• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 The structure, definitions, and...
 Economic multipliers
 Environmental multipliers
 Use of the multipliers for impact...
 Sources for regional input-output...
 Conclusion
 Data sources
 Data for making a regional input-output...
 Definitions
 Reference














Group Title: Economics report - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 77
Title: Input-output analysis as a tool for regional development planning
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027715/00001
 Material Information
Title: Input-output analysis as a tool for regional development planning
Series Title: Economics report
Physical Description: iv, 81 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Loehman, Edna Tusak, 1943-
McElroy, R. G
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Regional planning   ( lcsh )
Input-output analysis   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliographies: 79-81.
Statement of Responsibility: Edna Loehman and Robert McElroy.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027715
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001618689
oclc - 05132775
notis - AHP3197

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
    The structure, definitions, and assumptions of an input-output model
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Economic multipliers
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Environmental multipliers
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Use of the multipliers for impact analysis and planning
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Sources for regional input-output coefficients
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Conclusion
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Data sources
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Data for making a regional input-output model from secondary sources
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Definitions
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Reference
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
Full Text
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INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING


Edna Loehman

and


Robert McElroy







Department of Food and Resource Economics


University of Florida


January 1976















FOREWORD


The purpose of this report is to describe input-output analysis as a
tool to aid regional planners. The technique can be used to estimate ecor
nomic, social, and environmental effects of development in a region, By il-
lustrating the usefulness of this technique, it is hoped that more planners
will want to develop input-output analyses for their areas,
The organization of this report is to describe the structure and as-
sumptions of the basic inputroutput model, indicate how various multipliers
are derived from the input-output model, and show how the multipliers are
used. Sources of input-output coefficients are also discussed. Where pos-
sible, the methods of derivation are demonstrated; however, such calcula"
tions are much easier done by computer so these derivations are given for
the purpose of understanding only, A computer program is available from
the University of Florida to calculate multipliers,
Finally, the multipliers are used to analyze the impacts of two types
of development (population growth and industrial expansion) in the areas
of economic, social, and environmental effects The reader may wish to
examine this section first in order to gain incentive for learning about
input-output analysis and the various multipliers.
Lee County is used as a case study for illustration of the input-output
techniques. The multipliers presented in this study may, however, be used
for other areas which resemble Lee County in industry mix. (See appendix A
for an economic description of Lee County for comparison purposes,)
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


FOREWORD . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES .. . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

THE STRUCTURE, DEFINITIONS, AND ASSUMPTIONS OF AN
INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL . . . .

ECONOMIC IMULTIPLIERS . . . . .

ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIPLIERS . . . .

USE OF THE MULTIPLIERS FOR IMPACT ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

Industrial Growth and Expansion . . .

Effects of New Residents . . .

SOURCES OF INPUT-OUTPUT COEFFICIENTS . . .

CONCLUSIONS . . . . .

APPENDICES

A -- Data Sources . . . . .

B -- Data for Making a Regional Input-Output Model
from Secondary Sources . . .


C -- Definitions . .

D -- Economic Summary . .

REFERENCES . . . .

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES . .


. . i

. . .iii

S. iv

. . 1



. . 2

. . 12

21
2



. . 24

. 27
27

. . 34

. . 37

. 44




. . 47



. .. 53

. . 67






. . 81
..79

. ..81


. . . .













LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


1 Interdependence Coefficients, Lee County 1970 . .. 13

2 Output and Import Multipliers, Lee County 1970 . 17

3 Income Multipliers, Lee County 1970 ... . . 19

4 Employment Multipliers, Lee County 1970 . . .. 20

5 Resource Use Multipliers, Lee County 1970 . . 23

6 Pollution Multipliers, Lee County 1970 . ... 25

7 Accounts Summary for Comparison of Expansion Effects in
Sectors 10 and 13, Lee County 1970 . . 28

8 Distribution of Employment Effects Due to $1,000,000 Increase
in Export From Sector 10 . . . ... 30

9 Comparison of Sectors According to SOX and Employment
Multipliers .. . . . . . 33

10 State and Local Government: Expenditures per capital by
functions, Lee County 1970 . . . .... .35

11 Increase in Final Demand, 100 New Residents . .. 36

12 Distribution of Impacts of 100 New Residents .. 38

13 Computation of Output Changes Due to an Increase in Final
Demands to Serve 100 New Residents, Lee County 1970 . 39

14 Accounts Summary of Effects of 100 New Residents, Lee County
1970 . . . . . 40


APPENDIX TABLES

B1 National Technical Coefficients, 1963 . . ... 55

B2 Coefficients for the Distribution of 1970 State and Local
Government Net Purchases to Input-Output Industries . 59








LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Table


National Output Multipliers, 1963 .

Direct Resource Requirements by Sector

Direct Pollution Coefficients by Sector

State Final Demand, 1970 ($1000) .

State Output-Employment Ratios, 1970


. . ... .


. t 0 . .


D1 Economic Summary, Lee County 1970 .







LIST OF FIGURES


Figure

1 Transactions Matrix for a "Closed" Area . .. ..

2 Example of Input-Output Tables With No Leakages . .

3 Local Transactions Matrix With Leakages . .

4 Example of Input-Output Tables With Leakages .. .

5 Example of Input-Output Multipliers .. .. .


Page

4

5

6

8

9


Page













INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING


Edna Loehman and Robert McElroy


INTRODUCTION


Input-output analysis has long been recognized as a useful tool for
regional planning [2, 12]. First, the analysis of direct requirements and
sales of industries can be used to develop export and import information
to identify industries which might successfully expand or enter the region.
Second, input-output analysis can be used to understand interrelationships
among industries in the region and input requirements by industries. Fi-
nally, it can be used to estimate the impacts of regional growth and devel-
opment on regional output, employment, and income. For example, the effects
of growth on industries, investments in public facilities, or new residen-
tial communities could be analyzed. In addition to generating economic
information, input-output analysis can be coupled with information about
cost of government services, resource use, and pollution. This enables
planners to analyze impacts both in terms of economic and environmental
factors.
New Florida requirements will make it imperative that planners have
available the sort of information that input-output analysis provides. The
Land and Water Management Act [5] requires that regional planning agencies
analyze the economic and environmental aspects of certain large developments.
T'1e Comprehensive Planning Act [6] requires that all areas develop land use
plans based on economic and environmental considerations.
In spite of its usefulness, input-output analysis has not yet been
widely used for regional planning largely because of lack of training by
planners in its use and because of the expense of collecting data to build


EDNA LOEiA\lAN is Associate Professor of Food and Resource Economics;
ROBERT N1CELROY was formerly a Graduate (research) Assistant in Food and
Resource Economics.








the required input-output table, An attempt is made in this report to
remedy these problems. This report will illustrate the use of :iniput-output
analysis for planning and analysis of impacts of development .ir.h a case
study. Types of development to be considered will be new industries and
new residents in the region. While the analysis is based on data for Lee
County, Florida, the application will be of interest not only for Lee County
planners but also for planners from other i~egionsi who wish to know how to
do similar analyses for their areas. (The results presented are also ap<
plicable to areas similar to Lee County in economic structure,) Other
sections of the study describe the structure and assumptions of input-output
analysis and sources of data for making studies of other areas, Thus, the
purpose of this report is to demonstrate the usefulness of input-outpuc
analysis and indicate the preparation of an input-output study based on
secondary data.


THE STRUCTURE, DEFINITIONS, AND ASSUMPTIONS
OF AN I'PU.iT-OUTPL'T MODEL


This section will biiefly dc.:-;:.bc components of an inputsoutput model
and tle assumptions involved, The succeeding section will provide further
interpretation and illu.thaCi'.n u-sing a case study,
An input-output model is based on acccunti- g principles, The ecokiormy
is first divided into groupings of industries called sectors (such as: ag-
ricultural, construction, mining, mrrirufecilurinlg, utilities, services, and
so on). :ales and puichal:es of sectors are then organized into an accounts
system (called a trd.ncirccion. matri.) based on.the pri-ciple that the dollar
value of purchases by a sector from other sectors plus value added (payments
to J. bor, tax payments to governments for services, deptretation and other
residuals) vm,.st equal to dollar value of total sales for the sector, The
basic identity of input-output analysis is Th-i,. total sales of a sector are
the sum of intermediate sales to other sectors and sales to final demand
(personal consumption, capital outlay, inventory, srate and local govern-
ment, .federal goc-veimenti, and exports), Beca;.i-. of this balance, if total
sales, intei-imediate sales and final demand except for export are known
(or can be estimated), then net exports can be estimated as a :esidual.









Figure 1 illustrates the structure of the transactions matrix of an
i.npLu-.-wutp;it model based on these principles for a "closed" area, i,e. all
purchases occur within the boundaries of the area, A column in Figure 1
represents purchases of a sector from other sectors while a row represents
sales. In the table, an entry x.. represents a purchase by industry j
from industry i and also represents a sale by industry i to industry j.
The column and row totals for an industry are equal to show the balance
between purchases and sales; this balance is analogous to that in income
and product accounts of a firm, In terms of national (or regional) income
and product accounting, the sum of the value added row in the table is
Gross National (or Regional) Income while the sum of final demand minus
any impo-t.r. is Gross National (or Regional) Product. The balance of the
Gross Income and Gross Product Accounts is embodied in the table., Figure 2
gives a hypothetical example of a transactions matrix based on three sectors.
From the transactions matrix, technical coefficients for each sector
are d'-;.ved by dividing the entries in a column by the total sales for the
corI esonding sector. (See Figure 2 for illustration of this concept.) The
co.:rfii...enLts in a column express the purchases by a sector from other sece
tors per dollar of sales. The coefficients for sector are in effect a
"recipe" (or production function) for the outputs produced by the sector.
Tih,.-: coefficients can be used to estimate requirements by a sector from
other sectors by multiplying the column for a sector by its output, The
derivation of these constant coefficients from transactions data and use
as a production function is the major assumption of input-output anralv:-is
in additicin to the basic balance relation.
For a regional model, leakages occur because not all purchases and
sales occur within the area; local purchases must be distinguished from
purchases from other regions in determining economic impacts, Thus, the
ra.i.a.cticins matrix in Figure 1 may be partitioned into local transactions
and rest-of-Lhe-uorld transactions (imports), F":u...e 3 shows the local
transactions matrix. The balance between sales and purchases shown in
the cAuluins and rows of Figure 3 is the same as in Figure 1 except that
the flow of regional output is allocated among local intermediate sales,
local purchases of final demand, and exports and intermediate purchases
are divided according to local or rest-of-the-world origin. Net imports

















Sales Intermediate Final Demand Total
t6 Sales to Sectors Sales to Sales
Exports
Sectors*

Purchases 1 2 ... n 1 ... t
from


X 1 X11 x12 "... n 11 ... Clt el x1
0
o

2 X21 x22 X2n c21 2 c2t e2

o 3
P4


n) *


n X xn2 ... x C ... cnt e x
ni n2. n n1 .t n n


Value Added


v1 V2


Total x1 x2 .... xn


Personal
and inventory.


consumption, government expenditure, capital outlay,


Figure l.--Transactions Matrix for a "Closed" Area


v, V
n














Producing Sectors


Transactions Matrix


Purchasing Sectors

1 2 3


Final Demand Total Output


1. Agriculture 5 1 2 4 12

2. Manufacturing 3 8 1 8 20

3. Services 2 3 3 4 12


Value Added


2 8 6


Total 12 20 12


Technical


CoeffiCients Matrix


Purchasing Sectors
Purchasing Sectors 1 2 3

1. Agriculture .42 .05 .17

2. Manufacturing .25 .40 .08

3. Services .17 .15 .25



Interdependence Coefficients Matrix
Purchasing Sectors
Producing Sectors 1 2 3

1. Agriculture 1.988 .286 .481

2. Manufacturing .913 1.844 .404

3. Services .633 .434 1.523

Total
Output pli 3.534 2.564 2.408

Figure 2.- Exaple of Input-Output Tables With o Leakages

Figure 2.-- Exainple of Input-Output Tables With No Leakages
















Sales Final Demand
to Intermediate
Sales to Local Sales Total
Sales
Local Sectors to Sectors* Exports ales
Exports
Purchases
urc~ 1 2 3 ... n 1 2 ... t
from


1 x11 x12 "' Xln ll "" Ylt el xI


S 2 x21 x22 X2n Y21 2t e

C)
33




1-4


S Xnl "' nn Ynl Ynt en Xn


10
r-4
=4
o n

4-4 0


0)
!-


Value Added


m11 m12 ... min
m12 m22 m2n




m .,. m
nlnn


V1 V2 "'V n


Total x1 x2 ... xn


C11 -Y1 .' "l-ylt





CnlrYl Cnt-Ynt


*Personal consumption, government expenditure, capital outlay
and inventory,


Figure 3. Local Transactions Matrix With Leakages


-- ---.- -- -- --









by sector may be calculated as a residual; net import from a sector is the
difference between requirements for output and regional sales for that
sector.
Local purchase per dollar of sales coefficients for a sector are de-
rived by dividing the local purchases in a column in Figure 3 for a sector
by the sales of that sector; this coefficient expresses how much of the
purchases of a sector are obtained locally per dollar of output. The local
purchase coefficients differ from technical coefficients according to how
much must be imported. (See Figure 4 for an example deriving local purchase
coefficients.) If these coefficients can be estimated for a region, they
can be used to estimate direct local versus nonlocal requirements for
expansion of entry of an industry in the region.
Coefficients called interdependence coefficients are derived through
matrix inversion from the local purchase coefficients. These express how
a dollar change in final demand for one regional sector will affect total
purchases from another regional sector. The more interdependencies there
are in a region the larger these interdependence coefficients will be. In
Figure 2 where there are no leakages, the interdependence coefficient giving
change in purchases from manufacturing per dollar change in agriculture is
.91; in Figure 4 where there are high imports of manufacturing, the coeffi-
cient is only .17. (These coefficients are derived using matrix inversion.
No assumptions except the constant purchase coefficients and the basic sales
identity are required for the derivation of interdependence coefficients.
See references such as [10,11] for details of derivation of interdependence
coefficients.)
The interdependence coefficients express both direct and indirect
change in all sectors of the economy due to a change in sector. For example,
an increase in export of citrus products would directly increase purchases
by the citrus industry from electric utilities; an indirect increase in
purchases from electric utilities would occur due to increased purchases
bythe citrus industry of fertilizer, chemicals, machinery, etc., since each
of these industries in turn would purchase additional electricity. Further-
more, the increase in chemicals would then result in increases in paper and
related products, further increases in chemicals, metal products, wholesale
and retail trade, transportation and warehousing, etc., and each of these




8


Local Transactions Matrix
Local Pirchasi n'.
Sectors
1 2 3


Final Demand
Local Export
,Sales


T x'. L i .'o, 'n!' i'i ,._L. L .:.
1. A-r ..:ulture 5 1 2 1 3 12
2. ( .I: ., .uLing 1 1 .5 8 9.5 20
3. Services 1.5 2 3 4 1.5 12

Tmporting S.:cLai.
1. Agriculture 0 0 0
2. t nu fa. ictr. ing 2 7 .5
3. *e vices .5 1 0
Value Added 2 8 6

To ta 12 20 12


Local Puc:hn- per


1. Ari : u tl re
2. *.iuf.e t ) n
3. r'." rvices


Local P'.; chsci--. i .and ImiJre Coefficients
Local Pur cha._i-nn Sec c rs


$ Sales [


.42
.08
.13


Local Imp"rtL -' $"
1. Agriculture 0 0 0
2. ManIufai- in., .16 .35 .04
3. Services .04 .05 0


o..lc al IIn.rrci ,ndence Coaffici. crts
Local. Purcheo ;1 Sec: toril
2


Local Pj clai..- .c L,'.
1. Agriculture
2. han ..f i
3. Services


Figure 4.--F.-.*I-i1e of ,iupuL-Oiiupu Tables With Leakages


Sectors


Total
Output


1.?:'
.17
.33


.14
1.07
.17


.40
.09
1.41


Ti;cl. Output 2.33 1.38 1.90
5tul.tJ.plI.." r


--------------- ?








Local Import Multipliers*


Local Purchasing Sectors


Importinfl Sectors

1. Agriculture 0 0 0
2. Manufacturing .37 .40 .15
3. Services .08 .06 .02



Total Import .45 .46 .17
Multiplier


Calculated as the product of a row of the import
column of the interdependence matrix, eg.

.37 = (.16) (1.83) + (.35)(.17) + (.04)(.33)




Income Multipliers*

Direct Plust Indirect


Direct


matrix and a


Local Purchasing Sectors


1. Agriculture .04 .120 .060 .020
2. Manufacturing .02 .003 .002 .001
3. Services .03 .010 .050 .040

To -al Income ,
T.W.O n .112 .061
Multiplier

Calculated as direct coefficients times interdependence coeffi-
cients, eg.
.133 = (.04)(1.83) + (.02)(.17) + (.03)(.33)


Figure 5.-- Example of Input-Ouput Multipliers










would result in still further increased purchases of electr'.-i .,, and so
on. Tih. total --; .-': -r on .rCu,::':hA- -. of 'l- t -. ~..Lr:ut. due to an increase
in value of citrus I" -,J-c.'. '-:..po'-.':d would be the sum of the direct in-
crease and all these i-di i, t Lincreases t s U~ i. nl;, from :.. r'..'.. -.. r eL.jre
to citrus ito.i';i: j. E.ci',n .l' *.s call the results of iuch chain rea,:..ic, .
mini.i,-: F--..'-. .-, An interdependence coefficient expresses the ,i.. i.i-
plier cFfe-t. on output of a regional sector (direct and indirect) due to
a change in o0ir.p,:I of another :I.egioi.:rl sector,
From the i ~n..:r.:e;i--. '-: :, coefficients, various other re:!, i. IIA .mutmlti-
pliers may be derived. The i:o_:i _ou p__itv ulti. :.l' for a sector is ob-
tained by s'.mrillg the interdependence co..: ii-l,.'s for a sector, To.
total output multiplier expresses how much value of total output of all
sectors in the ;',:gic.al economy will increase due to a change in output in
the .given sector. A;.,.i ~ ti. r more ::.lltrdcl'~: e, e in a i2,, i-.-, the lar'
ger these multipliers will be, (See Fi-:uci; 2 and 4 for e:a~,lr:le- ; in i ,rLiu'e 2
the outp:[. mul p:al:.;..j: are .lari" because c:ieL.' are no leakl;~ ,.)
When an industry e:.pads and causes an increase in ui-.pL in the
region, not all the increase in CO'Jtiut may be counted as an increase in
Gross Regional Product; the GRP '.h.angc is change in value added by produce
tion, or equivalently chn,..: in final demrn. io minus imports, Ac. -'Cdin to
input-output analysis, the u .Jani:io.un of :,,ji.lu.: in sectors due to an .:xpjn:ion
in one sector .:.--. to .-..-is f intermediate ri-qu.cements; thus these indirect
increases in ull:['. .are not counted in GRP. However, these increases in
regiou.il outputs necessitate increases in ip:. i.:.. since there are leakages
as shown in '. .Iwie 3. An r :_i- ng in iu-.i:r 7 causes bic~ t a :1li .e'lc increase
in imports and r.l'i.l;. increases in i.mip-'rts as industries interrelated with
the u:;pati.1r industry I.q'i. r'- more imports. ih- t -'l im *-..,-l r.-l ;l..
for a sector e.-.. --:s,:: the total value of increase in iiipori~,J-s i- dollar
expansion of final demand in a sector, This nuic :iplier is ioe.ivJed u:.J.!,
matrix :,ul i;.p.l.:.t-ioi from direct in-mports per dollar of sales for each sector
and the -'n ,:d iaj--ld..r.. ..o:-'tcieun.1, (See Figu.r-e 4 for an example of calcu-
lation of these iuiil.il'i s),
Tr,_oe _ni. .1I_.- -.. are obtained from ntGcrmi..iioni on income per unit
output and inT. .;'J:-e::rl-n.ce o.-:fFicienits, The roial income multipli r for








a given sector expresses the total change in income in the region per unit
change in sales to final demand in that sector. As shown in Figure 4, the
direct income per dollar final demand in agriculture is $.04; however, the
total income per dollar final demand in agriculture is $0,133, The compu-
tation of the income multiplier assumes constant income per dollar output
relations in each sector in addition to the other assumptions of input-
output analysis. Similarly, employment multipliers are obtained from direct
employment per unit output in each sector and interdependence coefficients;
these express total employment change per unit sales to final demand, Out-
put, employment, and income multipliers are the traditional tools of input-
output analysis.
A recent addition to applications of input-output analysis is in the
area of resource use and environmental impacts [8, 9], Resource and pol-
lution multipliers are computed similarly to the traditional economic
multipliers from information on direct resource and pollution per unit
output and interdependence coefficients for sectors,
Now that the main types of multipliers obtainable from input-output
analysis have now been described, it is important at this point to review
the restrictive assumptions (and therefore limitations) of input-output
analysis. First, the coefficients depend on how the industries in an
economy are divided up among sectors; different sectoring may lead to
different multipliers if aggregated sectors are inhomogeneous, The most
important assumptions have to do with the use of constant coefficients,
For example, the use of constant technical coefficients to express require-
ments per unit of output of one industry from another implies a fixed
production technology with constant returns to scale (i,e,, doubling inputs
doubles output) and no substitution among inputs, This assumption is valid
in the short run close to the time period in which coefficients are measured,
but it becomes less reasonable over a longer period during which changes in
technology may be occurring.
The use of constant local purchase coefficients in a regional model
requires the assumption of constant purchasing patterns as well as constant
technology, If imports are reduced due to new industries moving into the
region or local industries expanding, this will cause regional purchase
coefficients to change.









Another difficulty with technical coefficients has to do with the
measurement of output in terms of dollar prices. The technical coeffi-
cients (the ratio of dollar purchases to dollar sales) are not in dollar
units; however, if prices should change disproportionally this may cause
coefficients to change. Similar shortcomings can be described for use of
constant employment, income, import, resource and other coefficients,
These shortcomings due to the assumptions of input-output analysis must
be considered in making use of input-output analysis. However, these
shortcomings can be eliminated only by frequent primary data collection
efforts.


ECONOMIC MULTIPLIERS


The main use of an input-output model as described in the previous
section is the development of interdependence coefficients and multipliers.
The following discussion presents various multipliers for Lee County both
for illustration purposes and for use in any county similar to Lee County
with economic structure based mainly on agriculture, construction, ser-
vices, and government, Table Cl defines the sectors used in this study.
Table C3 shows the economic structure of Lee County by sector for compar-
ison purposes.
Interdependence coefficients for Lee County are shown in Table 1. A
column in Table 1 shows the change in output of regional sectors due to a
change in final demand in a given sector corresponding to the column, For
example, as shown in column 2, an increase of one dollar export of live,-
stock products increases demand for agricultural services by $,029, demand
for crops by $.30, real estate by $.056, etc.
Summing the interdependence coefficients in the column for each sector
gives the total output multiplier for a sector as shown in Table 2. These
multipliers express the total expansionary effects on the economy of in-
creasing final demand in each sector, For example, a dollar increase in
export of livestock products would increase the value of total regional
output by $1.56 (i.e., there is an $.56 indirect expansion of output),
Sectors in Lee County with the largest output multipliers are agricultural
services, livestock products, fresh and frozen food processing, electric
and gas utilities, business services, and recreation; expansion of exports









Table 1. Interdependence Co2fficients, Lee County 1970


SECTOR I SECTOR 2 SECTOR 3 SECTOR 4 SECTOR 5 SECTOR 6 SECTOR 7 SECTOR 8 SECTOR 9 SECTOR 10

I Agricultural Services 1.01343 0.02927 0.04201 0.01786 0.03232 0.00018 0.00033 0.00Q17 0.00202 0.00767
2 Livestock Products 0.01624 1.02337 0.00945 0.00401 0.00669 0.00019 0.00009 0.00006 0.06596 0.00232
3 Agricultural Crops 0.32519 0.30073 1.04539 0.00771 0.01349 0.00256 0.00135 0.0C093 0.02123 0.18485
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0.00446 0.00040 0.00105 1.05600 0.03733 0.00015 0.00549 0.00074 0.00010 0.00044
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 0.00038 0.00005 0.00009 0.02393 1.14468 0.00004 0.00050 0.00020 0.00015 0.00282
6 Mining 0.00071 0.00074 0.00156 0.00093 0.00029 1.01434 0.00296 0.00546 0.00039 0.00088
7 Bldg. Construction 0.00374 .000308 0.00616 0.0010 4 0.00095 0.00853 1.00149 0.00139 0.00098 0.00214
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 0.00632 0.01374 0.01679 0.00858 0.00252 0.02382 0.00310 1.00288 0.00367 0. C0731
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.00010 0.00011 0.00015 0.00012 0.00019 0.00010 0.00019 0.00021 1.02272 0.00934
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0^000
It Grain & Sugar Products 0.00015 0.00083 0.00002 0.00001 0.00002 0.00000 0000000 O.00000 0.00009 0.00030
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.00024 0.00357 0.00031 0.00144 0.00676 0.00018 0.00043 0.00036 0.00105 .0.01566
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00104 0.00012 0.00019 0.00073 0.00120 0.00002 0.00016 0.00010 0.00006 0.00009
14 Wood Products 0.01108 0.00103 0.00174 0.00110 0.00427 0.00095 0.01462 0.00636 0.00493 0.01377
15 Printing & Publishing 0.00435 0.00401 0.00699 0.00548 0.00776 0.00446 0.00843 0.00909 0.00583 0.01675
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.00130 0.00151 0.00340 0,00137 0.00091 0.00114 0.00166 0.00197 0.00052 0.00115
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.00C24 0.00180 0.00266 0C00762 0.00113 0.00932 C.06861 0.06100 0.00112 0.00235
18 Metal Products 0.01469 0.00154 0.00172 0.00187 0.00790 0.00319 0.02552 0.03020 0.00208 0.02044 -'
19 Machinery 0.00014 0.00013 0.00035 -0.00015 0.00037 0.00080 0.00068 0.00059 0.00004 0.00015
20 Electrical Equipment 0.00016 0.00019 0.00029 0.00079 0.00195 0.00097 0.00326 0,00270 0.00010 0.00020
21 Transportation Equipment 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00006 0.00002 0.00001 0.00002 0.00001 0.00001
22 Instruments* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.00006 0.00007 0.00009 0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00034 0.00034 0.00005 0. 0010
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.01765 0.02371 0.01413 0.01598 0.03296 0.02525 0.03163 0.03166 0.02097 0.04210
25 Communications 0.00445 0.00610 0.0 0.0082 0.00822 0.00486 0.00515 0.00949 0.00861 0.00470 0.00788
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.00402 0.00765 0.00672 0.00985 0.00429 0.02410 0.01012 0.00803 0.00750 0.01416
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.'Q175 0,00171 0.00503 0.00054 0.00078 0.00172 0.00144 0.00116 0.00096 0C00232
28 Wholesale Trade 0.02207 0.02385 0.01763 0.02593 0.04189 0.01234 0.03626 0.03125 0.01769 0.04437
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.00771 0.01210 0.01250 0.00574 0.00688 0.00586 0.04073 0.02054 0.00327 0.00595
30 Finance, ins., & R.E. 0.06874 0.056o6 0.ii3i7 0.01916 0.01732 0.15678 0.02703 0.02547 0.01800 0.03931
31 Lodging 0.00074 0.00064 0.00120 0.00082 0.00069 0.00087 0.00130 0.00148 0.00046 0.00131
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00072 0.00113 0.00116 0.00053 0.00061 0.00055 0.00379 0.00192 0.00031 O.C0055
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00382 0.00620 0.00784 0.00734 0.00666 0.00521 0.00636 0.00540 0.00650 0.00563
34 Business Services 0.02867 0.02490 0.04618 0.03517 0.02975 0.02888 0.05621 0.06397 0.01944 0.05585
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.00054 0.00058 0.00092 0.00070 0.00049 0.00069 0.00098 0.00097 0.00040 0.00086
36 Medical Services 0.00013 0.00325 0.00016 0.00004 0.00004 0,00018 0.00003 0.00003 0.00023 0,00005
37 Educational Services 0.00005 0.00022 0.00009 0.00010 0.00004 0.00010 0.00014 0.00011 0.00007 0.00007
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00093 0.00093 0.00134 0.00083 0.00092 O.C00175 0.00150 0.00130 0.00080 0.00153
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 00. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00054 0.00063 0.00113 0.00041 0.00049 0.00114 0.00072 0.00080 0.00050 0.00098












Table 1. Interdependence Coefficients, Lee County 1970 (continued)


SECTOR 11 SECTOR 12 SECTOR 13 SECTOP 14 SECTOR 15 SECTOR 16 SECTOR 17 SECTOR 18 SECTOR 19 SECTOR 20

I Agricultural Services 0.00630 0.00560 0.00170 0.00119 0.00020 0.00016 0.00015 0.00011 0.00010 0.00012
2 Livestock Products 0.00158 0.00165 0.00110 0.00028 0.00013 0.00021 0.00006 0.00004 0.00004 0.00004
3 Agricultural Crops 0.15270 0.13616 0.03731 0.00618 0.00252 0.00153 0.00156 0.00063 0.00063 0.00070
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0.00029 0.00055 0.00074 0.01100 0.00044 0.00018 0.00012 0.00005 0.00004 0.00007
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 0.00087 0.00142 0.0C287 0.025&4 0.00083 0.00052 0.00020 0.00007 0.00005 0.00011
6 Mining 0.00085 0.00106 0.00048 0.00165 0.00041 0.03601 0.02093 0.01068 0.00071 0.00084
7 Bldg. Construction 0.00197 0.00182 0.00123 0.00138 0.00452 0.00179 0.00160 0.00120 0.00119 0.00115
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 0.09657 0.00622 0.00316 0.00524 0.00414 0.01034 0.00903 0.00642 0.00297 0.00269
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.00266 0.00261 0.00009 0.00011 0.00021 0.00079 0.00014 0.00011 0.000t1 0.00015
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 00 00 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar Products 1.00144 0.00026 0.00001 0.00002 0.00030 0.00002 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
12 Bottli.g, Canning, etc. 0.0.275 1.03046 0.00027 0.00041 0,00050 0.00153 0.00027 0.00016 0.00019 0.00025
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00029 0.00006 1.01906 0.00068 0.00011 0.00068 0.00025 0.00010 0.00006 0.00009
14 Wood Products 0.00771 0.00438 0.00220 1.05888 0.03379 0.00420 0.00736 0.00241 0.00146 0.00368
15 Printing & Publishing 0.01331 0.01583 0.00337 0.00771 1.14907 0.00800 0.00587 0.00525 0.00480 0.00738
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.00135 0.00102 0.00258 0.00194 0.00141 1.00828 0.00218 0.00106 0.00084 0.00140
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.00133 0.02230 0.OC157 0.00602 0.00092 0.00602 1.11284 0.00462 0.00590 0*01343
18 Metal Products ._0,0201 0.00928 0.00049 0.00711 0.0011.3 0.00487 0.00513 1.06536 0.02966 0.02384
19 Machinery 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00016 0.00015 0.00018 0.00036 0.00082 1.00529 0.00117
20 Electrical Equipment 0.03019 0.00018 0.0009 0.00025 0.00016 0.00026 0.00056 0.00131 0.00669 1.02200
21 Transportation Equipment 0.00001 0.0001 0.00 0000 1 0.00001 0.0001 0.00001 0.00005 O.C00038 0.00008
22 Instruments* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.00012 0.00011 0.00120 0.00017 0.00031 0.00034 0.00036 0.00020 0.00016 0.00028
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.03955 0.02795 0.01117 0.02890 0.01635 0.02670 0,04451 0.02584 0.01073 0.01175
25 Communications 0.OC842 0.00893 0.00576 0.00678 0.01882 0.00808 0.00934 0.00722 O.00856 0.00937
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.01153 0.00943 0.00812 0.01513 0.00933 0.02264 0.04575 0.02348 0.00871 0.00926
27 Private Water & Sewer '0.00154 0.00197 .C00090 0.00211 0.00098 0.00177 0.00257 0.00130 0.00078 0.00102
28 Wholesale Trade 0.03911 0.02377 0.02751 0.02345 0.01537 0.02006 0.02218 0.02195 0.01992 0.02406
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.C3571 0.00543 0.00349 0.00390 0.01013 0.00497 0.00561 0.00369 0.00506 0.00576
30 Finsnce, L-.s., &R.E. 0.03614 0.03334 0.02261 0.02528 0.08335 0.03278 0.02914 0.02195 0.02189 0.02115
31 Lodging 0.00113 0.00167 0.00054 0.00069 0.u0158 0.00128 0.00097 0.00064 0.00077 0.00104
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00053 0.00051 0.00033 0.00036 0.00094 0.00046 0.00052 0.00034 0.00047 0.00054
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00910 0.00548 0.00209 0.00394 0.00594 0.00349 0.00518 0.00292 0.00298 0.00296
34 Business Services 0.04792 0.07220 P.02258 0.02893 0.06497 0.05471 0.04109 0.02719 0.03286 0.04488
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.00083 0.00103 0.00048 0.00058 0.00152 0.00086 0.00081 0.00059 0.00070 0,00083
36 Medical Services 0.00005 0.00004 0.00003 0.00003 0.00009 0.00004 0.00003 0.00002 0.00002 0.00002
37 Educational Services 0.00009 0.00008 0.00006 0.00007 0.00023 0.00007 0,00009 0.00006 0.00010 0.00011
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00155 0.00167 0.00149 0.00119 0.00801 0.00163 0.00181 0.00119 0.00142 0.00162
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00078 0.00074 0.00040 0C00083 0.00062 0.00091 0.00168 0.00083 0*00040 0.00046











Table 1. Interdependence Coefficients, Lee County 1970 (continued)


SECTOR 21 SECTCP 22 SECTOR 23 SECTOR 24 SECTOR 25 SECTOR 26 SECTOR 27 SECTOR 28 SECTOR 29 SECTOR 30

I Agricultural Services 0.00008 0.00015 0.00026 0.00022 0.00008 0.00012 0.00008 0.C0371 0.00014 0.00091
2 Livestock Products 0,00003 0.00006 0.0009 0.00012 0,00008 0.00006 0.00004 0,00022 0.00013 0.00131
3 Agricultural Crops 0.00045 0.00146 0.00272 0.00369 0.00114 0.00221 0.00081 C.00308 0.00238 0.01678
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0,00003 0.00008 C.00029 0.COc 0.00007 0.00007 0.00012 0.00014 0.00013 0.0009?
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 0,0005 0.00012 0,00033 0.0000 5 0.03C3 0.00004 0.00003 0.00022 0.00012 0.00010
6 Mining 0.00070 0.0000000072 0.0007 0.00073 0.00051 0.02906 0.00231 0.00054 0.CC002 0.00085
7 Bldg. Construction 0.00065 0.00141 0 0.00163 0.00301 0.00235 0.00179 0.00258 0.00393 0.00479 0.06178
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 0.00289 0.00318 0.00394 0O03402 0,02670 0.04132 0.07440 0.00453 0.00666 0.01103
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.00009 0.00019 0.00033 0.00035 0.00013 0.00015 0.00009 0.00102 0.C0017 0.00021
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar Products 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000 0.0000 0.00000 0.00004 0.00000 0.00001
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.00015 0.00034 0.0C041 0.00044 0.00022 0.00021 0.00014 0.00130 0.00030 0.00041
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00045 0.00043 0.00106 0.00005 0.00002 O.C0003 0.00002 0.00017 0.OC002 0.00005
14 Wood Products 0.00130 3.00387 0.01208 0.00068 0.00058 0.00073 0.00081 0.00290 0.00436 0.00187
15 Printing & Publishing 0.00368 0.00884 0.01261 0.00601 0.00627 0,00521 0.00376 0.01568 0.0208S C.011C9
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.00097 0.00205 0.00341 0.00178 0.00037 0.00056 0.00099 0.00111 0.00049 0.00056
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0,00804 0,00966 0.00745 0.00285 0.00194 0.00302 0.00513 0.00341 0.00149 0.00537
18 Metal Products. 0.02785 0.01603 0.01780 0.00303 0.00104 0.00210 0.00243 0.00169 0.00063 0.00220
19 Machinery 0.00192 0.00075 0.00020 0.00014 0.00005 0.00008 0.00006 0.00030 0C00005 0.00014
20 Electrical Equipment 0.00371 0.00857 0.00184 0.C0073 0.00150 0,00035 C.00034 0.00084 0,00022 0.00040
21 Transportation Equipment 1.00172 0.00009 0.00004 .C00010 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000 0.00003 0.00001 0.00001
22 Instruments* 0.0 1.00000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.00010 0.00059 1.00906 0.00009 0.00010 0.00006 0.00006 0.00047 0.00055 0.00011
2& Transport. & Warehousing 0.01350 0.01150 0.01659 1.07208 0.00529 0.02715 0.00807 0.01907 0.00735 0.00959
25 Communications 0.00586 0.01270 0.01037 0.01380 1.01794 0.00705 0.00601 0.02264 0.01234 0.01512
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.00698 0.00773 0.00890 0.00911 0.01411 1.26083 0.04077 0C01234 0.02521 0 01 054
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.00085 0.00100 0.00083 0.00204 0.00167 0.00248 1.00065 0.00276 0.00241 0.00152
28 Wholesale Trade 0.01613 0.02328 0.03300 0.01703 0.00587 0.00624 0.00737 1.01799 0.00676 0.00337
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.00397 0.00699 0.00605 0.01044 0.00878 0.00458 0.00496 0.01339 1 COS10 0.01579
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. .0.01185 0.02583 0.02988 0.05428 0.04306 0,02912 0.02227 0.07224 0,08778 1.13684
31 Lodging 0.00059 0.00143 0.00125 0.00085 0.00101 0.00087 0.00062 0.00216 0.00129 0.00289
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00037 0.00065 0.00057 0.00097 0.00082 0.00043 0C00047 0.00125 0.00047 0.00147
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00883 0.00362 0.00361 0,01830 0.00821 0.00297 0.00555 0.01762 0.00754 000419
34 Business Services 0.02552 0.06173 0.05366 0.03421 0.04234 0.03686 0.02596 0.09154 0.05185 0.05761
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.00050 0.00112 0.00095 0.00101 0.04886 0.00066 0.00053 0.00190 0.00246 0,00271
36 Medical Services 0.00001 0.00003 0.00003 0.00006 0.00005 0.00004 0.00008 0.00008 0,0010 0.00127
37 Educational Services 0.00006 0.00012 0,00009 0.00015 0.00013 0.00006 0.00006 0.00018 0.00011 0.00024
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00110 0.00199 0.00236 0.00227 0.00341 0.01416 0.00324 0.00396 0.00834 0.00625
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 00 00 0 0.0 0.0 0000 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00038 0.00044 0.00046 0.00618 0.00073 0.02220 0.14543 0.00110 0.00214 0.00211










Table 1. Interdependence Coefficients, Lee County 1970 (continued)


SECTOR 31 SECTOR 32 SECTOR 33 SECTOR 34 SECTOR 35 SECTOR 36 SECTOR 37 SECTOR 38 SECTOR 39 SECTOR 40

1 Agricultural Services 0.00018 0.Q0020 0.00022 0.00030 0.00020 0.C0022 0.0C020 0.00466 0.00010 0.00018
2 Livestock Products 0.00019 0.00018 0.00009 0.00043 0.00057 0.00024 0.00021 0.C0126 0.00007 0.00007
3 Agricultural Crops 0.00273 0.00340 0.00G35 0.00573 0.00325 0.00378 0.00331 0.11490 0.00108 0.00118
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0.00016 0.00019 0.00008 0.00045 0.00018 0.00009 0.00018 0.00018 0.00040 0.00042
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 0.00008 0.00017 0.00005 0.00060 0.00008 0.00021 0.00008 0.00006 0.00009 0.00009
6 t'inir?, 0.00087 0.00 103 0.00065 0.00055 0.00063 0.00076 0.00150 0.00335 0.00732 0.00792
7 Bldg. Construction 0.00726 0.00685 0.00364 0.00375 0.00874 0.00396 0.00839 C.00298 0.01141 0.01137
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 0.03235 0.0051 0.05 0530 0.00749 0.01631 0.01O07 0.04172 0.01561 0.17695 0.17695
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.00028 0.00024 0.00014 0.00301 0.00032 0.00132 0.00022 0.00276 0.00017 0.00017
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar Products 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.0000 0.00031 0.00003 0.00000 0.00010 0.00000 0.03000
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.00049 0.00043 0.00022 0.00545 0.00056 0.00078 0.00037 0.00101 0.00030 0.00030
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00019 0.00003 0.00040 0.C0005 0.C0002 0.00006 0.00002. 0.00024 0.00004 0.00004
14 Wood Products 0.00120 0.00580 0.00113 0.00510 0.00110 0.00088 0.00171 0.00113 0.00215 0.00216
15 Printing & Publishing 0.01419 0.02955 0.00541 0.14672 0.02140 0.00688 0.03522 0.00891 0.00832 0.00831
16 Checiral Plastics, etc. 0.00088 0.0070 0., 173 0.00079 0.0OOC7 0.00137 0.00058 0.00091 0.00114 0.00114
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.00312 0.00213 C.01046 0.00144 0.00180 0.00134 0.00343 0.00168 0.01395 0.01398
18 Metal Products 0.00142 0.00090 0.00278 0.00081 0.00085 0.00055 0.00165 0.00111 0.00611 0.00611
19 Machinery 0.0009 000000007 0., SZ'2 0.00054 0.00008 0.00004 0.00008 0.00009 0.00015 0.00015
20 Electrical *quipr.ert 0.00064 0.00031 0.300435 0.00093 0.00023 0.00016 0.00034 0.00028 0.00099 0.00099
21 Transportation Equipment 0.00002 0.00001 0.00023 0.00001 0.00000 0.00000 0.00001 0.00003 0.00001 0.00001
22 Inr3trumers.c* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
23 Misc. !:nJfa.:iJfrng. 0.00023 0.00078 0.00164 0.00123 0.00075 0.00011 0.00043 0.00009 0.00014 0.00015
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.01806 0.01051 0.00877 0.06651 0.01085 C.00691 0.01113 0.17453 0.02008 0.02009
25 Communications 0.02556 001765 0.0104a 0.08068 0.01860 0.01311 0.02530 0.00779 0.01C 22 0.01025
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.02488 0.03603 0.01267 0.01566 0.01867 0.02314 0.04641 0.01572 0.12296 0.12300
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.00633 0.00344 0.00219 0.00318 0.00224 0.00513 0.00528 0.00229 0.00220 0.00222
28 Wholesale Trade 0.01135 0.00967 0.04327 0.00991 0.00961 0.01115 0.00984 0.01104 0.01052 0.01051
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.01549 0.00729 0.01606 0.02096 0.01506 0.00951 0.01447 0.00785 0.00772 0.00770
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 0.13322 0.12548 0.06666 0.06889 0.16076 0.07262 0.15412 0.05449 0.03603 0.03600
31 Lodging I.00229 0..001 5 0.O00PS 0.02490 0.00265 0.00008 0.00174 0.00110 0.00133 0.00133
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00144 1.00068 0.00149 0.00019' 0.00140 0.00038 0.00135 0.00073 0.00073 0.00072
33 Pers. & Repair Services .0.05398 0.01C79 1.01865 0.01356 0.00641 0.01105 0.01034 0.00786 0.00431 0.00433
34 Business Services 0.09340 0.07412 0.03542 1.10153 0.10783 0.03913 0.06754 0.04563 0.05679 0.05677
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.00279 0.00351 0.00088 0.01240 1.24021 0.00104 0.00467 0.00081 0.00098 0.00100
36 Medical Services 0.00015 0.00014 0.00008 0.00009 0.00018 1.00880 0.00017 0.00013 0.00029 0,00028
37 Educational Services 0.00061 0.00015 0.00016 0.00032 0.000-36 0.00010 1.00062 0.00006 0.00011 0.00011
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00461 0.01192 0.00186 0.01127 0.00475 0.00433 0.00793 1.00143 0.00272 0.00274
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.00000 0.0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00199 0.00301 0.00238 0.00134 0.00!03 0.00146 0.00209 0.00170 0.00272 1.00274


Sector not in the County












Table 2. Output and Import Multipliers, Lee County 1970



Output Import

1 Agricultural Services 1.5675 .3673
2 Livestock Products 1.5570 .4240
3 Agricultural Crops 1.3778 .2591
4 forest & Nursery Products 1.2731 .2339
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 1.4195 .4483
6 Mining 1.3416 .2617
7 Bldg. Construction 1.3675 .3809
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 1.3274 .3602
9 Meat & Milk Products 1.2348 .7314
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 1.5116 .1036
11 Grain & Sugar Products 1.4184 .4930
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 1.4353 .3989
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 1.1872 .6081
14 Wood Products 1.2776 .5023
15 Printing & Publishing 1.4384 .3201
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 1.2663 .5109
17 Concrete & Glass Products: 1.3803 .3115
18 Metal Products 1.2399 .4990
19 Machinery 1.1766 .4959
20 Electrical Equipment 1.2143 .4545
21 Transportation Equipment 1.1514 .5924
22 Instruments* 1.2187 .0402
23 Misc. Manufacturing 1.2455 .4741
24 Transport. & Warehousing 1.3010 .2203
25 Communications 1.2454 .0593
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 1.5029 .2490
27 Private Water & Sewer 1.3662 .5618
28 Wholesale Trade 1.3256 .1439
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 1.2650 .0854
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 1.3926 .0988
31 Lodging 1.4627 .1049
32 Eating & Drinking Places 1.3787 .1219
33 Pers. & Repair Services 1.2622 .2263
34 Business Services 1.6186 .2644
35 Amusement & Recreation 1.6584 .1219
36 Medical Services 1.2424 .1173
37 Educational Services 1.4627 .1014
38 Fed. Gov't Encerprises 1.4945 .2484
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 1.5111 .1075
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 1.5114 .1571


Sector not in the County









or sales in these sectors would increase the total value of output in the
region relatively more than sectors with smaller multipliers. The reason
these sectors have large output multipliers is because they have relatively
more interconnections with industries in the county than other sectors,
For sectors which were not in the county in 1970 (fresh and frozen
food processing, instrument manufacturing, state enterprises), local output
would of course be zero resulting in zero local transactions, However,
Tables 2 through 4 still include multipliers for these sectors, Multipliers
for nonexistent sectors are computed assuming that all sales of a potential
new sector would go to export; all multiplier effects would be due solely
to a new sector purchasing from other county sectors. This method under-
estimates potential multiplier effects but at least provides a way of
estimating such effects. Thus, the actual output multiplier for example,
for frozen food processing, could be even greater than the value of 1.51
shown in Figure 4.
If a sector in the county expands its sales, then the local purchases
from that sector could be expected to increase if it had previously been
an importing sector, thus increasing the output multiplier of that sector
from the value shown in Table 2. Thus, in both the case of new and ex-
panding industries, the values of output multipliers in Table 2 provide a
lower bound while the corresponding national output multipliers provide
an upper bound for secondary expansion effects in the regional economy,
(Table B3 in the appendix gives national output multipliers.)
Earlier discussion in this report emphasized that output expansion
is not the same as expansion in Gross Regional Product. To determine GRP
expansion per dollar of expansion in final demand, total import multipliers
are needed since GRP expansion is change in final demand minus change in
imports. Table 2 also shows the total import multipliers for each sector,
For example, a dollar increase in exports of fabric and woven products
(Sector 13) causes a $.60 increase in imports to the region yielding a
GRP change of $.40. As expected, manufacturing and agriculture cause the
most increase in imports because of their reliance on intermediate goods
purchased outside the region.
Table 3 gives income multipliers for Lee County while Table 4 gives
employment multipliers, Only Table 3 will be discussed below since the









Table 3. Income Multipliers, Lee County 1970


Direct Total Simple
Income Income Income
Effect* Effect** Mult.t


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops
Forest & Nursery Products
Fishing & Fish Processing
Mining
Bldg. Construction
Non-Bldg. Construction
Meat & Milk Products
Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foodsft
Grain & Sugar Products
Bottling, Canning, etc.
Fabrics & Woven Products
Wood Products
-Printing & Publishing
Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products
Metal Products
Machinery
Electrical Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Instrumentstt
Misc. Manufacturing
Transport. & Warehousing
Communications
Private Elect. & Gas Util.
Private Water & Sewer
wholesale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprisestt
Local Gov't Enterprises


0.44108957
0.16900021
0.16899949
0.16899478
0.13696039
0.13085812
0.25374830
0.25374883
0.09113359
0.09984744
0.43624997
0.13468862
0.25415397
0.22101867
0.35774618
0.18335241
0.23706764
0.21246922
0.27884442
0.40877891
0.31849957
0.24406618
0.34262788
0.31577849
0.24202800
0.15233111
0.08968514
0.52879751
0.68450952
0.21033531
0.30700505
0.72325200
0.27374768
0.40360028
0.23979461
0.56142938
0.51865047
0.30493879
0.37286717
0.16824323


0.56909722
0.30319482
1.28041202
0.24740559
0.24747467
0.21842933
0.38197231
0.36262041
0.14925659
1.23438030
0.54984301
0.24994993
1.30980361
0.29687303
0.49820614
0.25966853
0.34039521
0.27971905
0.33532423
0.48059154
0.36627287
0.31820858
0.42412597
1.40755671
0.31323457
0.25836337
0.17379600
0.63461775
0.75946993
0.32163489
0.44271100
0.83039719
0.36209321
0.60189629
0.42290175
0.63324702
0.64752275
0.44137031
0.50376940
0.29919350


* Direct income per dollar output
** Direct and indirect income per dollar output
t Direct and indirect income per dollar direct income
tt Sector not in the County


1.2902
1.7940
1.6592
1.4640
1.8069
1.6692
1.5053
1.4291
1.6378
2.3474
1.2604
1.8558
1.2190
1.3432
1.3926
1.4162
1.4359
1.3165
1.2025
1.1757
1.1500
1.3038
1.2379
1.2906
1.2942
1.6961
1.9378
1.2001
1.1095
1.5292
1.4420
1.1481
1.3227
1.4913
1.7636
1.1279
1.2485
1.4474
1.3511
1.7783










Table 4. Employment Multipliers, Lee County 1970


Direct Total Single
Employment Employment Emp.
Effect* Effect** Mult.t


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops
Forest & Nursery Products
Fishing & Fish Processing
lining
Bldg. Construction
Non-Bldg. Construction
Meat & Millk Products
Fre&h & Frozen Pkg. Foodstt
Grain & Sugar Products
Bottling, Canning, etc.
Fabrics and Woven Products
Wood Products
Printing & Publishing
Chemical,, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products
Ieail Products
lfachinery
Electrical Equi.pment
Tranporrtation Equipment
Ins trumentst"
]lisc. manufacturing
Transport. & Warehousing
Cormmunn ica ions
Private Elect. & Gas Util.
Private Water & Sewer
I.hqolcsale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises;f-t
Local Gov't Enterprises


0.00006039
0.00003428
0.00008254
0.00007352
0.00003404
0.00003329
0.0000 5130
0.00003560
0.00001700
0.00001353
0.00003971
0.00002291
0.0000538 3
0.00003509
0.00005168
0.00002715
0.00003328
0.00003228
0.00002982
0.00005036
0.00003887
0.00004346
0.00005809
0.00004192
0.00003346
0.00001613
0.00001614
0.00006026
0.00016093
0.00003283
0.00008490
0.00022173
0.00005955
0.00006439
0.00005685
0.00010830
0.00011510
0.00011451
0.00011111
0.00003076


0.00009968
0.00012348
0.00010321
0.00008904
0.00005518
0.00004712
0.00005748
0.00005308
0.00003091
0.00004428
0.00006549
0.00004845
0.00006462
0.00004771
0.00007405
0.00003935
0.00004878
0.00004237
0.00003839
0.00006114
0.00004622
0.00006004
0.00007073
0.00005651
0.00004613
0.00003213
0.00002981
0.00007782
0.00017342
0.00005231
0.00010791
0.00023959
0.00007371
0.00009810
0.00009133
0.00012054
0.00013627
0.00014143
0.00013045
0.00005011


* Direct
** Direct
t Direct
it Sector


1.6504
1.4651
1.2505
1.2112
1.6212
1.4156
1.6146
1.4910
1.8186
3.2730
1.6490
2.1152
1.2006
1.3596
1.4327
1.4490
1.4657
1.3127
1.2874
1.2141
1.1890
1.2388
1.2175
1.3482
1.3789
1.9914
1.8469
1.2915
1.0776
1.5937
1.2711
1.0806
1.2379
1.5117
1.6066
1.1131
1.1840
1.2351
1.1741
1.6293


income per dollar output
and indirect income pet dollar output
and indirect income per dollar direct income
not in the County.









interpretation of Table 4 is similar. In Table 3, the first column shows
the direct income effect, or direct income per dollar of output received
by employees in a sector, Next, an entry in the "total income effect"
column for a sector is derived as indicated in Table 1. The interpretation,
for example for agricultural services, is that a dollar increase in final
demand for agricultural services increases income in the whole economy by
a total of $.57 due to additional employment. Of this amount $.44 repre-
sents the direct increase in income in agricultural services whereas the
remainder is due to increases induced by interdependencies in the economy,
The last column in Table 3, called "simple income multipliers", compares
the total to the direct income effect for each sector; it is in terms of
total income created in the economy per dollar income created in each sector,
Thus, although medical services has a high direct income effect, its simple
income multiplier is relatively low indicating a low degree of interaction
with other sectors in the Lee County economy. Simiarly, a sector with a
high total income multiplier such as retail trade may have a low simple
income multiplier if most of the income created goes directly to that sector.
By themselves, the calculation of these multipliers may seem of little
except academic interest. Their interest lies mainly in their Use of plan-
ning and impact analysis to be described in a following section. The next
section discusses some environmental multipliers which are derived similarly
to the economic multipliers described in this section,


ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIPLIERS


Environmental multipliers to be derived here are of two sorts, multi-
pliers which relate increases in use of basic resources to increases in
final demand and multipliers which relate increases in pollution to in-
creases in final demand.
Besides labor, basic resources used as inputs into production proces-
ses include energy, land, and water, If the supplies of these factors are
limited, the amount of industrial expansion which can occur will also be
limited. Thus, it is important to know how much demand for these resources
will increase relative to the supply of resources when economic expansion
occurs. The resource use multipliers are useful for this purpose. As in








the case of employment and income multipliers, resource use multipliers
can be developed in units per dollar of output, per unit employment, or
per dollar of income created,
Resource use mulLipliers are calculated based on direct resource re-
quirements per dollar output shown in Table B4, Appendix A describes the
data sources in detail, Most of the resource data is front secondary na*
tional sources. The direct requirements coefficients are given in terms
of physical units per dollar of output. The use of these coefficients
involves many assumptions as does all of input-output analysis based on
secondary data and use of constant coefficients. First, the use of national
data may cause inaccuracies; for example. citrus processing in Florida may
have different water use characteristics than national averages for food
processing. Another problem involves the units of the coefficients; these
coefficients are even more sensitive to price level change than the tech"
nical coefficients,
Table 5 shows resource use multipliers per thousand dollar increase
in final demand for Lee County calculated from Table B4 and the interde-
pendence coefficiencs in Table 1. The interpretation of these numbers for
agricultural crops is that a $1,000 increase in exports will require
219,374 gallons of water, 3.0 acres of land, 372.7 cubic feet of gas,
21.6 kwh of electricity, and so on, As in the economic multiplier case,
the resource use multipliers would include both direct increases due to
expansion in the industry in question and indirect increases due to ex,
pension in other interrelated industries.
Where there are blanks in Table B4 indicating lack of information,
multipliers for the corresponding sectors in Table 5 indicate indirect
requirements only. Also, since no direct fuel use information is included
for Electric Utilicies, the fuel use multipliers include only fuel use on
site for the various sectors and not total fuel use by an electric utility
caused by a sector. Since multipliers for some sectors represent both
direct and indirect effects and others include only indirect effects, it
is valid to make comparisons only among sectors with both direct and in-
direct effect information. Also, not much reliance can be placed on the
numerical values themselves because of the assumptions involved in the
computation: at most the numbers are valid for relative comparisons,
Better comparisons in the resource use area depend on getting more complete






Table 5. Resource Use Multipliers,* Lee County 1970


COAL FUEL ELEC- WATER PUBLIC
& C (S.TU.iS) (BtBL) (CU.FT.) (KWH) (AC.) (GALS. (GALS.)


1 Agricultural Services
2 Livestock Products
3 Agricultural Crops
4 Forest & Nursery Products
- Fishing & Fish Processing
6 Mining
7 ldg. Construction
a Non-Bldg. Construction
9 Meat & Milk Products
1o Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods*
1 Grain & Sugar Products
12 Bottling, Canning, etc.
13 Fabrics & Woven Products
14 Wood Products
15 Printing & Publishing
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
17 Concrete & Glass Products
t8 Metal Products
19 Machinery
20 Electrical Equipment
21 Transportation Equipment
22 Instruments*
23 Misc. Manufacturing
2A Transport. & Warehousing
25 Communications
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util.
27 Private Water & Sewer
2 Wholesale Trade
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E.
31 Lodging
32 Eating & Drinking Places
33 Pers. & Repair Services
34 Business Services
35 Amusement & Recreation
36 Medical Services
37 Educational Services
38 Fed. Gov't t.i::;-is e
39 State Gov't ?.c riries*-
40 Local Gov't Enterprises


0 0 15
0.009
0.006
0.009
0.008
0.011
0. 034

0 .0 3
0. 0 23

0.1 06

0,802
o. 02d
0.426

1.037
0.371
0.052
0. 04)
0.061
0.319
0.024
0.005
0.OOJ
0.304
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.007
0.005
0.007
O'. 012
0.007
0.003
0.0 03
0.005
0.303
0.017
3.017


0.650
1.119
1.873
6. 285
6.255
0.019
0. 145
0.094
0.318
0.475
0.570
0.482
0.250
2.575
0. 150
0.717
0.9233
0.778
0.127
0.093
0. 104
0.034
0. 060
0.016
0.007
0.011
0.011
0.020
0.013
0.048
0.014
0.026
0.018
0.039
0.014
0.014
0.018
0.212
0.027
0.027


639. 26a
238.o47
372.564
tl 7. 04 -
370.6d7
607.78J
4320.2-66
345d. 123
5U36.9Z0
1320.015
10914.273
5173.949
1470.26t
23514.387
o163.114
48576.590
56207. 2'd
19749.i S1
2490.137
2188.530
2363.373
976.680
1138.049
306.071
153.884
237.5d6
370. 79
340.465
214.000
3868.0j5
264.415
305.77b
643.02 .
372.273
180.648
175.989
294.474
197.256
921.815
923.904


54.839
IJ.729
21.604
24.746
31.445
29.048
205.074
186.856
412,656
197.540
116.245
293.072
407.120
1379,806
333. 14
2523.929
2017.449
2085.865
459.776
365.206
374.859
65.295
81.577
18.499
9.440
13.590
16.824
22.003
17.283
21.502
16.465
24.698
33.212
52.547
13.871
10.76O4
22.405
12.996
45.600
45.878


0.985
3.728
2.971
3.073
3.367
0.404
0.042
0.026
0.259
0.554
0.453
0.410
0.126
0.137
0.025
0.038
0.039
0.023
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.024
0.436
0.023
0.093
0.066
0.025
0.031
0.060
0.055
0.037
0.016
0.060
0.380
0.023
0.027
0.461
0.024
0.073


73741.6388
133453.375
219372.938
111006.000
9351.887
1767.268
10722.055
3690.523
21711.063
94168.688
89329.750
51845.648
27077.148
227857.625
8074.855
118155.125
54540.633
141337.750
15376.180
10591.898
10788.777
12527.336
18O02.023
1683.295
659.820
1116.153
1034,001
1848.371
1598.915
4690.977
1309.206
2285.250
1646.818
2774.797
1266.244
1323.598
1544.473
24641.258
2325,473
2351.376


394 .502
91.275
10d.326
119.737
233.790
122.378
D96.d87
775.718
5310.125
8008.160
45 10.531
7433.195
69-38398
20 14.355
853.906
9361.945
7441.016 O
6835.316
3042.508
4338.663
2711.340
2926.621
5807.063
79.367
45.573
63.016
80.750
135.739
124.116
105 .246
76o.03
177.384
160C.90
210,717
60.716
59.833
87,391
73.5 26
200.040
200,451


* physical unit per $1000 final demand









information abouc direct requirements. Once the usefulness of environ-
mental multipliers is clear to planners, there will be impcfus for better
data collection in this area.
Pollution may be viewed as an output by joint product of the produc-
tion process. In light of current air and water pollution control laws,
it is important to consider how much pollution will increase due to eco-
nomic expansion, Again, multipliers based on inputmoutput analysis can
provide this type of information. Data problems (since agnin only national
data is available for only some sectors) and problems due to assumptions
of constant coefficients for pollution are the same as those discussed
above for resource use. (See Appendix A for data sources.) The multi.
pliers are calculated based on coefficients for direct physical quantity
of waste products per dollar of output and the interdepend.ence coefficients,
Once the physical quantities of waste are calculated, these may be con-
verted into actual air and water pollution levels depending. on local
weather and stream flow conditions.
Table 6 presents various types of air and water pollution multipliers
per unit increase in final demand. The interpretation of these multipliers
is similar to the resource use multipliers above, Again, in cases where
direct data is missing in Table B4, the table shows only indirect effects
and comparisons must be limited to those sectors with direct pollution
data.


USE OF THE IlULTIPLIERS FOR IMPACT ANALYSTS AND PLANNT.NG


Good planning relating to growth and development requires that proposed
plans be compared on the basis of potential impacts on the conununity, The
types of impacts to be considered are defined by corumlnity: goals, If com-
munity goals involve raising income and employment levels, then impacts in
these areas need to be compared for alternative plans to see which plan
best meets the needs. On the other hand, if some community goals can po"
tentially be affected by development, such as in the areas of environmental
goals and goals relating to public facilities and expenditures, the impacts
of these areas also need to be considered. In general, impacts need to be
considered in the general areas of economic, social, and environmental






Table 6. Pollution Multipliers,* Lee County 1970


PARTIC- HYDRO- SULFUR CARBUN NITROGEN PHUS-
ULATES CAHBUNS OXIDES MONOXIDE OXIDES PHATES C.Q.D.
tLOS.) (LBS.) tLOS.) (LbS.) (LBS.) (Las.) (LBS.)


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops
Forest & Nursery Products
Fishing & Fish Processing
Mining
Bldg. Construction
Non-Bldg. Construction
Meat & Milk Products
Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods*
Grain & Sugar Products
Bottling, Canning, etc.
Fabrics & Woven Products
Wood Products
Printing & Publishing
Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products'
Metal Products
Machinery
Electrical Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Instruments*
Misc. Manufacturing
Transport. & Warehousing
Communications
Private Elect. & Gas Util.
Private Water & Sewer
Wholesale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises*
Local Gov't Enterprises.


9.4b6
7.002
7.479
11.300
6. 072
21..224
51.230
44 d29
7.374
183.97
i 1.205
z0 .934
43:.720
291.. 391
17.577
300.656
605. 243
219.967
28.610
27.414
26b411
31.319
90 019
24.9052
10.245
778.671
268.823
11.111
17.780
10.490
18.074
25.4 15
14.802
S3.. 4 30
13.312
15.774
31.511
14.028
85.230
S5.277


2.359
3.050
2.817
2.202
3. 767
3.008
4. 029
4. 1a
2. 366
4.827
4.623
3. 320
2.452
5. 129
2.279
404.905
6. 686
3.745
1 .567
1.868
1.882
2.147
3. 244
111.218
0.695
3.025
1. 235
2.416
0.959
1.222
2.216
1.371
1.627
7.173
1.389
1.259
1.385
18.338
2. 544
2.546


14.052
15.649
14.381
20.764
12. 138
46.913
34. 10o
29. 3u7
15.462
33.9563
23.873
22.965t
869. 752
154.254
24.314
437.414
189.606
314.872
34.357
31.658
28.601
31.621
64.902
25.620
26.775
2329.146
76.929
24.624
47.619
21.069
47.380
68.071
26.346
30.941
35.399
43.723
87.021
31.284
230.715
230.795


8.110
8.861
6.050
6.147
12.478
9.372
14.016
13.385
8.027
17.107
15.066
10.C69
5.505
118.42-
9.488
265.025
20.534
43.081
5.336
5.809
6. 230
5.795
6.854
377.106
2.047
9.814
3.257
7.328
3.140
3.782
6.734
4.487
3.820.
24.083
4.119,
2.881
4.288
61.610
7.785
7.790


3.423
4.705
4.029
5.515
3.862
12.277
9.431
8.094
4.567
9.275
7.373
6.6386
11.595
44.280
6.924
76.620
60.409
35.047
8.249
7.751
6.734
7.91
9.791
54.650
6.589
555.729
1c.624
6.659
11.675
5.421
12.030
16.639
6.575
10.401
8.895
10.676
21.198
15.280
55.751
55.771


4.733
258.419
4.4441
1.367
1.716
0.053
0.025
0.017
10.650
0.948
0.700

0.351
0.0834
0.039
0.056
0.018
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.007
0.018
0.028
0.038
0.023
0.020
0.011
0.063
0.037
0.363
0.053
0.053
0.026
0.120
0. 130
0.067
0.059
0.545
0.019
0.019


99.928
6295.496
58.148
30.188
41.172
1.174
0.536
0.369
405.736
14 248
9,743
10.132
5.772
S.725
0.822
1.290 No
Ln
S 0.368
0.243
0.244
0.270
0.159
0.371
0.550
0.750
0.494
0.389
0.241
1.381
0.784
8.065
1.154
1 .120
0.581
2.660
3.515
1.457
1.275
7.777
0.404
0.417


* physical unit per $1000 final demand









Table 6. Pollution 'Iultipliers,* Lee County 1970 (continued)


SU&PENDED DISSOLVED 1ASTE
.0.J.J SOLILS SOLIDS NITRGUGEN ATER
(LUS.) (LOS.I ILBS.) (LBS. (GALS.


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops
Forest & Nursary Products
Fishing & Fish Processing
Mining
Bldg. Construction
:-.-l 1-. Construction
Meat & Milk Products
Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods*
Grain & Sugar Products
bottling, Canning, etc.
Fabrics & Woven Products
Wood Products
Printing & Publishing
Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products
Metal Products
Machinery
Electrical Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Instruments*
Misc. Manufacturing
Transport. & .i:=:..-: i:-.
Communications
Private Elect. & Gas Util.
Private Water & Sewer
Wholesale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins,, & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & [ri:.':i.; Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises*
Local Gov't Enterprises


19.842
901.544
10. 1 20
5.305
8,30)
I 077
7 41
4.6 81
144.2 73
9.747
990. 23
4.404
5o, Z73
388. 269
12.97b
309. 923
3.756
o7.342
4.347
5.658
4.706
3.151
6.725
1. 123
0.476
3'. 42
S0.794
1..8334
1 03
2. 17i
0.. 999
2.574
1. 242
2.8a1
1.195

1.119
2.212
S1 592
1 -96


2155.912
2686f7.246
5844.344
480.653
253.003
2C. 144
24.904
21.019
1807.914
1002. 205
4379. d24
777.354
228.422
243.403
23.778
99.083
13.646
462.456
18.845
16.596
15.347
17.127
27.098
24.423
8. 745
14.524
6.639
23.686
17.025
124. 035
20.281
24.337
11.180
43. 225
32.261
26.833
24.003
649.089
10.656
11.243


47.968
34.786
115.833
10.349
6.191
3.443
19.918
14.746
7.428
36.448
24.551
21.250
71 .0O7
849.573
29. 42
1527.483
10.462
236.468
8.978
10.336
8.659
9.870
19.010
4.270
1.368
2.122
2.760
4.693
4.354
4.581
2.893
6.224
4.280
6.024
2.419
3.279
2.949
14.505
4.83d
4.905


23.873
717.690
47.227
5.935
5.222
0.232
0. 125
0.079
46.305
8.7966
7.039
6.439
2.213
0.458
0.191
0.204
0.102
0.052
0.052
0.058
0.035
0.098
0.168
0.228
0. 100
0. 130
0.059
0.275
0.181
1.560
0.236
0.258
0.118
0.522
0.521
0.311
0.272
5.346
0.088
0.093


1478490.000
1389259.000
4736030.000
303619.875
72816.000
12727.413
16498.59G
12057.137
109908.375
891542.438
745669.438
634353. 125
186100.875
237202.18o
13376.457
114531.250
54357.449
135360.813
17322.773
12905.643
12024.477
18176.457
28753.273
17541.285
5574. 94
10600.363
4479.410
15079.219
11791.34d
77193.625
13072. 392
15855..934
7370.473
27438.824
15272.371
17602.426
15769.824
521036.68
6848.176
7303.012


; -- -









effects, Once impacts for the various alternatives are defined, the al-
ternative selected should be one which does most for accomplishing overall
community goals.
Input-output analysis is useful for this type of analysis because it
provides a basis for making comparisons and can be used to estimate both
economic and environmental parameters, This usefulness will now be illus-
trated with anlayses of industrial and population growth in Lee County,
In both examples, growth must first be expressed in terms of initial changes
in final demand and then the multipliers can be used to estimate total
effects,


Industrial Growth and Expansion


If an existing industry in a region expands or a new one locates in
the region, then the increase in the amount of exports is a change in final
demand for the expanding sector. (Any change in capital expenditure by an
expanding industry, eg. construction of new facilities, would also be a
change in final demand but for capital related industries.) The total out-
put and import multipliers in Table 2 express change in output and imports
per dollar of final demand, employment and income multipliers in Table 3
and 4 give the changes in employment and income per dollar of final demand,
and resource and pollution multipliers in Tables 5 and 6 are also .in terms
of final demand. As will be illustrated below, these multipliers are used
to estimate impacts once changes in final demand are defined.
For illustration purposes, consider the effects of $1,000,000 expansion
in exports of Fresh and Frozen Food Manufacturing (Sector 10) as summarized
in Table 7. From Table 2, the increase in value of total output in the
region is 1.5116 x $1,000,000 or $1,511,600; $511,600 represents the in-
crease in purchase of intermediate requirements. The increase in imports
from Table 2 is .1036 x $1,000,000 or $103.600, Thus, the increase in Gross
Regional Product is exports minus imports or $896,400,
From Table 4, employment changes of .000044 x $1,000,000 44 employees
occurs; the direct employment effect in Sector 10 (also from Table 4) would
be .000014 x $1,000,000 or 14 new employees in Sector 10 and the other 30
employees would be spread across sectors in the county related to food









Table 7. Accounts Summary for Comparison of Expansion Effects in Sectors
10 and 13, Lee County 1970


Sector 10


Sector 13


Economic Account


Increase in Exports
Total Output
Imports
CRP
(exports minus imports)


$1,000,000
1,511,600
103,600
896,400


$1,000,000
1,187,200
608,100
391,900


Social Account


Increase in Employment


44 employees

14 direct
30 indirect


65 employees

54 direct
11 indirect


Increase in Income


( $99,847 direct
$134,565 indirect


S$254,154 direct
$55,659 indirect


Environmental Account


Increase in


Particulates
Hydrocarbons
Sulfu roxides
Carbon Monoxides
Nitrogenoxides
Phosphates
Chemical Oxygen demand
Biological Oxygen demand
Suspended solids
Dissolved solids
Nitrogen
Waste water
Coal
Fuel oil
Gas
Electricity
Land
Water intake
Public intake


* Includes only indirect effects


$234,412


$309,813


18,397
4,827
33,963
17,107
9,275
948
14,248
9,747
1,062,205
36,448
8,796
891,542
23
475
1,820
197
554
94,168
8,008


Ibs*
lbs*
lbs*
Ibs*
lbs*
lbs*
Ibs*
Ibs*
lbs*
lbs*
lbs*
gal
tons
bbls
cu ft
kwh
acres*
gal
gal


43,720
2,452
889,752
5,505
11,595
351
6,772
56,273
228,422
71,087
2,213
186,100
53
250
1,470
407
128
27,077
6,938


Ibs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
Ibs
Ibs
lbs
Ibs
gal
tons
bbls
cu ft
kwh
acres
gal
gal








processing. Similarly, from Table 3, an increase in income of .234412 x
$1,000,000 or $234,412 would occur due to the increase in employment and
.099847 x $1,000,000 or $99,847 would accrue to employees in Sector 10 while
$134,565 goes to other sectors related to Sector 10.
As indicated in Figure 4, it is possible to make analysis of income and
employment effects more detailed and show the distribution of income and
employment across sectors. It is important for manpower planning to know
the distribution of jobs created across sectors in order to determine if
local employment supply can match the employment needs of industrial expan-
sion. Distribution information is developed by multiplying the interde-
pendence coefficients for a sector (Table 1) by the direct employment co-
efficients (Table 4). For the $1,000,000 change in export in Sector 10,
column 10 in Table 1 is used and the computations are shown in Table 8.
Largest secondary increases in employment are in agricultural crops, trans-
port, wholesale trade, finance, and business services. Similarly, the
distribution of income changes could be determined.
Environmental effects can also be calculated from the multipliers.
From Table 5, an expansion of $1,000,000 in Sector 10 causes a yearly in-
crease of electricity use of 197.5 x 1,000 or 197,500 kwh, of which 115,700 kwh.
(Table B4a) would be consumed directly by Sector 10. Similarly, increase in
water use per year would be 94 million gallons of which 49 million (Table B4a)
would be directly used by Sector 10. Increases in waste water would be
.8915 million gallons/$1000 final demand from Table 6 x $1,000,000 or 891
million gallons of which 48 million is directly used by Sector 10. Other
impacts given in Table 7 are calculated similarly. The numbers given in
this table are underestimates in the cases where direct resource and pollution
coefficients are not available in Table B5. However, even these underesti-
mates provide useful irnformatior; for example, the indirect increases in
suspended solids for Sector 10 are already larger than the total increases
in Sector 13.
The above impacts are examples of economic, social, and environmental
effects which can be developed using input-output analysis. The impacts in
these areas may be organized into a system of social accounts as in Table 7.
Such a framework makes it possible to compare various development alterna-
tives in terms of community goals and objectives related to development, in










Table 8. ;. :tribution of Empl.,-.'. iii. Effects Due to $1,000,000 Increase
in rt '..,, Sector 10

1,000,000 x Interdependence Employment
Direct Coefficients Effects
Employing Sector x
Employment (Sector 10)
Coefficient

1 cultural Services 60.39 .00767 .463
2 Livestock Products 84.28 .00232 .196
3 Agricultural c 82.54 .18485 15.258
4 Forest & i.-.. y Products 73.52 .00044 .032
5 Fishing & Fish 7-....-: -i'.o. 34.04 .00282 .096
6 :.I, i. 33.29 .00088 ,029
7 Eldg. Construction 35.60 .00214 .076
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 35.60 .00731 .260
9 Meat & Milk !' ..'; ts 17.00 .00934 .159
10 Fresh & Frozen :. Foods* 13.53 1.00000 13.53
11 Grain & Sugar i-,-..'. ts. 39.71 .00030 .012
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 22.91 .01566 .359
13 Fabrics & ,'..- ; '...:'. : tI' 53.83 .00009 .005
14 Wood 35.09 .01377 .483
15 Pr:.,. & Publis'l :n 51.68 .01675 .866
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 27.15 .00115 .031
17 Concrete & Glass Products 33.28 .00235 .078
18 Metal Products 32.28 .02044 .660
19 Machinery 29.82 .00015 .004
20 Electrical n e ...ment 50.36 .00020 .010
21 7- ..- cation ',.-' ,... 38.87 .00001 .000
22 Instruments* 48.46 .0
23 Misc,, Manufacturing 58.09 .00010 .006
24 Transport. & Warehoi. :.. 41.92 .04210 1.765
25 Communications 33.46 .00788 .264
26 Private Elec. & Gas Util. 16.13 .01416 .228
27 Private Water & ',. '* 16.14 .00232 .037
28 Wholesale '., 1- 60.26 .04437 2.674
29 Retail Trade (exc. B & D) 160.93 .00595 .958
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 32.83 .03931 1.291
31. .1 -,., 84.90 .010 1. .111
32 .'. ,: & r'. : 1 .P- Places 221.73 .0 %9'i5 .122
33 Pers. & :.. Services 59.55 .00563 .335
34 Business -._-vices 64.89 .05585 3.624
35 Amusement & '. .-- ...: '.,, 56.85 0)086 .049
36 Medical Services 108.30 .00005 .005
37 Educational Services 115.10 .00007 .008
38 Fed. Gov't ',i::. ises 114.51 .00153 .175
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 111.11 .0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 30.76 .00098 .030


Total 44.29


*Sector not in County.









this case .::pa.-~ion in Sector 10 compared to expansion in Sector 13, As
T.3l.hc 7 illustrates the pattern of expansion effects can be quite differ-
ent for different industries, A $1,000,000 export increase in Sector 13
produces less GRP but more employment than an increase in Sector 10. As
export increase in Sector 13 produces more income and employment than in
Sector 10 but the effects are concentrated mostly in the sector itself and
there is less of an indirect effect, In the case of environmental effects
Sector 13 requires more electricity but less water than Sector 10, The
determination of which types of expansion, in Sector 10 or in Sector 13,
would be most beneficial to the community depends on the relative impor-
tance of the economic, social and environmental effects summarized in
Table 7 and the tradeoffs between the various community objectives,
As Table 7 shows, there is a "tradeoff" between environmental and
employment goals caused by development; expansion in Sector 10 causes a
tradeoff of water use for employment of 94 million gallon r 2,12 million
44 employees
gallons of water per employee, while the tradeoff in Sector 13 is
27 mil-ior 'n1.os
65 emi!.es or .419 million gallons per employee. Simiarly, other
tradeoff ratios could be developed such as between resources or pollution
and income, or increases in employment compared to increases in GRP, These
tradeoff ratios could be used to guide development choices according to
community preferences over tradeoffs.
Often, it is not known in advance how much change in final demand might
be e> :.e.t-.d with expansion in some sector. The- amount of expansion has to
do with factors such as the size of the export market, ease of obtaining
capital, etc. Thus, a community would rarely have the choice, as in Table 7,
between $31000,000 expansion in one sector versus another, In such cases
when final demand changes are not known in advance, the tradeoff ratios and
multipliers can be used directly to compare industries. For example, if a
planY[ri. wants to expand i-... LI otiut-l, he would consider those industries
with the latip,t <..ui:(. lillKiie~-c:3 to -t:cuuirage into the r io-n aind in-
dustries with small multipliers ;niic not be encouraged. If instead, he is
more interested in employment or income goals, then industries can be come
pare: on the basis of relative size of these multipliers,
Since both environmental and economic factors are important to plan-
ning development strategies, several sets of multipliers must be examined









simultaneously to find types of expansion which fit both economic and en-
vironmental goals. One way to do this would be to rank industries high or
low according to whether economic multipliers are above or below average,
A low-high pattern for environmental and economic effects would be preferred
over all other combinations. Table 9 illustrates the method of comparison
using employment and sulfuroxide (SO ) multipliers (SOX is used because it
is felt this is one of the most complete data sets among the pollution co-
efficients.) The ratio of the SOX-output multiplier to the employment
multiplier is a "tradeoff ratio" as described above because it gives how
much additional SOX in the environment must be traded to gain a unit in-
crease in employment.
If more than two factors are being compared, choice of preferred indus-
tries becomes more difficult. For example, an industry causing the least
increase in SOX per employee may be worst in terms of water use per employee,
Several sets of tradeoff ratios would then have to be considered and the
choice of preferred industries would then depend on the relative importance
of the economic and environmental factors described in the tradeoff ratios,
The analysis of effects of industrial development described here was
based on only one "round" of expansionary effects. Another round of devel-
opment effects could occur if a new firm entering the county causes new
residents to enter the county to fill employment needs when local employment
supply is not sufficient. The results of such a secondary occurrence can
also be analyzed with input-output analysis as will be described below,
Another type of secondary expansion which could occur is that still
more new industries will move to the region in response to expansion in one
sector. For example, arrival of a new fabric manufacturing plant in the
region may influence related industries such as clothing manufacturers and
notions manufacturers also to locate in the region, The nature and amount
of such expansion is difficult to predict, The most that can be said is
that such expansion would tend to be among those industries which are re-
lated to the initial industry. The actual numbers and sizes of expanding
industries would depend on many factors such as transportation costs, labor
costs, etc. The national input-output table (Table B2) serves as a guide
for understanding which industries are related to which on the basis of
purchases.










Table 9. Comparison of Sectors according to SOx and Employment Multipliers

Tradeoff Ratio*

1 Agricultural Services L/H**
2 Livestock Products L/H**
3 Agricultural Crops L/H**
4 Forest & Nursery Products L/H**
5 Fishing & Fish Processing L/L
6 Mining L/L
7 Bldg. Construction L/L
8 Non-Bldg. Construction L/L
9 Meat & Milk Products L/L
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods L/L
11 Grain & Sugar Products L/L
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. L/L
13 Fabrics & Woven Products H/L
14 Wood Products H/L
15 Printing & Publishing L/L
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. H/L
17 Concrete & Glass Products H/L
18 Metal Products H/L
19 Machinery L/L
20 Electrical Equipment L/L
21 Transportation Equipment L/L
22 Instruments L/L
23 Misc. Manufacturing L/L
24 Transport. & Warehousing L/L
25 Communications L/L
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. H/L
27 Private Water & Sewer L/L
28 Wholesale Trade L/H**
29 Retail Trade execc. E & D) L/H**
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. L/L
31 Lodging L/H**
32 Eating & Drinking Places L/H**
33 Pers. & Repair Services L/L
34 Business Services L/H**
35 Amusement & Recreation L/H**
36 Medical Services L/H**
37 Educational Services L/H**
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises L/H**
39 State Gov't Enterprises H/H**
40 Local Gov't Enterprises H/L


L denotes multiplier lower than average while H denotes multiplier
higher than average.

** Preferred L/H pattern for environmental/employment tradeoff.









Effects of New Residents


New residents could enter a region either because of employment opt
portunities or to fill new residential developments such as retirement com-
munities. Such new residents would increase final demand in the categories
of state and local government expenditures, personal consumption, and capital
expenditures for housing. These increases in final demand would in turn
cause increases in output, employment, income, and environmental effects,
The need for imports will also increase because not all final demand re-
quirements are supplied locally and local supplying sectors require a cer-
tain amount of imports to satisfy increases in output requirements. The
change in Gross Regional Product would be the increase in personal consump-
tion, government, and capital minus the increase in imports, (There would
be no change in exports according to the input-output model.) The effects
of 100 new residents in Lee County are described in Table 10 through 14 both
for illustration purposes and for use in areas similar to Lee County,
It is assumed for this study that the cost per person for government
would be the same for new residents as for old residents, The total in,
crease in government expenditure for 100 new residents would then be the
per capital expenditure times 100. (Taxes would need to be raised to cover
this increased expenditure to keep budgets in balance,) This assumption
about constant cost per capital may not be true; i.e, cost of government per
capital may increase with increasing population. It would be possible to
include such considerations in the analysis if the amount of increase in
expenditure were known,
The first step in estimating government final demand changes is to
express government expenditures per capital in terms of the categories in
Table B2 as shown in Table 10. Then to obtain the distribution of govern-
ment expenditures across the forty sectors for final demand the coefficients
in Table B2 are used. (The coefficients in Table B2 do not sum to one
because direct labor costs are not included.) Table 11 shows the allocation
of government expenditures across sectors.
Expenditures for Personal Consumption may be estimated assuming new
residents have the same expenditure patterns as old residents, Again, this
assumption may not be true depending on income and age distribution but more












Table 10. State and Local Government: Expenditures per capital by
function, Lee County 1970



Function Municipal County State
Government* Government Government Total


1 Education $ $212.08t $14.45tt $226.53

2 Highways 13.47 13.78 8.56 35.81

3 Hospitals, Health 18.09 10.54 39.62 68.25

4 Natural Resources .13 1.44 1.57

5 Parks and Recreation 20.23 3.38 23.61

6 Enterprises** 12.27 .51 23.78

7 Other 68.07 39.95 75.75 183.77


Total $ 13.21 $280.37 $139.82 $433.40


Based on Ft. Myers

Capital outlay only

Includes state contribution for public education

State expenditure per capital for Edison Jr. College








Table 11. Increase in Final Demand, 100 New Residents


State Govt Local Govt Pers Con Total Loc Purchase L.P./Total

SAgricultural Services 15. 4. 0. 19. 19. 1.00
2Livestock -t.: -14. 8. 762. 783. 783. 1.00
-_r I:', L .- _- ,': .pS 1, 8. 8. 1024. 1050. 1050. 1.00
4 .-: .,.: Products 0. 0. 145. 145. 145, 1.00
3>'.: i- & Fish Processing 2. 1. 213, 215. 215. 1.00
SLr 63. 31. 73 166. 166. 1.00
7Bldg. C .-L ...:..-.. 4166. 2387. 0. 673219. 673219, 1.00
-.:.. 1 !' Construction 2952. 1190. 0. 3242. 3242. 1.00
9gFeat & Milk Products 119. 45. 12717. 12a81. 5229. 0.40
1OFresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 5. 2. 794. 80, 0. 0.0
11Grain & Sugar Products 19. 30, 5S60. 5s99, 658. 0. 11
`1:7c_ 'r.: Canning, etc. 123. 46. 1178,8 11958. 586>. 0.49
- i' r- & Woven -.*. 101. o3. 9341. 9505. 2345. 0.29
14Wood Products 219. 109. 2730. 3064. 2138. 0.69
15ZF: .-', 1 Publishing 250. 92. 1790. 2132. 1680. 0.78
1 -.' ,- :z-, Plastics, etc. 810. 540. 10563. 11913. 3555. 0.29
17Concrete & Glass Products 5. 3. 231. 2j9. 187. 0.78
i8Metal tr:-I,,:s. 51. 18. 640. 709. 709. 1.00
S- -,. 372. 102. 1063. 1537. 430. 0.28 4
,COl.:rri:3l ; r-.-r,: 94. 37. 4560. 4690. 2176. 0.46
21Trar : -i,..- :..i..- .-: 462. 228. 12597. 13286. 1383. 0.10
SIr .cr n:* 81. 33. 944 1059. 0. 0.0
23Misc. Manufacturing 247. 87. 2284. 2619. 900. 0.34
24Transport. & Warehousing 565. 135. 6320. 7020. 6154. 0.87
2 .: -' j-, rc i 238. 117. 4230. .4586. 4586. 1.00
.Fr_ I.- -!&--'. & Gas Util. 655. 123. 6294. 7072. 7072. 1.00
27Private Water & Sewer 72. 14. 957. 1043. 1043. 1.00
28 Wholesale Trade 96. 74. 12271. 12441. 10824. 0.87
29Retail Trade execc. E & D) 395. 199. 30975. 31570. 28106. 0.89
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 558. 306. 43807. 44672. 44672. 1.00
31 Ll:,ir: 49. 34. 4398. 4481. 4481. 1.00
32Eating & Drinking Places 25. 19. 6235. 6279. 3681. 0.55
33Pers. & Repair Services 150. 105. 16973. 17229. 17229. 1.00
34Business Services 588. 329. 1992. 2910. 2910. 1.00
35 A usemient & Recreation 72. 7. 4649. 4728. 4728. 1.00
36Medical Services 152. 53. 14-903. 15113. 9572. 0.63
37Educational Services 111. 43. 9812. 9966. 2655. 0.26
38Fed. Gov't Enterprises d3. 53. 621. 757. 570. o075
39State Gov't Enterprises* 2. I. 58. 61. O. 0.0
40Local Gov't Encerrri:es 8. 6. 283. 29o. 195. 0.65


TOTAL 13106. 8690. 44893. 931355. 855080,


TOTAL 13106.


6690. 244893. 931355.


855080.









information would have to be known to include such factors in the analysis.
Personal consumption by sector is shown in Table 11. For this study, it
is also assumed that capital expenditure per new resident for housing is
$20,000 per household of three. (This assumption can be altered to fit
local housing conditions.)
Table 11 gives the total increase in final demand by sector due to the
new residents in the areas of government, personal consumption and construc-
tion. The amount of this final demand which is purchased locally is then
estimated assuming a constant ratio of local purchase to total final demand;
this ratio is shown in the last column of Table 11.
Table 12 shows the increases in output, employment, income and imports
by sector due to the locally purchased final demand increases. (The import
column includes both imports by intermediate purchasing industries and im-
ports for final demand.) Table 13 illustrates how these effects are calcu-
lated from final demand increases using output expansion as an example; the
output multipliers are used in this case. The effects on resources and en-
vironmental quality are computed similarly by using the final demand in-
creases and resource and pollution multipliers.
Again, these effects of new residents may be summarized in an accounts
framework so that judgements about relative benefits and costs can be made.
Table 14 presents such an accounts summary. The pollution and resource use
data are underestimates due to the cases where direct pollution data is
missing for sectors. Also, not included in the environmental data are di-
rect resource use and pollution by the new residents such as their water,
electricity use, etc.; this information would have to be obtained from
other sources.


EOUFRCKS FOR REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT COEFFICIENTS


Now that the usefulness of regional input-output multipliers has been
demonstrated, the question is how to obtain these multipliers. As discussed
earlier, the basis for these multipliers is the technical coefficients and
the local purchasing patterns (imports). These may be obtained in either of
two ways: primary data collection or use of secondary data.








Table 12. Distribution of Inpcits of 100 ;Ne-. Residents


OUTPUT EMPLOY INCOME IMPORTS

1 Agricultural Service 30. 0.02 10. .0o
2 Livestock Products 1219. 0.097 237. 3874.
3 Agricultural Crops 1447. 0. 108 294. 0.
4 Forest & Nursery Products 184. 0.013 5. 0.
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 305. 0*012 53. 0.
6 1 i-, n 223. 0.008 36. 8242.
7 Bldg. Construction 920561 36.596 257151. 0.
S -- ':.c Construction 4303. 0.172 1175. 0.
9 Meat & Milk Products 6457. 0.162 7S30 2067.
10 :'- Frozen-' Foods* 0. 0.0 G0 82.
11 Grain & Sugar Products 947. 0.044 367. 1121.
12 Bottling, .-i.. etc. 8413. 0.284 1465. 2555.
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 3377, 0.184 881. 4331.
14 Wood Products 2731. 0.102 634. 50335.
15 Printing & Publishing 2415. 0.124 836. 3045.
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 4501 0.140 923. 39055.
17 Concrete & Glass Products 258. 0.009 63. 13024.
18 Metal Products 878. 0.030 1-8. 83444.
19 Machinery 50o. 0.017 144. 14956.
20 Electrical Equipment 2642. 0.133 1045. 18886.
21 Transportation Equipment 1592. 0.064 5 2502.
22 Instruments* 0. 0.0 0. 3943.
23 Misc. Manufacturing 1120. 0.064 381. 2618.
24 -r5-i.::c,. & Warehousing 8005. 0.348 2508. 9446.
25 Communications 5711. 0. 2012 1436. 0.
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 10627. 0.227 1827. 0.
27 Private Water & Sewer 1424. 0.031 181. 0.
28 Wholesale Trade IA-.4 ,. 0.842 6868s 10076.
29 Retail Trade (exc, E & D) 35552. 4.874 21345. 3625.
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 62208. -2.337 14368. 0.
31 Lodging 6553. 0.4 4 1983. 0.
32 ta.ii" & Drinking Places 5074. .0.882 3056. 3931.
33 Pers. & Repair Services 21746. 1.270 6238. 0.
34 Business Services 4703. 0.285 1751. 0.
35 Amusement & Recreation 7840. 0.432 1999. 0.
36 Medical Services 11891. 1.154 6061. 109.
37 Educational Services 3883. 0.362 1719. 1184.
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 852. 0.081 251. 1526.
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 0. 0.0- 0. 826.
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 294. 0.010 58. 2908.

0OAL $1,164,836. 54,293 $338,880, $369,298,


* Sector not in the County









Table 13. Computation of Output Changes Due to an Increase in Final Demands
to Serve 100 New Residents, Lee County 1970.


Final Demand x Output = Output
Increase Multiplier Change

1 Agricultural Services $ 19. 1.568 $ 30,
2 Livestock Products 783. 1.557 1219.
3 Agricultural. Crops 1050. 1.378 1447.
4 Forest & Nursery Products 145. 1.273 184.
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 215. 1.420 305.
6 ILcrin:r, 166. 1.342 223.
7 Bldg. Construction 673219. 1.367 920561.
8 iln-rl1-:.. Construction 3242. 1.327 4303.
9 Meat & Milk Products 5229. 1.235 6457.
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0. 1.512 0.
11 Grain & Sugar Products 668. 1.418 947.
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 5862. 1.435 8413.
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 2845. 1.187 3377.
14 Wood Products 2138. 1.278 2731.
15 Printing & Publishing 1680 1.438 2415.
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 3555. 1.266 4501.
17 Concrete & Glass Products 187. 1.380 258.
18 Metal Products 709. 1.240 878.
19 Machinery 430. 1.177 506.
20 Electrical Equipment 2176. 1.214 2642.
21 T~. *r. --ctation Equipment 1383. 1.151 1592.
22 Instruments* 0. 1.219 0.
23 ?ii-;._ Manufacturing 900. 1.246 1120.
24 r..-;.-.ii. & Warehousing 6154. 1.301 8005.
25 Communications 4586. 1.245 5711.
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 7072. 1.503 10627.
27 Private Water & Sewer 1043. 1.366 1424.
:8 Wholesale Tr(; 10824. 1.326 14346.
29 Retail r'-.-,. execc. E & D) 28106. 1.265 35552.
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 44672. 1.393 62208.
31 T.'o!., .,: 4481. 1.463 6553.
32 EFl r -, & Drinking Places 3681. 1.379 5074.
33 Pers. & Repair Services 17229. 1.262 21746.
34 -IB Liui-s Services 2910. 1.619 4708.
35 Amusement & Recreation 4728. 1.658 7840.
36 Medical Services 9572. 1.242 11891.
37 E.J-... J. nI 'Services 2655. 1.463 3883.
38 Fe-d. Gov't En.c.,p ises 570. 1.415 852.
39 State Gov't il.ri I.0p ,E 0. 1.511 0.
40 Local Gov't FT.iirises 1.95. 1.511 294.


* Sector not in the County.










Table 14, Accounts Summary of Effects of 100 New Residents, Lee County 1970




Economic Account
... '


Increase
Increase
Increase
Increase


Regional Output
Imports
Final Demand
GRP


$1,164,836
$369,298
$931,355
$562,057


Social Account


Increase
Increase
Increase
final


in Employment
in Income
in Government Expenditure for
demand (Utility operating cost not included);


State
Municipal
County


54
$338,880

$43,340

$13,982
$1,321
$28,037


Environmental Account*


Increase in


particulates
hydrocarbons
sulfuroxides
carbon monoxide
nitrogenoxides
phosphates
chemical oxygen demand
biological oxygen demand
suspended solids
dissolved solids
nitrogen
waste water
coal
fuel oil
gas
electricity
land
water intake
public water intake


44,744
5,158
49,528
13,923
12,378
339
8,063
9,690
71,028
e 22,129
1,087
28,814,098
63.
122
3,301,054
163,921
51
9,632,841
902,139


* Indirect effects due to Industrial Expansion only


lbs
Ibs
lbs
lbs
Ibs
Ibs
Ibs
lbs
lbs
Ibs
Ibs
gal
tons
tons
cu ft
kwh
acres
gal
gal'








In either case, the first step in making a regional model is to define
sectors, i.e., how the industries in a region are to be divided up among
various categories. The divisions should be such that all important indus-
tries in the area are readily identifiable (eg. nurseries, construction,
and marine-related industries in Lee County). Industries not in the county
should also be included in sector definitions in order to obtain information
on imports. Thus, even though there may not be many industries in a rural
area, there would still be industrial sectors of interest because of the
required imports.
In a primary data collection effort, since it is not feasible to inter-
view all industries in an area, sample industries are chosen from each sector
and sector coefficients are then estimated from the sample. Presumably,
primary data should yield more accurate results than secondary data and the
larger the sample size, the more accurate the results. ,However, the costs
of such surveys are high and the greater the sample size the greater the
cost. Furthermore, there may be problems with accuracy of results due to
inconsistencies in interviews, small numbers of firms within sectors, ag-
gregation problems and refusals of firms to give certain data. More details
about survey techniques and problems can be found in [12].
The alternative of use of secondary data may yield less accurate re-
sults but at far less expense and effort. Secondary studies make use of
national technical coefficients and assumptions about local purchases versus
imports to estimate local purchase coefficients. Technical coefficients are
based on larger samples of firms than could be obtained in a small region.
Of course, the accuracy of national technical coefficients to reflect re-
gional technology depends on whether sectors in the region are more or less
advanced than the national average. Problems in this regard have been dis-
cussed in [12]. The numbers in this study were obtained by use of secondary
methods. The method will be described briefly below. There are several
procedures available [13] to estimate local purchase coefficients from
national technical coefficients. The method used in this study is termed
the location quotient method; in some limited studies [13; 7], this method
has been shown to estimate coefficients quite satisfactorily, It is also
currently being used by the Florida Department of Commerce to estimate
state coefficients.









The location quotient is a number which f:.-.:iaj'e, the relative impor-
tance of a sector to the region to that sector's relative import ance in
the nation. For each sector, it is the quotient of the prceritage of
regional output represented by that sector's output to the percentage of
output represented by chat sector nationally. If this quot'int is less
than one for a sector (the output share of the sector regionally is less
than that sector's share nationally), it is generally an importing sector.
On the other hand, if the quotient for a sector is greater than one, it
is generally an exporting sector.
The first step in obtaining regi.cu ll mult ilier'"s is to construct a
regional requirements table with two parts, intermediate requirements by
sector for production of regional outputs and final demand requirements.
The intermediate requirements are obtained by milJ:iplying each column in
the national technical coefficients matrix (T'-L,;b B2) by the output of the
corresponding sector; this computation is based on the assumptions mentioned
previously that the technical coefficients for a sector are a "recipe" for
producing that sector's output and rhat the region has the same technology
as the national technology.
Unfortunately, there are no direct sources for regional output data;
only state output data is available. For this sLt ud, output for a sector
had to .be estimated by multiplyi.,g county er.ploy'!enit by employment per unit
output from state data for that sector. This assumes constant employment-
output ratios and the equivalence of these ratios on the state and local
level. (Table B6 givos state output !per emplo .'.e by sector.) This is an
area where primary data could imrro\ve estimates and is particularly impor-
tant since all succeelding computations are based on this initial estimate
of output by sector.
Final demand data is also not gen-;l.;-nlly on a county level. In the
Lee County study, total c:ppnditulres f cr 1970 by state and local government
enterprises were obtained directly. Tin.- p? c al.i:cla s were then distributed
among sectors uwin, constant coefficieitrt from [14], (These coefficients
are shown in Table B3 for the 40 sectors of this study.) Personal consump-
tion by sector is given for Florida, 1.-70 in [14]; it had to be assumed that
personal consumption is related to income and that. Lee County has the same
ratio of consumption to income as in the state, T'ihu, personal consumption








for each sector is obtained by multiplication of state consumption-income
ratios by regional income. Net inventory change and capital accumulation
by sector are also estimated from [14] for Florida, 1970; these are as-
sumed to be related to output levels and are estimated by multiplying the
state ratio by regional output. Finally, federal government expenditures
are assumed to be related to population; the data for Florida, 1970 [14]
are obtained by multiplying state data on expenditures per capital by re-
gional population. (Table B6 gives the State Final Demand for 1970 from
S[14] used here.)
Since not all requirements are purchased locally, the requirements
matrix is not reflective of local transactions. Local purchase coefficients
are first estimated and then estimates of local transactions are obtained
from these coefficients. In most cases, the local purchase per dollar of
sales coefficients are obtained by multiplying the rows of the national
coefficients matrix (Table Bl) by the location quotients for sectors with
location quotients less than one and otherwise are the same as the national
coefficients. The rationale behind this adjustment is that local purchases
from a sector with location quotient less than one (an importing industry)
would be less than local requirements from such a sector. To get the local
transactions table to balance, in some cases an additional adjustment
factor described in [13] had to be used.
Finally, local intermediate transactions may be estimated by multiply-
ing local purchase coefficients by local output. Locally purchased final
demands are estimated from final demand requirements in order to get the
transactions table to balance. The method of computing local transactions
implies the assumption that when imports of a good are necessary, each
local sector imports in proportion to its requirements with the same propor-
tionality factor for all sectors importing that good. The need for this
somewhat unrealistic assumption is due to the use of secondary data, Again,
the only way to get accurate information on imports by sector would be by
direct survey.
Imports and exports may be estimated using the requirements and trans-
actions tables. An import from a sector is the difference between require-
ments from that sector and local purchases from that sector. Total import
from a sector is the sum of intermediate import and imports for final demand.








Total exports are computed as the difference between regional output re-
quirements and total sales for a sector,


CONCLUSIONS


The process of making sound development decisions requires comparison
of impact of development alternatives using some common framework of anal-
ysis. The availability to planners of a workable technique for measuring
impacts is thus necessary. Subject to the availability of good data, input-
output analysis provides such a method of obtaining impact information.
This report has demonstrated its usefulness and indicated how results from
input-output models can be presented in an accounts framework for comparison
of alternatives.
Once these impacts are known, proper choice of type and amount of
economic expansion and growth for a region obviously would depend on the
conditions and problems in that particular region. A relatively under-
developed region with an abundance of water and clean air might not find
environmental factors as critical as a more developed region with water
supply and air quality problems. Other than the obvious requirement that
resource needs caused by development not exceed resource supplies, there
are few general rules which can be given to guide the proper choice of type
and amount of expansion in a region. As long as natural resource and pub-
lic service capacity limits are not exceeded, the choice of development
alternative depends on community regard for various quality factors to
define the proper levels of tradeoffs among economic, social and environ-
mental goals. The skills of the planner in understanding the problems of
his region and properly balancing conflicting interests are required to
make good choices. The tool of input-output analysis can help, but certainly
not replace, the planner in this process.
Throughout this study limitations of input-output analysis have been
indicated. It should be pointed out that all these problems have to do with
data. The problems of use of constant coefficients can be overcome which
frequent data collection. The problems of use of national technological,
pollution, and resource use data on a regional level could be eliminated
if regional data were obtained. As discussed above, data collection on a








regional level may be infeasible due to monetary and time constraints. It
should be noted that in many sectors national data should be quite reliable,
eg. services, utilities, and wholesale and retail trade should be quite
homogeneous across regions, If sectors are sufficiently disaggregated,
manufacturing techniques would be homogeneous across regions except for
where differences in technology or scale occur (i.e., a region may use more
or less advanced technology than the national average). Perhaps the greatest
sectoral differences across regions occur in agricultural sectors due to
geographical limitations on agricultural activities. For specialized agri-
cultural or manufacturing sectors in a region a planner would be well-
advised to collect primary data.
The question is then raised as to the validity and use of studies such
as this one based on secondary data. First, even a study based on national
data gives insight into interrelations among sectors. Furthermore, while
information from a model based on secondary data may be less exact than
primary data, the results obtained still provide a basis for relative com-
parisons of alternatives (as illustrated in Table 7). That is, while a
predicted impact may not be an exact magnitude, comparisons of development
alternatives give insight into the relative differences among alternatives.
Such relative comparisons are often sufficient for planning purposes.







































.APPENDIX A









APPENDIX A


Data Sources


I',!i appendix will give in detail the sources of data on outputs,
employic,.tt, income, pollution, and resource use for the sectors used in
the Lee County input-output model and indicate where estimates had to be
made to conform to sectoral definitions. In most cases, employment fig-
ures were available in several sources [3, 19, 21]; where there were
discrepancies in these sources the maximum employment figure was used and
.adjut:eiien!.:; made so that employment figures were consistent overall with
[21].





Agricultural output was obtained directly from the county extension
agent. The Census of Agriculture [16] also gives data by county but this
report is available only every five years.
Employment was not available on a sectoral basis; only total agricul-
tural employment was known [24]. This total was distributed to the five
sectors as the basis of each sector's share of output. Income data were
taken from the Census of Agriculture [16].
Water pollution coefficients were taken from [1]. Water use data for
agriculture were estimated based on data in the 1969 DARE Report [25].
Finally, fuel oil. coefficients were estimated from unpublished IFAS data
and land use coefficients were estimated from a State Department of Trans-
portation study.


Minirii


State output was taken from [24] and state employment was from [19].
Lee Co,, ..i.,. frT.-.rment was given in [3] but it was recognized that
this source M,.(.3uicr .ainy emploe.-.~ The largest employment value from
[3, 19, 21] was taken as the best estimate, Income was from [19].








Tu.;'.e was no P:oi.u. Lcon or resource use data on. aii.;ji, with the excep-
tion of land use I ro,, [4].


Construction


The two construction r.-t-..-, used in the r.-..r were I3.il ig Construc-
tion, Maintenance and T..[ I. Lr- and Hon -r ...i.L: ..r.,; Construction, Maintenance and
F.e .,v. ..- :i *: 'r n .Jymrent nor o.l: .ul data were available *.o-l :~ir.ci.'io ini; to
these sector '.:-.[li tiions.
S a:r. i .';:,, uI. in new coi..l. ic .ion was found in [24]. This did not i1--
tlud~-. maintenance and repair. Tii. ratio of the maintenance and repair
total to the new construction b.t.:.. !. *,1-, obtained [.,_., [22]. -.te t-.i.
was increased ai-:..:~r to this ratio. T',)-Jl. output was i-iJulcmid to the
two input-output sectors ;.c::v.Jiir, to ratios J. ,r;*d -: .;::! O.B.E, [22].
A r.L-".'._j:. definitional problem arose with t:o ..,,-i to a;ipl.oyment.
Data from [3, 19, 21] were given ;:c-ori;:,I~; to general ,bil.j1rng contractors,
special trades contractors, and i.L:-,/ construction n;ra.i ct.or.s. Heavy con-
struction contractors were :-:.;.i,:1 directly to the non-b i.ildi.g sector
and all others were allocated by t-ilti..ai ratios ..-i [:'lJ. Income was found
in [19] and was d1:, :,.J J..* L 1 i,-i.. .
No. pw r.e.' ." L :- I' -' 3 were .:-,i i. i and d use data. it. 'rd [4]
was the only resource use information.


a 1n uf',_ L L-1 -1 -1;-:;


State mnIc -:,-c;.ui i:.g output were found in the *I9,u Annual Survey ofl
Mal.ufaccr eR., [17]. These were `-i n in .t:; c C:.4 -; .- ( or;'epondci: g to
the ri--i,...n-l sector so no output .a~rgr io,. 3 or .1 i.1 ag2aL- iorIs were
required.
Sut:.: em*l~iphp ti c-" ...'0 were from [18] and ,-eq oua emple.'n ,
was from [3, 1 ., 21]. rie.u:- too the d:.:a .i ...'.o J. c.;.'cit:..ty to the re-
gional s'ct oi ...
Poii. -tJi '.: c-.r....ff L:.i L..I ', er available for most of the mIsjnutac.tu i t ;
sectors fr..j, the Ayres ,r!r Gutmanis LJud/ [.1j. The i'nss of Hanufa ct'irers









[20] gave data on water and energy use for 1967 which were adjusted for
price changes by means of the Wholesale Price Indices. Finally, land use
coefficients were computed from [4].


Transportation, Communication and Private Public Utilities


No state output data were available for these categories. National
outputs from [23] and national employment from [19] were used to compute
the output-employment ratios. Regional employment was taken from [3, 19,
21] with regional income being found in [18], Since the output data were
in 1969 dollars, the Consumer Price Index was used to convert to 1970 dollars.
Air pollution coefficients for electric power generating plants were
obtained from Ayres and Gutmanis [1]. Water pollution coefficients were
not available and the only resource use information was on land use [4].


Trade and Secvices


No state output data were available for these categories so again,
national output [23] and employment [19] had to be used to estimate region-
al output. In the case of Trade, output is measured in terms of gross
margins (total sales minus cost of goods sold) rather than total sales.
National gross margins were obtained from the I.R.S. [23], and used to
adjust output estimates. Regional employment was found in [3, 19, 21] and
regional income in [19],
The only pollution and resource information was for land use from the
State Department of Transportation [4].


Government Enterprises


Government enterprises are those governmental agencies with separate
accounting records that cover half of the current operating cost by the sale
of goods and services to the general public. In Lee County only one Federal
Government Enterprise was found (the U. S. Postal Service); its output was
estimated from national output and employment. No State Government




52


Enterprises were found. Local Government Enterprises consisted of muni-
cipal water companies and output information was obtained directly from
county.
State output data were found in [18, 24]; state employment data were
from [18]. Regional employment was from [18] and income from [24].
Land use coefficients were computed from [4] and were the only pol-
lution and/or resource use information available.


























APPENDIX B



Data for Making a Regional
Input-Output Model From Secondary Sources



This appendix includes secondary data needed for construction of a
regional input-output model for any other county or multi-county region
if the same forty sectors are used. If the computer program from the
University of Florida is used, necessary inputs are employment and final
demand by sector.











Table Bl. National Technical Coefficients, 1963


SECTOR I SECTOR 2 SECTOR 3 SECTOR 4 SECTOR 5 SECTOR 6 SECTOR 7 SECTOR 8 SECTOR 9 SECTOR 10

1 Agricultural Services 0.0 0.01667 0.03994 0.01585 0.02702 0.0 0.00005 0.00000 0.0 0.0
2 Livestock Products 0.10825 0.17081 0.06854 0.03445 0.04256 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.52543 0.0
3 Agricultural Crops 0.30662 0.27560 0.02687 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00032 0.00004 0.00125 0.17391
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0.00378 0.0 0.00068 0.05223 0.03074 0.0 0.00502 0.00059 0.0 0.0
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01977 0.12565 C.0 0.0 0.0 0.00001 0.00213
6 Mining 0.0 0.00027 0.00451 0.00179 0.0 0.05695 0.00495 0.01616 0.OC042 0.00006
7 Bldg. Construction 00.0 0.0 0.0 .0 0.0 0.0 0.00002 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 Non-Eldg. Construction 0.0 0.00750 0.01366 0.00661 0.00053 0.02022 0.00029 0.00029 0.00148 0.00190
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00035 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.16272 0.06540
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.00328 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00092 0.00279
11 Grain & Sugar Products 0.01936 0.11566 0.0 0.0 0.00058 0.00000 0.0 0.0 0.00516 0.04074
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.0 0.01753 0.00009 0.00544 0.03003 0.0000C 0.00050 0.00002 0.00365 0.08076
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.02297 0.00100 0.00301 0.01523 0.02343 0.00014 0.00286 0.00154 0.00097 0.00077
14 Wood Products 0.05672 0.00C58 0.00383 0.00227 0.01656 0.00197 0.07441 0.02965 0.02491 0.06955
15 Printing & Publishing 0.0 0.00018 0.00031 0.00055 0.00514 0.00002 0.00004 0.00002 0.00353 0.01038
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.60406 0.01294 0.09376 0.C3445 0.01745 0.02787 0.04001 0.05061 0.00972 0.01026
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.0 0.00025 0.00108 0.00737 0.00022 0.00804 0.07781 0.06919 0.00069 0.00101
18 Metal Products 0.07438 0.00202 0.00168 0.00517 0.03277 0.01084 0.13217 0.15785 0.00917 0.10448
19 Machinery 0.0 0.00031 0.00883 0.C0338 0.00049 0.02310 0.01850 0.01557 0.00044 0.00095
20 Electrical Equipment 0.0 0.00024 0.00099 0.00517 0.01369 0.00675 0.02656 0.02175 0.00010 0.0
21 Transportation Equipment 0.0028 0.00025 0.00069 0.00310 0.00766 0.00207 0.00024 0.00145 0.00022 0.00006
22 Instruments* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00007 0.00040 0.00026 0.00418 0.00152 0.00010 0.00024
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.0 O.00006 0.00007 0.00007 0.00013 0.00005 0.00195 0.00195 0.00005 0.00006
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.01439 0.02272 0.01132 0.01433 0.03273 0.02701 0.03080 0.03100 0.02218 0.04453
25 Communications 0.0 0.00196 0.00299 0.00441 0.00102 0.00090 0.00339 0.00231 0.00223 0.00142
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.00045 0.00354 0.00302 0.C06C6 0.00146 0.01676 0.00305 0.00203 0.00466 0.00830
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.0 0.00006 0.00&44 0.00021 0.00035 0.00128 0.00081 0.00059 0.00065 0.00101
28 Wholesale Trade 0.02043 0.02295 0.01874 0.02963 0.04553 0.01268 0.04364 0.03750 0.01989 0.05206
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.00299 0.00805 C.00999 0.00413 0.00474 0.00271 0.04283 0.02025 0.00161 0.00178
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 0.02647 0.01666 0.08385 0.00965 0.00536 0.13200 0.01167 0.01195 0.00871 0.00872
31 Lodging 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00062 0.00163 0.00202 0.00083 0.00089 0.00055 0.00864 0.00410 0.00033 0.00036
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00051 0.00285 0.00589 0.C0551 0.00399 0.00355 0.00434 0.00311 0.00500 0.00208
34 Business Services 0.00903 0.00586 0.03146 0.02501 0.01670 0.01514 0.04101 0.05004 0.01263 0.03570
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
36 Medical Services 0.0 0.00500 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
37 Educational Services .0 0.00178 0.00044 0.00076 0.00009 0.00052 0.00105 0.00075 0.00041 0.00024
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00017 0.00015 0.-00015 0.00021 0.00040 0.00058 0.00034 0.00023 0.00054 0.00059
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 0.0 0.0 0.00000 0.0 0.00004 0.00007 0.00003 0.00017 0.00006 0.0
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.0 0.00001 0.00002 0.00007 0.00022 0.00034 0.00015 0.00083 0.00027 0.00030












Table BI. National Technical Coefficients, 1963 (continued)


SECTOR 11 SECTOR 12 SECTOR 13 SECTO: 14 SECTOR 15 SECTOR 16 SECTOR 17 SECTOR 18 SECTOR 19 SECTOR 20

I A.'riz:juiural -ervices 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0000 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 Livestock Products 0.0 0.00169 0.00575 0.0 0.0 0.00082 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 :ri:ul'-:. j Cr:ps 0.14354 0.12560 0.03425 C.00463 0.0 0.00035 0.00055 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 F.:-r.i r '. r c,.:hz 0.0 0.00027 0.00052 0.00909 0.0 0.00007 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 Fishing & T-th Processing 0.00056 0.00108 0.00239 0.02046 0.0 0.00033 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 Mining 0.00117 0.00052 0.000a1 0.00406 0.00003 0.l14i~ 0.07522 0.03983 0.00030 0.00036
7 Bldg. Construction 0.0 0.0 0+0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8.Non-Bldg. Construction 0.00195 0.OC208 0.00145 0.00278 0.00149 0.00717 0.00440 0.00381 0.00159 0.00116
9 Meat & Milk Products 0.01767 0.01667 0.0 00000c 0.0 0.00436 0.0 0.00006 0.0 0.0
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.00052 0.00517 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.00009 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar T-r; .-.r! 0.20498 0.03475 0.00081 0.00295 0.0 0.00231 0.00020 0.00010 0.00018 0.0
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.06567 0.15865 0.00054 0.00042 0.00067 0.00642 0.00015 0.00001 0.00001 0.0
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00575 0.00040 0.45340 C.01420 0.00160 0,01577 0.00508 0.00191 0.00119 0.00167
14 Wood Products 0.03760 0.01812 0.01016 0.32027 0.16020 0.02013 0.03436 0, :;.' 0.00586 0.01709
15 Printing & ? 1li1 ir. 0.00767 0.00682 0.00314 0.00398 0.16650 0.00053 0.00010 0.00158 0.00021 0.00132
16 Chemicals, ?lil-.,;, etc. 0.02062 0.01158 0.07066 0.05041 0.03238 0.24554 0.05407 0.02638 0.02146 0.03740
17 Concrete & Glass Products '.-:0.11 .: ?1- 0.00124 0.00578 0.00001 0.00548 0.12828 0.00423 0.00606 0.01452
18 Metal Products 0,00688 0.04492 0.00093 0.03318 0.00199 0.02255 0.02180 0.34673 0.15550 0.12297
19 Machinery 0.00081 0.00058 0.00263 0.00360 0.00256 0.00322 0.00849 0.02277 0.16273 0.03405
20 Electrical Equipment 0.00012 0.00004 0.00011 CC00078 0.00012 0.00085 0.00317 0.00982 0.05679 0.18983
21 Transportation E- i;j- ,a 0.00025 0.00010 0000004 0.00029 0.00046 0.00060 0.00070 0.00750 0.06310 0.01264
22 Instruments* 0.00015 0.00011 0.00070 0.00089 0,008 8 0.00149 0.00043 0.C0219 0.00649 0.01043
23 Misc. i ni,-czzurin- 0.00025 0.00004 0.01042 0.00101 0.00171 0.00240 0.00243 0.00135 0.00092 0.00186
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.04336 0.02549 0.01063 0.03062 0.01050 0.02709 0.04632 0.02764 0.00914 0.00G07
25 ;Cor;,r.icii:... 0.00288 0.00197 0.00309 0.0032 9 0.01099 0.00297 0.00448 0.00398 0.00522 0.00501
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.00590 0.00446 0.00529 0.C0992 0,00450 0.01564 0.03097 0.01629 0.00525 0.00526
27 Private I-'tr & Sewer 0.00045 0.00090 0.00051 0.00170 0.00045 0.00C34 0.00192 0.00095 0.00051 0.00069
28 Wholesale Trade 0.04553 0.02538 0.03443 0.02646 0.01524 0.02390 0.02416 0.02603 0.02449 0.02948
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.00218 0.00184 0.00214 0.00227 0.00717 0.00306 0.00353 0.00233 0.0040S 0.00451
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 0.010L3 0.00890 0.012A2 0.01519 0.05796 0.01768 0.01434 0.01233 0.01448 0.01261
31 Lodging 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
32 Eating & Drinkir. Places 0.00044 0.00037 0.00043 0.00046 0.00145 0.00062 0*00071 0.00047 0.00082 0.00091
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00599 0.00260 0.00081 0.002c20 0.00362 0.00170 0.00292 0.00149 0.00184 0.00158
34 Business Services 0.03088 0.05385 0.01478 0.01921 0.04536 0.04355 0.02763 0.01861 0.02526 0.03526
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.0 0.0 ,.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
35 Medical Services 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
37 Educational Services 0.00053 0.00034 0.00037 0.00042 0.00164 0.00037 0.00056 0.00041 0.00081 0.00086
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.0092 0.00086 0.00166 0.00075 0.01042 0.00097 0.00095 0.00070 0,00135 0.00143
39 State Gov't Encerpri.se 0.00004 0.00004 0.00002 0.00004 0.00005 0,00000 0.00015 0.00003 0.00002 '0.00002
40 Local Gov't Enrcrprise; 0.00022 3..CC22 0.00008 0.00018 0.00024 0.00018 .0,00071 0.00017 0.00008 0.00010












Table Bl. National Technical Coefficients, 1963 (continued)


SECTOR 21 SECTOR 22 SECTOR 23 SECTOR 24 SECTOR 25 SECTOR 25 SECTOR 27 SECTOR 28 SECTOR 29 SECTOR 30


I Agricultural Services
2 Livestock Products
3 Agricultural Crops
4 Forest & Nursery Products
5 Fishing & Fish Processing
6 Mining
7 Bldg. Construction
8 Non-Bldg. Construction
9 Meat & Milk Products


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00034
0.0
0.00165
O.C


10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar Products 0.0
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.0
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.01048
14 Wood Products 0.C0533
15 Printing & Publishing 0.000 10
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.02544
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.00858
18 Metal Products 0.14656
19 Machinery 0.05808
20 Electrical Equipment '0.03096
21 Transportation Equipment 0.29105
22 Instruments* 0.00864
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.00041
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.01346
25 Communications 0.00320
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.00402
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.00061
28 Wholesale Trade 0.01931
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.00311
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 0.00603
31 Lodging 0.0
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00063
33 Pers. & Repair Services 0.00775
34 Business Services 0.01938
35 Amusement & Recreation .0.0
36 Medical Services 0.0
37 Educational Services 0.00046
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.03106
30 State Gov't Enterprises* 0.00002
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00009


0.0
0.0
0.00056
0.0
0.0
0.00046
0.0
0.00160
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00001
0.00985
0.01823
0.00040
0.05770
0.01035
0.08286
0.02125
0.07321
0.01394
0.08651
0.00454
0.00789
0.00718
0.00413
0.00063
0.02884
0.00556
0.01608
0.0
0.00112
0.00207
0.05110
0,0
0.0
0.00086
0.00180
0.00003
0.00012


0.0
0.0
0.00158
0.00010
0.00044
0.00046
0.0
0.00214
C .00103
0.0
0.0
0.00054
0.02444
0.06215
0.00604
0.09710
C .00769
0.09191
0.00437
0.01466
0.0C579
0.00196
0.08232
0.01455
0.00514
0.00496
0.00043
0.04133
0.00437
0.01882
0.0
0.00C89
0.00187
0.04212
0.0
0.0
0.00064
C .0024a
0.00003
0.00010


0.0
0.00055
0.00223
0.0
0.00002
0.00078
0.0
0.02938
0.00161
0.000C 8
0.00042
0.00121
0.00080
0.00054
0.00120
0.04534
0.00029
0.00900
0.00254
0. 0040 3
0.01441
0.0010
0.00003
0.08825
0.00938
0.00474
0.00160.
0.0180 8
0.00831
0.03913
0.0
0.00168
0.01575
0.02213
0.0
0.0
0.00117
0.00231
0.00385
0.01878


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.02443
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00027
0.00058
0.000.3
0.00661
0.00001
0.00042
0.00004
0.01152
O.C0024
0.00016
0.0
0.00113
0.01357
0.00935
0.00132
0.00489
0.00700
0.02792
0.0
0.00141
0.00688
0.02987
0.03845
0.0
0.00089
0.00427
0.00008
0.00041


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.09666
0.0
0.02802
0.00001
0.0
0.00004
0.C0003
0.00030
0.00C90
0.00C07
0.00840
0.00003
0.00280
0.00012
0.00098
0.00010
0.00000
0.00000
0.02105
0.00269
0.20379
0.00170
0.00380
0.00203
0.01303
0.0
0.00041
0.0011,9
0.02140
0.0
0.0
0.00028
0.01904
0.01267
0.06184


0.0 0.00350
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.00009
0.00149 0.00031
0.0 0.0
0.04751 0.00173
0.0 0.00534
0.0 0.00024
0.0 0.00488
0.0 0.00432
0.00020 0.00348
0.00037 0.01152
0.00007 0.00359
0.02094 0.02783
0.0 0.00289
0.0 0.00635
0.0 0.00726
0.00014 0.00536
0.00017 0.00408
0.0 0.00263
0.0 0.00295
0.00227 0.01534
0.00265 0.01440
0.01748 0.00729
0.00014 0.00223
0.00506 0.02060.
0.00244 0.01123
0.01178 0.05411
0.0 0.0
0.00051 0.00227
0.00417 0.01528
0.01130 0.07601
0.0 0.0
0.00003 0.0
0.00027 0.00136
0.00404 0.00417
0.10673 0.00017
0.52106 0.00082


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00'393
0.0
0.0
0.00004
*0.00011
0.00016
0.01767
0.01595
0.01029
0.00066
0.00096
0.00013
0.00072
0.00032
0.00177
0.00&27
0.00206
0.00716
0.01818
0.00203
0.00643
0.00279
0.07147
0.0
0.00C056
.0.00615
0.04011
0.00109
0.0
0.00067
0.01236
0.00086
0.00421


0.OC015
0.00815
0.01300
0.00044
0. 0(:00 1
O.OvOO01

0.00118
0.05432
0.C0791
0.00020
0. 0002
0.00029
0.00045
0.00050
0.00227
0.00327
0.00842
0.00035
0.00101
0.00163
0.00069
0.00060
0.C00029
0.00011
0.00295
0.00879
0.00560
0.CC00095
0.00547
0.01147
0.11230
0.00140
0.00232
0.00216
0.04030
0.00108
0.00179
0.00191
0.00833
0.00105
0.00514


- -










Table Bl. National Technical Coefficients, 1963 (continued)


SECTOR 31 SECTOR 32 SECTOR 33 SECTOR 34 SECTOR 35 SECTOR 36 SECTOR 37 SECTOR 38 SECTOR 39 SECTOR 40

1 Agricultural Services 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00001 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00008
2 Livestock Products S 0.0 0 0.0 0.00060 0.00230 0.00032 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 Agricultural Crops 0.0 0 .0 0.0 0021. 0 0.0 0.00190 0.0 0.10852 0.0 0.00007
4 Forest & Nursery Products 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00027 0.0 0o0 0.0 0.0 0.00016 0.00018
r Fishing & Fish Processing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00C36 0.0 0.00014 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 Mining 0.0 0.0 0.00012 0.00006 0.0 0.00027 0.00041 0.01139 0.01683 0.01682
7 Bldg. Construction 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.C 0.00943 0.00939
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 0.02821 0.00562 0.00299 00C0069 0.01051 0.00766 0.03713 0.00716 0.17129 0.17128
0 I.e3 & Milk Products 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01918 0.0 0.00846 0.0 0.01859 0.0 0.0
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00043 0.0 0.00063 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Grain & Sugar Products 0.0 0.00006 0.00009 0.0029 0.0 0.00361 0.0 0.01405 0.0 0.0
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.0 0.00015 0.0 0.02560 0.0 0.00292 0.0 0.00379 0.0 0.0
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 0.00375 0.00022 0.00885 0.00025 0.0 0.00098 0.00001 0.00479 0.00033 0.00032
Ia Wood Products 0.C0141 0.02525 0.00314 0.0C243 0.00016 0.00227 0.00063 0.00251 0.00309 0.00311
15 Princing & Pbllia'il 0.00130 0.02280 0.00013 0.15769 0.00611 0.00150 0.03037 0.00276 0.00057 0.00057
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.01714 0.01471 0.04675 0.01027 0.01113 0.03700 0.00906 0.00547 0.01992 0.01996
17 Concrete & Glass Products 0.0 0.30094 0.01084 0.00035 0.0 0.00027 0.00010 0.00020 0.00260 0.00265
18 Metal Products 0.00005 0.00136 0.01169 0.00043 0.0 0.00012 0.00014 0.00038 0.00179 0.C0178 00
19 Machinery 0.00003 0.00C19 0.00646 0.01412 0 0.00003 0.00001 O.0007 0.00009 0.00024 0.00020
20 Electrical Equipment 0.00160 0.00103 0.03607 0.00530 0.00008 0.00011 0.00048 0.00041 0.00341 0.00343
21 Transportation Equipment 0.00029 0.00046 0.03819 0.00044 0.00006 0.00011 0.00028 0.00140 0.00154 0.00152
22 Instruments* 0.0 0.00253 0.00589 0.00451 0.01443 0.01527 0.00039 0.00012 0.00016 0.00012
23 Misc. Manufacturing 0.00019 0.OG611 0.01416 0.00159 0.00446 0.00033 0.00287 0.OCOI5 0.00016 0.00022
24 Transport. & Warehousing 0.01238 0.00294 0.00624 0.07280 0.00223 0.00334 0.0037: 0.22002 0.01130 0.C1131
25 Communications 0.01637 0.01023 0.00606 0.0686 09 0.00699 0.00889 0.01774 0.00155 0.00439 0.00443
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.01642 0.02599 0.00768 0.00788 0.00963 0.01656 0.033388 0.00979 0.09528 0.09531
27 Private Water & Sewer 0.00564 0.00290 0.00177 0.00225 0.00131 0.00475 0.00467 0.00121 0.00154 0.00157
28 Wholesale Trade 0.00822 0.00918 0.05527 0.00607 0.00722 0.01235 0.00791 0.00713 0.00439 0.00438
20 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 0.01153 0.00399 0.01522 0.01750 0.00943 0.00803 0.01099 0.00384 0.00228 0.00225
30 Firnnce, Ins., & R.E. 0.10590 0.10217 0.05120 0.03559 0.10730 0.05815 0.12607 0.02589 0.02122 0.02118
31 Lodging 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02252 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
32 Eating & Drinking Places 0.00234 0.00080 0.00307 0.00353 0.00190 0.00162 0.00222 0.00077 0.00049 0.00045
33Pers. & Repair Services 0.05084 0.00880 0.01671 0.00838 0.00331 0.00962 0.00811 0.00329 0.00211 0.00213
34 Business Services 0.07303 0.05734 0.02318 0.07388 0.07075 0.02877 0.04744 0.02872 0.03561 0.03558
35 Amusement & Recreation 0.00053 0.00155 0.0 0.00617 0.19241 0.0 0.00220 0.0 0.0 0.0002
36 Medical Services 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.O00001 0.0 0.01402 0.0 0.00010 0.00041 0.00038
37 Educational Services 0.00551 0.00097 0.00122 0.00228 0.00242 0.00068 0.00570 0.00003 0.00065 0.00068
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 0.00447 0.01767 0.00137 0.01502 0.00361 0.00562 0.01005 0.00034 0.00089 0.00093
39 State'Gov't Enterprises* 0. 0016 0.00119 0.00121 0.00006 0.00014 0.00010 0.00014 0.00007 0.00089 0.00092
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 0.00083 0.00583 0.0058 0.00028 0.00014 0.00050 0.00069 0.00029 0.00024 0*00028


Sector not in the County
Source: [35]









Table B2 Coefficients for the Distribution of 1970 State and Local
Government Net Purchases to Input-Output Industries

Hospitals, Local Parks
Education Highways Health and Natural and Enterprises Other
Sanitation Resource Recreation


.00050
.00004

a
.00003
.00095
.11750
.06807
.00187
.00008
.00124
.00193
.00005
.00403
.00716
.00516
.00003
.00134
.01253

.00959
.00183
.00678
.01499
.00439
.02553
.00281






0. 0I'.+336
.00328
.00024
.00017
.00055


a
a
a
a
.00138
.53682
.38212
.00001
a
a
.00001
.00011
.00305
.00020
.01141
.00002
.00125
.00267
.00501
.00975
.00234
.00044
.00095
a
.00004
a
.00202
.00257
.00015
.00003
.00052
.00)14


a
a
.00004


.00029
.00134
.00348
.00020
.00015
.00320
.06113
.03206
.01264
.00056
.00837
.01309
.01132
.00527
.00032
.05391
.00008
.00256
.00708
.00009
.00915
.00681
.00181
.00815
.00317


.00510
.00649
.00368
.00276
.00132
.01072
.03691
.00001
.03629
.02661
.00162


.00016
.00184
.00010
.00003
.00668
.21884
.12249
.00162
.00007
.00107
.00167
.01034
.00413
.01741
.16996
.00031
.00135
.01536
.00132
.01377
.00405
.00159
.02498
.01384


.01744
.02220
.02464
.00218
.00450
.02330
.07789
.00222
.00140
.00102
.00102


.00009
.00104
.00006
.00001
.00039
.27566
.22985
.00092
.00004
.00061
.00095
.00587
.00235
.00988
.09644
.00018
.00077
.00872
.00074
.00415
.00229
.00090
.01418
.00786


.00989
.01260
.01398
.00124
.00256
.01322
.04420
.00126
.00079
.00058
.00058


.58603
.27451





.01125



.00304
.01124
.00354
.02168
.01208
.00475


.00047
.00097
.00036
.00003
.00005
.00380
.08509
.05702
.00386
.00017
.00255
.00399
.00706
.01452
.01243
.05982
.00049
.00142
.00983
.00406
.02794
.00172
.01258
.01503
.01722
.01496
.00164
.00942
.01199
.04787
.00194
.00243
.01638
.03890
.00028
.00033
.00025
.00860
.00020
.00100


Note: coefficient is zero or less than .00001
Source: Scheppach, [23].














Table B3. National Output Multipliers, 1963


1 Agricultural Services 2.41579
2 Livestock Products 2.53921
3 Agricultural Crops 1.93179
4 Forest & Nursery Products 1.63910
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 2.02713
6 i-inini 1.68044
7 1Bdg. Construction 2.18255
8 tion-Bldg. Construction 2.09747
9 Meat & Milk Products 3.12351
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods 2.56220
11 Grain & Sugar Products 2.43871
12 Botjlina,, Canning, etc. 2.23201
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 2.67925
14 Wood Products 2.27666
15 Pri;ting & Publishing 2.13636
16 iheniicals. Plastics,.etc. 2.29086
17 Concrete & Glass Products 1.97641
18 Metal Products 2,25617
19 Machinery 2.26979
20 Electrical Equipment 2.18521
21 Transportation Equipment 2.55346
22 I-nrstruments 2.08234
23 Misc. :Linufacturing 2.16589
24 Tansport. & Warehousing 1.66166
25 'iomuni ica t ions 1.36218
o Private Elec. & Gas Util. 1.94406
27 Private Water & Sewer 2.41501
28 Wholesale Trade 1.63784
;'9 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 1.44300
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 1.59731
31 IJdgling! 1.67965
32 Lating & Drinking Places 1.63288
33 Pers. & Repair Services 1.76119
34 Bioinc s Services 2.17215
35 .,mj;umene & Recreation 1.87338
36 N"edical Services 1.49632
37 Educational Services 1.66808
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 1.90723
39 State Gov't Enterprises 1.83039
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 1.83092




Table B4.


COAL. FUEL ELEC- WATER PUBLIC
t COKE OIL GAS TRICITY LAND INTAKE INTAKE
(S.TONS) (B8L.) (CU.FT.) (KWH) (AC.) (GALS*) (GALS.)


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops -
Forest & Nursery Products -
Fishing & Fish Processing
Mining
Bldg. Construction
Non-Bldg. Construction
Meat & Milk Products 0.000056
Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0.00000i
Grain & Sugar Products 0.000236
Bottling, Canning, etc. 0.000076
Fabrics & Woven Products 0.000047
Wood Products 0.000749
Printing & Publishing -0.000001
Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 0.000451
Concrete & Glass Products 0.000925
Metal Products 0.000342
Machinery 0.000035
Electrical Equipment -0.000020
Transportation Equipment 0.000043
Instruments*
Misc. ;1nufactirin;
Transport. 6 Warehousing
Communications
Private Elect. & Gas itil.
Private Water & Sewer
Wr61uSt %- Tr~ae -
Retail Trade (exc. E & B) -
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises*
Local Gov't Enterprises


0.000564
0.001770
0.005806
0.005235



0.000223
0.000075
0.000268
0.000187
0.000152
0.002226
0.000053
0.000686
0.000806
0.000719
.000CC95
0.0000E2
0.000072


4.694123
0.860800
10.495747
3.605153
1.185241
21.704636
0.692226
47.683624
50.234329
18.216217
1.562784
0.904520
1.365212


0.386174
0.115702
0.085934
0.213668
0.384864
1.745440
0.237255
2.473002
1.785831
1.941829
0.381822
0.276607
0.298377


0.00005
0.002805
0.002805
0.002805
0.002805
0.000377
0.00004
0.000004
0.000004

0.000004
000C0004
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004
0.c000004
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004

0.000396
0.000001
0.000049
0.000049
&0.0oA6AQA
0.000016
C.000005
0.000034
0.000016
0.000005
0.000005
0.000291
0.000005
0.000005
0.000062

0.000049


63.412613
208.049484
102.301987




11.054399
49.235:53
54.947174
19.409576
17.902390
211.518982
a -
114.955428
46.452957
131.719254
10.549577
5.585999
6.196848
8*517248
12.209888


5.040000
7.358398
4.177597
6.887998
6.710717
24.4639S8

9.091919
6.469426
6.313469
2.729299
3.904876 o
2.413949 F
2.604629
5.253216


* Sector aot itn the County


'Source: Ayres and Cutmanis [1]


Direct Resource Requirements by Sector


-- -










Table- B5. Direct Pollution Coefficients by Sector


PARTIC-
ULATES
(LBS.)


1 Agricultural Services
2 Livestock Products
3 Agricultural Crops
4 Forest & Nursery Products
5 Fishing & Fish Processing
6 Mining
7 Bldg. Construction
8 t:.-E" .-Construction
9 Meat & Milk Products
i0 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods*.
11 Grain & Sugar Products
12 Bottling, Canning, etc.


Fabrics & Woven Products
Wood Products
Printing & Publishing
Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products
Metal Products
Machinery
Electrical E1uip'rnt
Trnc-pic rtation Equipment
Instruments*
Misc. Manufacturing
Transport. & Warehousing


Communications
Private Elect. & Gas Util. 0.615422
Private Water & Sewer
Wholesale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises*
Local Gov't Enterprises


0.035586
0.261233
0.001467
0.278819
0.514758
:0.189338
0.013665
0.008521
*0.011775
0.016641
0.072248
0.015491


HYDRC-
CARBONS
(LSS)


SULFUR
OXDESS
(LeS. I


CARBON
MONOXIDE
(LBS.)


NITROGEN
OXIDES
(LBS.)


PHOS-
PHATES
(LBS.)


C.BSO.
(LBS.)


6.151657


0*251815
0.001974
0.000110


0.000265
0.001292
0.000015
0.398842
0.001096
0.000614
0.000101
0.000064
0.000079
0 000118
0.000131
0.103082


0.856789
0. 115629
0.001822
0.389332
0.091299
0.253559
0.009497
0.006009
0.006846
0.010624
0.039157
.0.006464

1.846266


0.000678
0.101576
0.000032
0.252968
0.003108
0.031435
0.000260
0.000163
0.000216
0.000311
0.000323
0.351199


0.007057
0.033792
0.000684
0.064417
0.033378
0.021775
0.002937
0.001891
0.002024
0.003013
0.003776
0.046956

0.439587


~_


__ ~L----------L--





Coefficients by Sector (continued)


t1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
2s
29?
30
31
32
33
34
35
3.
37
38
39
40


* Sector not in the County

Source: Ayres and Gutmanis [1].


B.O.D.
(LBS.)


SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
(LBS.)



24.660858
5.365991
0.300314





0.063823

3.513661


0.185812

0.0E1999

0.429458
0.001370
0.000656


DISSOLVE
SOLIDS
(LBS.)




0.104188
0.005831


NITROGEN
(LBS.)



0.689521
0.038940
0.002179


Agricultural Services
Livestock Products
Agricultural Crops
Forest & Nursery Products
Fishing & Fish Processing
Mining
Bldg. Construction
Non-Bldg. Construction
Meat & Milk Products
Fresh & Frozen Pkg.'Foods*
Grain & Sugar Products
Bottling, Canning, etc.
Fabrics & Woven Produ,-s
Wood Products
Printing & Publishing
Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
Concrete & Glass Products
Metal Products
Machinery
Electrical Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Instruments*
Misc. Manufacturing
Transport. & Warehousing
Communications
Private Elect. 6 Gas Util.
Private Water & Sewer
Wholesale Trade
Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
Finance, Ins., & R.E.
Lodging
Eating & Drinking Places
Pers. & Repair Services
Business Services
Amusement & Recreation
Medical Services
Educational Services
Fed. Gov't Enterprises
State Gov't Enterprises*
Local Gov't Enterprises


0.878798







0.082243

0.983831

0.052665
0,365424

0.305257

0.062031
0.001644
0.002298
0.002137


WASTE
WATER
(GALS.)



25.833
4528.949
253.468





10.463
48.459
51.775
14.040
15.786
193.695

104.995
40.404
123.620
10.088
5.223
5.807
8.150
11.021


0.060299
0.797434

1.510379

0.218593


__CI___________________________________


Table B5. Direct Pollution






Table B6. State Final Der.and, 1970 ($1000)


Inventory Capital
Change Formation


Federal State/Local
Government Covernment


I Aricul!t,.ral Sur ices
2 Livestock Products
3 Agricultural Crcr?-

5 Fir:hin: 5 -i; ; ..-:.
6 Mining
7 Bldg. Construction
8 i:.:.,- :1. Construction
9 Meat & Milk Products
O1 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods
1 Grain & Sugar Products
12 Fotclii,, Canning, etc.
13 Fabric.. & Woven Products
14 Wood Products
15 Printing & Publishing
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc.
17 Concrete & Cla-s Products
18 Metal r:du,-cc
19 t'a [ir..:ri -
20 Electrical Equipment
21 Trar.sortation Equipment
22 Instruments-
23 Misc. 3 Iufa t'tu-ir,
24 Transport. & Warehousing
25 Communications
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util.
27 Private Water & Sewer
2Ae a.oleal1 Trade
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D)
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E.
31 Lodging
32 Eating & Drinking Places
33 Pers. & Repair Services
34 Business Services
35 Amusement & Recreation
36 Medical Services
37 Educational Services
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises
.39 State Gov't Enterprises
40 Local Gov't Enterprises


Sector


Personal
Consumption


Total


51,411
72,463
9,756
14,372
5,206


655,678
2-.,821
434,116
845,232
669,487
182,332
128,325
780,770
15,425
39,064
67,998
319,755
919,745
67,652
163,739
4- t,I' .'i
276,276
464,802
51,072
1,276,458
1,625,464
2,635,533
269,630
329,617
1,040,525
122,135
296,879
739,867
542,399
38,042
1,942
.18,938


,'1 7
2,752
52,478
3,204
394
3,274


5,389
237
3,568
5,765
3,495
20,953
3,806
2' 125
15.,214
15,667
10,403
7,323
10, 510
2,043
271
4,443



3,512
4,600


933


1,278


1,171,681
548,849




3,202
75,560

1,236

43,383
593,513
152,876
514,350
90,028
25,299
35,969
37,630


104,494
133,065
59,483

26,983


1-5
695


136
4, 3
62,926
52,285
12,357
543

12,731
3,705
5,207
332
42,905
302
6,059
304,058
116,408
204,314
5,895
126
96,522
12,337
5,811
639
9,760
12,428
9,818
4,824
2,520
15,611
59,863
4,780
35,413
25,961
3,968
674
6,574


652
6,409
455
234
2,005
339,822
236,715
10,312
457
6,880
10,777
9,994
19,754
29,250
92,666
2,689
2,735
25,0 '; 1
10,201
35,132
13,794
5,714
44,349
22,178
42,635
4,685
2,531
3,223
51,358
2,202
654
12,719
72,263

13,465
9,872
13,234
101
980


---------


2,0S?
55,510
131,350
13,415
15,136
14,521
1,574,429
837,849
683,816
30.053
452,746
874,505
689,883
S303,806
161,713
939,702
33,630
106,908
997,973
606,563
1,684,171
179,412
195,149
587,883
348,421
513,248
56,396
1,396, 55
1,778,780
2,806,192
276,656
360,707
1,068,855
254,261
302,937
788,745
578,232
55,'244
2,717
26,492











Table B7 State Output-Employment Ratios, 1970


($/employee)

1 Agricultural Services $16,558
2 Livestock Products 11,865
3 Agricultural Crops 12,116
4 Forest & Nursery Products 13,602
5 Fishing & Fish Processing 29,381
6 Mining 30,043
7 Bldg. Construction 28,090
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 28,090
9 Meat & Milk Products 58,835
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods 73,909
11 Grain & Sugar Products 25,180
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 43,656
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 18,578
14 Wood Products 28,499
15 Printing & Publishing 19,348
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 36,828
17 Concrete & Glass Products 30,047
18 Metal Products 30,981
19 Machinery 33,534
20 Electrical Equipment 19,856
21 Transportation Equipment 25,727
22 Instruments 20,634
23 Misc. Manufacturing 17,214
24 Transport. & Warehousing 23,857
25 Communications 29,888
26 Private Elec. & Gas Utilities 61,987
27 Private Water & Sewer 61,950
28 Wholesale Trade 16,595
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 6,214
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. 30,464
31 Lodging 11,779
32 Eating & Drinking Places 4,510
33 Pers. & Repair Services 16,794
34 Business Services 15,410
35 Amusement & Recreation 17,591
36 Medical Services 9.,234
37 EduA ati onal Services 8,688
38 Fed. Gouv'c EnLcLprises 8,73 i
39 State Gov't Enterprises 9,000
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 32,511




































APPENDIX C


Definitions







Detailed Classification of Input-Output Sectors


Sector Industries Included


Agriculture


1. Agricultural Services

2. Livestock Products




3. Crops


4, Forest and Nursery Products



5. Fish Catching and Processing


Mining


6. Mining Activities


Construction


7. New Building Construction,
Maintenance and Repair





8. Non-Building Construction,
Maintenance and Repair


Game and Hdnting Preserves
Hatcheries
Dairy Products
Poultry and Eggs
Meat, Animals, and Miscellaneous
Livestock Products
Cotton
Feed Grains and Grass Seed
Tobacco
Fruits, Tree Nuts and Oil Bearing
Crops
Vegetables, Sugar, and Miscellaneous
Crops
Forest Products
Greenhouse and Nursery Products

Fishery Products
Canned and Cured Seafoods
Fresh or Frozen Packaged Fish



Ferroalloy and Nonferrous Ores
Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas

Stone and Clay
Chemicals and Fertilizer Minerals



New Construction, Residential Build-
ings
New Construction, Non-Residential
Buildings
Maintenance and Repair Construction,
Residential Buildings
New Construction, Public Util.ties

New Construction, Highways
New Construction, All Other'
Maintenance and Repair Constru-tion,
All Other


Manufacturing


9. Meat and Milk Products


Meat Products







Detailed Classification of Input-Output Sectors (continued)


Industries Included


9. Meat and Milk Products
Continued



10. Fresh and/or Frozen Packaged
Foods
11. Grain Produces







12. Bottling, Canning, and Other
Prepared Foods


13. Fabric and Woven Products







14. Wood and Related Products



15. Printing and Publishing
16. Chemical, Plastic, Rubber
and Associated Products


Butter and Cheese
Condnnsc:d and Evaporated Milk
Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
fr,,z.en Fruits and Vegetables


Flour, Cereals, and Prepared Animal
Feeds
Rice and Corn Milling
Bakery Products

Confectionrery and Related Products


Canned Fruits, Vegetables and
Sp:-ci'ailcies
Dehydratled Foods
Pickles, Sauces and Dressings
Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks and
Alcoholic Beverages
Extracts, Syrups and Vegetable Oils

Animal Fact. and Oils
Roasted Coffee
Cooking Oils
Ice
Macaroni
Food Preparation n.e.c.
Tobacco lManufactures
Broad and Narrow Fabrics, Yarn and
Thread Hills
Miscellaneous Textiles and Floor
Coverings
Apparel
Miscellaneous Fabricated Textile
Products
Lumber and Wood Products
Furniture and Fixtures
Paper and Allied Products
Printing and Publishing
Chemical Products
Plastics and Synthetics
Drugs, Cleaning and Toiletries
Paints
Petroleum Refineries
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics
Leather Products and Footwear


Sector


_ __


_~---








Detailed Classification of Input-Output Sectors (continued)


Industries Included


17. Concrete and Glass Products


18. Metal Products


19. Machinery


20. Electrical and Electronic
Equipment






21. Transportation Equipment



22. Instruments




23. Miscellaneous Manufacturing

Transportation and Utilities

24. Transportation and Warehousing
25. Communications
26. Electric and Gas Utilities


Stone and Clay Products
Glass Products
Primary Iron and Steel Manufacturing

Primary Nonferrous Manufacturing

Heating, Plumbing and Structural
Metal Products
Screw Machine Products and Metal
Stampings
Other Metal Products
Ordnance
Engines, Turbines and Farm Machinery

Construction and Mining Machinery
Materials Handling Equipment
Metalworking and Special Industrial
Machinery
General Industrial and Machine Shop
Equipment'
Office Machines
Service Industry Machinery
Electronic Transmission and Distri-
bution Equipment
Household Appliances
Electric Lighting and Wiring
Radio, TV and Components
Miscellaneous Electronic Equipment


Motor Vehicles
Aircraft
Other Transportation Equipment
Professional, Scientific and Control-
ling Instruments
Optical and Photographic Equipment

Miscellaneous Manufacturing


Transportation and Warehousing
Radio, TV, etc.
Electric and Gas Utilities


27. Water and Sewer Private Water Services


Sector


--


Private Water Services


27. Water and Sewer







Detailed Classification of Input-Output Sectors (continued)


:!.t r Industries Included


Trade


28. WhioL.esale Trad:-
29. Retail Tra.d (l.es Eating and
Drinking places)

Services

30. Finance, Insurance, Real Estate
31. LoJgiln
32. Eat ring and Di.-.,king Places
33, Personal and e..Iir Services



34. Bus.iress Services


Wholesale Trade
ReC c.i TrIde










Personal Services
Barber and Beauty Shops
Auto Repair and Services
f,.lrs ne:,s SeLv't.ces
Legsl Services
E~rsiness Travel


35. Amusement and Recreation
36. Medi.al- S'..'. ices
37. EdrJc LJ.:nai:,l and 'rjoiprofit
Services

Goer r ,r; 'lt I En e r- p r i.-"' eas

38. Fedclrl (Go.', irlr.nl.n En-rtcprices
39. Stat,: G-cver.-iinel- Enterprises
40. Local Government Cn;i-rpiises












Definitions of Components of Final Demand


Personal Consumption Expenditures:


Personal consumption expenditures reflect the market value of goods
and services purchased by individuals and nonprofit institutions or ac-
quired by them as income in kind. The rental value of owner-occupied
dwellings is included, but not the purchases of dwellings, Purchases are
recorded at cost to consumers, including excise or sales taxes, and in
full at the time of purchase whether made with cash or on credit. The
nonprofit institutions included are those rendering services principally
to individuals.


Net Inventory Change:


Net inventory change represents the value of the increase or decrease
in the physical stock of goods held by the business sector valued in cur-
rent p-ei'iod prices. These inventories are in three stages of production;
raw materials, semifinished goods, and finished goods ready for sale or
shipment. An inventory increase is reYaIded as investment because it
represents production not matched by current consumption; an inventory de-
crease is regarded as "negative investment" because it reflects consumption
in excess of current production.


Capital Accunu.i t. ,-, fL'' I ,'i n stLrit nc):


Fixed investment measures additions to and replacements of private
capital b'cught about through net acquisitions by businesses and non-profit
institution.; of durable equipment and structures for business and residen-
tial purposes.








Federal Government Purchases of Goods and Service:


Federal Government purchases of goods and services consists of total
Federal purchases for national defense and other purchases (non-defense).
National defense purchases include those for Department of Defense military
functions, military assistance to other nations, development and control
of atomic energy, and stockpiling of strategic materials. Non-defense
purchases include outlays for space research and technology, the purchase
of agricultural commodities under price support programs, and investment
of government enterprises such as the TVA and the U.S. Postal Service.


State and Local Government Purchases of Goods and Services:


State and Local Government purchases of goods and services are divided
into seven basic functional categories: education; highways; hospitals,
health, and sanitation; natural resources; local parks and recreation; pub-
lic enterprises (capital outlay only is counted); and a residual category
which includes expenditures to general government operations.























Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Social and Economic Statistics
Administration, Dictionary of Economic and Statistical Terms,
November, 1972.







































APPENDIX D





Table Dl. Economic Summary, Lee County 1970


REGIONAL TOT AL TUTAL NET NET
E:MPLLUYMNT UUTPUUT REHUIkE. EXPUrIS IMPORTS
() ($) ($)
1 Agricultural Services 106 17551 4a 1l736b9 476459 0
2 Livestock Products 150 lb1b0940 7274205 0 5423265
3 Agricultural Crops 1 51 1 -15j71l1 6735574 8421542 0
4 Forest & Nursery Products 89e 12214596 1854308 10360268 0
S Fishing & Fish Processing 16 107bT3446 23465o4 8406882 0
6 Mining 92 2763956 644 704 0 3700748
7 Bldg. Construction 3403 95590270 54436740 41153530 0
8 Non-Bldg. Construction 1b73 52612570) 2e4'737 ti 26138772 0
9 Meat & Milk Products 60 001170 lo314o64 0 10313494
10 Fresh & Frozen Pkg. Foods* 0 0 960281 0 960231
11 Grain & Sugar Products 29 730220 750tu54 0 677e434
12 Bottling, Canning, etc. 157 68 65-92 15883261 0 9029269
13 Fabrics & Woven Products 170 315 .320 1327101o 0 10112756
14 Wood Products 184 5243816 18704'910 0 13521094
15 Printing & Publishing 4 93450 ~4 12529233 0 31 4149
16 Chemicals, Plastics, etc. 124 4556672 31343504 0 to776.12
17 Concrete & Glass Ec.l;:tr. 471 11147437 14219739 0 j072302
18 Metal Products 220 o6S5620 28707047 0 21891227
19 Machinery 82 2749781 14348467 0 11598D81
20 Electrical Equipment 240 4765440 15972074 0 11206634
21 Transportation Equipment 77 1980979 21705338 0 19724359
22 Instruments* 0 0 2788490 0 2738490
23 Misc. Manufacturing 76 1308264 5005464 0 3597200
24 Transport. & Warehousing 76b 1 751u00 23944597 0 5192995
25 Communications 1737 519154>,o 13873425 38042031 0
26 Private Elect. & Gas Util. 134 26902358 17854738 9047620 0
27 Private Water & Sewer 38 2354100 2044701 309399 0
28 Wholesale Trade 1417 23515115 29187o18 0 5672503
29 Retail Trade (exc. E & D) 6428 3994J592 44866051 0 4922459
30 Finance, Ins., & R.E. J011 91727104 7794JC20 13784084 0
31 Lodging 952 11213b08 5951140 5262468 0
32 Eating & Drinking Places 1121 5055710 9188095 0 4132385
33 Pers. & Repair Services 1913 32120922 2230481 9822241 0
34 Business Services 2919 44981790 28847159 16134621 0
35 Amusement & Recreation 59o 10484230 9550515 933721 0
36 Medical Services 11 9 10794546 17052001 0 6257455
37 Educational Services 345 2997360 11740090 0 8742730
38 Fed. Gov't Enterprises 291 2541303 4215446 0 1674143
39 State Gov't Enterprises* 0 0 959961 0 959981
40 Local Gov't Enterprises 45 1462995 4682938 0 3219943



Total 33662 634132781 650393012 188293558 204553889


Sector not in the County.








References



[1] Ayres, Robert U. and Ivars Gutmanis. "Technological Change, Pollu-
tion and Treatment Cost Coefficients in Input-Output Analysis,"
Population, Resources and the Environment, Vol. III, Commis-
sion on Population Growth and the American Future, ed. Ronald
G. Ridker.

[2] Cumberland, John H., "A Regional Interindustry Model for Analysis
of Development Objectives," The Regional Science Association
Papers 17, (1966), p. 65.

[3] Florida Department of Commerce. Individual Firm Listings of Firms
Covered by Unemployment Compensation Law, Fourth Quarter, 1970,
1970.

[4] Florida Department of Transportation. "1972 Home Interview Survey
of the Lee County Transportation Study," 1972.

[5] Florida Legislature. The Florida Environmental Land and Water Man-
agement Act. SM 629, 1972.

[6] Florida Leislature. The Local Government Comprehensive Planning
Act of 1975. Chapter 75-257, House Bill No. 782.

[7] Fort, John W. and James C. Hite. "Possibilities for Synthesizing
Input-Output Coefficients for Small Areas in Rural Development
Research," unpublished manuscript, Clemson University, Aug. 1973.

[8] Laurent, Eugene A. and James C. Hite. Economic-Ecologic Analysis
in lhe CI:h-: lesl ton [l. l:rorol itan Re e iorn: An Tnpu lt-Olutrput StIid'-,
'_ water Resoiurci.es R Tie- lrch Institute, Clemson University, April
1971.

[9] Leontief, Wassily. "Environmental Repercussions and the Economic
Structure: An Input-Output Approach," Reviei of Economjics and
Statistics, LII (August, 1970), p. 262.

[10] Leontief, Wassily. Ti.iit-ZOu'.tpt Economics. Oxford University Pre's,
New York, 1966.

[11] Miernyk, U!il)aiia H. Elements oF Input-npu pt Analysis, Random House,
New York, 1965.

[12] Richardson, Harry W., Input-Output and Regional Economics, Redwood
Press, Trowbridge, England, 1972.

[13] Schaffer, iillim A. .nd Yon Chu.. "Nonsurvey Techniques for Con-
scructing RPgional Interindustry Models," Papers of the Re-
gional Science Association, X







[14] Scheppach, R. C. State Projections of the Cross National Product
1970. 1980. Le:;ington Books, D. C. H.-atli and Co., Lex:ington,
Massachusetts, 1972.

[15] Tiebout, Charles M. "Re-ional and Interr.eional Input-Output rlodels:
An Appraisal," The Southern Economic Journal, Vol. XXIV, 1957.

[16] U. S. D-partment of Commerce, Bureau of Census. Census of Agricul-
ture, 1969.

[17] Annual Survey of Manufacturers, 1970, 1971.

[18] ___. Census of Government, State Reports, 1967.

[19] __. Count,' Business Patterns, 1970.

[20] 1967 Census of manufacturers, Source Scaitisics,
1967.

[21] __. 1970 Census of Population, 1972.

[22] U. S. Department of Commerce, office of Business Economics, Inpit-
Output Structure nf the U. S. Economy: 1963, Vol. I, 19A9.

[23] U. S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, Business
Income Tax Plecurns 1960, 1972.

[24] University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research.
Florida Scatistical abstract 1972, University of Florida Press,
Gainesville, 1972.

[25] University of Florida, Institute of Food and .".ricultural Sciences,
Florida Agricultural Plans for the 1970's, 1969 DARE Report,
Publication /7, October 1969.








Additional References



[1] Ayres, Robert U. and Allen V. Kneese. "Production, Consumption and
Externalities," American Economic Review, LIX, (June 1969),
p. 282.

[2] Hermansen, Tormod. "Information Systems for Regional Development
Control," Regional Science Association Papers XXII, 1968.

[3] Hirsch, Werner. "Fiscal Impact of Industrialization of Local
Schools," Review of Economics and Statistics, 46 (may 1964),
p. 191.

[4] Isard, Walter, et al. Ecologic-Economic Analysis for Regional De-
velopment, Free Press, New York, 1972.

[5] Isard W. and E. Rpmanoff. Water Use and Water Pollution Coeffi-
cients: Preliminary Report, Tech. Paper #6, Regional Science
Research Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1967.

[6] Perloff, H. and C. L. Leven. "Towards an Integrated System of Re-
gional Accounts," ed. W. Hirsch, Elements of Regional Accounts,
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1964.

[7] Polensi., K. et al. State Estimates of the Gross National Product
1947, 1958, 1963. Lexington Books, D. C. Heath and Co.,
Lexington, Massachusetts, 1972.

[8] Romanoff, Eliahu. "Aspects of Interindustrial Growth and Develop-
ment," Discussion Paper No. 732, Regional Science Research
Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1973.

[9] RcmanoPf, Eliahu. "The Economic Base Model: A Speical Case of
Inpiut-Output Analysis," Discussion Paper No. 73-1, Pepional
Science Research Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, February
1973.

[10] U. S. Department of Commerce. U. S. Census of Business: Retail Trade,
Area Statistics, 1967.

[11] CEnsus of E'i.ins.s: Sejectejd Cervices,
qa statistics, 1967.

[12] _. Wholesale Trade, Are ra is.tics, 1967.

[13] 1967 Census of Manufacturers, Area Statis-
tics, Florida, 1967.




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