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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension ; 46
Title: Water and sewerage systems for Florida rural homes
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Title: Water and sewerage systems for Florida rural homes
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension ; 46
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rogers, Frazier.
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Publication Date: 1926
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027685
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10-11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text


Bulletin 46


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION, STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





WATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

FOR FLORIDA RURAL HOMES

By FRAZIER ROGERS


Fig. 1.-A simple septic tank can be made of two barrels.


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Agricultural Extension
Division, Gainesville, Florida


June, 1926











BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION
A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
GRACE GREENE, Secretary to County Agent Leader

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
K. C. MOORE. B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist
HAMLIN L. BROWN, M.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Entomologist and Pathologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S.. Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Dairy and Nutrition Agent










WATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
FOR FLORIDA RURAL HOMES

By FRAZIER ROGERS*



PREFATORY NOTE
These suggestions and plans for a water supply, and a sewerage
system for Florida iural homes, have been worked out by ProE.
Frazier Rogers of the Agricultural Engineering Department, College
of Agriculture of the University of Florida, especially for the women
in home demonstration work, who are doing the home improvement
project.
Let us encourage more and more, year by year, the development
of all rural life. When the rural home is as convenient and beauti-
ful, inside and out, as our town and city homes, we will have an in-
flux into the great rural expanse of Florida, equal to no other Sec-
tion in our great nation. Let us make our people realize the impor-
tance of these conveniences.
Virginia P. Moore,
Asst. State Home Demonstration Agent.


A good water system and a complete sewage disposal plant
are two utilities that should be uppermost in the minds of Flor-
ida farmers and home makers. It has been estimated that the
average housewife on the farm walks 152 miles per year carry-
ing water. With an adequate supply of running water in the
house, this laborious task would cease to burden farm women
and they would have more time to devote to other cares of the
household and the art of living. From the standpoint of
health, plenty of running pure water and a complete sewage dis-
posal plant are the cheapest health policy that any farmer could
purchase. The principal method of spreading some of our most
dreaded diseases is through the water and the careless disposal
of sewage.
It is too often the case that we do not pay enough attention
to the source of our water supply, especially where surface or
shallow wells are the source. Seepage from the barnyard often
contaminates water and renders it unfit for use. On account
of the great danger of surface water becoming impure, it is
much safer to use water from deep wells.
*Professor of agricultural engineering, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida.








































Fig. 2.-Type "A" water works system






Water and Sewerage Systems


CONSUMPTION OF WATER

The principal factors that affect the consumption of water
are (1) accessibility (2) pressure (3) quality (4) quantity of
supply. If carried by hand for a great distance it is used much
more sparingly than if it can be had by simply turning a faucet.
The average daily requirements of water for the different
users on the farm is estimated to be as follows:
Each member of family -.............. .............. 30 gallons
Horse ......- ........................ ..- 10 gallons
Cow -........... ........ ... ..-...-....-- .... 10 gallons
H og ...... ..---.....- .. ......... .... 2 gallons
Sheep .....------...................................... 2 gallons
No attempt is made in the following descriptions of water
works systems to describe all of the different ones found in oper-
ation but rather to give a description of some that are satisfac-
torily operating under farm conditions.

TYPE A WATER SYSTEM

Water works system A as illustrated in Fig. 2 represents the
cheapest method of getting water into the farm house. It con-
sists of a pitcher pump placed in the kitchen just above a sink
with a drain pipe leading to a line of tile which takes care of
the waste water. This type of pump can only be used where
water can be secured within 22 feet of the surface. Should the
well be deeper than this it will be necessary to use a force pump.
Bill of material for this system:
*25 feet 1l4" galvanized pipe (well to pump)
1 pitcher pump
1 18" by 30" porcelain lined sink
1 1/2" cast iron "S" trap
*60 feet drain tile
1 114" foot valve
1 1%" elbow
25 feet 11z" galvanized pipe (sink to drain tile)
Estimated cost of material, $25.96.

TYPE B WATER SYSTEM

Type B water works system as illustrated in Fig. 3 will fur-
nish running water for the home. This system, while a little more
expensive than type A as described above, is much more con-
venient. Water may be drawn from the tank by turning a fau-
cet. If an inexpensive tank or a large barrel is placed on the ceil-

*Variable.







Florida Cooperative Extension


OVEkFLOW PIPE


TO TILE DRAIN



Fig 3.-Type "B" water works system


ing joists, this will do away with the necessity of having a
tower for your tank and thereby greatly reduce the cost of in-
stallation. The tank should be sufficiently large to take care of
a day's supply. The force pump will have to be used for this
system as the water is to be piped to a higher level than the
pump. The water may be drawn from deep wells with this type
of pump. A gasoline engine or an electric motor may be used in
connection with this system to furnish the power for pumping,
by using a pump jack.
Bill of material for this system:
1 Force pump 1 1z elbow
*40 feet 1" galvanized pipe (pump to tank) 1 1" union
10 feet overflow pipe 1 1/2" faucet
1 18" by 30" porcelain lined sink 1 1" globe valve
1 1Yz" cast iron "S" trap 1 1" check valve
*30 feet 1%" galvanized pipe (sink to drain) 2 1" lock nuts
1 tank or large barrel *60 feet 4" drain tile
1 1" by 1" by 1" reduction "T" for faucet
Estimated cost of material for this system is $51.36.

*Variable.





































Fig. 4.-Type "C" water works system.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TYPE C WATER SYSTEM

As illustrated in Fig. 4, this system uses an air-tight tank into
which water is pumped. As the water rises in the tank the air
is compressed, thereby giving force to the water to raise it to
various heights. The average pressure maintained in these
systems is from 30 to 40 pounds. This outfit is usually driven
by an electric motor and is automatic in its action. As soon as
the desired pressure is maintained the electric current is auto-
matically cut off. Electrical contact is made again as soon as
the low pressure level is reached. A gasoline engine can be
used instead of the electric motor to furnish power.
Some of these systems have another feature which utilizes
the pressure in the tank to draw fresh water from the well with-
out operating the pump. This is done by simply opening a fau-
cet and the fresh water begins to flow. The siinolv plant of


TO DRAIN TILE OR SEPTIC TANK


Fig. 5.-Type "D" water works system.






Water and Sewerage Systems


this system could be substituted for the system used in outfit
D and would be just as satisfactory as the one described un-
der D.


Bill of material:
*50 feet 1" galvanized pipe (well to tank)
1 force pump
1 electric motor or gasoline engine
1 100-gallon tank
1 18" by 30" porcelain lined sink
*30 ft. 1YV" galvanized pipe (sink to drain)


50 ft. 4" drain tile
4 1" elbows
1 1/" elbow
1 Y2" faucet
1 check valve
1 1%" cast iron strap


Estimated cost of material, $143.82.

TYPE D WATER SYSTEM

The system illustrated as type D in Fig. 5, uses the overhead
tank which could be placed either in the attic or on a regular
tower. The pumping may be done by a gasoline engine or an
electric motor, provided electric current is available. In addi-
tion to having a supply of cold running water, a supply of hot
water may be had without very much additional expense. A
hot water tank may be connected to the water supply and to a
coil placed in the fire-box of the cook stove in such a way that
while the meal is being prepared the same fire would be heating
water. A pipe line from the tank to the sink would provide
both hot and cold water at the sink.
Bill of material for this system:


1 force pump with pump jack
1 gasoline engine or electric motor
1 18"x30" porcelain lined sink
10 ft. 1" galvanized pipe (overflow)
*50 ft. 1" galvanized pipe (well to tank)
1 1%" cast iron sink trap
*30 ft. 11/2" galvanized pipe (sink to drain)
25 ft. %" galvanized pipe (hot water)
2 %" tank connections
2 %" unions
2 %" nipples
1 %" tee


*50 ft. 4" drain tile
1 tank or barrel
4 1" elbows
1 1" union
1 V" faucet
1 %" faucet
1 check valve
1 30-gallon range boiler
1 1" by 1" by %" tee
6 %" elbows
2 1" by %" reducers


Estimated cost of bill of material is $115.13.

TYPE E WATER SYSTEM

The same water supply system is used here as in the one de.-
scribed as type D, but in addition there is provided complete
bath-room equipment. This includes lavatory, bathtub and toilet

*Variable.








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Fig. 7.--Single chamber septic tank.


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SFlorida Cooperative Extension

stool, medicine cabinet and towel racks. The amount of water
consumed daily where this system is installed is such that it is
usually necessary to provide an out-door tank mounted on a
tower. All of the conveniences of the city as to water and sew-
age disposal are provided for in this system. The septic tank
is a necessary part of this system on account of the quantity of
sewage that must be handled. (See Fig. 6 for an illustration of
type E.)
A bill of material for the construction of this system follows:

1 *Tank and tower
1 11/ H. P. gasoline engine
1 Force pump and pump jack
*25 ft. 1%4" galvanized pipe (to tank)
*50 ft. 11/4" galvanized pipe (to house)
1 18" x 30" porcelain lined sink (fitted for 1!4" trap)
1 11z" cast iron "S" trap
*20 ft. 1%" galvanized pipe (sink to drain)
100 ft. Sewer tile
2 1" galvanized lock nuts
*80 ft. %" galvanized pipe (hot water pipe)
*20 ft. 11/" galvanized pipe (bathtub to drain)
1 30 gal. range boiler (with accessories)
2 %" galvanized unions
4 1" galvanized ells
2 1" x 1" x 4" tees
1 %" tee
6 %" ells
1 11%" check valve
2 11" x 11," tees
4 11/" ells
1 114" globe valve
1 Lavatory complete
1 5' bathtub complete
1 Trap for tub
1 Closet combination
20 ft. 4" soil pipe
1 4" standard sanitary tee
1 4" quarter bend with 2" heel inserts
10 lbs. Lead wool
5 lbs. Oakum
2 lbs. Putty
1 4" x 2" combination bend and ferrule
Estimated cost of bill of material for this system is $301.87.

THE SEPTIC TANK

The septic tank has solved one of the most important prob--
lems of the farm home, that of the disposal of wastes from the
human body, garbage and other refuse. Such diseases as ty-
phoid fever, dysentery, and hookworm have been spread, in
many cases, by careless disposal of sewage. With running wa-

*Variable.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ter in the home a septic tank affords the most convenient, as
well as the safest means of waste disposal.
Raw sewage contains considerable vegetable and animal mat-
ter as it enters the septic tank. This solid matter must be
broken up and oxidized so as not to become offensive and danger-
ous. There are two separate operations that must be provided
for if the sewage is properly purified, (1) the breaking down
of vegetable and animal solids, (2) the purification of the liquids
produced by the breaking down of these solids.
The first operation is accomplished by bacteria that live and
thrive in the absence of air and are known as anaerobes. These
anaerobes are protected from the air and light by a thick leath-
ery scum that forms on the surface of the sewage. This scum
should not be disturbed by the action of the septic tank. In
the bottom of the tank a loose layer of solid material or sludge
is formed which is filled with bacteria.
The second operation is carried on by bacteria that require
air and light, hence are known as aerobes. The part played by
these bacteria is to take the liquids that are produced by the
anaerobes, oxidizing them and changing them into gases and
pure water.
There are two types of septic tanks in use at the present time.
The single chamber and the double chamber. The single cham-
ber tank is illustrated in Fig. 7. As long as the single compart-
ment tank is undisturbed it is very satisfactory, but when it
becomes necessary to clean it out the scum and loose sludge are
disturbed and the bacterial action is retarded. Another serious
disadvantage to the single chamber tank is that it must dis-
charge every time sewage is run into the tank. This does not
give the soil time in which to properly dry out before more
water is discharged. Soon a water-logged condition of the soil
exists and the septic tank ceases to function. The tank should
be of sufficient size to hold all the sewage that would collect in
24 hours.
A double chamber concrete tank as illustrated in Fig. 8 is
more desirable than the single chamber tank. The size of the
double chamber tank should be determined by the number of
people it is to serve. Sewage should come fast enough to furnish
fresh material for the anaerobic bacteria in order that they may
be kept in a thriving condition, but not come so fast that they
will be unable to handle all of the solids. The dosing chamber




































5LETTLING CHAMBER


5Y POHO


5Y5TEM


Fig. 8.-Double chamber septic tank







Florida Cooperative Extension


should be of such size that it will discharge once a day and pro-
vided with a siphon that operates automatically.
Table I gives the proper dimensions and capacities that have
been found most satisfactory for different size families.
TABLE I.-DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITIES OF SETTLING AND DOSING CHAM-
BERS.
Settling Chamber Dosing Chamber






4 270 3' 0" 3' 0" 5' 0" 120 4' 0" 3' 0" 2' 6"
6 359 4'0" 3' 0" 5' 0": 180 6' 0" 3' 0" 2' 6"
8 493 5' 6" 3' 0 5'0" 240 7' 6" 3' 0" 2' 6"
10 581 6' 6" 3' 0" 5' 0" 300 9' 0" 3' 0" 2' 6"
12 728 7' 0" 3' 6" 5' 0" 360 9' 5" 3' 6" 2' 6"
The walls, top and bottom of the tank should be made of 6" concrete
of a 1-2-3 mixture.

An inexpensive but efficient septic tank of small capacity
can be constructed, using large oak barrels for the chambers,
as illustrated in Fig. 1. The main objections to a tank of this
kind are its limited capacity and short life. It will handle the
sewage of only two persons in an efficient way.
Strong antiseptics should not be permitted to get into the
tank for they destroy the bacteria that are so essential for the


Fig. 9.-Grease trap.






Water and Sewerage Systems


proper disposal of the sewage. Grease likewise interferes with
the bacterial action and where grease of any quantity is emp-
tied into the sink a grease trap as illustrated by Fig. 9, should
be installed in some convenient place between the sink and tank
to collect this grease. It can be cleaned out without very much
trouble.


FSOM St PTIC TANK


Fig. 10.-Absorption system for use with septic tank.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ABSORPTION SYSTEM
The pipe leading from the house should be a four inch bell
mouth glazed sewer tile with cemented joints. A fall of from
one-eighth to one-quarter inch per foot should be given this
tile. The liquid collected in the dosing chamber is emptied
into the absorption system which is constructed of a main line
of sewer tile with cemented joints from which branch several
lines of drain tile. The joints of this drain tile should be pro-
tected from sand and dirt by placing pieces of broken stone or
tile over them. If the tile is to be placed in a compact soil it
should be put about 12 inches below the surface and given a fall
of 4 inches per 100 feet. In sandy soil it will function best if
placed 24 inches beneath the surface and given a fall of 8 inches
per 100 feet. One foot of absorption tile should be used in sandy
soil for every gallon of liquid discharged from the dosing cham-
ber in 24 hours, while it will be necessary to use two feet of
tile in heavy soil for the same discharge. It is very important
to have the absorption field well drained. Figure 10 illustrates
the method of placing the tile for the absorption field.

THE HYDRAULIC RAM
The hydraulic ram has been in use for a long time, the first
one having been built in England in 1772 and operated by hand.
The first automatic ram was built in 1800. There are many
places in Florida where rams could be operated successfully.
The ram is an automatic device by which the fall of a com-
paratively large volume of water furnishes power to raise a
part of the water to a height greater than the source. Advan-
tage of the weight and flow of the water enables this to be done.
Mechanically it is the least expensive, most durable, simplest
and most efficient self-contained pumping unit known. In
operation we might compare it to a hammer driving a nail. It
would require great force to place the hammer against the nail
and force it into the wood, but by successive blows with the
hammer we can soon drive the nail into the wood. So it is
with the ram, by successive blows of the water it drives a por-
tion of itself into an airdome, then up the delivery pipe.
The amount of water that a ram will pump to any height de-
pends upon three things, (1) the amount of fall of water, (2)
the volume of water furnished, (3) horizontal distance in which







Water and Sewerage Systems


fall occurs. A good ram will raise one-seventh of the volume of
water five times the fall. Table II gives the size of ram and the
amount of water required to operate, the size drive pipe, size
of discharge pipe, and least fall recommended for a ram:

TABLE II.-REGARDING HYDRAULIC RAMS.
C-)





No. 10 2 to 3 1"
10 3 to 5 114 %" 3'
15 5 to 9 1 %" I 3'
20 8 to 16 2" 1" 3
25 10 to 25 2'" 1" 3'
30 15 to 35 3" 3'
35 25 to 50 32" 1," 3'
40 30 to 65 4" 2" 3'

The numbers used by the various ram manufacturers do not
always represent the size ram but can usually be relied upon.
The hydraulic ram is illustrated in Fig. 11.
























TO HOUJ


OV ERFLOW


WATeP- L


7GAL. PE- MIN.
5PRING


HYDRAULIC EAM


Fig. 11.-The hydraulic ram.


D JCHM ArGE.
PIPE.




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