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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Sorghum silage vs. Japanese-cane...
 Sorghum silage vs. Sweet-potato...
 Cottonseed meal, peanut meal and...
 Corn silage vs. sweet-potato...














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 143
Title: Feeding for milk production
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 Material Information
Title: Feeding for milk production
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 143
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1918
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 77
    Table of Contents
        Page 78
    Sorghum silage vs. Japanese-cane silage
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Sorghum silage vs. Sweet-potato silage
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Cottonseed meal, peanut meal and velvet-bean meal compared
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Corn silage vs. sweet-potato silage
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text


February, 1918


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




FEEDING FOR

MILK PRODUCTION
By JOHN M. SCOTT


FIG. 23.-Three profitable dairy cows


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 143












CONTENTS
PAGE
Sorghum Silage vs. Japanese-Cane Silage ............... ........ 79
Sorghum Silage vs. Sweet-Potato Silage .......................... 81
Cottonseed Meal, Peanut Meal, and Velvet-Bean Meal Compared ..... 83
Corn Silage vs. Sweet-Potato Silage ............................... 86


SUMMARY
1. Japanese-cane silage and sorghum silage have practically
the same feeding value for milk production. One may be sub-
stituted for the other in equal amounts.
2. Sorghum silage is a cheaper feed for milk production than
sweet-potato silage, even when sweet potatoes are figured at 36
cents a bushel.
3. Under present market prices for sweet potatoes it would
not be profitable to feed them as silage to the dairy herd.
4. The cows ate one-third less sweet-potato silage than they
did sorghum silage.
5. Velvet-bean meal in the dairy ration produces slightly
more milk than peanut meal or cottonseed meal.
6. Cows fed peanut meal produced milk at slightly less cost
than those fed velvet-bean meal or cottonseed meal.
7. Cottonseed meal fed in comparison with velvet-bean meal
and peanut meal produced less milk and at higher cost than the
other two feeds.
8. With prices for cottonseed meal and peanut meal equal
per ton, cottonseed meal would be the cheaper feed in point of
milk production cost.
9. When fed with wheat bran and silage, 100 percent more
velvet-bean meal or 25 percent more peanut meal by weight is
required to replace cottonseed meal.
10. Corn silage is much cheaper in the dairy ration than is
sweet-potato silage.
11. Little difference is shown between any two of the ra-
tions used in these experiments as regards maintaining the
animal's weight.










FEEDING FOR MILK PRODUCTION
By JOHN M. SCOTT
The demand for information on the feeding of dairy cows has
increased very rapidly the last few years. The dairy interests
in the State have also made a rapid growth, and the demand for
dairy products has kept ahead of the supply. In the last few
years there has been a noticeable improvement in quality and
general appearance of the dairy herds. More purebred dairy
sires are in use in the State than ever before. This, in addition
to the demand for more information on the economical feeding
of dairy cows, indicates a promising future for dairying in
Florida.
Several feeding tests have been made by this Station in the
last two years to determine the relative feeding values of several
different feedstuffs. The results here given supplement the work
of experimental feeding for milk production as reported in bul-
letins 99 and 114 of this Station.

SORGHUM SILAGE VS. JAPANESE CANE SILAGE
This test was a comparison of sorghum silage and Japanese-
cane silage for milk production. The experiment began Jan-
uary 18, 1916, and continued for 72 days. The ten cows used
were divided into two lots of five each. The test was divided
into four periods of 16 days each, with four days between
periods for the purpose of changing feeds.

TABLE 29.-Daily Rations per Cow, in pounds
Feeds Lot I Lot II
Cottonseed m eal ..................................... 3.8 3.I
W heat bran ........................................ 7.6 7.6
Sorghum silage ..................................... 15.0
Japanese-cane silage ................................ .. 15.0
During the first period each lot of cows was fed the ration
indicated in table 29. During the second period the feeds were
reversed; that is, lot I received the same ration as given lot II
during the first period, and lot II was given the ration fed lot
I during the first period. During the third period each lot of
cows received the same ration as in the first period. During
the fourth period each lot of cows received the same ration as
in the second period.







80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A record of the weight of each animal at the beginning of the
experiment and at the close of each period was kept. The
weights of the cows varied but little during the experiment. All
cows made a slight gain over the average weight at the begin-
ning, which would indicate that there is no difference between
the two rations in maintaining the animal's weight.
Table 30 shows the quantity of feed consumed and milk pro-
duced during each period.
TABLE 30.-Feeds Consumed and Mill Produced, in pounds


Feeds used



Lot I-
Cottonseed meal ................
W heat bran ....................
Sorghum silage .................
Japanese-cane silage ............
Milk produced ..............
Lot II-
Cottonseed meal ................
W heat bran ....................
Sorghum silage .................
Japanese-cane silage ............
Milk produced ..............


304.0 304.0 304.0 304.0
608.0 608.0 1 608.0 1 608.0


1202.2 1152.2 1201.0 1053.2

304.0 304.0 1 304.0 304.0
1200.0 1200.0
.o .o



304.0 304.0 304.0 304.0
608.0 608.0 608.0 608.0



1200.0 ... 1200.0 ....
1077.6 120159.1 1100.8 12079.
1202.2 1152.2 1201.0 1053.2

! 304.0 304.0 304.0 304.0
608.0 608.0 608.0 608.0
S ..... i 1200.0 ..... 1200.0
1200.0 I ..... 1200.0 .....
1077.6 1159.1 1100.8 1079.3


The total amount of milk produced during the test by the
cows fed sorghum silage, wheat bran and cottonseed meal was
4641.6 pounds. During the same time the cows fed Japanese-
cane silage, wheat bran and cottonseed meal produced 4383.8
pounds, or a difference of only 257.8 pounds. The sorghum sil-
age ration produced milk at a total feed cost of 12.1 cents a
TABLE 31.-Feed Cost per Gallon of Milk

Cows fed sorghum silage
1216 pounds cottonseed meal @ $30 a ton................. $18.24
2432 pounds wheat bran @ $31 a ton ................. 37.70
4800 pounds sorghum silage @ $ 4 a ton ................. 9.60
Total cost of feed .............. ..................... $65.54
Milk produced, 539.72 gallons; cost per gallon........... $0.1214
Cows fed Japanese-cane silage
1216 pounds cottonseed meal @ $30 a ton ................. $18.24
2432 pounds wheat bran @ $31 a ton ................ 37.70
4800 pounds Japanese-cane silage @ $ 4 a ton ................. 9.60
Total cost of feed ....................... ................. $65.54
Milk produced, 509.74 gallons; cost per gallon ...........$0.1285






Bulletin 143, Feeding for Milk Production 81

gallon. Japanese-cane silage produced milk at a total feed cost
of 12.8 cents a gallon, a difference of 0.7 of a cent a gallon in
favor of sorghum silage.

TABLE 32.-Weights of Cows During the Experiment, in pounds



Cows
'a3 r- -
7:t

Lot I
Cow No. 60 ................... 750.0 726.6 733.3 734.0 740.6
Cow No. 2.5 ................... 508.0 495.0 517.3 521.6 528.3
Cow No. 9 ........ ........... 893.0 886.6 888.3 896.6 918.3
Cow No. 24 ................... 622.0 618.6 629. 633.3 630.0
Cow No. 41 ................... 611.0 625.6 635.0 643.3 680.0
Average ............ ..... 676.8 670.5 680.7 685.8 699.4
Lot II-
Cow No. 26 ........ ......... 648.0 641.6 650.0 662.3 678.3
Cow No. 20 ................... 795.0 779.0 805.0 803.3 816.6
Cow No. 21 ............. ..... 763.0 753.3 756.6 769.0 763.3
Cow No. 59 ................... 576.0 553.3 576.6 567.3 596.G
Cow No. 1 ........... .. 938.0 898.0 918.3 930.0 925.0
Average ............. 744.0 725.0 741 7446.4 756.0

SORGHUM SILAGE VS. SWEET-POTATO SILAGE
This experiment was made to compare .sorghum silage and
sweet-potato silage for milk production. The test began May
9, 1916 and continued for 43 days, closing June 20. Ten cows,
divided into two lots of five cows each, were used. The test was
divided into two periods of 20 days each, with three days be-
tween periods for the purpose of changing feeds.

TABLE 3.3-Daily Rations per Cow, in pounds
Feeds i Lot I Lot II
Wheat brain .............. ..................... 8.42 8.42
Cottonseed m eal ................................... 2.80 2.80
Sweet-potato silage ........ ............... 10.60 I .
Sorghum silage ..................................... .... 15.20

During the first period each lot of cows was fed the ration in-
dicated in table 33. During the second period the feeds were
reversed; that is, lot I received the ration given lot II during the
first period, and lot II received the ration given lot I during the
first period.
A record of the weights of each animal taken at the begin-
ning and at the close of each period is given in table 36. This
table shows that the cows varied but little during the experi-






82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ment; all cows making a small gain in weight as the experiment
progressed.
Table 34 shows the quantity of feed consumed and milk pro-
duced during the periods. The cows fed sorghum silage, wheat
bran and cottonseed meal produced 2415.8 pounds, or 280.9 gal-
lons of milk during the experiment. For the same period, the
cows fed sweet-potato silage, wheat bran and cottonseed meal
produced 2641 pounds, or 307.1 gallons, of milk.
The sorghum silage ration produced milk at a total feed cost
of 14.4 cents a gallon. (See table 35.) The sweet-potato silage
ration produced milk at a total feed cost of 15.8 cents a gallon,
a difference of 0.014 cents a gallon in favor of sorghum silage.
If sweet-potato silage had been figured at the same price as
sorghum silage, cheaper milk would have been produced when
feeding sweet-potato silage than when feeding sorghum silage.
The price, $13 a ton, for sweet-potato silage is equal to 36 cents
a bushel for the potatoes.
One noticeable fact in this experiment is that the cows ate
about one-third less sweet-potato silage than sorghum silage.
That was due, perhaps, to the fact that a cubic foot of sweet-
potato silage weighs more than a cubic foot of sorghum silage.
Sweet-potato silage packs better in the silo than does sorghum
silage.
TABLE 34.-Feeds Consumed and Milk Produced, in pounds


0- 0
Feeds used C CI 5


Lot I
W heat bran ................................ 842.0 842.0
Cottonseed meal ............................. 280.0 280.0
Sweet-potato silage ......................... 1060.0
Sorghum silage ............. ........... 1520.0
Milk produced .......................... 1310.9 | 1213.7
Lot II-- I
W heat bran ................................I 842.0 842.0
Cottonseed meal ............................ 280.0 280.0
Sweet-potato silage .......................... I .. 1060.0
So eghum sila e ............................. I 1520.0 I ..
Milk produced ........... ............ I 1202.2 1 1330.1







Bulletin 143, Feeding for Milk Production 83

TABLE 35.-Feed Cost per Gallo., of Milk

Cows fed sweet-potato silage
1684. pounds wheat bran @ $31 a ton ................. $26.10
560 pounds cottonseed meal @ $30 a ton ................ 8.40
2120 pounds sweet-potato silage @ $13 a ton ................. 13.98

Total cost of feed ................. ......... ... ...... .... $48.48
Milk produced, 307.1 gallons; cost per gallon............ $0.158
Cows fed sorghum silage
1684 pounds wheat bran @ $31 a ton ................. $26.10
560 pounds cottonseed meal @ $30 a ton. ................. 8.40
3040 pounds sorghum silage @ $ 4 a ton ................. 6.08

Total cost of feed ...................... ................... 40.58
Milk produced, 280.8 gallons; cost per gallon ............ $0.144

TABLE 36.-Weights of Cows During the Experiment, in pounds
o0

Cows o
9 C'

Lot I-
Cow N o. 21 ...............................1 787.3 781.6 882.3
Cow N o. 18 ................................ 697.3 706.6 710.6
Cow No. 26 ................................ 715.0 733.3 748.0
Cow N o. 31 ................................ 525.0 553.3 588.0
Cow N o. 62 ............................... 570.0 601.6 613.3
Lot II-
Cow No. 41 ..................... ........ 667.3 661.6 684.6
Cow No. 69 ................... ........ 715.0 729.0 722.3
Cow No. 25 ................................ 543.0 555.0 583.3
Cow No. 24 ................... ........... 660.0 678.0 674.6
Cow No. 20 ....................... ......... 870.0 | 886.6 902.3
COTTONSEED MEAL, PEANUT MEAL AND VELVET-BEAN MEAL
COMPARED
This test was a comparison of cottonseed meal, peanut meal,
and velvet-bean meal for milk production. The experiment be-
gan November 11, 1916 and continued for 68 days, closing Jan-
uary 17, 1917. The test was divided into three periods with 20
days in each period. Four days were allowed at the end of
each period for the purpose of changing feeds. Nine cows,
divided into three lots of three cows each, were used in the test.
TABLE 37.-Daily Rations per Cow, in pounds

Feeds I Lot I Lot III otIII
Wheat bran ................................... 9 9 9
Silage ....................................... 12 12 12
Cottonseed m eal .............................. 3 ..
Peanut m eal ................................. .. 4
Velvet- ean m eal ............................ .. .. 6






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


During the first period each lot of cows was fed the ration
indicated in table 37. During the second period the feeds were
changed; that is, the cows in lot I received the ration given lot
II in the first period, lot II received the ration given lot III the
first period, and lot III received the ration given lot I during
the first period. During the third period cows in lot I received
the ration given lot II during the second period, lot II received
the ration given lot III during the second period, and lot III re-
ceived the ration given lot I during the second period.
A record of the weights of each animal, taken at the begin-

TABLE 38.-Feeds Consumed and Milk Produced, in pounds

0


Feeds used o
o .; o o
; *Z ccc oQ H
Lot I-
W heat bran ............................| 540.0 540.0 540.0
Sorghum silage ......................... 720.0 ... .
Corn silage ............................ ... 720.0 720.0
Cottonseed m eal ....................... 180.0 ... .
Peanut m eal ........................... ... 240.0
Velvet-bean meal ........................ .... 360.0
Milk produced ...................... 902.5 995.6 880.2
Lot II-
W heat bran ............................ 540.0 540.0 540.0
Sorghum silage ......................... 720.0 .
Corn silage ............................ ... 720.0 720.0
Cottonseed m eal ........................ .... ... 180.0
Peanut m eal ...........................I 240.0 ... ..
Velvet-bean m eal ....................... .... 360.0 .
Milk produced ...................... 1044.0 1048.5 856.1
Lot III-
W heat bran ............................ 540.0 540.0 540.0
Sorghum silage ......................... 720.0 ...
Corn silage ............................ ... 720.0 720.0
Cottonseed m eal ........................ ... | 180.0
Peanut m eal ........................... ... ... 240.0
Velvet-bean m eal ....................... 360.0 .
Milk produced ......... ............. 889.7 843.2 715.7

On the average:
180 lbs. of cottonseed meal, with 540 lbs. bran and
720 lbs. silage, produced. ........................ 867.3 lbs. milk
240 lbs. of peanut meal, with the same quantities of
supplementary feeds, produced .................. 918.4 Ibs. milk
360 lbs. of velvet-bean meal, with the same quantities
of supplementary feeds, produced ................ 939.5 lbs. milk







Bulletin 143, Feeding for Milk Production 85

ning and at the close of each period, was made. The table of
weights (table 40) shows that the cows varied but little during
the experiment, indicating there is little or no difference be-
tween the rations.
Table 38 shows the quantity of feed consumed and milk pro-
duced each period. During the test the cows fed velvet-bean
meal, wheat bran and silage produced the largest amount of
milk, 2818.4 pounds, or 327.7 gallons. During the same time
the cows fed peanut meal, wheat bran and silage produced 2755.3
pounds, or 320.4 gallons, of milk, while in the same period the
cows fed cottonseed meal, wheat bran and silage produced 2601.8
pounds, or 302.5 gallons, of milk.
By the use of peanut meal milk was produced at the lowest
feed cost, the cost of a gallon being 16 cents. The feed cost per
gallon of milk when velvet-bean meal was fed was 16.5 cents,
and when cottonseed meal was used was 16.6 cents.
TABLE 39.-Feed Cost per Gallo, of Milk

Cows fed cottonseed meal
540 pounds cottonseed meal @ $50 a ton ............. .. .$13.50
1620 pounds wheat bran a $40 a ton ................. 32.40
2160 pounds silage (F $ 4 a ton ................. 4.32

Total cost of feed.................... ... .................. $50.22
Milk produced, 302.5 gallons; cost per gallon ............ .$0.166
(?ows fed peanut meal
720 pounds peanut meal c s40 a ton ................. $14.40
1620 pounds wheat bran t S40- a ton. ............... 32.40
2160 pounds silage i $ 4 a ton. ................. 4.32

Total cost of feed.......................................... $51.12
Milk produced, 320.4 gallons: cost per gallon............ $0.160
Cows fed velvet-!-ean meal
1080 pounds velvet-bean meal (7 832 a ton................. $17.28
1620 pounds wheat bran ( $40 a ton. ................. 32.40
2160 pounds silage 8S 4 a ton ................. 4.32
Total cost of feed ....................... ............... $54.00
Milk produced, 327.7 gallons; cost per gallon ........... .$0.165







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 40.-Weights of Cows During the Experiment, in pounds



Cows o." a '
'3 *a a a.


Lot I-
Cow No. 9 ........................... 865 863 858 867
Cow No. 17 ........................... 729 753 753 718
Lavender ............................. 793 790 755 I 758
Lot II- I
Cow No. 21 .......................... 782 777 777 795
Cow No. 7 ............................ 843 858 860 832
Cow No. 35 ............................. 706 630 628 765
Lot III-
Cow No. 26 ........................... 720 701 718 695
Cow No. 61 ........................... 803 808 803 802
Cow No. 37 ............................ 801 803 802 808
*The weights in this column were taken as being equivalent to the weights
at the beginning of the following period.

CORN SILAGE VS. SWEET-POTATO SILAGE
This test was a comparison of corn silage and sweet-potato
silage for milk production. The experiment began February 22,
1917, and closed May 8, 1917. The test was divided into four
periods of 16 days each, with four days allowed between periods
for the purpose of changing feeds. Fourteen cows, divided
into two lots of seven cows each, were .used in the test.

TABLE 41.-Daily Rations per Cow, in pounds
Feeds | Lot I Lot I
Cottonseed meal .................................... 2.5 2.5
W heat bran ........................................ 7.5 7.5
Corn silage ........................................ 14.0
Sweet-potato silage ............................... .. 10.0

During the first period the cows were fed the ration indicated
in table 41. During the second period the feeds were reversed.
During the third period the cows were fed as in the first period,
and for the fourth period they received the same ration as in
the second period.
A record of the weights of each animal, taken at the begin-
ning and at the close of each period, was made. The table of
weights (table 44) shows there was not much variation in
weights during the test.
Table 42 shows the quantities of feed consumed and milk pro-
duced each period. During the test the cows fed the corn silage








Bulletin 143, Feeding for Milk Production


ration produced the larger amount of milk, 7888.3 pounds. The
cows fed sweet-potato silage produced 7598.4 pounds, or a dif-
ference of 289.9 pounds of milk in favor of the corn silage ration.
Table 43 shows that the feed cost of a gallon of milk was 11.8
cents when corn silage was fed, and 14.2 cents when sweet-
potato silage was fed. If the two silages had been charged at
the same price, there would have been no difference in the feed
cost of the milk produced.

TABLE 42.-Feeds Consumed and Milk Produced, in pounds


Feeds used -



Lot I-
Cottonseed meal ............ 280.0
Wheat bran .............. 840.0
Corn silage ................. 1568.0
Sweet-potato silage ......... ... .
Milk produced .......... 2140.6
Lot II-
Cottonseed meal ............ 280.0
W heat bran ........... .... 840.0
Corn silage ............. ... ...
Sweet-potato silage ........... 1120.0
Milk produced ......... ..2073.3


I I
a S
SCq 0 0
+^ -i ^




280.0 280.0 280.0
840.0 840.0 840.0
.. 1568.0
1120.0 ... 1120.0
1938.5 I 1690.3 1659.5

280.0 280.0 280.0
840.0 840.0 840.0
1568.0 .... 1568.0
.156. 1120.0 .
2215.2 1927.1 | 1842.8


On the average:
1568 pounds of corn silage, with 280 lbs. cottonseed meal, and 840 lbs.
bran, produced.................................1972.2 lbs. milk
1120 pounds of sweet-potato silage, with the same quantities of supple-
mentary feeds, produced. ...................... 1899.6 lbs. milk

TABLE 43.-Feed Cost per Gallon of Milk

Cows fed corn silage
1120 pounds cottonseed meal @ $50 a ton. ...............$ 28.00
3360 pounds wheat bran @ $40 a ton ................ 67.20
6272 pounds corn silage @ $ 4 a ton ................ 12.54

Total cost of feed ......................... .............. $107.74
Milk produced, 917.3 gallons; cost per gallon ............ $0.118

Cows fed sweet-potato silage
1120 pounds cottonseed meal @ $50 a ton.... ...........$ 28.00
3360 pounds wheat bran @ $40 a ton. ............... 67.20
4480 pounds sweet-potato silage @ $13.33 a ton.............. 29.87

Total cost of feed ................... .... ................. $125.07
Milk produced, 883.5 gallons; cost per gallon............ $0.142








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 44.-Weights of Cows During the Experiment, in pounds


Cows



Lot I
Cow N o. 21 ..................... ..
Cow N o. 25 .........................
Cow N o. 33 ..........................
Cow N o. 57 .........................
Cow N o. 62 .........................
Cow N o. 69 .........................
Flagler ............... .........
Lot II-
Cow N o. 17 .........................
Cow N o. 24 .........................
Cow N o. 26 .........................
Cow N o. 36 .........................
Cow No. 41 ..........................
Cow N o. 50 .........................
Cow N o. 60 .........................


S732 725
S589 608
S663 682
S622 652
620 655
728 755
1 509 536

S728 775
683 680
723 741
S606 602
1 727 742
I 577 582
i 707 713


733
616
685
665
650
762
515

735
695
763
620
741
607
729




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