bearing
pods well off the ground. Pods are five to six inches long and are medium
green. Plants are fully resistant to the common bean mosaic and highly
tolerant of rust and root rots. One complaint of pickers was that pods
were too hard to pull free of stems. Harvester beans reach marketable








maturity in 52 days, minimum. Seeds are white and delicious fresh-shelled,
especially when mixed with younger snaps (author's experienced viewpoint).
Very few Harvesters have been grown in the '70s. Rust-resistant varieties
should be planted for spring harvest if seed is scarce. Most rust infes-
tations have a tendency to appear more frequently during the spring bean
production period.
The Tendercrop was developed to replace the Tendergreen for processing
and has been grown successfully in Florida. The white-seeded Tendercrop
stays in prime harvest condition longer than most processing beans and is
excellent for freezing and canning. It has been adapted to mechanical har-
vest.
Bush Blue Lake beans were developed to provide the processor with a
bush variety that has the pod characteristics of pole or trellised Blue
Lakes and the mechanical harvest capability of other bush beans. This
development has proven a boon to contracting processors in view of labor
shortages in a competitive industry. Blue Lakes are not grown commer-
cially for fresh market.
Sprite, the bean of the late '60s and the '70s, is proclaimed to be
the finest ever grown by a farmer with many years' experience and whose
grandchildren make the fourth generation of Pompano area bean growers.
He says it has an excellent eating quality. This variety supplanted
the Harvester in the Pompano area. It is the leading variety today,'but
it takes about 50 days at best to reach marketable maturity; when
days are short and cold, it will take 55 or more days. The Rebel, a
new variety, is a Keystone Seed Company exclusive and is a top competitor
as it will mature in 45 days with favorable weather. The Provider has
also been planted during the last three or four seasons. It is dark-
seeded, green-podded, good-yielding and matures, with favorable weather,
in about 45 days.
There are many other varieties, but the above mentioned ones have
played an important role in Florida's important bean industry. All bush
snap beans today must be those adaptive to mechanical harvest.
Pole types--Pole snap beans are so called because of the plant
characteristics of putting out vine-like runners that spirally climb a
pole or trellis. They are a popular vegetable, especially with southern
consumers. i Plants take longer in producing mature beans than do bush








types. Most plants are extremely productive, higher yielding than bush
beans, and produce larger and longer pods. All pole type vines must be
trellised (see Culture, p. 72). Pole beans are more susceptible to
mildew, rust and other foliage diseases than are bush beans. Multiple
pickings are the rule. When pole beans were first grown in Florida for
southern markets, one looked to Plant City or Palmetto-Ruskin for
supplies. The latter area had tomato stakes available for trellising
by adding wire to hold stakes in place.
The 191 or U. S. No. 4 (Kentucky Wonder 191, F-M 191 and white-seeded
Kentucky Wonder) is a bean as near to the original Kentucky Wonder as
possible. It was initially desired and still is grown in the Plant City
area and in Gadsden Gounty in west Florida. It is a high-yielding,
white-seeded bean resistant to certain forms of rust. Pods are dark-green,
oval, straight and long (averaging eight to nine inches); and are
attractive in appearance. It is stringless in the marketable stage,
which averages 63 days from seeding.
The McCaslan has produced favorably in south Dade County for many
years (see Table 13, p. 40). Vines usually are vigorous and grow to the
top of the tall poles, fruiting from the ground up over a long season.
Pods are medium-green, eight inches long, large, flat, slightly curved,
thick and meaty, stringless, brittle, fine-grained and of excellent quality
if harvested young (65 days). Due to these quality factors the McCaslan
(and, later, McCaslan 42) has been the leading variety grown in south
Dade County.
The Florigreen (Fla. 201-2) is a disease-resistant pole bean variety
released by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations in the mid-'50s.
It has proven superior to F-M 191 and McCaslan, the commercial standard for
the Homestead (Dade County) area, in a number of replicated trials. The
seed is lustrous white and the vines closely resemble F-M 191 in habit and
size, but the leaflets are noticeably smoother and a darker green. The pods
are also similar to those of the F-M 191. In the proper stage for harvest
and shipping, it is rich green, tender and practically stringless, possessing
excellent pole bean flavor. With age the pods become stringy and show
irregularity [31]. This bean also has a tendency to develop black suture
and intumescence under Dade County conditions; therefore, it has not been
accepted by the growers and has met resistance in the market.









The Dade variety was derived from a cross between Florigreen and
McCaslan, and was so named as it is especially adapted to the pole bean
producing areas of Dade County. The principal varieties grown in Florida
are susceptible to rust and have other features which tend to limit their
acceptance in various producing areas, e.g., the McCaslan's pale pod color
is more or less undesirable. To meet the need for a rust-resistant
variety that could boast'a better color than that of the McCaslan, and thus
meet the need of Dade County growers, this new Dade variety was developed.
The plants and vine growth are similar in appearance and habit to the
McCaslan. Runners are slow to appear, allowing more time for cultivation
and fertilization before placing poles in the field. Vines twine tightly
around supporting poles and pods are held away from vines and supporting
poles by the long, flexible flower stalks, reducing wind-scarring. Pod
set ranges from close to the ground to top of the plant. Pods average
about 7-3/4 inches in length, are smooth, very uniform and mostly straight
with a darker green color than the McCaslan,but not as dark as that of the
Florigreen and the Florida 191. It has a superior yield record over
other varieties. The Dade was released by the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Stations in the early '60s and has proven itself in periods when
rust is greatly to be feared [ 5].
Before Blue Lake beans had ever been grown in Florida the owner of
the Havana Canning Company, Mrs. Stevens (now Mrs. Slappy) went to the
Pacific Northwest and took soil samples from Blue Lake producing areas
there to compare them with soil samples in Gadsden County. She came to a
quick conclusion that Florida could grow Blue Lake pole beans for her
canning plant. They could--and did! Western growers and processors tried
to declare or pass an edict that a Blue Lake bean had to be produced in
the Pacific Northwest or it could not bear the statement on the label that
the can contained Blue Lake beans. Mrs. Stevens pioneered Blue Lake pro-
duction in Florida for processing. Her success brought to others interested
in processing, this fancy, dark-green, round, white-seeded, excellent eating
quality bean. One of these, the California Packing Company (later known
as the Del Monte Corporation) came to Florida and contracted acreage to
be grown on the Zellwood muck. This firm presumably processes no other variety.
Stokley-Van Camp also was a large utilizer, as were many smaller con-
tractors. Interest declined when it became obvious that the machine-








harvested bush varieties were more economically harvested. Through re-
search, Del Monte now supplies bush strains of Blue Lake seed for contract-
ing farmers to grow beans for their Florida (Tampa) plant. Thus by
proper breeding, the pod appearance and excellent quality of the pole
variety is now being produced on the bush type plant and Blue Lakes are
now contracted for mechanical harvesting. Most of the Blue Lakes now
grown in Florida are produced by a few growers in the Everglades organic
soils. Pole Blue Lakes are no longer grown commercially in Florida.
The Romano is a flat-podded bean, used when young for freezing and
for fresh market. It is also grown for home garden use as a snap or
green shelled bean. It has a distinct, strong beany flavor. Romano
beans mature in 67 days, grow 5-6 feet tall, but are poor climbers.

Wax yellow-podded snap beans

Bush types;-Bush yellow-podded snap beans have been .grown in Florida
for many years. Probably the first variety was the Hudson Wax, but this
has long been discontinued. Resistant Cherokee Wax is the standard wax
bean shipping variety in Florida. Bushes are large, vigorous, erect and
prolific. The Cherokee produces in 50 to 53 days from seeding. It bears
an excellent yield of bright golden-yellow, long, thick, oval pods that
are nearly straight (averaging 6-1/2 inches in length), entirely string-
less and of excellent quality. This is considered the best wax bean for
Florida and has been produced for many years. Rust can quickly ruin its
appearance.

Pole types--Pole wax beans are seldom grown commercially in Florida.
The Kentucky Wonder Wax could be grown, no doubt. Its pods are golden-
yellow, about 7 x 1/2 inches, flat, oval and somewhat stringy and fibrous.

Fresh shelling beans

Bush types--In Florida beans for fresh shelling are grown and marketed
in conjunction with snap beans; in fact, no effort has been made to remove
the limited amount shipped from the movement of snap beans; therefore,
they are included in the snap bean estimates for Florida. Most of these
are Cranberry types. French's Horticulture, one of the speckled Cranberry
types, is grown in the Pompano and Homestead areas on a very limited scale.
This variety produces pods 6 to 8 inches long, straight and heavily









splashed with deep carmine or bright red color. The shelled beans are
pinkish-buff color, mottled and streaked. This variety can be used as a
dry shelled or a green shelled bean; good mixed with green snapped beans,
it provides the housewife with a bean dish that is different. The Dwarf
Horticulture bean is similar to French's but produces pods shorter (5 x
5/8 inches). Thus it is planted less frequently than French's Horticulture.
Both varieties are often'spoken of in the markets as "Cranberry beans."
The White Half Runner has many characteristics that are different
from those of other varieties. It is grown as a bush type, yet produces
medium-longrunners and no doubt could be short-staked successfully. Only
a limited acreage is grown for market in Florida, but it is popular
across the south for its versatility; it can be marketed as a snap bean
or left to mature for fresh shelling or, later, dry shelling. Plants are
vigorous, about 12 inches tall and produce pods that average only four
inches in length, oval to almost round, medium-light green, stringless
when very young and fiberless in all edible stages. This bean was develop-
ed from a West Virginia heirloom strain and is so popular in the Blue Ridge
Mountains that it has been given the name "the Mountaineer."

Culture

The three soil types in which beans are grown in Florida require dif-
ferent cultural and fertilization practices. In all areas a well-prepared
seedbed is important for decomposed organic matter in the soil will aid
in weed, grass and moisture control; healthier plants will be produced
which can better resist disease and infestations.
In the Pompano sandland area of Broward and east Palm Beach Counties,
beans are planted on high beds in fields ditched for drainage and irriga-
tion (see p. 63). Prior to mechanical harvesting, bed widths varied from
four to five feet which allowed for two rows of bush beans per bed. The
rows were about 20 inches apart; seed was spaced from two to four inches
in the drill and covered to a depth of one and one-half to two inches in
the lighter mineral soils. Seed per acre varied with size of seed, row
spacing and spacing in the drill (see Tables 17 and 18).
Beds were widened to accommodate the mechanical harvester as growers
gradually resorted to the new method of picking beans. In the '60s and
'70s most bush snap beans have been mechanically harvested. Equipment is
needed for bedding, seeding, cultivating and spraying.









Table 17.--Florida snap beans: Usual material requirements per acre, by
areas, as determined by surveys conducted during 1943 through
1948



Material Kind Amount

Pompano area:


Seed............

Fertilizer......
Top-dressing....
Dust.... .......
Containers.......

Dade County area:

Seed............
Fertilizer......
Top-dressing....
Dust............
Containers.......

Everglades area:

Windbreak seed..
Seed............

Fertilizer.....
Dust .. ........
Containers.....

Plant City area:

Seed...........

Fertilizer.....
Top-dressing...
Containers.....

McIntosh area:

Seed...........

Fertilizer.....
Top-dressing...
Containers.....


Plentiful, Black Valentine, Tender-
green, Bountiful, Wax type................
4-9-3; 4-8-3; 5-8-3........................
Nitrate of soda, calcium nitrate...........
Sulfur and lime...........................
Bushel hampers.............................


Stringless Black Valentine, Tendergreen....
4-9-3; 4-7-3; 4-7-5; 4-8-3.................
Nitrate of soda, ammonium nitrate..........
Sulfur, or sulfur and manganese oxide......
Bushel hampers.............................


Sunflower, corn............................
Stringless Black Valentine, Bountiful,
Plentiful, Tendergreen, Wax type........
0-14-5; 2-8-6; 0-10-10.....................
Sulfur, or sulfur and manganese oxide......
Bushel hampers .............................


Tendergreen, Giant Stringless, Stringless
Black Valentine, Green Pod..............
4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-8........................
Nitrate of soda.............................
Bushel hampers.............................


Black Valentine, Wax type, Florida Belle,
Tendergreen, Plentiful..................
4-7-5; 5-7-5...............................
Nitrate of soda............................
Bushel hampers............................


Source: [25].


60
1,200
170
85
100


75
950
100
90
135


2.3 lb.

60 lb.
500 lb.
81 lb.
100


60 lb.
800 lb.
160 lb.
126


50 lb.
850 lb.
100 lb.
100





74



Table 18.--Florida snap beans: Usual material requirements per acre, by
areas, as determined by surveys conducted during 1959 through
1961


Material Kind Amount


Everglades area:


Seed...............

Fertilizer......
Dust..... ......

Containers.......


Harvester, Improved Tender-green, Wade,
Contender, Black Valentine...............
0-14-5; 0-10-10; 0-8-12; 0-16-0;3-14-5......
Sulfur; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides....................
Bushel hampers............................


Pompano area:

Seed............
Fertilizer......
Spraya..........

Dusta...........
Containers.......

Sanford area:

Seed............
Fertilizer......
Supplemental
fertilizer...
a
Spray ........
a
Dust ..........
Containers.....


Contender, Harvester, Wade, Extender.........
4-7-5; 5-7-6; 6-4-8; 6-7-10; 8-6-8..........
Sulfur; organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon insecticides.................
Same as above................................
Bushel hampers.............................


Contender, Wade, Harvester...................
4-6-5; 4-7-5; 6-4-8 .........................

Nitrate of potash; calcium nitrate..........
Sulfur; chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides............................
Same as above...............................
Bushel hampers ..............................


60 lb.
1,200 lb.

200 gal.
90 lb.
100


60 lb.
2,150 lb.

200 lb.

375 gal.
55 lb.
175


aEither one or both may be used.

Source: [2].

The Everglades, south Dade County and central, north and west Florida
growers primarily planted on level ground with drainage and irrigation
other than surface (see pp. 63 and 64). Sunflowers were a part of bean
culture in the Everglades for many years. About eight rows of beans were
planted between rows of sunflowers which served as windbreaks. This system
of protection from cold wind was later used in cucumber culture in the
Pompano area.


50 lb.
400 lb.

90 lb.
100








Pole bean culture is similar to that of bush beans within the Dade
County area. Spaces between rows are intermittently wide and narrow to
permit some cultural practices after placing the poles, which are brought
together to form a teepee. Four to six poles are brought together near
the top and .tied for support, often with a supporting wire through the
"tie" running the length of the field. Another method used in the Home-
stead area (Dade County) is that of poles slanted to a wire at the top
which is supported by posts across the field. Two rows are brought to-
gether over the narrow middle. Holes for the posts are drilled with a
large auger powered by a tractor.
During the period when the Palmetto-Ruskin area was in production,
low trellises or low stakes were used so that high-wheeled spray rigs
could work without disturbing them. Rust-resistant varieties made this
method rather obsolete.
During the period when pole Blue Lake was the leading variety grown
for processing at Zellwood, a system of trellising was used that was quite
a labor-saving method. At each end of the long row, posts were set,
slanted away from the field. The hydraulic lift on a farm tractor was
reversed to sink a 2X2-inch post to the required depth at evenly spaced
intervals down the row. After the posts were set a small tractor pulled
a machine especially made to spread a trellis of string by feeding off
a top wire and bottom cord which was fastened securely at the starting
end's slanted post. As the wire and cord fed off the moving equipment,
a ratchet of three spools of string would whip over the wire and under
the cord, which automatically spread to be stapled to each post. Thus
in two trips across the field, a trellis was in place, using about three
to five laborers. This method was demonstrated in the south Dade County
rockland soils but the ground was too hard for sinking posts. It is in-
teresting to note the pole bean vine will only climb a trellis pdle or
string by turning clockwise as it grows upward.
Fertilizer requirements vary with soil types. In 1953 one source
recommended that beans grown on the sandy soils of the Lower East Coast
should receive an application of 1,000 lbs. of 5-6-9 fertilizer mixture
with slightly more nitrogen for fall plantings and more potash for spring.
Also, top-dressed applications of both nitrogen and potash might be ad-
visable, following excessive rains conducive to leaching. A 4-7-5 or








5-6-8 fertilizer mixture at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre was rec-
ommended by the same source for the north Florida area [18].
Fertilizer should be applied at the time of seeding in bands two
inches to the side of, and on a level with or slightly below, the seed.
Applications were by hand during the early years. Should a top-
dressing be required because of leaching, 300 pounds per acre of a
10-0-10 or some similar mixture should be applied [18]. Some farmers
in the Pompano area disagree, saying the fertilizer should be added
after seeding, placing it alongside the beans on top of the ground or
in the seeder wheel tracks. Tables 17 and 18 show requirements most fre-
quently applied in the areas designated. The reader should note that
nitrogen requirements are less in the organic soils of the Everglades and
Zellwood. For recommendations for the '70s the reader is referred to the
Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide, by Dr. James Montelaro (Florida
Cooperative Extension Service Cir. 225-A, May 1970) or local county agri-
cultural extension agents.
The grower must recognize the susceptibility of bush and pole snap
beans to anthracnose, rust, powdery mildew, sclerotiniose, Rhizoctonia,
bacterial blight and mosaic, and make preventative controls a part of his
cultural program as current fungicides are applicable and permissible.
Disease-resistant strains are available and have done much to overcome
loss from some of the worst diseases. The same is true for insect in-
festations. Effective pesticide programs have long been necessary for
the production of good yields of high-quality vegetables. The latest
guide has been released and should be studied for the most effective
controls. Local county agricultural agents have the March 1974 release
of Extension Circular 193H, entitled Commercial Vegetable Insect, Disease
and Nematode Control Guide, by F. A. Johnson, J. E. Brogdon, R. S. Mullin,
T. A. Mucharek and D. W. Dickson.
The usual seasons of operations during part of the peak period of
production (1943-48), and again in three areas 13 years later (1959-61)
are shown in Tables 19 and 20. During the more recent years the periods
have been extended slightly with possibly earlier starts and later
finishes or in situations with less risk, as might be the case with
beans for processing.







Table 19.--Florida snap beans: Usual season of operations, by areas, as
determined by survey, conducted during 1943 through 1948


Operation Pompano Dade

Ditching......................... Aug. 1-Feb. 1
Preparing land................... Aug. 15-Oct; 1 -Oct. 1-Nov. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing... Oct. 1-Feb. 1 Nov. 1-Nov. 15
Planting.......................... Oct. 1-Feb. 1 Nov. 1-Nov. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing...... Oct. 20-Mar. 1 Nov. 15-Dec. 15
Insect and disease control....... Oct. 25-Mar. 1 Dec. 1-Dec. 15

Harvesting..................... Nov. 25-Apr. 1 Jan. 1-Feb. 15

Everglades
Operation (Fall crop)

Ditching and mole draining....... Aug. 1-Aug. 15
Preparing land.................... Aug. 1-Oct. 31
Preparing rows and fertilizing... Sep. 5-Nov. 10
Planting........................ Sep. 5-Nov. 10a
Cultivating and fertilizing ..... 'Sep. 15-Nov. 30
Hoeing........................... Oct. 1-Nov. 30
Insect and disease control....... Sep. 20-Nov. 20

Harvesting....................... Nov. 1-Dec. 31b

Operation Plant City McIntosh

Preparing land.................... Sep. Nov. Dec. 1-Feb. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing... Nov. Feb. Feb. 1-Feb. 15
Planting................ ........ Jan. Feb. Feb. 15-Feb. 25
Cultivating and fertilizing...... Feb. Mar. Mar. 5-Mar. 20


Harvesting....................... April Apr. 10-Apr. 25

planting dates for winter crop, Nov. 15-Jan. 31; spring crop, Feb.l-
Mar. (1.
aMa rvesting dates for winter crop, Jan. 20-Mar. 15; spring crop,
Mar. 25-May 15.


Source: [251.








Table 20.--Florida snap beans: Usual season of operations, by areas, as
determined by surveys conducted during 1959 through 1961


Operation Everglades Pompano

Ditching and draining........... Aug. 10-May 15 Sep. 1-Feb. 15
Preparing land.................. Aug. 10-Mar. 15 Aug. 1-Jan. .15
Preparing rows and fertilizing.. Sep. 10-Mar. 15 Sep. 15-Feb. 15
Planting........................ Sep. 10-Mar. 15 Sep. 15-Feb. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing..... Sep. 20-Apr. 25 Oct. 1-Apr. 1
Insect and disease control...... Sep. 20-May 10 Oct. 5-Apr. 15


Harvesting...................... Nov. 1-May 15 Nov. 5-Apr. 15








SSanford
Operation Fall crop Spring crop

Preparing land................... Aug. 1-Sep. 1 Jan. 15-Feb. 28
Preparing rows and fertilizing.. Aug. 15-Sep. 30 Feb. 20-Mar. 20
Planting........................ Sep. 1-Sep. 30 Feb. 20-Mar. 20
Cultivating and fertilizing..... Sep. 10-Nov. 15 Mar. 1-Apr. 20
Insect and disease control...... Sep. 15-Dec. 1 Mar. 1-May 15


Harvesting...................... Nov. 1-Dec. 15 Apr. 15-May 15


Source: [2].

Marketing

Containers.--Hampers have been used for bush and pole bean packing for
many years. Whether beans were everpacked in barrels, as were so many
vegetables in the very early years, this writer does not know, having seen
no documentation nor received any such reports. A 7/8-bushel hamper was
used in Florida until January 1930, when a change was made to the bushel
hamper. The 1-1/9 bushel Universal crate (wirebound) set a pattern for
change so a bushel bean crate was designed and today most bush varieties
are so packed; but pole beans continue to move in bushel hampers.
Harvesting and packing. Bush snap beans are usually mature enough
for first picking some 45 to 55 days after seeding. At this time the








pods are in a green stage and seeds may be only forming or have not reach-
ed full size. Though seeds are partly developed, they are not necessarily
evident from the outside of the pod. If markets were favorable, additional
pickings were made at five- to seven-day intervals. Generally, harvesting
crews would rather pick "firsts," just as buyers would show a preference
for them, but when demand exceeded supply, seconds and even thirds were
harvested. In Pompano plantings are usually so scheduled as to have daily
harvest over a long period (November through April). In the fall and
spring, maturity is attained rapidly (possibly in 42 days from seeding)
due to longer days and warmer temperatures. Frequently weather or soil
conditions will cause a delay or, if very favorable, push maturity to
earlier harvest than normal. While hand-picking prevailed, grading and
packing were usually by hand in the field or at the farm packingshed.
In either case, it was farm controlled. During the period when Sanford
farmers grew fall and spring beans, most packing was at a packinghouse,
frequently on a custom basis which included grading, packing and selling.
Fall and spring crops in the McIntosh and Gainesville area were generally
graded, packed and sold through a "handler" who might have a crop of his
own and also do custom packing, or the handler might "back" the grower
financially and consider the handling a part of the financing agreement.
At Plant City farmers patronized the State Farmers Market, selling at
auction to handlers who graded, packed and shipped the auction-purchased
beans. In the Everglades, grading and packing for fresh market sales were
at a packinghouse, frequently on an organization or cooperative basis which
included sales. Dade County bush beans are brought in to a packinghouse,
but pole beans are most frequently field packed. Again, most are farm
controlled but sales are through organizations or cooperatives unless the
farm operator has sufficient produce to warrant his own sales depart-
ment and central loading point.
Pole beans in Gadsden County are handled by a cooperative which
grades, packs and sells through the State Farmers Market located at
Quincy; others are marketed in Georgia at the Thomasville farmers market
or are handled by a private firm at Calvary, Ga.

Labor vs. machines --The surveys shown in Tables 21 and 22 cover
field operations only. The 1943-48 period is shown since it goes back






80











Table 21.--Florida snap beans: Labor requirements in hours per acre, by qreas, 1943 through 1948

Area Pompano Dade County Everglades Plant City McIntosh
Number of growers 13 17 21 16 19
Tractor Horse

Operation Man Horse Trac- Man Trac- Man Trac- Man Horse Trac- operation operation
tor tor tor tor Trac- Trac-
Man tor Man Horse tor

Pre-harvest labor:
Ditching and draining........ 9.9 2.5 .3
Preparing land............... 4.2 4.2 4,7 4.7 4.1 4.1 13.0 10.0 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
Preparing rows and
fertilizing............... 4.3 3.4 .9 12.5 9.7 2.0 1.0 7.9 7.9
Planting ................... 2.8 2.8 2.5 1.2 2.6 .9 5.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.4 3.4
Cultivating and fertilizing ... 5.8 5.8 4.6 2.7 3.4 1.2 16.0 12.8 2.7 1.0 12.2 10.5
Hoeing..................... 1.5
Insect and disease control ... .6 .6 1.2 .6 .8 .8

Totalpre-harvest labor...... 27.6 12.0 5.7 13.0 9.2 14.9 7.3 46.5 37.5 3.0 9.1 6.4 26.9 21.8 3.4

Harvest labor:
Picking.................... 73.2 112.5 76.0 133.0 100.0 100.0
Lugging, heading, checking.. 9.9 14.2 8.5 25.0 10.0 10.0
Hauling to grader or market. 1.6 2.6 2.1 12.0 4.0 4.0
Grading and packing ........ 7.5 a a

Total harvest labor........... 92.2 129.3 86.6 170.0 114.0 114.0

Total--all operations......... 119.8 12.0 5.7 142.3 9.2 101.5 7.3 216.5 37.5 3.0 123.1 6.4 140.9 21.8 3.4

Estimated yield, packed bushels 100 135 100 126 100 100

aDone at packinghouse. Others are field packed.

Source: [251.

Table 22.--Florida snap beans: Labor requirements tnhours per acre, by areas, 1959! through 196l
Everglades Pompano a nfo rd
10 growers 11 growers 5 gr, wers
Operation Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining....... 0.2 0.2 5.7 0.5
Preparing land............... 2.8 2.8 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0
Preparing rows andfertilizing 0 0.8 8
1.5 0.5 1.0 1.0
Planting.................... 1.1 0.8
Cultivating and fertilizing.... 1.5 1.5 2.6a 1.8 5.5 4.7
Insect and disease control.... 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.6 1.6

Total pre-harvest labor......... 6.6 5.6 15.0 8.6 12.1 11.3

Harvest labor:
Picking .................... 88.8 79.2
Lugging...... .............. 44 4.3 121.3
Checking and field foreman... 1.6 1.5
Packing ............. ... b 9.5
Hauling .................... 1.6 2.0 4.9

Total harvest labor............. 96.4 96.5 126.2

Otherlabore.................. 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5

Total--all operations ........... 104.0 6.6 112.5 9.6 138.8 11.8

Estimated yield, bushels........ 100 100 175

aGrowers using mules for cultivating required 8.2 man hours and 8.2 mule hours per acre.

bDone at packing house; others are done at field or farm packed.

eRequired only after last production of the season.

Source: 12]








to the use of mules in the culture of beans. Even then, most farm opera-
tions were mechanized to the extent that a relatively small amount of
labor was required to bring beans to maturity. This was especially true
of the Everglades and Dade County areas. Thirteen years later, fewer
mules were being used and culture in all areas required only a small
number of manhours of labor.
During the years in -which these data were gathered, picking labor
was the greatest single cost, requiring more manhours for this operation
than for any other. With the general acceptance of mechanical harvesters
during the '60s, harvesting costs and manhours of labor have been reduced
appreciably. But, grading and packing have increased for, in most cases,
the removal of pin beans, broken beans, stems and trash necessitate
packinghouse grading, whether on the farm or at a location other than
the farm. Packing labor after mechanical harvesting ranges from .113 to
.15 man hours per bushel [26].
Research into the practical economics of mechanical harvesting of
bush beans was conducted in 1967 by D. L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock.
Their findings, released in Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Economics Mimeo Report EC68-2, were of great value in decision-making
by growers considering mechanization [3].
As stated earlier, the first mechanical bean harvester used in
Florida was owned by Mrs. Mae Borders who, with her partner, Jack Conrad,
grew large acreages of fall and spring crop beans at Zellwood. These
beans were primarily under contract for processing. The processors were
the first to use mechanical harvesters extensively, but a few enter-
prising individuals who had equipment for use in other states brought
them to Florida to harvest beans on a contract basis, thus reducing
their fixed costs by expanding equipment use. Growers observed their
use and bought or contracted for these harvesters, eventually progressing
into full mechanization.
Growers of fresh market beans at first would only consider machine
harvest of "second pickings," thinking that only beans picked by hand labor
would receive favorable market acceptance. They soon learned that
this was not an economically sound use of the harvesting machine.
The supply of hired farm labor in the mid-'60s had apparently de-
creased due to farm-nonfarm migration resulting from expanded nonfarm









income opportunities and changes in the civilian labor force. Wages had
increased.
Vast numbers of "stoop-labor" were needed for successfully harvest-
ing large acreages of beans. Would the increased capital input in a har-
vesting machine and the high wages of the more highly skilled machine
operator labor more than offset the costs of the stoop-labor force?
Would the buyer accept first picking beans for fresh market? Would
additional acreage be necessary to keep the machine at efficient output?
Would the increased acreage produce beans sufficient to force markets
disastrously low? These were questions that needed answering.
Brooke and Spurlock found that the average initial outlay in 1967,
prorated over a 10-year period, would have a fixed annual cost of
$2,560 and a 1-ton truck with its license, insurance, etc. would have
an annual fixed cost of $588 [3]. These. costs decreased per acre from
$125.92 for 25 acres to $5.72 per acre when utilized at its optimum
efficiency of 550 acres during a November 1-May 1 harvesting season at
Pompano or Homestead. Added to this fixed cost was a total labor cost
in 1967 of $14.01 per acre for the foreman, harvester driver, sack and
set-off man,and maintenance man, as well as loading the beans and haul-
ing them to the grader. Direct equipment costs and sacks at $6.23 per
acre brought the total to $20.24. Now, the cost per acre ranged from
$146.16 for a 25-acre grower to $25.96 per acre for the optimum 550-
acre efficient utilization.
Another factor of utmost importance was yield. Assuming the lowest
(25) acreage was all the machine was used for, the cost per bushel with
a yield of 75 bu. per acre was $1.95 compared with 974 in a field
yielding 150 bu.; the 200-acre farmer had a 484 cost with a 75-bu. yield
and only 244 with a yield of 150 bu. The farmer with 550 acres har-
vested his beans at 354 per bu. when the yield was only 75 bu., but the
cost was down to 174 when the yield averaged 150 bu. (yields were on a
packed out basis, i.e., the field yield less an average loss of 21.7 per-
cent in harvesting).
These costs were compared with average hand-picking costs of $1.20
per bushel. On this basis, a farmer with 200 acres, averaging 100 bu.
per acre, would save $16,800 by harvesting mechanically; the 550-acre
farmer, with an average 100 bu. yield, would save a calculated $51,700.
However, if his yields averaged 150 bu., the savings soared to $84,975 [3]!








Of course, costs have increased appreciably since 1967. Picking and
packing expense averaged 89 per hamper in 1973-74 [4].
Picking efficiency was sampled for total yield by hand-picking just
ahead of the harvester and also picking the remaining marketable beans
on vines and ground after harvesting. The percent of total marketable
yield picked by the harvester was designated as the picking efficiency.
The "Harvester" variety,'grown for fresh market, averaged 83.6 percent
picking efficiency when the ground speed of the mechanical harvester
was 1.22 mph. The same variety was again checked wherein another mechan-
ical harvester, traveling at .92 mph, averaged 77.8 percent; the effi-
ciency of a harvesting machine moving at .80 mph. picking the Extender
variety was 79.6 percent.: Beans harvested mechanically for processing
averaged 76.3 percent efficiency with machines averaging 1.32 mph.
Two checks were made of hand pickers. One check resulted in a rate
of 75 percent efficiency in "Harvesters" and 83 percent in the '"Provider"
variety. Because of this close (79 percent average) comparison, no
yield loss calculations were used in comparing costs by the two methods.
The only real loss from the machine method is the foregone opportunity
of a second picking.
Some growers held out for hand pickers because (1) "They depend on
me for a living," (2) "They kept me in business for years and I don't
want to let them down or (3) "I may get in a tight and need some
help." These are all commendable humanitarian reasons, but they are
economically indefensible.
Tests further proved ;a grower was not justified in using a harvester
for "second picking" beans if "first picking" beans were available for
harvest [3].
Growers have profited by this study and from experience. Very few
commercial bush beans are being grown for hand picking. Most growers
owning equipment have expanded their acreage to the amount suitable for
the machine's most efficient use.
The bush snap bean grower of today must resort to custom harvesting
and grading, or invest in expensive equipment for picking and cleaning
before packing. The modern packinghouse will have a rotating slotted
cylinder through which all beans must pass before reaching the Igrading
belt. Since there is only one picking, growers let beans get somewhat








heavier before harvesting; this adds up to five additional days before
the produce reaches "machine harvest" maturity. The mechanical harvester
is not perfect (neither was hand labor) and some beans are broken; pin
beans that would have matured to second picking,liad the "firsts" been
hand-picked, must be graded out along with all leaves, stems and trash;
the rotating slotted cylinder will remove such undesirables. The newer
and better equipment has a device within the cylinder that will sort
out (separately from pin beans and trash) all broken beans, diverting
them to a receptacle where they may be sold for local fresh or proces-
sing use. Whole marketable beans are spread out over a wide, moving
belt where graders pick out any faulty pods and straight beans for top-
dressing the package. Thus the packinghouse operation is a necessity.
Packinghouse man hours are shown for a range of hourly machine
operating capacities in a report on harvesting and packing systems [26].

Selling.--As northern handlers of produce learned of the availabil-
ity of Florida produce, buyers or their representatives were making
contacts with growers for their produce. All too often, the seller was
at the mercy of the buyer.
Shippers have long consigned their produce to terminal market
handlers without knowledge of what could be expected in return. One of
the goals of the first organized grower associations was to establish
an f.o.b. market. Commission merchants solicited consignments for the
firms they represented. Buying brokers operated on a cash buying joint-
account with their firms furnishing the money with which to buy f.o.b.
Many firms built up confidence with the grower who preferred consigned
sales to any other method. Some of the men representing early firms
buying for cash or soliciting consignments grew to be outstanding mem-
bers of the produce world of early Florida.
Christian and Neal were early brokers at McIntosh, handling produce
for the north Florida area but often buying outside the area. W. D.
"Buddy" Huff went with the firm in 1926 as a field representative. He
worked north to Lake Butler, mostly buying beans.
One of the oldest firms in Florida--Chase and Company--was founded
in 1884 and began selling citrus for its neighbors in 1894 and vege-
tables by the turn of the century. At one time, their crops occupied the









area where many luxury homes in Coral Gables now stand. Snap beans were
handled for others as well as grown on Chase's own farms at Sanford, but
never to the extent of celery and cabbage. The firm operated from Coral
Gables to Hastings.
Frank Dutton came to Florida in 1910 and became a produce broker-
shipper, operating (as did Chase and Company) from Coral Gables to
Hastings. He was one of'the founding fathers of the American Fruit Grow-
ers which was formed in 1919 or 1920. Mr. Dutton was better known for his
pre-cooler and celery interests.
J. C. Hutchison, as manager of the Sanford-Oviedo Truck Growers,
handled some beans in the early '20s, but did not extend his operation
outside the area with this commodity.
Julius Dingfelder came to Florida in 1926, representing C. I. and
M. Dingfelder of New York City. He had one of the first, if not the
first, bush snap bean packinghouses at Belle Glade and helped open farm-
ing in that area, starting during the 1926-27 season.
In the formative years along the Lower East Coast, every community
had its freight station which became a receiving point for produce.
Beans were packed at the field or on the farm, brought to the community
freight station platform and sold to a local buyer, who may have been
working more than one platform daily. Occasionally a grower would also
represent an interstate, generally northern, firm and become successful in
his dual role. The bean grower had an alternative; if not satisfied with
the price offered, his beans could be consigned to another firm. Early
shipments moved most frequently by express. The Florida East Coast Rail-
road station at Pompano was the principal receiving point for the area.
H. L. "Bud" Lyons had his own shed just north of the station. C. C.
Ratcliff had a shed for peppers and tomatoes. There was no public
produce facility at the Seaboard Air Line station. The time was the
late 'teens and early '20s, continuing until the Pompano State Farmers
Market was built.
J. C. Wellbrock came to the Delray area in 1927 as a commission
merchant soliciting produce for W. C. Dale of New York City. In the early
'30s Wellbrock and O'Neal worked the area with their office and receiving
point on the SAL RR platform at Delray. J. N. "Nick" Sloan joined the
firm in 1935 as a field man. A small private market shed known as the








Boynton Market was established on the east side of U.S. 1 in 1940. All
produce brought there had to cross busy U.S. 1 and, if it was to be
shipped by rail, had to be reloaded and then recross the highway to get
back to the station, so the business moved to the SAL RR platform at Boyn-
ton and, later, back to Delray. The Hal Brown Co. also operated on the
Boynton Market.
During the depression '30s the idea of providing a market place for
the large number of independent, limited-acreage farmers in Florida was
conceived by Nathan Mayo, State Commissioner of Agriculture. The neces-
sary legislative authority was obtained and the State Agricultural Mar-
keting Board was set up. Federal relief agencies.were looking for
worthy projects to aid employment. A successful effort was made to finance
the construction of the first State Farmers Market at Sanford. The new
facility was dedicated December 18, 1934, and opened for business January
15, 1935. Its success led to a demand for others. State Farmers Markets
were opened at Wauchula (April 12, 1937), Palmetto (November 8, 1937),
Palatka (February 10, 1938), Starke (May 17, 1938), Bonifay (November 11,
1938),Plant City (March 9, 1939), Pompano (November 16, 1939), Florida
City (April 1, 1940),Fort Pierce (November 1, 1940),Pahokee (February
27, 1942), Fort Myers (November 1, 1945), Immokalee (November 28, 1951),
Brooker (May 3, 1952) and Gadsden County (fall of 1954). Florida pioneered
in establishing its state farmers market system. The major points for
beans were Plant City, Florida City and Pompano although most other mar-
kets handled a few [13, 14].
When the farmers met to establish the Pompano State Farmers Market,
W. H. Blount, on behalf of Blount Brothers, gave 20 acres of land for
the market grounds. They were large producers of snap beans, as was
Harvey Cheshire who helped organize, set up operating rules and build the
facility. He served for nine years on the board of directors. This mar-
ket rents space for farmers or their brokers to display daily offerings
to buyers who, over the years, have established homes in the area to be-
come leading citizens as well as serve an industry. The Pompano State
Farmers Market sales generally serves as a price-setter for bush
beans over the state. (See Table 23 for annual sales importance.) Most
beans grown currently in the Pompano area, principal source of bush var-
ieties in the '70s, are sold at the Pompano State Farmers Market with
sales by the grower or, most often, his representative.























Table 23.--Florida anap beans: Volume and value of sales over the Pompano State Farmers Market from 1939-40 through 1973-74


Bu. Dollars Bu. Dollars Bu, Dollars Cwt. Dollars Dollars

660,501 2.12 198,150 7.08 1,402,24'
,371,507 2.32 411,452 7.74 3,185,15;
,756,985 1.99 527,096 6.63 3,495,92l
,675,323 2.84 502,597 9.48 4,766,471
.818,112 2.75 545,434 9.17 5;003.18(


478,401
553,700
557,120
515,205
651,941

.654,464
717,729"
682,177
607,734
747,422

717,187
694,873
587,038
418,126
401,893

442,319
522,904
556,255
530,699
475,111

.447, 568
428,507
559,401
72,359 4.49 17,951 4.57 684,621
57,646 5,28 ,13,901 ,6.08 657.915


1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

1949-50 "
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54

1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59

1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64

1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69

1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74 : ..:


6. 03
5.63
6; 45
7.49
7.51
t <.


11,701,
8,779
12,277
4.116
2,087


6.17
6,15
" S.'I5
5.82
7,16
7.52


339,645
545,913
625,393
600,162
513,438


10.11
9.27
10.52
8.65
. 9.42

10.39
10.38
9.35
11.10
9.16

9.31
9. 48
10.90
10.30
10.15

li. 88
9.64
10.22
11.14
11.50

11.81
12.11
11.73
12.10
12.48

17.63
16.06
16.25
18,36
20.12


4,838,258
5,131.472
5,861.452
4,456,887
6,141,418

6,797,366
7,448,944
6,379,389
6,746,023
6,845,363

6,675,486
6,590.441
6,399,891
4,306,526
4,078,878

5,255,293
5,041,071
5.684,341
5,910,045
5,464,794

5,284,623
5,187.336
6,561,686
8,283,708
8.209.347

5.897,693
8.767.770.
10,163.925
11,020.367
10.332,085


1,
1,
1,
1,


.26,390
52,422
50,430
64,992
69,354


1,594,669
1,845,666
1,357,067
1,7.17,349
2,173,137

2.181; 547
2,392,430
2,273, 923
2,025,779
2,491,408

2,390,624
2,316,242
,1,956,792
1,393,753
1,339,644

1,474,398
1,743,012
1,854,182
1,768,996
1,583,703

1,491,894
1, 1q. 2, q

2,191,760
2,121,504

li094,0509
1,758,508
2,021, 937
1,931,432
1,640,020


2.79,
2.85
3.27
3,09
3.04

3.56
2.89
3.07
3.34
3.45


3.63
3.52
3.59
'-3.69

5;26-
4.79
4;83
5.44
5.97 ,


Cr r'-ar.irr, beans are a "shellie" type varlety.'ad are Included with bush beans, lf Ihere HLr any, prior to 1966-67.

Converted to hundredweight (cwt) on basis of 30 lbs.'per'bushel.

Source:' [(13141.


I
3
9
1




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