• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Procedures and assumptions
 Crop enterprises
 Livestock enterprises
 Machinery
 Reference














Group Title: Economics report - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no.
Title: Budgets for major crop and livestock enterprises for small farms in North and West Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027712/00001
 Material Information
Title: Budgets for major crop and livestock enterprises for small farms in North and West Florida
Series Title: Economics report
Physical Description: vii, 54 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jhunjhunwala, Bharat
Tyner, Fred H
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Cost of operation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm income -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural prices -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 53-54.
Statement of Responsibility: Bharat Jhunjhunwala, Fred H. Tyner.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "January 1973."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027712
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001614608
oclc - 21028399
notis - AHN9034

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Procedures and assumptions
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Crop enterprises
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Livestock enterprises
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Machinery
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Reference
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text
January 1973 Economics Report


F "
4.i-
h -. 4f .5 Y
-~~~-1 j


Budgets for Major Crop and

Livestock Enterprises for Small

Farms in North and West Florida


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


HUME LIBRARY

MAY 09 1973

B .F.A.S. -Univ.f Florida
BFred l Jlu Tyner
Fred H. Tyner


~"surrp~-rslll------------~I- '' 1 -~ai~as













FOREWORD


The purpose of this report is to furnish technical information
useful to farm managers, extension workers, lending agencies, and others
concerned with agricultural production in north and west Florida.
The crop and livestock budgets presented provide information on
(1) costs, (2) returns, (3) monthly labor requirements, and (4) annual
labor, power, and machinery requirements. The budgets were developed
for use in a linear programming study of minimum resource requirements
for specified income levels. Results of the linear programming study are
presently included in a Master's thesis by Bharat Jhunjhunwala
(University of Florida, 1971). Results of the linear programming study
will be presented for publication in another manuscript.
Additional reports of budget studies are also available in the
Economic Report Series. Agricultural Economics Report 13 by Timothy S.
Hipp (Income Potential of Alternative Crops in Northern Florida) presents
budgetary information relating primarily to large farms (500 acres of
cropland) and 4-row equipment. Agricultural Economics Report 22 by
R. E. L. Greene (Cost of Producing Principal Field Crops and Cost of
Operating Selected Types of Farm Equipment, North and West Florida)
reports survey information on the costs of producing five crops; it
includes operating cost data for 18 different kinds of farm equipment
used in producing those crops,
This report is intended to complement the information provided in
the two reports cited above. It relates principally to a different scale
of farming operation and also includes a greater variety of crop and
livestock activities than those included in the earlier research reports.


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to convey appreciation to Drs. B. R. Eddleman
and John Holt for their assistance in this study.
Grateful appreciation is extended to the farmers who were inter-
viewed in the course of this research. Without their help this study
could not have been completed. In addition, thanks are due personnel
of the Cooperative Extension Service in various counties and to many
University of Florida faculty members who are specialists in various
fields of agricultural science.
Special appreciation is due to the members of the review committee,
Tim Hipp and John Holt in particular, for their critical review of
earlier drafts of this manuscript. Their penetrating questions and
suggestions have been helpful in the preparation of this report.
The authors are indebted to Miss Sue Farberow, Mrs. Suzanne
Templin and Mrs. Wilma Galanos who, in typing the various drafts of
this report, were untiring in their efforts.


iii












TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..

LIST OF TABLES . .

INTRODUCTION . .

PROCEDURES AND ASSUMPTIONS

CROP ENTERPRISES . .

Peanuts (Florunner) .

Flue Cured Tobacco .

Soybeans . .

Oats (Grain) . .

Wheat (Without Grazing)

Corn (Grain) . .

Corn (Silage) . .

Coastal Bermudagrass

Bahiagrass Pasture ..

Oats (Pasture) ...

LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES .


. . . .


*. . . .


Hogs (8 Sow 2 Litter System) .

Hogs (Finishing on Concrete Floor) .

Beef (Cow-Calf System). . .

Feeder Calves (Grown on Annual Winter

MACHINERY .......... .....


. .

. .

. .

. .

Grazing).

* ***


Cost of Operating Machinery . . .

Miscellaneous Investment and Annual Fixed Costs

LIST OF REFERENCES . . . .


Page

* ii

.iii

* V

. 1

S2

S5

S5

S9

S9"

. 18

. 18

. 18

. 18

. 27

. 27

. 35

. 35

. 35-/

. 41

. 41

. 41

* 49

. 49

. 49

. 53


. .




c

r

ri,







LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Product yields and prices used in preparing budgets for
small farms in north and west Florida . . 4
2 Input prices used in preparing budgets for small farms
in north and west Florida . . . . 6

3 Peanuts (Florunner): Estimated costs and returns per
acre for small farms in north and west Florida . 8
4 Peanuts (Florunner): Monthly distribution of labor
requirements per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida . .. . . . . 10
5 Peanuts (Florunner): Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . . 11
6 Flue cured tobacco: Estimated costs and returns per
acre for small farms in north and west Florida . 12
7 Flue cured tobacco: Monthly distribution of labor
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . ... ..... 13

8 Flue cured tobacco: Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . . 15

9 Soybeans: Estimated costs and returns per acre for
small farms in north and west Florida . . .. 17
10 Soybeans: Monthly distribution of labor requirements
per acre for small farms in north and west Florida . 19

11 Soybeans: Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . .. 19
12 Oats (grain): Estimated costs and returns per acre
for small farms in north and west Florida .... . .. 20
13 Oats (grain): Monthly distribution of labor require-
ments per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . ..... . . 21

14 Oats (grain): Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . .. . ... 21

15 Wheat (without grazing): Estimated costs and returns
per acre for small farms in north and west Florida . 22
16 Wheat (without grazing): Monthly distribution of labor
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . . .. 23








17 Wheat (without grazing): Annual labor, power, and
machinery requirements per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida . . . . . 23
18 Corn (grain): Estimated costs and returns per acre for
small farms in north and west Florida . . . 24
19 Corn (grain): Monthly distribution of labor require-
ments per acre for small farms in north and west Florida. .. 25

20 Corn (grain): Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . . 25
21 Corn (silage): Estimated costs and returns per acre
(harvesting done by the buyer) for small farms in north
and west Florida. . . . . .. 26
22 Corn (silage): Monthly distribution of labor requirements
per acre for small farms in north and west Florida. . 28

23 Corn (silage): Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . ... . . 29

24 Coastal Bermudagrass: Estimated costs and returns per
acre for small farms in north and west Florida . .. 30

25 Coastal Bermudagrass: Monthly distribution of labor
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . .... . . 31

26 Coastal Bermudagrass: Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . .. .. 31

27 Coastal Bermudagrass: Cost per acre of establishing sod
for small farms in north and west Florida . . 32

28 Bahiagrass pasture: Estimated costs and returns per acre
for small farms in north and west Florida . ... .. 33

29 Bahiagrass pasture: Cost of establishing Bahia sod per acre
for small farms in north and west Florida . . 34

30 Oats (pasture): Estimated costs and yields per acre for
small farms in north and west Florida . . .. 36
31 Oats (pasture): Monthly distribution of labor require-
ments per acre for small farms in north and west Florida. 37

32 Oats (pasture): Annual labor, power, and machinery
requirements per acre for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . .. . . 37

33 Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Estimated costs and
returns per system for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . . .. .. 38


Table


Page






Table Page

34 Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Monthly distribution of
labor requirements per system for small farms in north
and west Florida . . . . .. . .39

35 Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Investment and annual
fixed costs per system for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . ... . .. 40

36 Hogs (finishing on concrete floor): Estimated costs and
returns per system for small farms in north and west
Florida . . . . .. . . 42

37 Hogs (finishing on concrete floor): Monthly distribution
of labor requirements per system for small farms in
north and west Florida. .. . . . .43

38 Hogs (finishing on concrete floor): Investment and
annual fixed costs per system for small farms in north
and west Florida ... .. . . . 43
39 Beef (cow-calf system): Estimated costs and returns per
30 cow system for small farms in north and west Florida .. 44 _

40 Beef (cow-calf system): Monthly distribution of labor
requirements per system for small farms in north and
west Florida .. .... . . . . 45 Z--'
41 Beef (cow-calf system): Investment and annual fixed
costs per system for small farms in north and west Florida 46 ~I
42 Feeder calves (grown on annual winter grazing): Estimated
costs and returns per calf for small farms in north and
west Florida ............... .. .. . 47
43 Feeder calves (grown on annual winter grazing): Monthly
distribution of labor requirements per calf for small
farms in north and west Florida .............. 48
44 Feeder calves (grown on annual winter grazing): Invest-
ment and annual fixed costs per calf for small farms in
north and west Florida . . . . 48

45 Cost of operating machinery: Annual fixed costs per
unit for small farms in north and west Florida . .. 50
46 Cost of per hour of use for operating machinery on small
farms in north and west Florida. . . . .51
47 Miscellaneous investment and annual fixed costs for
small farms in north and west Florida . . .... 52


vii












BUDGETS FOR MAJOR CROP AND LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES
FOR SMALL FARMS IN NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA


Bharat Jhunjhunwala and Fred H. Tyner


INTRODUCTION

Farmers in the United States are continuously attempting to cope
with falling prices, rising costs, shifts in consumer tastes, and
technological innovations which result in changes in the profitability
of different crops. This creates a continuous need for adjustment at
the farm level in farm sizes, investment levels, and enterprise combi-
nations. This publication is derived from a farm adjustment study
recently made [9].1
The budgets presented were developed in order to derive optimal farm
organizations (i.e., the "best" mix of enterprises) to minimize the land
required for a given level of income. They can, however, also be used
by individual farmers in making cost comparisons, by agricultural
extension service personnel as a guide for recommending.particular
activities, by lending agencies in evaluation of loan applications, and
should also be helpful to agricultural workers and others in preparing
enterprise budgets.
Although these budgets were prepared with special reference to nine
counties in north and west Florida (Escambia, Santa Rosa, Holmes, Jackson,
Gadsden, Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, and Alachua), they should also be
valid for other Florida counties with similar climatic and soil conditions.


'Numbers in brackets refer to references cited at the end of this
report.


Bharat Jhunjhunwala is a graduate research assistant in the Food
and Resource Economics Department. Fred H. Tyner was formerly associate
professor of food and resource economics; he is now professor of
agricultural economics at Mississippi State University.





Similarly, they should be pertinent to areas of southwest Georgia
and southern Alabama.


PROCEDURES AND ASSUMPTIONS

The budgets have been developed for soils which.are predominantly
sandy in character, deficient in lime, and well drained. Differences in
soils are not taken into account otherwise. Annual rainfall is estimated
to be around 60 inches with about 50 percent of the annual rainfall
concentrated in the June through September period. Short cold spells
resulting in killing frosts are likely to occur annually.
These budgets apply mainly to small farmers who use 2-row equipment
and who are in the $3,000-$9,000 net income bracket. Prices and yields
used relate to the years 1971 and 1972.
A total of 17 budgets were developed for the enterprises and operating
items listed below. The first six groups of budgets cover peanuts,
tobacco, and grain crops; budgets in groups 7 through 11 cover hay and
silage; budgetgroups 12 to 15 relate to livestock; and budget groups 16
and 17 cover machinery and miscellaneous investment. These budgets are
as follows:

1. Peanuts (Florunner) 10. Bahiagrass pasture
2. Flue cured tobacco 11. Oats (Pasture)
3. Soybeans 12. Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system)
4. Oats (Grain) 13. Hogs (Finishing on concrete
floor)
5. Wheat (Without grazing)
14. Beef (Cow-calf system)
6. Corn (Grain)
6. Corn (Grain) 15. Feeder calves (Grown on
7. Corn (Silage for sale) annual winter grazing)
8. Corn (Silage for livestock) 16. Cost of operating machinery
9. Coastal Bermudagrass 17. Miscellaneous investment and
costs (
Initially, the basic information in the budgets was adapted from

various studies in Georgia, Alabama, and Florida [1-8, 10-16]. Interviews
were'also carried out with qualified scientists at both the Gainesville
campus and outlying agricultural research centers of the University of
Florida, county extension personnel, and farmers in the study area to
check the validity of and modify the constructed budgets in order for
them to conform to local conditions and management practices.






Enterprises were selected because of their overall importance and
frequency of occurrence in the study area. Exclusion of an enterprise
does not mean that it is not profitable to a specific farm -- it only
indicates that, in general, the enterprise is not very important for the
area.
Data were assembled on the following aspects of farms and enterprises:
1. Costs and returns, using advanced management practices
and recommended level of fertilization.
2. Monthly distribution of farm operations and labor requirements.
3. Annual power and machinery requirements.
4. Investment and fixed costs.
For all enterprises and activities, returns were allocated to land,
operator labor, management, and allotments, where applicable. No cost
has been allocated for operator's labor or land rent. All operating
capital is assumed to be borrowed at the annual interest rate of 8 percent.
Numerous assumptions were made in developing these budgets. One of
the most critical was the assumption of an advanced level of technology.
By "advanced level" is meant use of the most profitable production
technique (usually the "recommended practices" made by the Cooperative
Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Stations).
At present only a small percentage of farmers may be using this
level of technology. However, one of the basic purposes of this study is
to aid in the agricultural development of the area. Thus, it is deemed
appropriate that an "advanced" level of technology be used. 6, sZ
Supplemental irrigation for enterprises other than tobacco was not
considered. However, irrigation for other commodities may provide
feasible adjustment opportunities.
Prevailing practices indicate that small farmers may find it more
profitable to patronize custom harvesting operators than to own their
harvest machinery. Owning such equipment requires high levels of
investment; the volume of production is normally not adequate to repay
this investment. Therefore, all budgets were developed with the
assumption that harvesting would be done by custom operators. Custom
harvesting costs also include charges for hauling up to 15 miles to the
nearest market. All fertilizer charges were based on custom application.
This assumption regarding custom harvest should not be understood to






imply that all small farmers actually custom harvest all they produce.
It only implies that some farmers do so, and that the costs are allo-
cated on this basis.
These budgets do not include estimates of miscellaneous farm
expenses such as land taxes, bookkeeping, pick-up truck expenses, tele-
phone, etc. These relate to the farm as a whole and cannot normally be
allocated to any one particular crop. The individual farmer can, of
course, take such expenses into account and allocate portions of such
"overhead" costs to the proper productive enterprises.
The prices and yields of products used in constructing the budgets
are shown in Table 1. These estimates are based on the prices expected
to prevail in the area in 1972. These prices can be changed and the
budgets can be adjusted accordingly for any particular year or situation.
Hog prices in 1971 were abnormally low due to the corn blight and have
been adjusted accordingly.





Table 1.--Product yields and prices used in preparing budgets for small
farms in north and wept Florida

Item Unit Yield Price

--Dollars--
Peanuts (florunner) lb. 2,500.0 0.14
Flue cured tobacco lb. 2,000.0 .75
Soybeans bu. 28.0 2.95
Oats (grain) bu. 50.0 .85
Wheat bu. 30.0 1.50

Corn bu. 60.0 1.25/
Corn (silage), standing in field tons 12.0 6.00
Coastal Bermudagrass (4.5 tons) bales 60 lb. 150.0 .95
Bahiagrass pasture (grazing) tons 3.0 -
Oats (pasture), dry matter tons 2.0

Hogs lb. 210.0 .20
Cull sows lb. 450.0 .13
Boars. lb. 450.0 .11
Calves lb. 475.0 .34
Heifers (sold at one year) b. 680.0 .30
Cull cows (10 years old) lb. 900.0 .22




5


Prices of inputs, except those of machinery, are shown in Table 2.
The input prices are also based on expected 1972 levels. All prices
for fertilizer are shown for custom application. The machinery prices
are presented separately in Table 45.


CROP ENTERPRISES

This section includes budgets for specified crop enterprises, which
are shown in Tables 3 through 32. Brief discussions, keyed to the
table numbers, are presented in company with the budgets.

Peanuts (Florunner)

The budgets for peanuts are presented in Tables 3 through 5.
Table 3 gives the estimated costs and returns per acre. The yield
is assumed to be 2,500 pounds per acre with a price of 14 cents per
pound, giving an income of $350.00 per acre. The income for different
yields and prices can be estimated by changing the yields and prices
in the budgets.
It is estimated that 500 pounds of 4-12-12 fertilizer and 600
pounds of gypsum are spread per acF. The pre-planting herbicide Balan
is incorpoarted by attaching the sprayer to the disc harrow, At
cracking time Dinitro *s sprayed. In addition, two applications each
of insecticides Sevin rnd Toxaphene and five applications of fungicide
copper-sulphur spray are made. Qf these, three applications of insec-
ticide and fungicide are carried out in the same operation. The
remaining application of insecticide and two applications of fungicide
are carried out separately. This gives a total of seven spray operations.
Benlate, a chemical slightly more expensive than copper-sulphur spray,
is often used in the area. These and other recommendations of the
Cooperative Extension Service are followed by the more successful farmers
in the north and west Florida area.
In this study digging, shaking, harvesting, and hauling are assumed
to be custom operated because high investment in machines makes it
difficult for many farmers to own such equipment. A charge of $25 per
acre is made for these operations. Custom drying is charged at $12 per
ton. Total expenses amount to $138.18, giving a net return of $211.82.







Table 2.--Input prices used in preparing budgets for small farms in
north and west Florida

Item Unit Price

--Dollars--
Seed:
Peanuts lb. 0.35
Tobacco oz. 12.00
Soybeans bu. 5.00
Oats bu. 1.95
Wheat bu. 3.15
Corn lb. .36
Bahiagrass lb. .45

Gypsum cwt.. .90

Chemicals:
Balan (spray) qtp. 2.50
Dinitro (spray) qts. 2.00
Sevin (spray) lb. 3.00
Toxaphene (spray) lb. 3.00
Copper-sulphur (spray) lb. .09
Contact (pucker control chemical) gal. 5.00
Systemic (sucker control chemical)- gal. 6.00
Soybean innoculant (for one bushel) can .60
Beef cow-calf system (spray material) head .50

Livestock:
Feeder pig (60 Ibs,) head 18.00
Feeder calf (400 Ibs.) lb. .31

Feed:
40% protein supplement cwt. 4.50
18% protein starter cwt. 4.50
41% cotton seed meal supplement cwt. 5.25
Salt cwt. 2.10
Minerals .cwt. 5.00

Custom work:
Fertilizer;
Lime tpn 9.00
4-12-12 cwt. 2.25
6-9-3 cwt. 2.10
3-9-9 cwt. 2.10
Ammonium nitrate cwt. 3.50
10-10-10 cwt. 2.70
10-10-20 cwt. 3.00


Continued





Table 2.--Input prices used in preparing budgets for small farms in
north and west Florida--Continued


Item Unit Price


Peanuts:
Dig, shake, harvest, and haul
Drying


--Dollars--


acre
ton


25.00
12.00


Tobacco:


Plant bed;


Nematicide
Insecticide


Methyl bromide
fumigation, plastic
cover, etc.


Soybeans:
Insecticide, 80% Sevin, 1.1/2 lb.
Harvest and haul, per acre

Oats:

Harvest and haul


Wheat:
Harvest and haul


Corn:

Herbicide
Harvest and hdul

Coastal Bermudagrass:
Now, rake, cut, and bale (60 lb,)
Sprigs, custom planted

Hogs:
Hauling: Buy
Sell

Calves:
Hauling: Buy
Pell
Grinding and mixing feed


Operator capital .08


15.00
25.00
6.00



3.00
10.00



8.00



8.00



6.00
10.00



.30
15.00


appl.
acre
appl.



appl.
acre



acre



acre



acre
acre



bale
acre



head
head



head
head
cwt.


.20
'.50


1.00
2.00
".35


Operator capital


.08







Table 3.--Peanuts (Florunner): Estimated costs and returns per acre
for small farms in north and west Florida


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount
---Dollars---


Income:


Peanuts


Expenses:
Seed lb.
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom
application) cwt.
Gypsum (.a s '. 7
appleation) / cwt.
Lime (custom application) ton
Herbicide:
Pre-planting, Balan
(spray) qts.
Cracking time, Dinitro
(spray) qts.
Insecticide:
Sevin (2 appl., l.lb. each)
Toxaphene (2 appl., 1 Ib each) lb.


2,500


75.0


5.0

6.0
1/3


3.0

3.0

2.0
2.0


0.14 350.00


.35 26.25


2.25

.90
9.00


2.50

2.00


11.25

5.40
3.00


7.50

6.00


3.00 6.00


Fungicide:
Copper-sulphur (spray,
5 applications, 25 Ibs.
each)
Dig, shake, harvest, and
haul (custom)
Drying (custom)
Tractor use
Machinery use
Interest on pre-harvest
expenses (6 gv t'4C


lb.

acre
ton
hr.
hr.


125.0


.09 11.25'


1.0 25.00
1.125 12.00
6.13 1.63
6.43

.4-- .04
-- .- f -


Total


Return to allotment, land, operator
labor, and management


-24t82 jU.31


li2 \


NJ ii


, &L f&


25.00
13.50
9.99.
4.18

-2--.86


rk"


-'.,


-1-3&- 1 3Y".


-- --






Table 4 shows the monthly labor requira- .,-s, which are concen-
trated in the period February through May. No labor is provided for the
custom harvesting operations.
Table 5 shows the annual labor, power, and machinery requirements
per acre. The labor and power requirements amount to 6.46 and 6.13
hours per acre, respectively. Machinery cost is $4.18 per acre.

Flue Cured Tobacco

The budgets for tobacco are presented in Tables 6 through 8.
Tobacco yield is assumed to be 2,000 pounds per acre. The annual fixed
cost of the barp is obtained from Table 47. Insurance charges are
allocated at 4 percent of the value of the crop; the marketing commission
is estimated at 3 percent. The net return is calculated to be $445.58
per acre. The barn cost is based on full use (three tons). Thus, if
the farmer grows less than three acres of tobacco, the fixed cost per
acre of tobacco for the barn will be higher.
All operations on the plant bed except methyl bromide fumigation
and putting up plastic covers are assumed to be performed by the
operator. The application of nematicide and insecticide in the. field
is also assumed to be custom work. Sucker control, however, is operator
work.
Table 8 includes an additional column showing the requirements of
hired labor. It is assumed that one man, either operator or foreman,
is required to manage each eight hired workers. Many field operations
requirebhired labor; harvesting is done exclusively by hired labor.
Hired labor, whenever required, is assumed to be available at $1.4Q per
hour. Table 7 shows monthly requirements of operator labor only. It
is assumed that tobacco is harvested twice in June and four times in
July.

Soybeans

Soybean budgets are based on a yield of 28.0 bushels, which is
expected to be attained by the better than average farmer in the area.
The applications of insecticide and harvesting and hauling are assumed
to be custom work, thereby reducing the operator labor requirements.
Table 9 shows a net return of $31.60 to land and operator labor and






Table 4.--Peanuts (Florunner): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida

Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

-------------------------------------------Hours---------------------------------

Spread gypsum 0.66 0.66
Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc and spray 1.0 1.0
Plant 1.0 1.0
Herbicide spray .3 .3
Cultivate .6 .6
Spray 1.8 .3 .6 .6 .3

Total 6.46 1.76 1.0 1.3 .9 .6 .6 .3





Table 5.--Peanuts (Florunner): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms
in north and west Florida


Total Time per acre
times b
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

------------- Hours------------ ---Dollars--

Spread 1 Feb. 6' 0.66 0.33 0.33 1.15 0.38
Bottom plow 1 Feb. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 .49 .54
Disc harrow 2 Mar. 8' 1.0 1.0 1.0 .91 .91
Planter 1 Apr. 2-row 1.0 1.0 1.0 .88 .88
Cultivator I May 2-row .6 .6 .6 .47 .28
Herbicide sprayer 2 Mar. 1 8' .3 .3 .6 .70 .42
Apr. 1
Sprayer 6 May 1 6-row 1.8 1.8 1.8 .43 .77
June 2
July 2
Aug. -1

Total 6.46 6.13 6.43 4.18


aIn pre-planting spray, the herbicide sprayer is attached to
and tractor requirements are shown for that operation,

Total times operation performed.


the disc harrow; no separate labor





.ioie 6.--Flue cured tobacco: Estimated costs and returns per acre for small farms in north and west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount
-------Dollars-------
Income:
Tobacco lb. 2,000.0 0.75 1,500.00

Expenses:
Seed oz. .25 12.00 3.00
Fertilizer:
Plant bed: 6-9-3 cwt. 3.0 2.10 6.30
Field 3-9-9 (custom application) cwt. 25.0 2.10 52.50
Chemicals:
Plant bed: Methyl bromide, fumigation, plastic
covers, etc. (custom application) appl. 1.0 15.00 15.00
Field: Nematicide (custom application) acre 1.0 25.00 25.00
Insecticide (6 custom applications) appl. 6.0 6.00 36.00
Sucker control: Contact (one application) gal. 2.5 5.00 12.50
Systemic (one application)- gal. 1.0 6.00 6.00
Annual fixed costs (barn) ton 1.0 289.38 289.38
Insurance of tobacco crop $ 1,500.00 .04 60.00
Marketing $ 1,500.00 .03 45.00
Hired labor hr. 279.00 1.40 390.60
Tractor use hr. 22.25 1.63 36.27
Machinery hr. 30.25 52.59
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 606.90 .04 24.28

Total 1,054.42

Return to allotment, land, operator,labor and management 445.58


-----






Table 7.--Flue cured tobacco: Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida

Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

-------------------------------------Hours-----------------------------------
Plant bed:

Disc 1.0 1.0
Plow .2 .2
Fertilize .3 .3
Rake 2.0 2.0
Seed 1.7 1.7
Irrigate 3.0 1.5 1.5
Daily care 3.4 1.7 1.7

Field:

Cut stalks .45 .45
Measure land .9 .9
Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc 1.0 1.0
Lay-off rows 6 .6
Fertilize and bed 1.0 1.0
Pull plants 1.25 1.25
Transplant 6.0 6.0
Cultivate 3.6 1.8 1.8
Side dress 3.6 1.8 1.8
Hoe 1.25 1.25
Spray 1.2 1.2
Top 2.0 2.0

Sub-total 35.55 4.0 6.2 15.65 4.85 3.2 1.65




Continued






Table 7.--Flue cured tobacco: Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida--Continued


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours----------------------------------

Irrigate 2.0 .25 .5 .75 .5
Harvest 22.5 7.5 15.0
Bulk curing 10.0 3.3 6.7
Market
preparation 5.25 1.75 3.5

Total 75.3 4.0 6.2 15.9 5.35 .75 16.25 25.2 1.65






Table 8.--Flue cured tobacco: Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms
in north and west Florida

Total Time per acre
times Hired Operator
Item performed Month(s) Size labor labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

--------------Hours-------------------Dollars--
Plant bed:


Bottom plow
Disc harrow
Fertilize
Rake
Seed
Irrigate

Daily care


1 Dec.
2 Dec.
1 Jan.
1 Jan.
1 Jan.
4 Feb.-2
Mar.-2
2 Feb.-Mar.


Field:


Rotary mower
Measure land
Bottom plow
Disc harrow
Cultivator
(lay-off rows)
Planter (fertilize
(and bed)
Pull plants
Tobacco transplanter


Dec.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.

Mar.

Mar.
Mar,
Mar.


Sub-total


29.0 23.95 11.4


11.4


Continued


2-16"
6'
by hand
by hand
by hand
by hand

by hand


0.7
1.0


0.7
1.0
.3
2.0
1.7
3.0


0.7
1.0


0.49
.91


0.32
.91

-


2-16"
8'

2-row


.45
.9
1.1
1.0


1.0
1.25
6.0


.45

1.1
1.0

.6

1.0

6.0


2-row
by hand
2-row


1.0
10.0
18.0


.45

1.1
1. 0

.6

1.0

6.0


.49

.49
.91

.47

.88

1.91


.22

.54
.91

.28

.88

11.46


- 15.52


- -1 c----T~-


-------~--~-C^~---CI-LI---- ~___~_____ I______I _l___r______._ __I------~-I- --IX- IC-CI-






Table 8.--Flue cured tobacco: Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms
in north and west Florida--Continued

Total Time per acre
times Hired Operator
Item performed Month(s) Size labor. labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost


--------------Hours------------


Cultivator
Cultivator (side dress)
Hoe
Sprayer
Top
Irrigate (1 hr./acre/
irrig., 2 laborers,
15 min./acre)


Mar.-Apr.
Mar.-Apr.
Apr.
June
June


Mar.-1
Apr.-2
May-3
June-2


2-row
2-row
by hand
6-row
by hand


10.0

16.0


2.0


3.6
3.6
1.25
1.2
2.0


2.0


3.6
3.6

1.2
-


3.6
3.6

1.2


--Dollars--


0.47
.47

.43
-


1.69
1.69

.52


4.04 32.32


Pick (1 laborer,
10 hrs.)
Put in barn


Transport wagon (1
laborer, 10 hrs.)
Bulk curing (5 days, 1
hr./day per.barn,
i.e., 3 acres)
Market preparation


June-2
July-4
June-2
July-4
June-2
July-4
June-2
July-4

June-2
July-4


by hand 60.0

by hand 60.0

by hand 60.0


by hand


by hand 42.0


- 10.0


5.25


- 52.59


279.0 75.35 22.3


Harvest:


2.5


30.3


Total







Table 9.--Soybeans: Estimated costs and returns per acre for small
farms in north and west Florida


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars----
Income:
Soybeans bu. 28.0 2.95 82.60

Expenses:
Seed bu. 1.0 5.00 5.00
Fertilizer: 4-12-12
(otom application)'' cwt. 5.0 2.25' 11.25
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Inoculant can 2.0 .60 1.20
Insecticide (2 custom
applications) acre 2.0 3.00 6.00
Herbicide: 80% Sevin,
Dinitro qts. 2.0 2.00 4.00
Harvest and haul
(custom) acre 1.0 10.00 10.00
Tractor use hr. 4.1 1.63 6.68
Machinery use hr. 4.1 2.65
Interest on pre-harvest
expenses, 6 months $ 30.45 .04 1.22

Total 51.00


Return to land, operator
labor, and management 31.60






management. Labor requirements by months are noted in Table 10. Two
cultivations are assumed, one each in June and July (Table 11).

Oats (Grain)

The budget for oats (grain) is presented in Tables 12 through 14.
A net return of only $5.12 per acre is shown. This low return explains
the iabzg-nce of commercial production of this crop in the area. The
monthly requirements of labor are 1.6 hours per acre in October and
2.2 hours per acre in November. The crop requires only three operations
-- plowing, harrowing, and drilling. Custom harvesting is assumed.

Wheat (Without Grazing)

The wheat budgets are presented in Tables 15 through 17. Grazing
of wheat is not a common practice in the area; therefore budgets have
been constructed without grazing.
Table 15 shows a return to land, operator labor, and management
of $4.42 per acre, which is relatively low. Fertilizer usage is 500
pounds of 4-12-12 and 150 pounds of ammonium nitrate. It is expected
that this application of fertilizer would give a yield of 30.0 bushels.
Total labor requirements (3.8 hours per acre) are relatively low,
mainly because harvesting is assumed to be custom work. It is assumed
that spike harrowing is not required.

Corn (Grain)

Table 18 shows a return to land, operator labor, and management
of $15.38 per acre, which again explains the declining importance of
corn as a market crop in the area. Most corn is cultivated for use as
hog feed to be used on the farm. The $1.25 price per bushel of corn
and 60 bushels per acre yield are for a normal year and hence do not show
the effect of the 1970 corn blight.

Corn (Silage)

The budgets for corn (silage) are presented in Tables 21 through
23. Table 21 shows a return to land, operator labor, and mnar-agLment
of $12.64 per acre. It is assumed that the buyer furnishes his own
harvesting equipment and bears all related costs. It appears that the
reason h.'h. silage is not -grown extensively is not due to its-lack of

profitability, but rather to market limitations. The price of $6.00 per







Table 10.--Soybeans: Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida


Bottom plow
Disc harrow
Herbicide sprayer
Planter
Cultivator


Apr.
May
May
May
June-July


2-16"
8'
8'
2-row
2-row


----------Hours-------------

1.1 1.11t( 1.1
.5 .5 .5
.3 .3 .3
1.0 1.0 1.0
1.2 1.2 1.2


---Dollars---

0.49/ 0.54
.91 .46
.70 .21
.88 .88
.47 .56


- 2.65


4.1

1$,r


Total


4.1


---I


I -


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours---------------------------------------
Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc .5 .5
Spray herbicide .3 .3
Plant 1.0 1.0
Cultivate 1.2 .6 .6


Total 4.1 1.1 1.8 .6 .6






Table 11.--Soybeans: Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida

Total Time per acre
times -- _
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost







Table 12.--0ats (grain): Estimated costs and returns per acre for small farms in north and west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount


-----Dollars----
Income:
Oats bu. 50.0 0.85 42.50

Expenses:
Seed bu. 2.0 1.95 3.90
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom application) cwt. 4.0 2.25 9,00
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) cwt. 1.5 3.50 5.25
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Harvest and haul (custom) acre 1.0 8.00 8.00
Tractor use hr. 2.7 1.63 4.40
Machinery use hr. 2.7 2.98
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 21.15 .04 .85

Total 37.38

Return to land, operator labor, and management 5.12





Table 13.-Oats (grain):
west Florida


Monthly distribution of labor requi: .--,iLcs per acre for small farms in north and


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours----------------------------------------

Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc .5 .5
Drill 2.2 2.2


Total 3.8 1.6 2.2








Table 14.--Oats (grain): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms in north
and west Florida

Total Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

------------Hours------------ --Dollars--

Plow 1 Oct. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.49 0.54
Disc harrow 1 Oct. 8' .5 .5 .5 .91 .46
Grain drill 1 Nov. 10' 2.2 1.1 1.1 1.80 1.98


Total 3.8 2.7 2.7 2.98






Table 15.--Wheat (without grazing): Estimated costs and returns per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount


---Dollars-----
Income:

Wheat bu. 30.0 1.50 45.00

Expenses:

Seed bu. .1.5 3.15 4.73
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom application) cwt. 5.0 2.25 11.25
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) cwt.. 1.5 3.50 5.25
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00

Harvest and haul (custom) acre. 1.0 8.00 8.00
Tractor use hr. 2.7 1.63 4.40
Machinery use hr. 2.7 2.98
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 24.23 .04 .97

Total 40.58


Return to land, operator labor, and management


~_11_~_____1_
__ __ __I~


4.42








Table 16.--Wheat (without grazing): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida


Operation


Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


-------- ---------------------.--- ------------------ ------------

Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc .5 .5
Drill 2.2 2.2

Total 3.8 1.1 2.7








Table 17.--Wheat (without grazing): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small
farms in north and west Florida

Total Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

-----------Hours---------- --Dollars--

Bottom plow 1 Oct. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.49 0.54
Disc harrow 1 Nov. 8' ,5 .5 .5 .91 .46
Drill 1 Nov. 8' 2.2 1.1 1,1 1.80 1.98


Total 3.8 2.7 2.7 2.98






Table 18.--Corn (grain): Estimated costs and returns per acre for small farms in north and west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

-----Dollars----
Income:
Corn bu. 60.0 1.25 75.00

Expenses:
Seed lb. 12.0 .36 4.32
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom application) cwt. 6.0 2.25 13.50
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) cwt. 3.0 3.50 10.50
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Herbicide (2, 4-D, custom application) acre 1.0 6.00 6.00
Harvest and haul(custom) acre 1.0 10.00 10.00
Tractor use hr. 4.75 1.63 7.74
Machinery use hr. 4.75 3.11
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 37.32 .04 1.49

Total 59.66

Return to land, operator labor, and management 15.34


/ S









Table 19.--Corn (grain):
west Florida


Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in north and


Operation Total Jan, Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours----------------------------------------

Cut stalks 0.45 .45
Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc 1.0 .5 .5
Plant 1.0 1.0
Cultivate 1.2 .6 .6

Total 4.75 1.1 .5 1.5 .6 .6 .45


Table 20.--Corn (grain): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms in north
and west Florida

Total Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

-------------Hours--------- --Dollars--

Rotary mower 1 Oct. 6' 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.49 0.22
Bottom plow 1 Jan. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 .49 .54
Disc harrow 2 Feb.-Mar. 8' 1.0 1.0 1.0 .91 .91
Planter 1 Mar. 2-row 1.0 1.0 1.0 .88 .88
Cultivator 2 Apr.-May 2-row 1.2 1.2 1.2 .47 .56


Total 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.11







Table 21.--Corn (silage): Estimated costs and returns per acre
farms in north and west Florida


(harvesting done by the bui'-, ) for small


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----
Income:
Corn silage tons 12.0 6.00 72.00

Expenses:
Seed lb. 15.0 .36 5.40
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom application) cwt. 6.0- 2.75 16.50
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) wt. 4.5 3.50 15.75
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Herbicide (2, 4-D, custom application) acre 1.0 6.00 6.00
Tractor use hr. 4.75 1.63 7.74
Machinery use hr. 4.75 3.11
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 46.65 .04 1.87

Total 59.36


Return to land, operator labor, and management 12.64








ton is believed to be typical, since prices were reported to range from
$5.00 to $7.00 per ton, but the demand at this price is limited. Labor
and machinery requirements for silage are identical with corn (grain)
(Tables 22 and 23). The application of anamonium nitrate, however, is
increased from 3.0 cwt. to 4.5 cwt. Budget 21 can be easily modified to
include cost of harvesting and storing.
The custom charges for harvesting, chopping, hauling, and stacking
are estimated at $3.00 per ton; the fixed expenses of a 600 ton silo are
estimated at $0.32 per ton (Table 47). The cost of plastic is estimated
at $15.00 per 100 tons of silage. Assuming a yield of 12 tons per acre,
the total cost of growing and storing corn silage amounts to $101.00 per
acre.


Coastal Bermudagrass

The budget for Coastal Bermudagrass shows a return to land,
operator labor, and management of $30.60 per acre. As in the case
of corn silage, this crop compares favorable in terms of profit with
all the grain crops. The major problem with Bermudagrass is uncertainty
of yield and market limitation.
It is assumed that mowing, raking, cutting, and baling hay into
60 pound bales will be custom operations at the rate of $.30 per bale.
These bales will be picked up from the field and stacked by the operator.
The only operator labor requirements, therefore, are those of picking
up and storing the hay.
Fpur harvesting -- one each in May, June, July, and September -
are estimated to be typical. Often the farmer may get only three
harvesting, the yield per harvest remaining approximately the same; i.e.,
1.125 tons per acre (or 37.5 bales per acre). The cost of establishing
sod is shown in Table 27. The interest on this cost is allocated in
Table 24.


Bahiagrass Pasture

The Bahiagrass budgets do not include any selling activity because
this crop is grown exclusively for grazing by livestock. This crop does
noi require any annual labor or machinery inputs. Table 29 shows the
cost of establishing sod,






Table 22.--Corn (silage): Monthly distribution of labor .requirements per acre for small farms in north and
west Florida


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

---------------------------- -- ----------------------------------------

Cut stalks 0.45 .45
Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc 1.0 .5 .5
Plant 1.0 1.0
Cultivate 1.2 .6 .6


4.75 1.1


.5 1.5 .6


Total


03


------- ---~--~U.----Tl---L----CII---*l----







Table 23.--Corn (silage): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida

Total
Tial Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

---------Hours---------- --Dollars--

Rotary mower 1 Oct. 6' 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.49 0.22
Bottom plow 1 Jan. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 .49 .54
Disc harrow 2 Feb.-Mar. 8' 1.0 1.0 1.0 .91 .91
Planter 1 Mar. 2-row 1.0 1.0 1.0 .88 .88
Cultivator 2 Apr.-May 2-row 1.2 1.2 1.2 .47 .56

Total 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.11









Table 24.--Coastal Bermudagrass: Estimated costs and returns per
Florida


acre for small farms in north and west


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

-----Dollars-----

Income:
Bales, 60 Ib. (4.5 tons, 4 cuttings, 1.125 tons each) bales 150.00 0.95 142'.50

Expenses:
Fertilizer:
10-10-10 (custom application) cwt. 7.50 2.70 20.25
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) cwt. 7.00 3.50 24.50
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Fixed cost:
Sod: Interest $ 20.53 .08 1.64
Taxes $ 41.06 .00325 .13
Hay shed tons 4.5 2.45 11.03
Mow, rake, cut, and bale, 60 lb. bales (custom) bales 150.00 .30 45.00
Tractor use hr. 2.25 1.63 3.67
Machinery use hr. 2.25 .77
Interest on pre-harvest expenses, 6 months $ 47.75 .04 1.91

Total 111.90


Return to land, operator labor, and management 30.60


,1~~1..,-,.1----c~---cccll--c-c~*~- ~.1~-~ --~I---- ---I ---Y -----








Table 25.--Coastal Bermudagrass: Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours-----------------------------------------

Haul and store 4.48 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12








Table 26.--Coastal Bermudagrass: Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms
in north and west Florida

Total Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost

-------------Hours--------- --Dollars--

Haul wagon (2 ton
load) 2.25 May-0.56 6'x12' 4.5 2.25 2.25 0.34 0.77
June-0.56
July-0.56
Sept-0.56







Table 27.--Coastal Bermudagrass: Cost per acre of establishing sod for small farms in north.and west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----
Expenses:
Sprigs, custom planted (400 lbs.) acre 1.0 15.00 15.00
Fertilizer: 10-10-10 (custom application) cwt. 4.0 2.70 10.80
Lime (custom application) ton 1.0 9.00 9.00

Land preparation:
Plow: Tractor hr. 1.1 1.63 1.79
Machinery. hr. 1.1 .49 .54
Labor hr. 1.1 1.65 1.82
Disc: Tractor hr. .5 1.63 .82
Machinery hr. .5 .91 .46
Labor hr. .5 1.65 .83

Total 41.06









Table 28.--Bahiagrass pasture: Estimated costs and returns per
Flor; rla


acre for small farms in north and west


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----

Income:
Grazing tons 3.0
Expenses:
Fertilizer:
10-10-10 (custom application) cwt. 5.0 2.70 13.50
Ammonium nitrate (custom application) cwt. 3.0 3.50 10.50
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Fixed cost:
Sod: Interest $ 17.76 .08 1.42
Taxes $ 35.51 .00325 .12
Interest on pre-grazing expenses, 6 months $ 27.00 .04 1.08

Total: Cost excluding returns to land, operator
labor, and management 29.62







Table 29.--Bahiagrass pasture: Cost of establishing Bahia sod per acre for small farms
Florida


in north and west


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount
----Dollars-----

Expenses:
Seed lb. 20.0 0.45 9.00
Fertilizer:
10-10-10 (custom application) cwt. 4.0 2.70 10.80
Lime (custom application) ton 1.0 9.00 9.00
Land preparation:
Plow: Tractor .hr. 1.1 1.63 1.79
Machinery hr. 1.1 .49 .54
Labor hr. 1.1 1.65 1.82
Disc: Tractor hr. .5 1.63 .82
Machinery hr. .5 .91 .46
Labor hr. .5 1.65 .83
Planting:
Tractor hr. .1 1.63 .16
Machinery (spreader) hr. .1 1.15 .12
Labor hr. .1 1.65 .17

Total 35.51






Oats (Pasture)

Oats for pasture also does not show any selling activity because
this crop, like Bahia pasture, is grown exclusively for on-farm live-
stock. A yield of 2.0 tons (dry matter) is assumed. Labor requirements
occur only in September and October for the operations of plowing,
harrowing, drilling, and fertilizing. Total cost of 'row.ir. an acre of
this crop is $34.84, including machinery and tractor costs.


LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES

This section includes budgets for specified livestock enterprises
shown in Tables 33 through 44. The budgets are preceded by a brief
discussion of each enterprise, keyed to the table numbers.

Hogs (8 Sow 2 Litter System)

Table 33 shows the sale of 122 hogs at an average weight of 210
pounds. It is assumed that, of 128 hogs farrowed, three will be death
losses and three gilts will be kept on the farm for sow replacement.
Thus, 25,620 pounds of hogs will be sold at $.20 per pound. The turn-
around time for sows is assumed to be 2.5 years; thus three sows would
be replaced each year and sold at a weight of 450 pounds each for $.13
per pound. It is assumed that one boar is required for eight sows. The
turn-around time per boar is 1.5 years so that each 18 months a boar is
replaced.
Total feed requirements are calculated separately for the boar, 8

sows, and 128 pigs. The feed coefficient for pigs is estimated at 3.5.
The feed ration is 80 percent corn and 20 percent high protein supplement.
In addition, 18 percent protein starter feed at the rate of 25 pounds per
pig is required.
The monthly labor requirements are estimated at 1.5 hours per day,
The labor requirements for corn, which are not shown, must be added.
Table 35 shows the investment and annual fixed cost. The boar is
depreciated in 1.5 years. Sows are not depreciated because they are
replaced within the system. Interest has been calculated at the rate of
8 percent on the average investment. Depreciation is carried on a
straight line basis for the life specified. Repairs and taxes are added
where applicable.









Table 30.--Oats (pasture): Estimated costs and yields per acre for small farms in north and west Florida

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----
Income:
Forage (dry matter) tons 2.0
Expenses:
Seed bu. 2.0 1.95 3.90
Fertilizer:
4-12-12 (custom application) cwt. 4.0 2.25 9.00
nitrate (custom application) .cwt. 3.0 3.50 10.50
Lime (custom application) ton 1/3 9.00 3.00
Tractor use hr. 2.7 1.63 4.40
Machinery use hr. 2.7 2.98
Interest on pre-grazing expenses, 6 months $ 26.40 .04 1.06

Total (excluding returns to land, operator labor,
and management) 34.84









Table 31.---Oats (pasture): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per acre for small farms in north
and west Florida


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

------------------------------------Hours-----------------------------------------

Plow 1.1 1.1
Disc .5 .5
Drill 2.2 2.2

Total 3.8 1.6 2.2







Table 32.--Oats (pasture): Annual labor, power, and machinery requirements per acre for small farms in
north and west Florida

Total. Time per acre
times
Item performed Month(s) Size Labor Tractor Machinery Rate Cost
-------------Hours--------- --Dollars--

Bottom plow 1 Sept. 2-16" 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.49 0.54
Disc harrow 1 Sept. 8' .5 .5 .5 .91 .46
Grain drill 1 Oct. 10' 2.2 1.1 1.1 1.80 1.98

Total 3.8 2.7 2.7 2.98








Table 33.--Ik-s (8 sow 2 litter system): Estimated costs and returns
and west Florida


per system for small farms in north


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount
----Dollars----


Income:
122 hogs, 210 lbs., 2% death loss (-3 gilt replacement)
3 cull sows, 450 lbs. (16 pigs/yr., turn around 2.5 yrs.)
.67 boars (1 boar every 1.5 yrs.),450 lbs. (1 boar for
8 sows, turn around 1.5 yrs.)


Total


25,620.0
1,350.0

301.50


0.20 5,124.00
.13 175.50


33.17


5,332.67


Expenses:
Feed:
1 boar @ 4.5 lbs./day = 1,642.5
8 sows, 2 times, 4 weeks lactation @ 12 Ibs./day -= 5,376.0
8 sows, remaining 44 weeks, average @ 4.5 lbs./day = 11,088.0
128 pigs, 170 lbs. gain, feed coefficient 3.5 = 76,160.0
Total feed required = 94,266.5
80%, corn = 75,413.2 lbs.
20%, 40% protein supplement = 18,853.3 lbs.
18% protein starter @ 25 lbs. per pig = 3,200 lbs.
Grinding and mixing
Veterinary, medicines
Electricity, utilities, supplies
Marketing commission
Hauling
Fixed costs
Interest on operating capital


ton
cwt.


cwt.
cwt.
head
head
$
head
system
$


37.71 35.51a
188.53 4.50


32.0
974.66
137.00
137.00
5,332.67
125.67
1.0
3,015.10


4.50
.35
1.00
1.50
.03
.50
850.65
.08


Total 4,329.78
_______ _____ --_ __ _- ___,--->-------*-----.--'---**--*-----"-^~''--~'--* *"--.--- -


Contiinued


aFrom Table 18, 1.68 tons of corn cost $59.66 to produce.


1,339.08
848.39
144.00
341.13
137.00
205.50
159.98
62.84
850.65
241.21








Table 33.--Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Estimated costs and returns per system for small farms in north
and west Florida--Continued

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount


----Dollars----
Return to land, operator labor, and management 1,002.89


Table 34.--Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per systema for
small farms in north and west Florida


Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

-----------------------------------Hours---------------------------------------

Feed and care 547.5 46.5 42.0 46.5 45.0 46.5 45.0 46.5 46.5 45.0 46.5 45.0 46.5


aLabor requirements due to corn must be noted.








Table 35.--Hogs (8 sow 2 litter system): Investment and annual fixed costs per system for small farms in
north and west Florida

Investment Annual fixed costs

Item Size No. Rate New Average Life Interest Depr. Repairs Taxes Total


----Dollars----


Yrs. ----------------Dollars----------------


1 200 200


200


16.00 133.34


- 1.25


Unbred gilt


210 lb. 8 55 440


440 .


35.20


S 2.75 37.95


Farrowing house:
Concrete floor,
roof, pens
Lamps
Sprayers
Waterers, singles

Feeders:
4 sows, farrowing
4 sows, outside
Creep feeders
Hog feeders
Loading chute


Fence, 4 1 acre plots

Rods
Electric wire and
charger

Misc. equip. (cleaning)


- 800


1 800 400


1 150 150 75 5


- 250


250


125


32.00 90.00 20.00 2.50 144.50


6.00 27.00

10.00 45.00


3.75


- 36.75

- 55.00


- 190.60 598.42 50.75 10.88 850.65


Boar


150.59


350
5
100
7


1,400
20
100
28


sows


1


12 holes


700
10
50
14



40
100
16
187
25


4.38


25.00


2.00


56.00
.80
4.00
1.12



3.20
8.00
1.28
15.00
2.00


80
200
32
375
50


126.00
9.00
18.00
5.04



14.40
36.00
5.76
84.38
4.50


211.38
9.80
22.00
8.16



17.60
44.00
7.04
99.38
6.50


- 4,125 2,382


Total






Hogs (Finishing on Concrete Floor)

The budgets for hogs are presented in Tables 36 through 38. It is
estimated that one set of facilities can turn out three batches of hogs of
128 head each. Death loss is estimated at 4 percent in view of the
purchasing activity of feeder pigs. The feeder pigs are bought at 60
pounds each for $18.00 per head. These are fattened up to 210 pounds and
sold at $.20 per pound. The feed coefficient is estimated at 3.5 and
the feed requirement calculated accordingly. Labor requirements (Table
37) are calculated at one hour per day. Table 38 shows the investment
and annual fixed costs, which amount to $332.47 per system.


Beef (Cow-Calf System)

The budgets for beef are presented in Tables 39 through 41. A 30
cow system, assuming a 90 percent calving rate, has an annual output of
27 calves. Six of these are retained for replacement and the remaining
21 are sold at weaning (475 pounds) for $..34 per pound. Out of the six
female calves retained, three are sold after one year (680 pounds) at
$.30 per pound and the other three replace three cull cows. Every year
three cull cows are sold (900 pounds) at $.22 per pound, giving an
average productive life of 10'years per cow.
The feed requirements are shown for 21 calves up to weaning (205
days) at the rate of 10 pounds of hay per day. Hay is made on the farm
from Coastal Bermudagrass and costs $24.87 per ton. Other feed require-
ments are calculated similarly.
Table 40 shows the monthly labor requirements and Table 41 shows
the investment and annual fixed costs.


Feeder Calves (Grown on Annual Winter Grazing)

Budetcs are presented on a per calf basis (Tables 42 through 44).
The feeder calf is bought at 400 pounds in November and sold at 700
pounds in May. Grazing starts in December and terminates May 15. The
return to land, operator labor and management is $23.27 per calf. The
fixed costs are calculated on the basis of a 30 calf batch.








Table 36.--Hogs'(finishing on concrete floor): Estimated costs and returns per system
north and west Florida


for small farms in


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----
Income:


128 hogs times 3 lots, 210 lbs., 4% death loss


Expenses:
Feeder pig (60 Ibs.)
Feed requirements: 128 hogs times 3 bunches
150 lbs. gain, feed coefficient 3.5 = 2,016.0 cwt.
80% corn, 1,612.8 cwt.
20%, 40% protein supplement, 403.2 cwt.
Grinding and mixing
Veterinary and medicines
Electricity, utilities, supplies
Marketing
Hauling: Buy
Sell
Fixed costs
Interest on operating capital


head


ton
cwt.
cwt.
head
head
$
head
head.
system
$


77,414.40



384.0


80.64
403.2
2,016.0
384.0
384.0
15,482.88
384.0
367.0
1.0
12,583.53


0.20 15,482.88



18.00 6,912.00


35.51a
4.50
.35
.50
.25
.03
.20
.50
332.47
.08


2,863.53
1,814.40
705.60
192.00
96.00
464.49
76.80
183.50
332.47
1,006.68


Total


Return to land, operator labor, and management


aFrom Table 18, 1.68 tons of corn cost $59.66 to produce.


14,647.47

835.41


- ~-- ---~--~~I-I-c-








Table 37.--Hogs (finishing on concrete floor): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per systema for
small farms in north and west Florida

Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

-----------------------------------Hours----------------------------------------

Feed and care 365 31 28 31 30 31 30 31 31 30 31 30 31


aLabor requirements due to corn must be noted.


Table 38.--Hogs (finishing on concrete floor): Investment and annual fixed costs per system for small farms
in north and west Florida

Investment Annual fixed costs

Item Size No. Rate New Average Life Interest Depr. Repairs Taxes Total

------Dollars------ Yrs. ----------------Dollars---------------

Feeding pens 1000
sq. ft. 1 1,000 1,000 500 10 40.00 90.00 25.00 3.13 158.13
Feeders 12 holes 3 100 300 150 4 12.00 67.50 79.50
Waterers, singles 6 10 60 30 5 2.40 10.80 2.00 15.20
Medicating barrel 55 gals. 1 12 12 6 5 .48 2.16 2.64
Sprayer 1 100 100 50 5 4.00 18.00 22.00
Misc. equipment
(cleaning) 250 250 125 5 10.00 45.00 55.00

Total 1,722 861 68.88 233.46 27.00 3.13 332.47









Table 39.--Beef (cow-calf system): Estimated costs and returns per 30
and west Florida


cow system for small farms in north


Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars----


Income:
S21 calves at weaning, 475 lbs., 90% calving rate
,' (6 females retained for replacement)
3 females sold at 1 year (680 Ibs.)
3 cull cows, 10 yrs. old (900 lbs.)


9,975.00
2,040.0
2,700.0


0.34
.30
.22


Total


Expenses:
Hay:
21 calves, 205 days up to weaning @ 10 lbs./day
3 females, 365 days @ 10 lbs./day
3 replacement females, 30 cows and 1 bull
(Dec. to Mar., 120 days @ 15 Ibs./day
Total


= 43,050 Ibs.
= 10,950 lbs.

= 61,200 lbs.
- 115,200 lbs.


Pasture @ 3 cows/acre
41% cotton seed meal supplement, Dec. to Mar., 120 days
@ 2 lbs./day (34 head) = 8;160
Salt @ 10 Ibs./head (34 head) = 340 lbs.
Minerals @ 35 lbs./head (34 head) = 1,190 lbs.
Veterinary and medicines
Spray material
Marketing
Hauling
Fixed cost
Interest on operating capital


ton
acre

cwt.
cwt.
cwt.
head
head
$
head
system
$


57.6
10.0

81.6
3.4
11.9
58.0
58.0
4,597.50
27.0
1.0
2,368.75


24.87a 1,432.51
29.62b 296.20


5.25
2.10
S5.00
2.00
.50
.03
1.75
1,124.67
.08


428.40
7.14
59.50-
116.00
29.00
137.93
47.25
1,124.67
189.50


Continued


3,391.50
612.00
594.00


4,597.50










Table 39.--Beef (cow-calf system): Estimated costs and returns'per 30 cow system for small farms in north
and west Florida--Continued

Item Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----

Total 3,868.10

Returns to land, operator labor, and management 729.40


aFrom Table 24, 4.5 tons of Coastal Bermudagrass cost $111.90 to produce.

bFrom Table 28, one acre of Bahiagrass pasture costs $29.62 to produce.
From Table 28, one acre of Bahiagrass pasture costs $29.62 to produce.


Table 40.--Beef (cow-calf system): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per systema for small farms
in north and west Florida

Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Feed and care 320 45 45 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30


aLabor requirements due to hay and pasture must be noted in addition to those above.












Table 41.--E:ef (cow-calf system): Investment and annual fixed costs per system for small farms in north
and west Florida

Investment Annual fixed costs

Item No. New Average Life Interest Depr. Repairs Taxes Total

------Dollars------ Yrs. -----------------------Dollars------------------

Bull, 2 yrs. 1 600.00 300.00 2 24.00 300.00 1.88 325.88
Cows 30 6,000.00 6,000.00 2 480.00 37.50 517.50
Heifers, 2 yrs. 4 800.00 800.00 2 64.00 5.00 69.00
Heifers, 1 yr. 4 700.00 700.00 2 56.00 4.38 60.38
Heifers, calves 4 500.00 500.00 2 40.00 3.13 43.13

Corral chute 1 250.00 125.00 10 10.00 22.50 12.50 .78 45.78
Salt shelter 2 30.00 15.00 20 1.20 1.35 1.50 4.05
Sprayer 1 250.00 125.00 5 10.00 45.00 2.00 57.00
Misc. equip. 15.00 7.50 10 .60 1.35. 1.95

Total 9,145.00 8,572.50 685.80 370.20 16.00 52.67 1,124.67








Table 42.--Feeder calves (grown on annual winter
farms in north and west Florida


grazing): Estimated costs and returns per calf for small


Item U Unit Quantity Price Amount

----Dollars-----


Income:
Cattle


675.00


0.34


Expenses:
Feeder calf
Corn
Cottonseed meal
Pasture (1.5 calves per acre).
'Salt
Grinding and mixing feed
Marketing commission
Hauling (buy and sell)
Fixed cost
Interest on operating capital (7 months)


lb.
bu.
cwt.
acre
lb.
cwt.
$
head
head
$


400.00
10.00
1.25

'~10;00
6.85
229.50
1.00
1.00
t85?52 -


.36
I/, ,994a

34.849
.021
.35
.03
3.00
2.16
.0467


Total


Returns to land, operator labor, and management Q 3.2 ,~-


aFrom Table 18, 60 bushels of corn cost $59.66 to produce.

bFrom Table 30, one acre of oats (pasture) costs $34.84 to produce.






cJ'.i ,y n


/ Y

/ 6 CL-) Ur.l i P1 -)

Cl~6WA

''~~ ~ '-- l~r IAMi~


229.50


144.00

5.63V
23.34'
.21-
S2.40
6.89
3.00
'2.16
-8.66 /

-2M 0 c-7


,








Table 43.--Feeder calves (grown on annual winter grazing): Monthly distribution of labor requirements per
calfa for small farms in north and west Florida

Operation Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

-----------------------------------Hours-------------------------------------

Feed and care 5.52 .64 .56 .60 .60 1.00 1.20 .92


aLabor requirements due to corn and hay must be noted in addition to those above.


Table 44.--Feeder calves (grown on annual winter grazing): Investment and annual fixed costs per calf
for small farms in north and west Florida

Investment Annual fixed cost

Item No. New Average Life Interest Depr. Repairs Taxes Total

------Dollars------ Yrs. ----------------------Dollars------------------

Feeder bank 1 100.00 50.00 10 4.00 9.00 13.00
Corral chute 1 250.00 125.00 10 10.00 22.50 12.50 0.78 45.78
Salt shelter 2 30.00 15.00 20 1.20 1.35 1.50 4.05
Misc. equip, 15.00 7.50 10 .60 1.35 1.95

Total: 30 calves 395.00 197.50 15.80 34.20 14.00 .78 64.78

Total: per calf 2.16







MACHINERY


Cost of Operating Machinery

The annual fixed costs per unit are given in Table 45 for those
items of machinery used in crop enterprise budgets. If P is the price
of a machine, the interest is given by

Interest = + x .08.
2

This formula is based on a 10 percent salvage value, and the interest
is given by average value times the interest rate (8 percent). The
average value is defined as the purchase price plus the salvage value
divided by 2.0. Depreciation is calculated by straight line method on
approximate life. Housing charges are added where applicable. Taxes are
calculated at 0.00325 times the average value and insurance.at 0.004
times the average value. The sum of interest, housing, taxes, and insur-
ance charges gives the total annual fixed cost for the unit. The
performance rate gives the time required for the operation per acre.
These numbers are also used in constructing the labor, power, and
machinery budgets for various enterprises.
The cost per hour for use is presented in Table 46. The hourly cost
of machinery use includes cost of fuel, oil, and repairs (based on the
estimate of repairs as a percentage of price, spread over the lifetime
hours of use). The total cost per hour is the variable cost (based on
the approximate hours of use per year) plus the total annual fixed cost
(divided by approximate hours of use per year).


Miscellaneous Investment and Annual Fixed Costs

The investment and annual fixed costs for hay sheds, silos, storage
bins, and tobacco barns are shown in Table 47. The procedures used are
the same as those for machinery. Depreciation, taxes, and insurance
are based, assuming no salvage value, on average prices.








Table 45.--Cost of operating machinery: Annual fixed costs per unit for small farms in north and west
Florida

Annual fixed costs
Initial Performance
Item Size cost Interest Depr. Housing Taxes Insurance Total rate/acre


------------------------------Dollars-------------------------


Hr.


JBottom plow
LCultivator
VDisc harrow
'Grain drill
Grain elevator

gypsum spreader
'Herbicide sprayer
Ifrigation equip.
(travelling gun)
Planter
Rotary mower

Sprayer
Tobacco trans-
planter
Tractor
Wagon


2-16"
2-row
8' -
7'-9'
42'

6'
8'

40 acres
2-row
6'

6-row


360.00
375.00
700.00
800.00
700.00

300.00
,200.00

7,000.00
400.00
435.00


15.84
16.50
30.80
..35.20
30.80

13.20
8.80

308.00
17.60
19.14


250.00 11.00


2-row 800.00

6' x 12' 500.00


35.20
187.00
22.00


21.60
28.12
42.00
48.00
63.00

18.00
60.00

630.00
24.00
32.63

22.50

48.00
255.00
18.00


4.90

6.30


5.20
4.80


5.20
6.10

4.80

4.90
9.40
14.40


0.64
.67
1.25
1.43
1.25

.54
.35

12.51
.71
.78

.45

1.43
7.60
.89


0.69
.82
1.54
1.75
1.54

.66
.44

15.40
.88
.96

.55

1.76
9.35
1.10


38.88
51.02
75.59
92.69
96.59


1.10
.60
.50
1.10


37.60 .33
74.39 .30


965.91
48.39
59.60

39.30

91.29
468.35
48.99


1.00
1.00
.45

.30

4.00


----~-----







Table 46.--Cost per hour of use for operating machinery on small farms in north and west Florida

Total
Repairs Variable costs per hour fixed Total
Expected as % of cost cost
Initial annual Approx. initial Fuel per per
Item Size cost use life cost & oil Repairs Total hour hour

Dollars Hrs. Yrs. Percent -----------------Dollars------------

Bottom plow 2-16" 360.00 167 15 175 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.49
Cultivator 2-row 375.00 200 12 150 .22 .22 .25 .47
Disc harrow 8' 700.00 167 15 163 .46 .46 .45 .91
Grain drill 7'-9' 800.00 80 15 96 .64 .64 1.16 1.80
Grain elevator 42' 700.00 150 10 60 .28 .28 .64 .92

Gypsum spreader 6' 300.00 50 15 100 .40 .40 .75 1.15
Herbicide sprayer 8' 250.00 167 3 50 .25 .25 .45 .70
Irrigation equip.
(travelling gun) 40 acres 7,000.00 400 10 50 .75 .88 1.63 2.41 4.04
Planter 2-row 400.00 80 15 84 .28 .28 .60 .88
Rotary mower 6' 435.00 167 12 60 .13 .13 .36 .49

Sprayer 6-row 250.00 150 10 100 .17 .17 .26 .43
Tobacco trans-
planter 2-row 800.00 80 15 100 .67 .67 1.24 1.91
Tractor 35 hp. 4,250.00 800 15 125 .60 .44 1.04 .59 I1.61)
Wagon 6' x 12' 500.00 200 25 90 .90 .90 .25 .34








Table 47.--Miscellaneous investment and annual fixed costs for small farms in north and west Florida

Investment Annual fixed costs

Item Size Life New Average Interest Depr. Repairs Taxes Insurance Total Total/ton

Tons Yrs. ------------------------------- Dollars--------------------------------------

Hay shed 150 20 3,600 1,800 144.00 180.00 18.00 11.70 14.40 368.10 2.45
Silo 600 20 1,800 900 72.00 90.00 18.00 5.85 7.20 193.05 .32
Storage bin 50 10 1,250 625 40.00 112.50 162.50 3.25
Tobacco barn 3 10 5,000 2,500 200.00 500.00 150.00 8.13 10.00 868.13 289.38









LIST OF REFERENCES


1. Amick, R. J. The Influence of Size of Enterprise and Other Factors
on Hog Production Costs in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Univ.
of Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. N.S. 31. Athens, Ga.: December
1963.

2. Amick, R. J. and J. C. Purcell. Costs and Returns in Finishing Swine
.(A Spatial and Temporal Analysis). Univ. of Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Tech. Bul. N.S. 162. Athens, Ga.: May 1966.

3. Anderson, Charles L. Florida State Supplement to Farm Credit Analysis
Handbook for Bankers (Part VII). Mimeo. Gainesville, Fla.: Univ.
of Fla. Agr. Ext. Service, June 1966.

4. Brodnax, H. D., Jr. and B. R. Eddleman. Economic and Operational
Characteristics of Beef Cattle Ranches in West Central Florida.
Fla. Ag9. Exp. Sta. Ag. Econ. Res. Rpt. EC 69-9. Gainesville,
Fla.: April 1969.

5. Florida. Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Agricultural
Statistics: Field Crops Summary, 1919-1961, Orlando Fla.: n.d.

6. Henderson, J. R. and J. R. Strayer. Field Corn Production Guide.
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. Cir. 144-D. Gainesville, Fla.:
January 1968.

7. Hinson, Kuell et al. Soybeans in Florida. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 716. Gainesville, Fla.: August 1967.

8. Huddleston, J. S. and R. G. Kline. Minimum Resource Requirements
and Related Optimum Enterprise Combinations for Specific Income
Levels for the Cash-Grain Area of Northeastern Virginia. Va.
Poly. Inst. Res. Div. Bul. 24. Blackburg, Va.: July 1969.

9. hunjhunwala, Bharat. "Minimum Cropland Requirements for Specified
Income Levels in Selected Counties of North and West Florida."
S Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Florida, June 1971.

10. McArthur, W. C., Fred B. Saunders, and Oscar Stanson. Budgets for
Selected Crop and Livestock Enterprises, Economic Areas 7A and
7B, Coastal Plain Area of Georgia. Univ. of Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Mimeo Series N.S. 133, January 1962.

11. Morey, Darrell D., W. H. Chapman, and R. W. Earhart. Growing Oats in
Florida. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 523. Gainesville, Fla.:
August 1933.







12. Moss, Robert B., E. Wayne Williams, and W. J. Ethredge. An Analysis
of Costs and Returns for Crop and Livestock Enterprises 1963-65
at The Southwest Georgia Branch Experiment Station. Univ. of Ga.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Series N.S. 256. Athens, Ga.: June 1966.

13. Saunders, F.B. et al. Costs and Returns for Alternative Cattle
Feeding Systems in Georgia. Univ. of Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul.
N.S. 163. Athens, Ga.: June 1966.

14. Sutherland, J. Gwyn. Minimum Land Requirements to Produce $5,000
Net Farm Income, Eastern Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain
(Economic Areas Six and E), North Carolina. N.C. St. Univ.
Econ. Info. Rept. No. 8. Raleigh, N.C.: April 1968.

15. U.S. Bureau of Census. Census of Agriculture, Florida, 1959 and
1964. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Printing Office, 1961 and 1967.

16. U.S. Crop Reporting Board. Agricultural Prices, Annual Summary,
1968. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Printing Office, June 1969.




1/23/73
475 Copies




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs